Publications by authors named "Johanna Guzman"

8 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin protects from kidney disease in experimental Alport syndrome and focal segmental glomerulosclerosis.

Kidney Int 2018 12 6;94(6):1151-1159. Epub 2018 Oct 6.

Katz Family Division of Nephrology and Hypertension, Department of Medicine, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Miami, Florida, USA; Peggy and Harold Katz Family Drug Discovery Center, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Miami, Florida, USA. Electronic address:

Studies suggest that altered renal lipid metabolism plays a role in the pathogenesis of diabetic kidney disease and that genetic or pharmacological induction of cholesterol efflux protects from the development of diabetic kidney disease and focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS). Here we tested whether altered lipid metabolism contributes to renal failure in the Col4a3 knockout mouse model for Alport Syndrome. There was an eight-fold increase in the cholesterol content in renal cortexes of mice with Alport Syndrome. This was associated with increased glomerular lipid droplets and cholesterol crystals. Treatment of mice with Alport Syndrome with hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin (HPβCD) reduced cholesterol content in the kidneys of mice with Alport Syndrome and protected from the development of albuminuria, renal failure, inflammation and tubulointerstitial fibrosis. Cholesterol efflux and trafficking-related genes were primarily affected in mice with Alport Syndrome and were differentially regulated in the kidney cortex and isolated glomeruli. HPβCD also protected from proteinuria and mesangial expansion in a second model of non-metabolic kidney disease, adriamycin-induced nephropathy. Consistent with our experimental findings, microarray analysis confirmed dysregulation of several lipid-related genes in glomeruli isolated from kidney biopsies of patients with primary FSGS enrolled in the NEPTUNE study. Thus, lipid dysmetabolism occurs in non-metabolic glomerular disorders such as Alport Syndrome and FSGS, and HPβCD improves renal function in experimental Alport Syndrome and FSGS.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.kint.2018.06.031DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6278936PMC
December 2018

Nephrin Contributes to Insulin Secretion and Affects Mammalian Target of Rapamycin Signaling Independently of Insulin Receptor.

J Am Soc Nephrol 2016 Apr 23;27(4):1029-41. Epub 2015 Sep 23.

Katz Family Drug Discovery Center, Division of Nephrology and Hypertension and Diabetes Research Institute, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Miami, Florida;

Nephrin belongs to a family of highly conserved proteins with a well characterized function as modulators of cell adhesion and guidance, and nephrin may have a role in metabolic pathways linked to podocyte and pancreatic β-cell survival. However, this role is incompletely characterized. In this study, we developed floxed nephrin mice for pancreatic β-cell-specific deletion of nephrin, which had no effect on islet size and glycemia. Nephrin deficiency, however, resulted in glucose intolerance in vivo and impaired glucose-stimulated insulin release ex vivo Glucose intolerance was also observed in eight patients with nephrin mutations compared with three patients with other genetic forms of nephrotic syndrome or nine healthy controls.In vitro experiments were conducted to investigate if nephrin affects autocrine signaling through insulin receptor A (IRA) and B (IRB), which are both expressed in human podocytes and pancreatic islets. Coimmunoprecipitation of nephrin and IRB but not IRA was observed and required IR phosphorylation. Nephrin per se was sufficient to induce phosphorylation of p70S6K in an phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-dependent but IR/Src-independent manner, which was not augmented by exogenous insulin. These results suggest a role for nephrin as an independent modulator of podocyte and pancreatic β-cell nutrient sensing in the fasting state and the potential of nephrin as a drug target in diabetes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1681/ASN.2015020210DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4814188PMC
April 2016

Sphingomyelinase-like phosphodiesterase 3b expression levels determine podocyte injury phenotypes in glomerular disease.

J Am Soc Nephrol 2015 Jan 12;26(1):133-47. Epub 2014 Jun 12.

Department of Medicine, Division of Nephrology and Hypertension, Peggy and Harold Katz Family Drug Discovery Center and Diabetes Research Institute, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Miami, Florida;

Diabetic kidney disease (DKD) is the most common cause of ESRD in the United States. Podocyte injury is an important feature of DKD that is likely to be caused by circulating factors other than glucose. Soluble urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (suPAR) is a circulating factor found to be elevated in the serum of patients with FSGS and causes podocyte αVβ3 integrin-dependent migration in vitro. Furthermore, αVβ3 integrin activation occurs in association with decreased podocyte-specific expression of acid sphingomyelinase-like phosphodiesterase 3b (SMPDL3b) in kidney biopsy specimens from patients with FSGS. However, whether suPAR-dependent αVβ3 integrin activation occurs in diseases other than FSGS and whether there is a direct link between circulating suPAR levels and SMPDL3b expression in podocytes remain to be established. Our data indicate that serum suPAR levels are also elevated in patients with DKD. However, unlike in FSGS, SMPDL3b expression was increased in glomeruli from patients with DKD and DKD sera-treated human podocytes, where it prevented αVβ3 integrin activation by its interaction with suPAR and led to increased RhoA activity, rendering podocytes more susceptible to apoptosis. In vivo, inhibition of acid sphingomyelinase reduced proteinuria in experimental DKD but not FSGS, indicating that SMPDL3b expression levels determined the podocyte injury phenotype. These observations suggest that SMPDL3b may be an important modulator of podocyte function by shifting suPAR-mediated podocyte injury from a migratory phenotype to an apoptotic phenotype and that it represents a novel therapeutic glomerular disease target.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1681/ASN.2013111213DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4279736PMC
January 2015

Podocyte-specific GLUT4-deficient mice have fewer and larger podocytes and are protected from diabetic nephropathy.

Diabetes 2014 Feb 7;63(2):701-14. Epub 2013 Oct 7.

Diabetes Research Institute, Miller School of Medicine, University of Miami, Miami, FL.

Podocytes are a major component of the glomerular filtration barrier, and their ability to sense insulin is essential to prevent proteinuria. Here we identify the insulin downstream effector GLUT4 as a key modulator of podocyte function in diabetic nephropathy (DN). Mice with a podocyte-specific deletion of GLUT4 (G4 KO) did not develop albuminuria despite having larger and fewer podocytes than wild-type (WT) mice. Glomeruli from G4 KO mice were protected from diabetes-induced hypertrophy, mesangial expansion, and albuminuria and failed to activate the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway. In order to investigate whether the protection observed in G4 KO mice was due to the failure to activate mTOR, we used three independent in vivo experiments. G4 KO mice did not develop lipopolysaccharide-induced albuminuria, which requires mTOR activation. On the contrary, G4 KO mice as well as WT mice treated with the mTOR inhibitor rapamycin developed worse adriamycin-induced nephropathy than WT mice, consistent with the fact that adriamycin toxicity is augmented by mTOR inhibition. In summary, GLUT4 deficiency in podocytes affects podocyte nutrient sensing, results in fewer and larger cells, and protects mice from the development of DN. This is the first evidence that podocyte hypertrophy concomitant with podocytopenia may be associated with protection from proteinuria.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2337/db13-0752DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3900538PMC
February 2014

Cyclodextrin protects podocytes in diabetic kidney disease.

Diabetes 2013 Nov 8;62(11):3817-27. Epub 2013 Jul 8.

Division of Nephrology and Hypertension, Department of Medicine, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Miami, Florida.

Diabetic kidney disease (DKD) remains the most common cause of end-stage kidney disease despite multifactorial intervention. We demonstrated that increased cholesterol in association with downregulation of ATP-binding cassette transporter ABCA1 occurs in normal human podocytes exposed to the sera of patients with type 1 diabetes and albuminuria (DKD(+)) when compared with diabetic patients with normoalbuminuria (DKD(-)) and similar duration of diabetes and lipid profile. Glomerular downregulation of ABCA1 was confirmed in biopsies from patients with early DKD (n = 70) when compared with normal living donors (n = 32). Induction of cholesterol efflux with cyclodextrin (CD) but not inhibition of cholesterol synthesis with simvastatin prevented podocyte injury observed in vitro after exposure to patient sera. Subcutaneous administration of CD to diabetic BTBR (black and tan, brachiuric) ob/ob mice was safe and reduced albuminuria, mesangial expansion, kidney weight, and cortical cholesterol content. This was followed by an improvement of fasting insulin, blood glucose, body weight, and glucose tolerance in vivo and improved glucose-stimulated insulin release in human islets in vitro. Our data suggest that impaired reverse cholesterol transport characterizes clinical and experimental DKD and negatively influences podocyte function. Treatment with CD is safe and effective in preserving podocyte function in vitro and in vivo and may improve the metabolic control of diabetes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2337/db13-0399DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3806621PMC
November 2013

Dynamin-mediated Nephrin phosphorylation regulates glucose-stimulated insulin release in pancreatic beta cells.

J Biol Chem 2012 Aug 20;287(34):28932-42. Epub 2012 Jun 20.

Diabetes Research Institute, University of Miami L. Miller School of Medicine, Miami, Florida 33136, USA.

We have previously demonstrated a role for Nephrin in glucose stimulated insulin release (GSIR). We now hypothesize that Nephrin phosphorylation is required for GSIR and that Dynamin influences Nephrin phosphorylation and function. MIN6-C3 Nephrin-deficient pancreatic beta cells and human islets were transfected with WT-Nephrin or with a mutant Nephrin in which the tyrosine residues responsible for SH2 domain binding were substituted with phenylalanine (3YF-Nephrin). GSIR and live images of Nephrin and vesicle trafficking were studied. Immunoprecipitation experiments and overexpression of WT-Dynamin or dominant negative Dynamin mutant (K44A-Dynamin) in WT-Nephrin, 3YF-Nephrin, or Nephrin siRNA-transfected cells were utilized to study Nephrin-Dynamin interaction. In contrast to WT-Nephrin or to single tyrosine mutants, 3YF-Nephrin did not positively affect GSIR and led to impaired cell-cell contacts and vesicle trafficking. K44A-Dynamin prevented the effect of Nephrin on GSIR in the absence of protein-protein interaction between Nephrin and Dynamin. Nephrin gene silencing abolished the positive effects of WT-Dynamin on GSIR. The effects of protamine sulfate and vanadate on Nephrin phosphorylation and GSIR were studied in MIN6 cells and human islets. WT-Nephrin phosphorylation after glucose occurred at Tyr-1176/1193 and resulted in improved GSIR. On the contrary, protamine sulfate-induced phosphorylation at Tyr-1176/1193/1217 was associated with Nephrin degradation and impaired GSIR. Vanadate, which prevented Nephrin dephosphorylation after glucose stimulation, improved GSIR in human islets and MIN6 cells. In conclusion, Dynamin-dependent Nephrin phosphorylation occurs in response to glucose and is necessary for Nephrin-mediated augmentation of GSIR. Pharmacological modulation of Nephrin phosphorylation may thus facilitate pancreatic beta cell function.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1074/jbc.M112.389452DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3436561PMC
August 2012

Neuroserpin protects neurons from ischemia-induced plasmin-mediated cell death independently of tissue-type plasminogen activator inhibition.

Am J Pathol 2010 Nov 23;177(5):2576-84. Epub 2010 Sep 23.

Department of Neurology and Center for Neurodegenerative Disease, Emory University School of Medicine, Whitehead Biomedical Research Building, 615 Michael St, Suite 505J, Atlanta, GA 30322, USA.

The serine proteinase tissue-type plasminogen activator (tPA) and the serine proteinase inhibitor neuroserpin are both expressed in areas of the brain with the highest vulnerability to hypoxia/ischemia. In vitro studies show that neuroserpin inhibits tPA and, to a lesser extent, urokinase-type plasminogen activator and plasmin. Experimental middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) increases tPA activity and neuroserpin expression in ischemic tissue, and genetic deficiency of tPA or either treatment with or overexpression of neuroserpin decreases the volume of the ischemic lesion following MCAO. These findings have led to the hypothesis that neuroserpin's neuroprotection is mediated by inhibition of tPA's alleged neurotoxic effect. Ischemic preconditioning is a natural adaptive process whereby exposure to a sublethal insult induces tolerance against a subsequent lethal ischemic injury. Here we demonstrate that exposure to sublethal hypoxia/ischemia increases the neuroserpin expression in the hippocampal CA1 layer and cerebral cortex, and that neuroserpin induces ischemic tolerance and decreases the volume of the ischemic lesion following MCAO in wild-type and tPA-deficient (tPA-/-) neurons and mice. Plasmin induces neuronal death, and this effect is abrogated by either neuroserpin or the NMDA receptor antagonist MK-801. Neuroserpin also attenuated kainic acid-induced neuronal death. Our data indicate that the neuroprotective effect of neuroserpin is due to inhibition of plasmin-mediated excitotoxin-induced cell death and is independent of neuroserpin's ability to inhibit tPA activity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2353/ajpath.2010.100466DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2966813PMC
November 2010

Tissue-type plasminogen activator is a neuroprotectant in the mouse hippocampus.

J Clin Invest 2010 Jun 3;120(6):2194-205. Epub 2010 May 3.

Department of Neurology and Center for Neurodegenerative Disease, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, Georgia 30322, USA.

The best-known function of the serine protease tissue-type plasminogen activator (tPA) is as a thrombolytic enzyme. However, it is also found in structures of the brain that are highly vulnerable to hypoxia-induced cell death, where its association with neuronal survival is poorly understood. Here, we have demonstrated that hippocampal areas of the mouse brain lacking tPA activity are more vulnerable to neuronal death following an ischemic insult. We found that sublethal hypoxia, which elicits tolerance to subsequent lethal hypoxic/ischemic injury in a natural process known as ischemic preconditioning (IPC), induced a rapid release of neuronal tPA. Treatment of hippocampal neurons with tPA induced tolerance against a lethal hypoxic insult applied either immediately following insult (early IPC) or 24 hours later (delayed IPC). tPA-induced early IPC was independent of the proteolytic activity of tPA and required the engagement of a member of the LDL receptor family. In contrast, tPA-induced delayed IPC required the proteolytic activity of tPA and was mediated by plasmin, the NMDA receptor, and PKB phosphorylation. We also found that IPC in vivo increased tPA activity in the cornu ammonis area 1 (CA1) layer and Akt phosphorylation in the hippocampus, as well as ischemic tolerance in wild-type but not tPA- or plasminogen-deficient mice. These data show that tPA can act as an endogenous neuroprotectant in the murine hippocampus.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1172/JCI41722DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2877952PMC
June 2010