Publications by authors named "Johanna Sauma"

2 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Susac's syndrome: an update.

Br J Ophthalmol 2020 09 6;104(9):1190-1195. Epub 2020 Feb 6.

Asociados de Macula Vitreo y Retina de Costa Rica, San Jose, Costa Rica

Susac's syndrome (SS) is a relatively rare cause of multiple recurrent branch retinal arterial occlusions (BRAO). SS is frequently misdiagnosed and probably underdiagnosed. Ophthalmic manifestations may be the sole presenting sign of SS. Comprehensive literature review The typical triad of encephalopathy, sensorineural hearing loss and multiple recurrent BRAO is seldom seen at presentation in SS. The characteristic ophthalmological feature in SS is the presence of recurrent multiple BRAO in the absence of intraocular inflammation. Yellow to yellow-white, non-refractile or refractile retinal arterial wall plaques (Gass plaques) found at midarteriolar segments not associated to bifurcations are commonly found in SS. Because of its ability to capture more peripheral retinal area, ultrawide field fluorescein angiography (FA) has definite advantages over conventional FA and its use should be encouraged in patients suspected of having SS. Optical coherence tomography (OCT), particularly spectral domain OCT complements FA. Patients with BRAO and hearing loss that do not develop encephalopathy during the initial 2 years will most likely not develop encephalopathy. However, these patients will be prone to recurrent BRAO and hearing loss. Imunosuppression is the cornerstone of treatment but the best regimen still needs to be defined. A minority of patients with SS present with the typical triad. A high index of suspicion is needed to make the diagnosis promptly. Early diagnosis and treatment are important to delay disease progression and prevent blindness, deafness and dementia.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bjophthalmol-2019-315597DOI Listing
September 2020

Classification of diabetic retinopathy and diabetic macular edema.

World J Diabetes 2013 Dec;4(6):290-4

Lihteh Wu, Erick Hernandez-Bogantes, Marissé Masis, Vitreoretinal Section, Instituto de Cirugía Ocular, San José 1225, Costa Rica.

The global incidence and prevalence of diabetes mellitus (DM) have reached epidemic proportions. Estimates indicate that more than 360 million people will be affected by DM by 2030. All of these individuals will be at risk of developing diabetic retinopathy (DR). It is extremely important to categorize, classify and stage the severity of DR in order to establish adequate therapy. With proper management more than 90% of cases of visual loss can be prevented. The purpose of the current paper is to review the classification of DR with a special emphasis on the International Clinical Disease Severity Scale for DR. This new classification is simple to use, easy to remember and based on scientific evidence. It does not require specialized examinations such as optical coherence tomography or fluorescein angiography. It is based on clinical examination and applying the Early Treatment of Diabetic Retinopathy Study 4:2:1 rule.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4239/wjd.v4.i6.290DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3874488PMC
December 2013