Publications by authors named "Johannes G Korporaal"

13 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Impact of Contrast Media Concentration on Low-Kilovolt Computed Tomography Angiography: A Systematic Preclinical Approach.

Invest Radiol 2018 05;53(5):264-270

Objectives: Low peak kilovoltage (kVp) protocols in computed tomography angiography (CTA) demand a review of contrast media (CM) administration practices. The aim of this study was to systematically evaluate different iodine concentrations of CM in a porcine model.

Materials And Methods: Dynamic 70 kVp CTA was performed on 7 pigs using a third-generation dual-source CT system. Three CM injection protocols (A-C) with an identical total iodine dose and iodine delivery rate (150 mg I/kg, 12 s, 0.75 g I/s) differed in iodine concentration and flow rate (protocol A: 400 mg I/mL, 1.9 mL/s; B: 300 mg I/mL, 2.5 mL/s; C: 150 mg I/mL, 5 mL/s). All protocols were applied in a randomized order and compared intraindividually. Arterial enhancement at different locations in the pulmonary artery, the aorta, and aortic branches was measured over time. Time attenuation curves, peak enhancement, time to peak, and bolus tracking delay times needed for static CTA were calculated. The reproducibility of optimal parameters was tested in single-phase CTA.

Results: The heart rates of the pigs were comparable for all protocols (P > 0.7). The injection pressure was significantly higher for protocol A (64 ± 5 psi) and protocol C (55 ± 3 psi) compared with protocol B (39 ± 2 psi) (P < 0.001). Average arterial peak enhancement in the dynamic scans was 359 ± 51 HU (protocol A), 382 ± 36 HU (B), and 382 ± 60 HU (C) (A compared with B and C: P < 0.01; B compared with C: P = 0.995). Time to peak enhancement decreased with increasing injection rate. The delay time for bolus tracking depended on the injection rate as well and was highest for protocol A (4.7 seconds) and lowest for protocol C (3.9 seconds) (P = 0.038). The peak enhancement values of the dynamic scans highly correlated with those of the single-phase CTA scans.

Conclusions: In 70 kVp CTA, 300 mg I/mL iodine concentrations showed to be superior to high-concentration CM when keeping the iodine delivery rate constant. Besides, iodine concentrations as low as 150 mg I/mL can be administered without compromising vascular enhancement. This opens up new possibilities in CM administration.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/RLI.0000000000000437DOI Listing
May 2018

Relationship between low tube voltage (70 kV) and the iodine delivery rate (IDR) in CT angiography: An experimental in-vivo study.

PLoS One 2017 20;12(3):e0173592. Epub 2017 Mar 20.

MR and CT Contrast Media Research, Bayer Healthcare, Berlin, Germany.

Objective: Very short acquisition times and the use of low-kV protocols in CTA demand modifications in the contrast media (CM) injection regimen. The aim of this study was to optimize the use of CM delivery parameters in thoraco-abdominal CTA in a porcine model.

Materials And Methods: Six pigs (55-68 kg) were examined with a dynamic CTA protocol (454 mm scan length, 2.5 s temporal resolution, 70 s total acquisition time). Four CM injection protocols were applied in a randomized order. 120 kV CTA protocol: (A) 300 mg iodine/kg bodyweight (bw), IDR = 1.5 g/s (flow = 5 mL/s), injection time (ti) 12 s (60 kg bw). 70 kV CTA protocols: 150 mg iodine/kg bw: (B) IDR = 0.75 g/s (flow = 2.5 mL/s), ti = 12 s (60 kg bw); (C) IDR = 1.5 g/s (flow = 5 mL/s), ti = 12 s (60 kg bw); (D) IDR = 3.0 g/s (flow = 10 mL/s), ti = 3 s (60 kg bw). The complete CM bolus shape was monitored by creating time attenuation curves (TAC) in different vascular territories. Based on the TAC, the time to peak (TTP) and the peak enhancement were determined. The diagnostic window (relative enhancement > 300 HU), was calculated and compared to visual inspection of the corresponding CTA data sets.

Results: The average relative arterial peak enhancements after baseline correction were 358.6 HU (A), 356.6 HU (B), 464.0 HU (C), and 477.6 HU (D). The TTP decreased with increasing IDR and decreasing ti, protocols A and B did not differ significantly (systemic arteries, p = 0.843; pulmonary arteries, p = 0.183). The delay time for bolus tracking (trigger level 100 HU; target enhancement 300 HU) for single-phase CTA was comparable for protocol A and B (3.9, 4.3 s) and C and D (2.4, 2.0 s). The scan window time frame was comparable for the different protocols by visual inspection of the different CTA data sets and by analyzing the TAC.

Conclusions: All protocols provided sufficient arterial enhancement. The use of a 70 kV CTA protocol is recommended because of a 50% reduction of total CM volume and a 50% reduced flow rate while maintaining the bolus profile. In contrast to pulmonary arterial enhancement, the systemic arterial enhancement improved only slightly increasing the IDR from 1.5 g/s to 3 g/s because of bolus dispersion of the very short bolus (3s) in the lungs.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0173592PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5358883PMC
August 2017

Comparison of Digital Breast Tomosynthesis and Two-dimensional Mammography.

Radiology 2016 09;280(3):980-1

Siemens Healthcare, Diagnostic Imaging-X-Ray Products, Allee am Roethelheimpark 2, 91052 Erlangen, Germany.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1148/radiol.2016160321DOI Listing
September 2016

Contrast Gradient-Based Blood Velocimetry With Computed Tomography: Theory, Simulations, and Proof of Principle in a Dynamic Flow Phantom.

Invest Radiol 2016 Jan;51(1):41-9

From the *Imaging and Therapy Systems, Computed Tomography, Siemens Healthcare GmbH, Forchheim, Germany; †Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, University Hospital Basel, Basel, Switzerland; ‡Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Eberhard Karls Universität Tübingen, Tübingen; and §Institute of Medical Physics, Friedrich-Alexander Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg, Erlangen, Germany.

Objectives: The aim of this study was to introduce a new theoretical framework describing the relationship between the blood velocity, computed tomography (CT) acquisition velocity, and iodine contrast enhancement in CT images, and give a proof of principle of contrast gradient-based blood velocimetry with CT.

Materials And Methods: The time-averaged blood velocity (v(blood)) inside an artery along the axis of rotation (z axis) is described as the mathematical division of a temporal (Hounsfield unit/second) and spatial (Hounsfield unit/centimeter) iodine contrast gradient. From this new theoretical framework, multiple strategies for calculating the time-averaged blood velocity from existing clinical CT scan protocols are derived, and contrast gradient-based blood velocimetry was introduced as a new method that can calculate v(blood) directly from contrast agent gradients and the changes therein. Exemplarily, the behavior of this new method was simulated for image acquisition with an adaptive 4-dimensional spiral mode consisting of repeated spiral acquisitions with alternating scan direction. In a dynamic flow phantom with flow velocities between 5.1 and 21.2 cm/s, the same acquisition mode was used to validate the simulations and give a proof of principle of contrast gradient-based blood velocimetry in a straight cylinder of 2.5 cm diameter, representing the aorta.

Results: In general, scanning with the direction of blood flow results in decreased and scanning against the flow in increased temporal contrast agent gradients. Velocity quantification becomes better for low blood and high acquisition speeds because the deviation of the measured contrast agent gradient from the temporal gradient will increase. In the dynamic flow phantom, a modulation of the enhancement curve, and thus alternation of the contrast agent gradients, can be observed for the adaptive 4-dimensional spiral mode and is in agreement with the simulations. The measured flow velocities in the downslopes of the enhancement curves were in good agreement with the expected values, although the accuracy and precision worsened with increasing flow velocities.

Conclusions: The new theoretical framework increases the understanding of the relationship between the blood velocity, CT acquisition velocity, and iodine contrast enhancement in CT images, and it interconnects existing blood velocimetry methods with research on transluminary attenuation gradients. With these new insights, novel strategies for CT blood velocimetry, such as the contrast gradient-based method presented in this article, may be developed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/RLI.0000000000000202DOI Listing
January 2016

Evaluation of A New Bolus Tracking-Based Algorithm for Predicting A Patient-Specific Time of Arterial Peak Enhancement in Computed Tomography Angiography.

Invest Radiol 2015 Aug;50(8):531-8

From the *Imaging and Therapy Division, Computed Tomography, Siemens AG Healthcare Sector, Forchheim; †Institute for Clinical Radiology, Ludwig-Maximilians University Hospital Munich, Munich; and ‡Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Eberhard-Karls-Universität Tübingen, Tübingen; and §Institute of Medical Physics, Friedrich-Alexander University Erlangen-Nürnberg, Erlangen, Germany.

Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate the systematic and random errors of a new bolus tracking-based algorithm that predicts a patient-specific time of peak arterial enhancement and compare its performance with a best-case scenario for the current bolus tracking technique.

Materials And Methods: All local institutional review boards approved this retrospective study, in which the test bolus signals of cardiac computed tomography angiographies of 72 patients (46 men; median age, 62 years [range, 31-81 years]) were used to simulate contrast enhancement curves for a multitude of injection protocols with iodine delivery rates (IDRs) varying between 0.5 and 2.5 gI/s, injection durations between 4 and 30 seconds, and tube voltages of 100 and 120 kV. From these simulated curves, bolus tracking signals with statistical errors of 4 Hounsfield units (HU) (standard deviation) were derived with trigger values of 100 and 150 HU at 100 and 120 kV, respectively. The new algorithm then matched the actual bolus tracking signal with a database of expected enhancement curves for that particular injection protocol, taking into account population-averaged blood circulation characteristics with variations in patient weight and cardiac output. Posttrigger delays (PTDs) were calculated as the time difference between the last bolus tracking point and the time of peak enhancement. The systematic and random errors between the predicted and true PTDs were assessed and compared with a best-case scenario for the current bolus tracking method.

Results: With the current bolus tracking technique, interpatient variations decrease with higher IDRs and earlier triggering (lower tube voltage and/or lower trigger value), and the true PTDs increase linearly with injection duration. Compared with the current bolus tracking method, the systematic and random errors of the algorithm-predicted PTDs are smaller, do not depend on the IDR, and are predictable over a large range of total iodine doses. The median difference between the true and algorithm-predicted PTD is less than ±1 second for all IDRs and injection durations, and the algorithm was able to predict patient-specific PTDs within ±2 seconds from the true PTD in more than 90% of patients for almost all injection protocols.

Conclusions: The new algorithm can robustly predict a patient-specific time of arterial peak enhancement and is better than a best-case scenario for the current bolus tracking technique because interpatient variations are taken into account. It offers a new framework for scan timing optimization and can potentially be used for personalized scan timing in real time.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/RLI.0000000000000160DOI Listing
August 2015

Quantitative evaluation of the performance of a new test bolus-based computed tomographic angiography contrast-enhancement-prediction algorithm.

Invest Radiol 2015 Jan;50(1):1-8

From the *Siemens AG Healthcare Sector, Imaging & Therapy Division, Computed Tomography, Forchheim; †Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, University Hospital, Philipps University of Marburg, Marburg, Germany; ‡Department of Imaging Methods, Charles University and University Hospital Pilsen, Pilsen, Czech Republic; §Institut für Radiologie und Nuklearmedizin, Deutsches Herzzentrum München, Klinik an der Technischen Universität München; ∥1. Medizinische Klinik, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München, Munich; ¶Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Eberhard-Karls-Universität Tübingen, Tübingen; and #Institute of Medical Physics, Friedrich-Alexander-University Erlangen-Nürnberg, Germany.

Objectives: The objective of this study was to assess the robustness of a novel test bolus (TB)-based computed tomographic angiography (CTA) contrast-enhancement-prediction (CEP) algorithm by retrospectively quantifying the systematic and random errors between the predicted and true enhancements.

Materials And Methods: All local institutional review boards approved this retrospective study, in which a total of 72 (3 × 24) anonymized cardiac CTA examinations were collected from 3 hospitals. All patients (46 men; median age, 62 years [range, 31-81 years]) underwent a TB scan and a cardiac CTA according to local scan and injection protocols. For each patient, a shorter TB signal and TB signals with lower temporal resolution were derived from the original TB signal. The CEP algorithm predicted the enhancement in the descending aorta (DAo) on the basis of the TB signals in the DAo, the injection protocols and kilovolt settings, as well as population-averaged blood circulation characteristics. The true enhancement was extracted with a region of interest along the DAo centerline. For each patient, the errors in timing and amplitude were calculated; differences between the hospitals were assessed using the 1-way analysis of variance (P < 0.05) and variations between the TB signals were assessed using the within-subject standard deviation.

Results: No significant differences were found between the 3 hospitals for any of the TB signals. With errors in the amplitude and timing of 0.3% ± 15.6% and -0.2 ± 2.0 seconds, respectively, no clinically relevant systematic errors existed. Shorter- and coarser-time-sampled TB signals introduced a within-subject standard deviation of 4.0% and 0.5 seconds, respectively.

Conclusions: This TB-based CEP algorithm has no systematic errors in the timing and amplitude of predicted enhancements and is robust against coarser-time-sampled and incomplete TB scans.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/RLI.0000000000000088DOI Listing
January 2015

Low contrast volume run-off CT angiography with optimized scan time based on double-level test bolus technique--feasibility study.

Eur J Radiol 2014 Mar 12;83(3):e147-55. Epub 2013 Dec 12.

Department of Imaging Methods, University Hospital and Charles University Medical School in Pilsen, Czech Republic.

Purpose: To verify the technical feasibility of low contrast volume (40 mL) run-off CT angiography (run-off CTA) with the individual scan time optimization based on double-level test bolus technique.

Materials And Methods: A prospective study of 92 consecutive patients who underwent run-off CTA performed with 40 mL of contrast medium (injection rate of 6 mL/s) and optimized scan times on a second generation of dual-source CT. Individual optimized scan times were calculated from aortopopliteal transit times obtained on the basis of double-level test bolus technique--the single injection of 10 mL test bolus and dynamic acquisitions in two levels (abdominal aorta and popliteal arteries). Intraluminal attenuation (HU) was measured in 6 levels (aorta, iliac, femoral and popliteal arteries, middle and distal lower-legs) and subjective quality (3-point score) was assessed. Relations of image quality, test bolus parameters and arterial circulation involvement were analyzed.

Results: High mean attenuation (HU) values (468; 437; 442; 440; 342; 274) and quality score in all monitored levels was achieved. In 91 patients (0.99) the sufficient diagnostic quality (score 1-2) in aorta, iliac and femoral arteries was determined. A total of 6 patients (0.07) were not evaluable in distal lower-legs. Only the weak indirect correlation of image quality and test-bolus parameters was proved in iliac, femoral and popliteal levels (r values: -0.263, -0.298 and -0.254). The statistically significant difference of the test-bolus parameters and image quality was proved in patients with occlusive and aneurysmal disease.

Conclusion: We proved the technical feasibility and sufficient quality of run-off CTA with low volume of contrast medium and optimized scan time according to aortopopliteal transit time calculated from double-level test bolus.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejrad.2013.12.004DOI Listing
March 2014

The effect of hormonal treatment on conspicuity of prostate cancer: implications for focal boosting radiotherapy.

Radiother Oncol 2012 May 20;103(2):233-8. Epub 2012 Jan 20.

University Medical Center Utrecht, The Netherlands.

Background And Purpose: For focal boosting of prostate tumors, three questions are important regarding the use of hormonal therapy. Does prolonged hormonal treatment affect the conspicuity of tumor tissue on diffusion weighted imaging (DWI) and dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE-MRI) images? Is tumor delineation possible in patients using hormonal treatment? Can we identify specific imaging thresholds for tumor delineation in patients after prolonged androgen deprivation?

Materials And Methods: Ninety-six patients were included. Using multivariate linear regression analyses, we investigated if DWI and DCE-MRI parameter maps are different in patients receiving hormonal treatment for 0-3 or >3 months. Furthermore, logistic regression was performed to obtain specific imaging thresholds for tumor tissue for the two patient groups.

Results: We found a significantly higher diffusion and lower perfusion of tumor tissue in the >3 months hormonal treatment group compared to the 0-3 group. This resulted in lower tumor conspicuity. Nevertheless, in 18/21 of the patients in the >3 months treatment group, a suspicious lesion could be defined based on the MR images. Based on logistic regression, different imaging thresholds should be set for tumor detection in the two treatment groups.

Conclusions: Prolonged androgen deprivation decreases tumor conspicuity. Different imaging thresholds need to be set to delineate tumor in patients who have had prolonged hormonal treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.radonc.2011.12.007DOI Listing
May 2012

Tracer kinetic model selection for dynamic contrast-enhanced computed tomography imaging of prostate cancer.

Invest Radiol 2012 Jan;47(1):41-8

Department of Radiotherapy, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht, The Netherlands.

Objectives: To investigate the conditions under which the Tofts, extended Tofts, and adiabatic approximation to the tissue homogeneity (AATH) model are the optimal tracer kinetic models (TKMs) for the quantification of dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE) computed tomography (CT) examinations in prostate cancer.

Materials And Methods: This prospective study was approved by the local research ethics committee, and all patients gave written informed consent. A total of 29 patients (mean age, 69.1 years; range, 56-80 years) with biopsy-proven prostate cancer underwent a DCE-CT examination prior to radiation therapy. TKM parameter maps were calculated for each patient with the Tofts, extended Tofts, and AATH models. For each voxel, corrected Akaike information criterion values were calculated, taking into account both the goodness-of-fit and the number of model parameters. We consider the optimal model as the model with the lowest corrected Akaike information criterion.

Results: All 3 TKMs are the optimal models in part of the prostate. For individual patients, the AATH model was the optimal model in 25.0% to 88.9%, the Tofts in 2.7% to 71.8%, and the extended Tofts model in 0.7% to 68.7% of the prostate voxels. The Tofts model was optimal in low flow regions (<0.1 min-1), the extended Tofts model in regions with high flow (>0.4 min-1) and low transit time (<12 seconds), and the AATH model in the intermediate flow range (0.1-0.4 min-1). However, differences between the 3 models were small and TKM parameter estimates gave consistent results between the 3 models.

Conclusions: All the 3 models gave reasonable fits of DCE-CT data from the prostate. In view of the small parameter range in which the Tofts and extended Tofts models outperform the AATH model, the latter seems the optimal model for quantification of DCE-CT data of the prostate.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/RLI.0b013e31821c0ea7DOI Listing
January 2012

Phase-based arterial input function measurements in the femoral arteries for quantification of dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE) MRI and comparison with DCE-CT.

Magn Reson Med 2011 Nov 20;66(5):1267-74. Epub 2011 May 20.

Department of Radiotherapy, University Medical Center Utrecht, 3508 GA Utrecht, The Netherlands.

Dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE) MRI is useful for diagnosis, treatment monitoring and follow-up of prostate cancer. However, large differences have been reported in the parameter range of the transfer constant K(trans) , making longitudinal studies and comparison of DCE-MRI findings between studies difficult. Large part of this inconsistency in K(trans) values can be attributed to problems with the accurate measurement of the arterial input function (AIF) from the magnitude signal (AIF(MAG) (N) ). Phase-based AIF measurements (AIF(PHASE) ) have been proposed as a more robust alternative to AIF(MAG) (N) measurements. This study compares AIF(PHASE) with AIFs measured with DCE-CT (AIF(CT) ), and the corresponding K(trans) maps in 12 prostate cancer patients. The shape of AIF(PHASE) and AIF(CT) are similar, although differences in the peak height and peak width exist as a result of differences in injection protocol. No significant differences in K(trans) values were found between the DCE-MRI and DCE-CT exams, with median K(trans) values of 0.10 and 0.08 min(-1) for healthy peripheral zone tissue and 0.44 and 0.36 min(-1) for regions suspected of tumor respectively. Therefore, robust quantification of K(trans) values from DCE-MRI exams in the cancerous prostate is feasible with the use of AIF(PHASE) .
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/mrm.22905DOI Listing
November 2011

Dynamic contrast-enhanced CT for prostate cancer: relationship between image noise, voxel size, and repeatability.

Radiology 2010 Sep 27;256(3):976-84. Epub 2010 Jul 27.

Department of Radiotherapy and Radiology, University Medical Center Utrecht, GA Utrecht, The Netherlands.

Purpose: To evaluate the relationship between image noise, voxel size, and voxel-wise repeatability of a dynamic contrast agent-enhanced (DCE) computed tomographic (CT) examination for prostate cancer.

Materials And Methods: This prospective study was approved by the local research ethics committee, and all patients gave written informed consent. Twenty-nine patients (mean age, 69.1 years; range, 56-80 years) with biopsy-proved prostate cancer underwent two DCE CT examinations within 1 week prior to radiation therapy. Parameter maps of transfer constant (K(trans)), the fraction of blood plasma (v(p)), the fraction of extravascular extracellular space (v(e)), and the flux rate constant between the extravascular extracellular space and plasma (k(ep)) were calculated at 15 different image resolutions, with kernel sizes ranging from 0.002 to 2.57 cm(3). Statistical analysis to quantify the voxel-wise repeatability was performed by using a Bland-Altman analysis on all tracer kinetic model parameter maps of each patient. From this analysis, the within-voxel standard deviation (wSD) was calculated as a function of spatial resolution.

Results: A kernel size in the range of 0.1-0.3 cm(3) yields reliable information. At 0.15 cm(3), the median wSDs of K(trans), k(ep), v(p), and v(e) are 0.047 min(-1), 0.144 min(-1), 0.011, and 0.104, respectively. With increasing kernel size, these values reach stable levels of approximately 0.02 min(-1), 0.05 min(-1), 0.005, and 0.05, respectively.

Conclusion: There is a high voxel-wise repeatability of the DCE CT imaging technique for prostate cancer for kernel sizes as small as 0.1 cm(3). With the relationship between kernel size, image noise and voxel-wise repeatability, it becomes possible to estimate for alternative DCE CT protocols (eg, those with a reduced radiation dose) at what kernel size a sufficient repeatability can be obtained.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1148/radiol.10092068DOI Listing
September 2010

Validation of functional imaging with pathology for tumor delineation in the prostate.

Radiother Oncol 2010 Feb 28;94(2):145-50. Epub 2010 Jan 28.

University Medical Center Utrecht, The Netherlands.

Introduction: A study was performed to validate magnetic resonance (MR) based prostate tumor delineations with pathology.

Material And Methods: Five patients with biopsy proven prostate cancer underwent a T2 weighted (T2w), diffusion weighted MRI (DW-MRI) and dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI (DCE-MRI) scan before prostatectomy. Suspicious regions were delineated based on all available MR information. After prostatectomy whole-mount hematoxylin-eosin stained (H&E) sections were made. Tumor tissue was delineated on the H&E stained sections and compared with the MR based delineations. The registration accuracy between the MR images and H&E stained sections was estimated.

Results: A tumor coverage of 44-89% was reached by the MR based tumor delineations. The application of a margin of approximately 5mm to the MR based tumor delineations yielded a tumor coverage of 85-100% in all patients. Errors created during the registration procedure were 2-3mm, which cannot completely explain the limited tumor coverage.

Conclusions: An accurate tissue processing and registration method was presented (registration error 2-3mm), which enables the validation of MR based tumor delineations with pathology. Reasonable tumor coverage of about 85% and larger was found when applying a margin of approximately 5 mm to the MR based tumor delineations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.radonc.2009.12.034DOI Listing
February 2010

The use of probability maps to deal with the uncertainties in prostate cancer delineation.

Radiother Oncol 2010 Feb 19;94(2):168-72. Epub 2010 Jan 19.

University Medical Center Utrecht, Department of Radiotherapy, The Netherlands.

Background And Purpose: The use of dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE) imaging for delineation of prostate tumors requires that decisions are made on a voxel wise basis about the presence of tumor. While the sensitivity and specificity of this technique is high, we propose a probabilistic approach to deal with the intrinsic imaging uncertainty.

Material And Methods: Twenty-nine patients with biopsy-proven prostate cancer underwent a DCE-CT exam prior to radiotherapy. From a logistic regression on K(trans) values from healthy and diseased appearing prostate regions we obtained a probability function for the presence of tumor. K(trans) parameter maps were converted into probability maps and a stratification was applied at the 5% and 95% probability level, to identify low-, intermediate-, and high-risk areas for the presence of tumor.

Results: In all patients, regions with high-, intermediate-, and low-risk were identified, with median volume percentages of 7.6%, 40.0%, and 52.1%, respectively. The contiguous areas that resulted from the voxel wise stratification can be interpreted as GTV, high-risk CTV, and CTV.

Conclusions: K(trans) parameter maps from a DCE-CT exam can be converted into probability maps for the presence of tumor. In this way, the intrinsic uncertainty that a voxel contains tumor can be incorporated into the treatment planning process.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.radonc.2009.12.023DOI Listing
February 2010
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