Publications by authors named "Johannes Erath"

4 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Probable Sudden Unexpected Death in Dogs With Epilepsy (pSUDED).

Front Vet Sci 2021 27;8:600307. Epub 2021 Apr 27.

Department of Small Animal Medicine and Surgery, University of Veterinary Medicine, Hannover, Germany.

Sudden unexpected death in human epileptic patients (SUDEP) is defined as death related to recurrent unprovoked seizures, death occurring unexpectedly, and suddenly in a patient with reasonable state of health, without an obvious medical cause of death, trauma, asphyxia, or intractable status epilepticus, and in post mortem examination no obvious reason for death can be found. "Probable SUDEP" (pSUDEP) is defined as SUDEP not confirmed pathologically. The adapted abbreviation for dogs is used in the following: "pSUDED" (probable sudden unexpected death in dogs with epilepsy). The aim of the present monocentric retrospective study using an online questionnaire was to evaluate the occurrence of pSUDED. Data of canine patients presented with seizures between 01/1998 and 05/2018 were retrospectively analyzed and classified according to their etiology ( = 1,503). Owners were contacted by telephone to participate in answering a validated questionnaire. A total of 509 owners were reached, and 373 owners completed the questionnaire. In addition to signalement (e.g., breed), special attention was paid to the frequency and presentation of seizures and seizures in the context of death. Fifty-one percent (191/373) of the dogs were dead at the endpoint of the study. A large proportion of the dogs was euthanized (149/191) because of seizure severity or health problems unrelated to seizures. Idiopathic epilepsy (IE) was diagnosed in 19/34 dogs which died unexpectedly. Of these seven animals had to be excluded for further investigation of pSUDED because of status epilepticus or aspiration pneumonia as a result of the seizures. In 12 dogs with IE the last seizure event occurred between 6 h and ~3 months before death. pSUDED was suspected in these dogs and an occurrence rate of 4.5-10% was calculated. pSUDED appears in a similar occurrence rate as human SUDEP and should be considered as a possible complication in epileptic dogs. The results of this study suggest that dogs with IE but especially those with brachycephalic syndrome and cluster seizures have an increased risk to die of pSUDED. Owners of dogs with seizures should be educated about the risk of sudden death in dogs with epilepsy.
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April 2021

Meningoencephalomyelitis of Unknown Origin in Cats: A Case Series Describing Clinical and Pathological Findings.

Front Vet Sci 2020 22;7:291. Epub 2020 May 22.

Department of Small Animal Medicine and Surgery, University of Veterinary Medicine Foundation, Hanover, Germany.

Meningoencephalomyelitis of unknown origin (MUO) is an umbrella term describing inflammatory changes of the central nervous system (CNS) with suspected non-infectious etiology. Diagnosis of MUO mostly remains presumed in a clinical setting. Histopathological and immunohistochemical examination of CNS tissue represent additional tools for detection of inflammation and the exclusion of specific infectious agents. While MUO is well-described in canine patients, only little is known about MUO in cats. Previous reports of feline MUO involve either clinical findings or histopathological examination but not both. The present case series is the first report describing both clinical and histopathological findings of feline MUO: Four cats (age: 1.7-17.8 years) showed acute to chronic progressive neurological signs of encephalopathy or myelopathy. Three cats had extraneural signs (hyperthermia, weight loss, hyporexia, leukocytosis). Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed multifocal intraparenchymal lesions in forebrain, brainstem or spinal cord with homogenous contrast enhancement (2/2). Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) examination was normal or displayed albuminocytologic dissociation. Histopathology revealed a multifocal, lympho-histiocytic meningoencephalitis in three cases and a lympho-histiocytic myelitis in one case. Immunohistochemistry for feline parvovirus, feline coronavirus, feline herpesvirus, tick borne encephalitis virus, Borna disease virus, morbillivirus, rabies virus, suid herpesvirus-1, and were negative in all cases.

One Sentence Summary: This case series is the first one reporting both clinical and histopathological findings in cats with MUO. Feline MUO incorporates heterogeneous subtypes of sterile CNS inflammation.
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May 2020

Behavioral Changes Under Levetiracetam Treatment in Dogs.

Front Vet Sci 2020 3;7:169. Epub 2020 Apr 3.

Department of Small Animal Medicine and Surgery, University of Veterinary Medicine, Hanover, Germany.

In veterinary medicine levetiracetam (LEV) is a well-tolerated antiepileptic drug (AED) with only mild to moderate side effects. Behavioral changes are rarely reported in animals. In contrast, in human medicine the impact of LEV on behavior has frequently been described. Since in the Clinic for Small Animals at the University of Veterinary Medicine Hannover single canine patients were observed with behavioral abnormalities after LEV treatment, it was hypothesized that levetiracetam induces behavioral changes or causes an intensifying of pre-existing behavioral abnormalities in dogs with epileptic seizures. This monocentric retrospective study evaluated the incidence of behavioral changes in epileptic dogs treated with the antiepileptic drug LEV based on information obtained in a questionnaire completed by dog owners. Eighty-four client-owned dogs with recurrent seizures receiving LEV as monotherapy, add on treatment or pulse therapy met inclusion criteria. Approximately half of the dogs in the study population were reported to have preexisting behavioral changes before treatment with LEV, and some of these dogs were reported to experience a worsening of behavioral changes (14/44) or the emergence of new behaviors after initiation of LEV therapy (4/44). One quarter of the dogs without pre-existing behavioral abnormalities developed behavioral changes associated with the administration of LEV (10/40). Based on these results, the authors conclude that behavioral changes can occur in dogs being administered LEV, and this should be taken into consideration when discussing treatment options with owners.
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April 2020

Comparison of intranasal versus intravenous midazolam for management of status epilepticus in dogs: A multi-center randomized parallel group clinical study.

J Vet Intern Med 2019 Nov 3;33(6):2709-2717. Epub 2019 Oct 3.

Small Animal Department, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Ghent University, Merelbeke, Belgium.

Background: The intranasal (IN) route for rapid drug administration in patients with brain disorders, including status epilepticus, has been investigated. Status epilepticus is an emergency, and the IN route offers a valuable alternative to other routes, especially when these fail.

Objectives: To compare IN versus IV midazolam (MDZ) at the same dosage (0.2 mg/kg) for controlling status epilepticus in dogs.

Animals: Client-owned dogs (n = 44) with idiopathic epilepsy, structural epilepsy, or epilepsy of unknown origin manifesting as status epilepticus.

Methods: Randomized parallel group clinical trial. Patients were randomly allocated to the IN-MDZ (n = 21) or IV-MDZ (n = 23) group. Number of successfully treated cases (defined as seizure cessation within 5 minutes and lasting for ≥10 minutes), seizure cessation time, and adverse effects were recorded. Comparisons were performed using the Fisher's exact and Wilcoxon rank sum tests with statistical significance set at α < .05.

Results: IN-MDZ and IV-MDZ successfully stopped status epilepticus in 76% and 61% of cases, respectively (P = .34). The median seizure cessation time was 33 and 64 seconds for IN-MDZ and IV-MDZ, respectively (P = .63). When the time to place an IV catheter was taken into account, IN-MDZ (100 seconds) was superior (P = .04) to IV-MDZ (270 seconds). Sedation and ataxia were seen in 88% and 79% of the dogs treated with IN-MDZ and IV-MDZ, respectively.

Conclusions And Clinical Importance: Both routes are quick, safe, and effective for controlling status epilepticus. However, the IN route demonstrated superiority when the time needed to place an IV catheter was taken into account.
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November 2019