Publications by authors named "Johanne Bouchard"

3 Publications

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Biodistribution and predictive hepatic gene expression of intravenous iron sucrose.

J Pharmacol Toxicol Methods 2013 Nov-Dec;68(3):374-83. Epub 2013 Apr 25.

Azad Pharma AG, Bahnhofstrasse 9, CH-3125 Toffen, Switzerland.

Introduction: We have examined iron biodistribution and hepatic gene expression in rats following administration of the generic Iron Sucrose Azad (ISA) or the reference iron sucrose drug Venofer®.

Methods: ISA and Venofer® were administered intravenously to normal, non-anemic, male rats at 15 mg/kg (a supra-therapeutic dose-level). To evaluate biodistribution, tissue iron levels were determined over 28 days for plasma, liver, spleen, bone marrow, heart, kidney, lung and stomach using a validated ICP-MS method. Hepatic gene expression was evaluated by microarray analysis of mRNA from samples taken 24 h after drug administration.

Results: Iron concentration/time profiles for plasma and tissues were quantitatively similar for ISA and Venofer. Following administration, circulating iron levels briefly exceeded transferrin binding capacity and there was a transient increase in hepatic iron. Bone marrow iron levels remained elevated throughout the study. No increases in tissue iron levels were observed in the heart, stomach or lungs. Spleen iron levels increased over the course of the study in treated and control rats. Small, transient increases were recorded in the kidneys of treated rats. The effects of ISA and Venofer® on hepatic gene transcription were similar. Principal components analysis showed that there was no systematic effect of either treatment on transcriptional profiles. Only a small number of genes showed significant modulation of expression. No transcriptional pattern matches with toxicity pathways were found in the ToxFX database for either treatment. No modulation of key genes in apoptosis, inflammation or oxidative stress pathways was detected.

Discussion: These findings demonstrated that the biodistribution of administered iron is essentially similar for Iron Sucrose Azad and Venofer®, that iron sucrose partitions predominantly into the liver, spleen and bone marrow, and that hepatic gene expression studies did not provide any evidence of toxicity in animals treated at a supra-therapeutic dose-level.
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September 2014

Immunotoxic effects of cyclophosphamide and cyclosporine in the dog.

J Immunotoxicol 2013 Jan-Mar;10(1):90-5. Epub 2012 Oct 3.

CiToxLAB France, Evreux, France.

Limited non-clinical immunotoxicity data are available in the dog, although this is a major non-rodent species in regulatory safety studies. The present study aimed to test whether widely accepted immunotoxicity endpoints including lymphocyte subset immunophenotyping, the anti-KLH TDAR assay, and histological examination of the main lymphoid organs were reliable to detect immunosuppression induced by cyclosporine and cyclophosphamide in dogs and could, therefore, be used for non-clinical immunotoxicity evaluation in this species. Male and female Beagle dogs were treated orally from Day 1 for 4 weeks with 25 mg/kg cyclosporine daily, or with 2 mg/kg cyclophosphamide on 4 consecutive days each week, or the same volume of drinking water daily. Blood samples were withdrawn pre-test and on Days 11, 18, and 23 to measure standard hematology parameters and analyze lymphocyte subsets. All animals received an intramuscular injection of 5 mg KLH on Day 11. Sandwich ELISA assays were used to quantify anti-KLH IgM and anti-KLH IgG levels in blood samples taken pre-test, on Days 18 and 23, and pre-test, on Days 23 and 28, respectively. At the end of the treatment period, all animals were submitted to histological examination of lymphoid organs, liver, and kidneys. No signs of marked toxicity were observed. No changes in lymphocyte subsets, but markedly decreased primary anti-KLH IgM and IgG responses, and a slightly-to-markedly increased cortex/medulla ratio in the thymus were observed in cyclosporine-treated dogs. Lower total WBC counts correlating with lower total and B-lymphocyte subset and decreased germinal center development in mesenteric lymph nodes, but no changes in primary anti-KLH IgM and IgG responses were observed in cyclophosphamide-treated dogs. These results demonstrate that widely accepted immunotoxicity endpoints can adequately detect the effects of known immunosuppressive drugs in the dog and support the conclusion that it is a relevant animal species for immunotoxicity evaluation.
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September 2013