Publications by authors named "Johannes Clemens Godt"

5 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Iterative reconstruction improves image quality and reduces radiation dose in trauma protocols; A human cadaver study.

Acta Radiol Open 2021 Oct 18;10(10):20584601211055389. Epub 2021 Nov 18.

Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Oslo University Hospital Ullevål, Oslo, Norway.

Background: Radiation-related cancer risk is an object of concern in CT of trauma patients, as these represent a young population. Different radiation reducing methods, including iterative reconstruction (IR), and spilt bolus techniques have been introduced in the recent years in different large scale trauma centers.

Purpose: To compare image quality in human cadaver exposed to thoracoabdominal computed tomography using IR and standard filtered back-projection (FBP) at different dose levels.

Material And Methods: Ten cadavers were scanned at full dose and a dose reduction in CTDIvol of 5 mGy (low dose 1) and 7.5 mGy (low dose 2) on a Siemens Definition Flash 128-slice computed tomography scanner. Low dose images were reconstructed with FBP and Sinogram affirmed iterative reconstruction (SAFIRE) level 2 and 4. Quantitative image quality was analyzed by comparison of contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) and signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). Qualitative image quality was evaluated by use of visual grading regression (VGR) by four radiologists.

Results: Readers preferred SAFIRE reconstructed images over FBP at a dose reduction of 40% (low dose 1) and 56% (low dose 2), with significant difference in overall impression of image quality. CNR and SNR showed significant improvement for images reconstructed with SAFIRE 2 and 4 compared to FBP at both low dose levels.

Conclusions: Iterative image reconstruction, SAFIRE 2 and 4, resulted in equal or improved image quality at a dose reduction of up to 56% compared to full dose FBP and may be used a strong radiation reduction tool in the young trauma population.
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October 2021

Do we really need the arterial phase on CT in pelvic trauma patients?

Emerg Radiol 2021 Feb 19;28(1):37-46. Epub 2020 Jul 19.

Division of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Oslo University Hospital Ullevål, Postboks 4956, Nydalen, 0424, Oslo, Norway.

Purpose: To evaluate whether an arterial phase scan improves the diagnostic performance of computed tomography to identify pelvic trauma patients who received angiographic intervention on demand of the trauma surgeon.

Methods: This retrospective single-center study was performed at an academic Scandinavian trauma center with approximately 2000 trauma admissions annually. Pelvic trauma patients with arterial and portal venous phase CT from 2009 to 2015 were included. The patients were identified from the institutional trauma registry. Images were interpreted by two radiologists with more than 10 years of trauma radiology experience. Positive findings for extravasation on portal venous phase alone or on both arterial and portal venous phase were compared, with angiographic intervention as clinical outcome.

Results: One hundred fifty-seven patients (54 females, 103 males) with a median age of 45 years were enrolled. Sixteen patients received angiographic intervention. Positive CT findings on portal venous phase only had a sensitivity and specificity of 62% and 86%, vs. 56% and 93% for simultaneous findings on arterial and portal venous phase. Specificity was significantly higher for positive findings in both phases compared with portal venous phase only. Applying a threshold > 0.9 cm of extravasation diameter to portal venous phase only resulted in sensitivity and specificity identical to those of both phases.

Conclusion: Arterial phase scan in addition to portal venous phase scan did not improve patient selection for angiography. Portal venous phase extravasation size alone may be used as an imaging-based biomarker of the need for angiographic intervention.
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February 2021

Triple-split-bolus versus single-bolus CT in abdominal trauma patients: a comparative study.

Acta Radiol 2018 Sep 19;59(9):1038-1044. Epub 2018 Jan 19.

1 Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Oslo University Hospital Ullevål, Oslo, Norway.

Background Split-bolus computed tomography (CT) is a recent development in trauma imaging. Instead of multiple scans in different contrast phases after a single contrast bolus, split-bolus protocols consist of one single scan of the thorax and abdomen after two or three contrast injections at different points of time. Purpose To evaluate and compare image quality and injury findings of a new triple-split-bolus CT (TS-CT) protocol of thorax and abdomen with those of a portal venous phase CT (PV-CT) in the same patient group. Material and Methods Trauma patients in 2009-2012 who underwent both the TS-CT initially and a PV-CT during the next six weeks were included. The TS-CT examination was performed as one CT run after application of three contrast boluses (total 175 mL) to enhance renal pelvis and urinary tract, the abdominal organs, and the large arterial vessels. The PV-CT had a fixed delay of 85 s. We measured attenuation in Hounsfield units (HU), evaluated possible organ injury and assessed image quality on a 5-point scale. Results Thirty-five patients were included. Attenuation measurements of major abdominal vessels, organs, and renal pelvis were significantly higher with the TS-CT protocol. Performance in organ injury diagnosis and image quality was equal in both protocols. Conclusion The overall performance of the TS-CT protocol is similar to the standard PV-CT. Excellent visualization of the arterial tree and the collecting system may eliminate the need for separate scans.
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September 2018

Diagnostic performance of CT, MRI and PET/CT in patients with suspected colorectal liver metastases: the superiority of MRI.

Acta Radiol 2016 Sep 29;57(9):1040-8. Epub 2015 Nov 29.

Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Oslo University Hospital, Oslo, Norway.

Background: Meticulous imaging of colorectal liver metastases (CRLM) is mandatory to optimize outcome after liver resection. However, the detection of CRLM is still challenging.

Purpose: To evaluate prospectively if magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with diffusion-weighted and Gd-EOB-DTPA-enhanced sequences had a better diagnostic performance for CRLM compared to computed tomography (CT) and fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (PET/CT).

Material And Methods: Forty-six patients scheduled for resection of suspected CRLM were evaluated prospectively from September 2011 to January 2013. None of the patients had undergone previous treatment for their CRLM. Multiphase CT, liver MRI with diffusion-weighted and dynamic Gd-EOB-DTPA-enhanced sequences and low-dose PET/CT were performed. Two independent, blinded readers evaluated the examinations. The reference standard was histopathological confirmation (81/140 CRLM) or follow-up.

Results: A total of 140 CRLM and 196 benign lesions were identified. On a per-lesion basis, MRI had the significantly highest sensitivity overall and for CRLM < 10 mm (P < 0.001). Overall sensitivity/specificity and PPV/NPV were 68%/94% and 89%/81% for CT, 90%/87% and 82%/93% for MRI, and 61%/99% and 97%/78% for PET/CT. For CRLM < 10 mm it was 16%/96% and 54%/80% for CT, 74%/88% and 64%/93% for MRI, and 9%/98% and 57%/79% for PET/CT.

Conclusion: MRI had the significantly highest sensitivity compared with CT and PET/CT, particularly for CRLM < 10 mm. Therefore, detection of CRLM should be based on MRI.
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September 2016

Respiratory gated PET/CT of the liver: A novel method and its impact on the detection of colorectal liver metastases.

Eur J Radiol 2015 Aug 14;84(8):1424-1431. Epub 2015 May 14.

Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Oslo University Hospital, Postboks Pb 4956 Nydalen, 0424 Oslo, Norway. Electronic address:

Purpose: To evaluate the diagnostic performance of a new method for respiratory gated positron emission tomography (rgPET/CT) for colorectal liver metastases (CRLM), secondly, to assess its additional value to standard PET/CT (PET/CT).

Materials And Methods: Forty-three patients scheduled for resection of suspected CRLM were prospectively included from September 2011 to January 2013. None of the patients had previously undergone treatment for their CRLM. All patients underwent PET/CT and rgPET/CT in the same session. For rgPET/CT an in-house developed electronic circuit was used which displayed a color-coded countdown for the patient. The patients held their breath according to the countdown and only the data from the inspiration breath-hold period was used for image reconstruction. Two independent and blinded readers evaluated both PET/CT and rgPET/CT separately. The reference standard was histopathological confirmation for 73 out of 131 CRLM and follow-up otherwise.

Results: Reference standard identified 131 CRLM in 39/43 patients. Nine patients accounted for 25 mucinous CRLM. The overall per-lesion sensitivity for detection of CRLM was for PET/CT 60.0%, for rgPET/CT 63.1%, and for standard+rgPET/CT 67.7%, respectively. Standard+rgPET/CT was overall significantly more sensitive for CRLM compared to PET/CT (p=0.002) and rgPET/CT (p=0.031). The overall positive predictive value (PPV) for detection of CRLM was for PET/CT 97.5%, for rgPET/CT 95.3%, and for standard+rgPET/CT 93.6%, respectively.

Conclusion: Combination of PET/CT and rgPET/CT improved the sensitivity significantly for CRLM. However, high patient compliance is mandatory to achieve optimal performance and further improvements are needed to overcome these limitations. The diagnostic performance of the evaluated new method for rgPET/CT was comparable to earlier reported technically more complex and expensive methods.
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August 2015