Publications by authors named "Johann Golej"

21 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Hemadsorption as rescue therapy for patients with multisystem organ failure in pediatric intensive care-Two case reports and review of the literature.

Artif Organs 2021 Jul 31. Epub 2021 Jul 31.

Division of Neonatology, Pediatric Intensive Care & Neuropediatrics, Department of Pediatric and Adolescent Medicine, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria.

Hemadsorption via the cytokine-adsorber CytoSorb (CytoSorbents Europe, Berlin, Germany) has successfully been used as an adjunctive method in adults, mainly for the purpose of immunomodulation under acute inflammatory conditions such as sepsis and cardiac surgery. In recent years, there has been growing interest in its use in pediatric intensive care to improve outcomes in patients with multiple organ failure following an inflammatory illness. Literature on the application of CytoSorb in neonatal and pediatric patients is scarce, though the implication is that it could be an effective last-resort treatment option in critically ill pediatric patients. Herein we present the clinical cases of two pediatric patients successfully treated with a combination of the CytoSorb hemadsorber, continuous renal replacement therapy, and extracorporeal membrane oxygenation due to multiple organ failure following different underlying medical conditions. Patient 1 was a 7-month-old male child with Down's syndrome admitted to the Pediatric Intensive Care Unit (PICU) after congenital heart surgery, who developed antimicrobial-resistant septic shock and severe acute respiratory distress syndrome. Patient 2 was a 2-year-old male child admitted to the PICU with influenza A-associated acute liver failure resulting in hyperammonemia, lactate acidosis, hemodynamic instability, and acute kidney failure. In both patients, hemadsorption with CytoSorb was initiated as an adjunctive rescue therapy to treat refractory multisystem organ failure. Improvement of laboratory and clinical parameters was observed within hours of treatment initiation. The application of the hemadsorber-developed for use in adults-proved simple and safe for use in both of our low-weight pediatric patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/aor.14047DOI Listing
July 2021

Ketogenic Diet in the Treatment of Super-Refractory Status Epilepticus at a Pediatric Intensive Care Unit: A Single-Center Experience.

Front Neurol 2021 3;12:669296. Epub 2021 Jun 3.

Department of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine, Medical University Vienna, Vienna, Austria.

To evaluate the use of the ketogenic diet (KD) for treatment of super-refractory status epilepticus (SRSE) at a pediatric intensive care unit (PICU). A retrospective analysis of all pediatric patients treated for SRSE with the KD at our center was performed using patient data from our prospective longitudinal KD database. SRSE is defined as refractory SE that continues or recurs 24 h or more after initiation of anesthetic drugs. We describe the clinical and electroencephalographic (EEG) findings of all children treated with KD at our PICU. The KD was administered as add-on after failure of standard treatment. Response was defined as EEG seizure resolution (absence of seizures and suppression-burst ratio ≥50%). Eight consecutive SRSE patients (four females) treated with KD were included. Median age at onset of SRSE was 13.6 months (IQR 0.9-105), and median age at KD initiation was 13.7 months (IQR 1.9 months to 8.9 years). Etiology was known in 6/8 (75%): genetic in 4 (50%), structural in 1 (12.5%), and autoimmune/inflammatory in 1 (12.5%). Time from onset of SRSE to initiation of KD was median 6 days (IQR 1.3-9). Time until clinically relevant ketosis (beta-hydroxybutyrate (BHB) >2 mmol/L in serum) was median 68.0 h (IQR 27.3-220.5). Higher ketosis was achieved when a higher proportion of enteral feeds was possible. Four (50%) patients responded to KD treatment within 7 days. During follow-up (median 4.2 months, IQR 1.6-12.3), 5/8 patients-three of them responders-died within 3-12 months after SRSE. In eight patients with SRSE due to severe etiologies including Alpers syndrome, we report an initial 50% response to KD. KD was used early in SRSE and sufficient levels of ketosis were reached early in most patients. Higher ketosis was achieved with combined enteral and parenteral feedings.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fneur.2021.669296DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8209375PMC
June 2021

Risk factors for mortality in infants with congenital diaphragmatic hernia: a single center experience.

Wien Klin Wochenschr 2021 Jul 30;133(13-14):674-679. Epub 2021 Mar 30.

Comprehensive Centre for Paediatrics, Division of Neonatology, Paediatric Intensive Care & Neuropaediatrics, Department of Paediatric and Adolescent Medicine, Medical University of Vienna, Waehringer Guertel 18-20, 1090, Vienna, Austria.

Background: Despite current progress in research of congenital diaphragmatic hernia, its management remains challenging, requiring an interdisciplinary team for optimal treatment.

Objective: Aim of the present study was to evaluate potential risk factors for mortality of infants with congenital diaphragmatic hernia.

Methods: A single-center chart review of all patients treated with congenital diaphragmatic hernia over a period of 16 years, at the Medical University of Vienna, was performed. A comparison of medical parameters between survivors and non-survivors, as well as to published literature was conducted.

Results: During the observational period 66 patients were diagnosed with congenital diaphragmatic hernia. Overall survival was 84.6%. Left-sided hernia occurred in 51 patients (78.5%) with a mortality of 7.8%. In comparison, right-sided hernia occurred less frequently (n = 12) but showed a higher mortality (33.3%, p = 0.000). Critically instable patients were provided with venoarterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO, 32.3%, n = 21). Survival rate among these patients was 66.7%. Right-sided hernia, treatment with inhaled nitric oxide (iNO) over 15 days and the use of ECMO over 10 days were significant risk factors for mortality.

Conclusion: The survival rate in this cohort is comparable to the current literature. Parameters such as the side of the diaphragmatic defect, duration of ECMO and inhaled nitric oxide were assessed as mortality risk factors. This analysis of patients with congenital diaphragmatic hernia enhances understanding of risk factors for mortality, helping to improve management and enabling further evaluation in prospective clinical trials.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00508-021-01843-wDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8008339PMC
July 2021

An adolescent with herpes simplex encephalitis, presenting with mild symptoms and rapid deterioration: A case report.

SAGE Open Med Case Rep 2020 6;8:2050313X20977142. Epub 2020 Dec 6.

Department of Pediatrics, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria.

Headaches in children are a common, but unspecific symptom that can have many underlying causes, ranging from unspecific tension headache through migraine and up to encephalitis and intracranial hypertension. We present the case of a 14-year-old boy who presented to our emergency department with headache, nausea as well as vomiting and developed seizures later on. The initial diagnosis was complicated by a magnetic resonance imaging which did not show any signs of inflammation, but was of limited informative value due to orthodontic appliances. Despite the unremarkable imaging, prophylactic antiviral and antibiotic treatment was started after lumbar puncture. Herpes simplex virus as well as human herpes virus 7 were confirmed in the cerebrospinal fluid. Although both viruses are ubiquitous, severe infections are a rare complication. Immunodeficiency syndromes are predisposing factors for serious complications and genetic analysis of UNC93B and TLR-3 might be helpful for decision-making. No genetic or immunologic predisposition was found in our patient. The patient's condition deteriorated rapidly, so he had to be admitted to the pediatric intensive care unit, where he was intubated and his antiviral treatment with acyclovir was extended by foscarnet. After prolonged mechanical ventilation, he slowly improved. With intensive neurorehabilitation, he could finally return to his daily life activities 3 months after diagnosis. Despite headaches being an unspecific symptom, the possibility of a herpes simplex virus encephalitis should always kept in mind, especially in patients presenting with additional symptoms such as vomiting, altered mental status and/or focal neurological deficits. An initial magnetic resonance imaging might be misleading if orthodontic appliances are in place. Initiation of treatment without delay is crucial for neurologic outcome of herpes simplex virus encephalitis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/2050313X20977142DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7724412PMC
December 2020

Copeptin: Prognostic Relevance as a Perioperative Marker in Pediatric Cardiac Surgery.

Ann Thorac Surg 2020 Dec 4. Epub 2020 Dec 4.

Division of Cardiac Surgery, Pediatric Heart Center, Department of Surgery, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria. Electronic address:

Background: Copeptin is a cleavage product of vasopressin. This study aimed to figure out if copeptin would be a suitable biomarker in patients with congenital heart disease in the postoperative course.

Methods: The primary outcome endpoint of this study was the change in copeptin concentration perioperatively in patients with congenital heart disease after surgery, with the use of a cardiopulmonary bypass. Three blood samples were taken from 81 patients up to 6 years of age in order to evaluate changes in copeptin concentration.

Results: Significant increase of copeptin concentration was shown between the first and second blood draws as well as between the first and third blood draws (Ps < .001). Additionally, positive and significant correlations (r ≥ .27) between the cardiopulmonary bypass times, The Society of Thoracic Surgeons and European Association for Cardio-Thoracic Surgery mortality category, the inotropic score, the duration of mechanical ventilation, the length of stay at the intensive care unit (ICU), the length of stay at the hospital, and the preoperative as well as the ICU copeptin levels were found.

Conclusions: Copeptin showed a tendency to predict the clinical outcome of patients after congenital heart surgery. Patients with higher copeptin levels underwent more complex procedures, had longer cardiopulmonary bypass times, required more catecholamine support, needed longer time of invasive ventilation, and had longer overall stay and ICU stay.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.athoracsur.2020.11.017DOI Listing
December 2020

Pediatric infection and sepsis in five age subgroups: single-center registry.

Wien Med Wochenschr 2021 Feb 27;171(1-2):29-35. Epub 2020 Oct 27.

Department of Pediatrics, Division of Neonatology, Pediatric Intensive Care and Neuropediatrics, Medical University of Vienna, Währinger Gürtel 18-20, 1090, Vienna, Austria.

Background: Sepsis is, worldwide, one of the leading causes of death among infants and children. Over the past two decades, mortality rates have declined due to advanced treatment options; however, the incidence of sepsis and septic shock is still on the rise in many hospital settings. The objective of this study was to evaluate the course of this disease in pediatric intensive care patients.

Methods: An evaluation of pediatric patients in the intensive care unit diagnosed with infections or sepsis between 2005 and 2015 was performed via a retrospective exploratory data analysis.

Results: During the observational period, 201 patients were diagnosed with infection or sepsis. The study population was divided into five age subgroups. The majority of patients were newborns, infants, and toddlers. Forty percent had sepsis; 6% had septic shock. Viral infection was the most prevalent (59%). The overall survival rate was 83%; newborns and adolescents had the lowest survival rates.

Conclusion: With this registry, children divided into five age subgroups with infection or sepsis were evaluated and treatment strategies were examined. We have shown that our findings on children treated in our pediatric intensive care unit conform with current literature about pediatric sepsis. In addition to maintaining strict hygiene standards, optimal aspects of sepsis care should be stringently observed, such as the quick administration of empirical broad-spectrum antibiotics, initial adequate fluid resuscitation, and a reliable and frequent routine of source control.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10354-020-00787-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7835161PMC
February 2021

Necessity of early and continuous monitoring for possible infectious complications in children undergoing therapeutic hypothermia.

Acta Paediatr 2021 03 12;110(3):805-810. Epub 2020 Aug 12.

Division of Neonatology, Paediatric Intensive Care & Neuropaediatrics, Department of Paediatric and Adolescent Medicine, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria.

Aim: Since therapeutic hypothermia (TH) is known for its inhibitory effects on leucocyte migration and cytokine synthesis, our aim was to underline the necessity of early monitoring for potential immunomodulatory risks.

Methods: Using a 13-year retrospective case-control study at the paediatric intensive care unit (PICU) of the Medical University in Vienna, all newborn infants and children receiving TH were screened and compared with a diagnosis-matched control group undergoing conventional normothermic treatment (NT). TH was accomplished by using a non-invasive cooling device. Target temperature was 32-34°C. Children with evident infections, a medical history of an immunodeficiency or undergoing immunosuppressive therapy, were excluded.

Results: During the observational period, 108 patients were screened, 27 of which underwent TH. Culture-proven infections occurred in 22% of the TH group compared with 4% of the normothermic controls (P = .1). From the second day following PICU admission, median C-reactive protein (CRP) values were higher in the TH group (day two P = .002, day three P = .0002, day six P = .008).

Conclusion: Children undergoing TH showed earlier and higher increases in CRP levels when compared to normothermic controls. These data underline the necessity of early and continuous monitoring for possible infectious complications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/apa.15506DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7984159PMC
March 2021

Direct postoperative protein S100B and NIRS monitoring in infants after pediatric cardiac surgery enrich early mortality assessment at the PICU.

Heart Lung 2020 Nov - Dec;49(6):731-736. Epub 2020 Sep 4.

Division of Neonatology, Pediatric Intensive Care and Neuropediatrics, Medical University of Vienna, Austria. Electronic address:

Background: Neuromonitoring using plasmatic biomarkers such as S100B and near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) represents a standard procedure for detecting cerebral damage after cardiac surgery. Their use in pediatric clinical assessment, however, is negligible.

Objectives: The goal of this study was to evaluate the predictive role of S100B levels and cerebral oxygenation in postoperative pediatric cardiac patients for survival and potential cerebral injuries.

Methods: A retrospective cohort study of infants after cardiac surgery. Primary outcome was survival until discharge. Intra/postoperative vital signs and laboratory data were measured and statistically analyzed.

Results: Seven out of 226 infants were non-survivors. Non-survivors had significantly lower cerebral saturation than survivors, as well as elevated S100B values at admission, associated with lower arterial pressure and higher serum lactate levels.

Conclusion: Although significant differences of S100B and crO values between survivors and non-survivors were found, no critical thresholds could be established from the data. Nevertheless, changes from the norm in these parameters should raise awareness for critical clinical development.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.hrtlng.2020.08.014DOI Listing
March 2021

Chylothorax and Chylous-Like Diseases in Children: Clinical Management.

Front Pediatr 2019 27;7:258. Epub 2019 Jun 27.

Division of Neonatology, Pediatric Intensive Care and Neuropediatrics, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria.

Chylothorax and chylous-like diseases are rare conditions and difficult to treat. But they may represent potentially life-threatening disorders and important causes of morbidity and prolonged hospitalization, especially in critically ill children. Conservative as well as surgical therapeutic management strategies are continuously performed at our institution, however the results have never been evaluated and no guidelines for treatment recommendations have been put into practice so far. The objective of this retrospective study was to present a comprehensive and substantial evaluation of all relevant demographic data from children with the chylothorax and chylous-like diseases and their clinical management. We retrospectively analyzed data from all children with diagnoses of chylothorax and chylous-like diseases admitted to our pediatric intensive care unit between the years 1999 and 2012. Data of 34 patients were analyzed for this study. Gender distribution (M/F) was almost equal (19/15; 56%/44%). Thirty-one children (91%) developed chylothorax after surgery. Two children (6%) had idiopathic chylothorax and in one child (3%) congenital chylothorax was diagnosed. All study patients ( = 34; 100%) received MBF/MCT therapy. We were quite successful in treating 14 children who received only this therapy, with chest tube output dropping from 100 to 4.7%. But only 11 (32%) children received somatostatin and 7 (20%) children received beta-isodona. Different surgical interventions were performed in 6 patients (17%). All study patients received chest tubes to drain the pleural fluid and hence to relieve the chyle related symptoms. A combination of different conservative therapies was successful in most of our patients. Prevention, early diagnosis and treatment of potential complications may further improve the success rate of conservative therapy especially in patients with postoperative chylothorax. In summary, appropriate therapy of this condition may be lengthy but can prevent significant morbidity and mortality.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fped.2019.00258DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6610320PMC
June 2019

Extended use of the modified Berlin Definition based on age-related subgroup analysis in pediatric ARDS.

Wien Med Wochenschr 2019 Mar 19;169(3-4):93-98. Epub 2018 Sep 19.

Division of Neonatology, Pediatric Intensive Care and Neuropediatrics, Medical University of Vienna, Währinger Gürtel 18-20, 1090, Vienna, Austria.

Background: Pediatric acute respiratory distress syndrome (pARDS) is a rare but very severe condition. Management of the condition remains a major challenge for pediatric intensive care specialists.

Objective: To perform a descriptive assessment of pARDS based on the modified Berlin Definition by using the SpO/FiO ratio in order to establish an extended patient registry divided into age-related subgroups.

Methods: The data of all children on mechanical ventilation for respiratory failure admitted between 2005 and 2012 were reviewed retrospectively for this study. The age of patients ranged from newborns >37 weeks, up to children <18 years. Inclusion criteria were based on the modified Berlin Definition of pARDS. The following data were collected: demographic data, primary diagnosis, ventilation settings, and use of supportive treatment, in addition to mechanical ventilation (inhaled nitric oxide, surfactant, corticosteroids, prone positioning, and extracorporeal membrane oxygenation).

Results: In all, 93 children where included: 35% were newborns, 29% infants, 24% toddlers, and 12% school children; 66% were male and 34% were female patients. The most common primary diagnosis was viral pneumonia (21%) and 55% of the children were diagnosed with severe ARDS. The median duration of stay on the pediatric intensive care unit was 16 days (10/27). In total, 66 children (71%) had direct lung injury and 18 (19%) had indirect lung injury. More than 80% of all children needed more than one supportive care therapy. The overall survival rate was 77%.

Conclusion: This study is a valuable report about pediatric patients with ARDS and allows for an important extension of the application of the modified Berlin Definition in all age groups.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10354-018-0659-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6394569PMC
March 2019

Quantitative electroencephalography values of neonates during and after venoarterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation and permanent ligation of right common carotid artery.

Artif Organs 2006 Jun;30(6):447-51

Pediatric Intensive Care Unit, University Children's Hospital, Vienna, Austria.

Venoarterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) in neonates commonly needs neck vessel cannulation leading to ligation of right common carotid artery (RCCA) in some cases. Quantitative electroencephalography (EEG) measurements provide reproducible data of cerebral function. The aim of this case-control study was to test whether ligation of the RCCA results in EEG changes after ECMO weaning. Ten mechanically ventilated neonates not treated with ECMO were eligible as control patients. Seven ECMO patients receiving similar sedoanalgesia were investigated during and after ECMO and RCCA ligation. Dominant frequency, absolute alpha, theta, delta, and total powers of right and left frontocentral and temporooccipital derivations were calculated. Dominant frequency did not differ among groups. Power was found to be significantly decreased in all frequency bands during ECMO. After weaning from ECMO, EEG differences between the ECMO and control groups disappeared in spite of permanent RCCA ligation. It is concluded that ligation of the RCCA per se does not result in quantitative EEG changes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1525-1594.2006.00240.xDOI Listing
June 2006

Acute hemorrhagic respiratory failure caused by Wegener's granulomatosis successfully treated by bronchoalveolar lavage with diluted surfactant.

Wien Klin Wochenschr 2003 Nov;115(21-22):793-6

Division of Neonatology and Paediatric Intensive Care, University Hospital, University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria.

Wegener's granulomatosis (WG) is an idiopathic inflammatory systemic disease that can occasionally cause an acute respiratory distress syndrome. We report on a 17-year-old girl with Wegener's granulomatosis and acute hemorrhagic respiratory failure successfully treated using bronchoalveolar lavage with diluted porcine surfactant (Curosurf; 4.8 mg/mL) followed by a low-dose bolus of surfactant. The cumulative dose of surfactant was 40 mg/kg BW. The lavage with diluted surfactant and the administration of the bolus were performed with a flexible bronchoscope. The patient was ventilated during the whole procedure, stayed hemodynamically stable and showed only a very short phase of desaturation. The PaO2/FiO2 ratio increased from 54.8 to 62.4 after one hour, to 106 after 17 hours and finally to 280 after four days. The patient was extubated five days after lavage treatment, and almost normal lung function was restored after eight weeks. Bronchoalveolar lavage with diluted surfactant by flexible bronchoscopy allows selective and direct drug administration and removes airway and alveolar debris. The technique reduces the amount of surfactant needed to overcome inhibition and thereby reduces therapy costs. We conclude that this early therapeutic intervention with surfactant might help to avoid an invasive rescue therapy such as extra corporeal membrane oxygenation, thus improving outcome in terms of faster recovery of lung function.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF03040505DOI Listing
November 2003

Predictors of mortality at initiation of peritoneal dialysis in children after cardiac surgery.

Ann Thorac Surg 2004 Jan;77(1):61-5

Department of Neonatology and Pediatric Intensive Care, University Children's Hospital of Vienna, Vienna, Austria.

Background: The development of renal dysfunction in the postoperative course of cardiac surgery is still associated with high mortality in pediatric patients. In particular for small infants peritoneal dialysis offers a secure and useful treatment option. The aim of the present study was to investigate if routinely used laboratory and clinical variables could help predict mortality at initiation of peritoneal dialysis.

Methods: We performed a retrospective chart analysis of pediatric intensive care unit patients with renal dysfunction who were treated with peritoneal dialysis after cardiac surgery between 1993 and 2001 and analyzed variables obtained 3 hours or less before starting peritoneal dialysis.

Results: Results are documented as means and standard errors. A total of 1141 children underwent a cardiac operation on cardiopulmonary bypass. Sixty-two children (5.4%) were treated with peritoneal dialysis. Mortality was 40.3% (37 survivors, 25 nonsurvivors). The pH in survivors was 7.35 (0.01); in nonsurvivors it was 7.23 (0.03; p = 0.0037). Base excess in survivors was -1.37 mmol/L (0.61); in nonsurvivors it was -7.17 mmol/L (1.49; p = 0.0026). Lactate in survivors was 4.5 mmol/L (0.60); in nonsurvivors it was 10.5 mmol/L (1.78; p = 0.0089). Positive inspiratory pressure in survivors was 24.6 cm H(2)O (0.78); in nonsurvivors it was 28.9 cm H(2)O (1.08; p = 0.0274). Tidal volume per kilogram bodyweight in survivors was 11.0 mL/kg (0.48); in nonsurvivors it was 8.7 mL/kg (0.50; p = 0.0493).

Conclusions: We conclude from our data that the consideration of pH, base excess, lactate, positive inspiratory pressure, and tidal volume per kilogram bodyweight help predict mortality at initiation of peritoneal dialysis. We were able to observe significant differences between survivors and nonsurvivors using these variables.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/s0003-4975(03)01490-5DOI Listing
January 2004

Early postoperative prediction of cerebral damage after pediatric cardiac surgery.

Ann Thorac Surg 2003 Aug;76(2):576-80

Department of Neonatology and Pediatric Critical Care, PICU, and the ECMO Project, University of Vienna, Austria.

Background: Cerebral damage is a serious complication of pediatric cardiac surgery. Early prediction of actual risk can be useful in counseling of parents, and in early diagnosis and rehabilitation therapy. Also, if all children at risk could be identified therapeutic strategies to limit perioperative cerebral damage might be developed. The aim of this study is to create a mathematical model to predict risk of neurologic sequelae within 24 hours after surgery using simple and readily available clinical measurements.

Methods: The hospital records of 534 children after cardiac surgery were reviewed. Variables examined were age at operation, diagnosis, use of cardiopulmonary bypass, arterial and central venous oxygen saturation, serum glucose, lactate and creatine kinase, mean arterial pressure, and body temperature. The endpoint for each study patient was the occurrence or lack of occurrence of seizures, movement or developmental disorders, cerebral hemorrhage, infarction, hydrocephalus, or marked cerebral atrophy. Univariate and multivariate regression analyses were used to evaluate the predictive power of the investigated factors as well as to create a predictive model.

Results: In 6.26% of children symptoms of cerebral damage were found. Significant risk factors were age at surgery, more complex malformations, metabolic acidosis, and increased lactate (odds ratio: age, 0.882/yr [0.772-1.008]; complex malformations, 10.32 [1.32-80.28]; arterial pH more than 7.35 to 0.4 [0.18-0.89]; lactate -1.018 per mg/dL [1.006-1.03]).

Conclusions: It is possible to quantify the risk of appearance of symptoms of cerebral damage after cardiac surgery within 24 hours using simple and readily available clinical measurements.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/s0003-4975(03)00468-5DOI Listing
August 2003

Impact of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation modality on cytokine release during rescue from infant hypoxia.

Shock 2003 Aug;20(2):110-5

Department of Neonatology and Pediatric Intensive Care, University Children's Hospital of Vienna, Vienna, Austria.

The treatment of acute respiratory failure in infants by means of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) is thought to be associated with a treatment-related inflammatory reaction, which may deteriorate the underlying disease process. The aim of this study was to compare the venoarterial (VA) and venovenous (VV) modality of ECMO with regard to their pulmonary and serological cytokine release during rescue from acute hypoxia. The inflammatory response was measured in piglets undergoing hypoxic ventilation with a gas mixture of 92% N2 and 8% O2, which were then rescued through VA- (n = 5) or VV-ECMO (n = 5). The effect of cannulation and anesthesia on the inflammatory response was deducted from regularly ventilated control animals (n = 5). The concentrations of the proinflammatory interleukins (IL)-1beta and IL-8 increased in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid of all groups over a study period of 5 h but were significantly higher (P < 0.05) during VA-ECMO treatment, whereas the anti-inflammatory IL-10 concentrations were significantly higher in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid of VV-treated animals (P < 0.001). No statistical difference between groups was found in the serum concentrations of cytokines. We conclude that in this animal model rescue from hypoxia by means of the VA modality of ECMO leads to a more pronounced inflammatory reaction of the lung than when applying the VV modality.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/01.shk.0000075571.93053.2cDOI Listing
August 2003

Monitoring of cerebral oxygen saturation with a jugular bulb catheter after near-drowning and respiratory failure.

Wien Klin Wochenschr 2003 Feb;115(3-4):128-31

Department of Neonatology and Paediatric Intensive Care, University Children's Hospital, University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria.

We report on monitoring oxygen saturation with a jugular bulb fiber-optical catheter in an 18-month-old girl after fresh water near-drowning followed by acute respiratory failure. The first measured cerebral oxygen saturation was 22% despite normal values for arterial and central venous oxygen saturation. After conventional therapy had failed to improve cerebral oxygen saturation, we started veno-venous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation. Normal levels of cerebral oxygen saturation were achieved after six hours. The girl was extubated after seven days and discharged after twenty-five days in good general condition and without obvious evidence of neurological damage. We believe that in this case of near-drowning, monitoring cerebral oxygen saturation with a jugular bulb catheter was important for surveillance of cerebral hypoxia.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF03040293DOI Listing
February 2003

Peritoneal dialysis for continuing renal support after cardiac ECMO and hemofiltration.

Wien Klin Wochenschr 2002 Aug;114(15-16):733-8

Department of Neonatology and Pediatric Intensive Care, University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria.

Postoperative acute renal insufficiency after cardiac surgery in neonates is associated with increased mortality and is usually treated (while using ECMO, extracorporeal membrane oxygenation) with hemofiltration. Renal support has to be continued after weaning from ECMO when oliguria persists. When using hemofiltration, prolonged anticoagulation and a vascular access is needed, which, however, carries the risk of hemorrhagic as well as thromboembolic complications. Alternatively, peritoneal dialysis (PD) can be performed. We report data from 5 infants treated with ECMO after corrective cardiac surgery, who experienced oliguria after ECMO weaning and were consequently treated with PD. Arterial and central venous pressures, inotropic demand, urinary output, blood urea nitrogen, creatinine and survival were investigated. All patients survived. Installation of PD resulted in stable hemodynamics in all patients, despite continued oliguria. Normal renal function was established in four patients. One patient, suffering from persistent renal insufficiency, remained on PD. PD effectively supports insufficient renal functioning after ECMO weaning without the need for anticoagulation or a vascular access. Acute renal insufficiency may be reversible even after weeks and, if necessary, PD also enables prolonged treatment until renal transplantation.
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August 2002

Methemoglobin formation in children with congenital heart disease treated with inhaled nitric oxide after cardiac surgery.

Intensive Care Med 2003 Mar 21;29(3):447-52. Epub 2003 Jan 21.

Department of Neonatology and Pediatric Intensive Care, University Children's Hospital, University of Vienna, Währinger-Gürtel 18-20, 1090 Vienna, Austria.

Objective: Inhaled nitric oxide (NO) is used as a therapy of pulmonary hypertension in children after cardiac surgery. Hemoglobin binds to NO with great affinity and forms methemoglobin by oxidation in the erythrocyte. Once produced, methemoglobin is unable to transport and unload oxygen in the tissues. The amount of available hemoglobin in the body for oxygen transport is thereby reduced. Anemia, acidosis, respiratory compromise and cardiac disease may render patients more susceptible than expected for a given methemoglobin level. The goal of the present study was to review the cumulative effect of inhaled NO on methemoglobin formation in critically ill children. We therefore looked for methemoglobin levels in children with congenital heart disease after cardiac surgery who were treated with inhaled NO in a range of 5-40 ppm.

Methods: We retrospectively reviewed the medical charts of 38 children with congenital heart disease after cardiac surgery. We extracted demographic data and physiological measurements at the following time points: (1) T0 = before starting inhaled NO therapy, (2) T1 = 24 h after the beginning of inhaled NO therapy, (3) T2 = half-time therapy, (4) T3 = end of therapy, (5) T4 = 24 h after finishing inhaled NO therapy.

Results: The median duration of inhaled NO therapy was 5.5 days (interquartile range 6, range 2-29), NO concentrations at T1 and T2 were 16 ppm (10, 5-40) and 12.5 ppm (12.3, 2-40), respectively. The median cumulative dose of inhaled NO was 1699 ppm (2313, 193-7018). Methemoglobin levels increased moderately, but significantly, during therapy ( T0 vs T1 p<0.05 and T0 vs T2 p<0.001). The highest methemoglobin level measured was 3.9%. Methemoglobin levels correlated positively with the inhaled NO doses applied at T1 ( r(2)=0.8376; p<0.01) and at T2 ( r(2)=0.8945; p<0.01). At T1 the methemoglobin level correlated negatively with the T1 blood pH value. The overall mortality rate was 13.2% (5 of 38 study patients died). There was no significant difference in methemoglobin levels between survivors and non-survivors.

Conclusion: We conclude from our data that the use of inhaled NO therapy for children with congenital heart disease after cardiac surgery in the described range of 5-40 ppm, resulting in a maximum of 4% methemoglobin blood level, is feasible and safe. However, we recommend the use of the minimal effective dose of inhaled NO and continuous monitoring of methemoglobin levels, especially in cases of anemia or sepsis in critically ill children.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00134-002-1591-0DOI Listing
March 2003

Low-volume peritoneal dialysis in 116 neonatal and paediatric critical care patients.

Eur J Pediatr 2002 Jul 9;161(7):385-9. Epub 2002 May 9.

Department of Neonatology and Paediatric Intensive Care, University Children's Hospital Vienna, Waehringer Guertel 18-20, 1090 Vienna, Austria.

Unlabelled: Acute renal insufficiency accounts for high mortality in paediatric intensive care patients, particularly in infants. Peritoneal dialysis, usually carried out with dialysate volumes of >20 ml/kg body weight, increases pulmonary artery pressure, which may compromise myocardial function in critical illness. In this paper we report our experiences with the use of lower dialysate volumes in the treatment of critically ill children with renal impairments. We suggest that low-volume peritoneal dialysis is able to achieve adequate ultrafiltration, which relieves overhydration in ventilated and haemodynamically compromised children. A total of 116 paediatric intensive care patients treated between 1992 and 2000 was the subject of this investigation. Diagnosis, indication for dialysis, arterial and central venous pressure, blood gases, creatinine, blood urea nitrogen, urinary output at installation, ultrafiltration, fluid balance, duration and complications during dialysis as well as survival were investigated. The overall mortality was 53%. The respective diagnoses and mortality rates were as follows: 65% of the patients suffered from cardiac diseases (54% mortality), 7% from renal diseases (13%) and 28% from multi-organ system failure (62%). Low-volume peritoneal dialysis was started at evidence of total body fluid overload with inadequate urinary output and resulted in a mean ultrafiltration of 2.8 ml/kg body weight per h. A negative fluid balance was achieved in 53% of patients, mainly in those suffering from hypervolaemia and minor oliguria. None of the complications resulted in death.

Conclusion: early installation of low-volume peritoneal dialysis offers a safe and adequate ultrafiltration procedure for paediatric critical care patients suffering from minor oliguria and fluid overload.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00431-002-0919-7DOI Listing
July 2002

Surfactant therapy in infants and children: three years experience in a pediatric intensive care unit.

Shock 2002 Apr;17(4):247-51

Department of Neonatology and Paediatric Intensive Care, University Children's Hospital, University of Vienna, Austria.

Despite the established success of surfactant application in neonates, the use of surfactant in older children is still a matter of discussion. We hypothesized that surfactant application in children with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) secondary to a pulmonary or systemic disease or after cardiac surgery improves pulmonary function. We also asked whether repeated treatment could further improve pulmonary function. To answer these questions, we measured oxygenation index (OI) and hypoxemia score after the first and after a second application of surfactant (50-100 mg/kg body wt) at least 24 h later. We enrolled 19 children (older than 4 weeks) for a retrospective chart review study, and six of them underwent cardiac surgery. Demographic data were extracted. OI and hypoxemia score were estimated before and 2 and 24 h after surfactant application. Lung injury score was calculated before and 24 h after surfactant application. Outcome measures included survival, duration of mechanical ventilation, and pediatric ICU and hospital stay. The median patient age was 9.0 (quarter percentile 3.7/25) months. The median weight was 8.4 (4.1/11.5) kg. The median lung injury score before the first surfactant application was 2.3 (2.3/2.6). Hospital duration and pediatric ICU stay for all patients was 31.0 (20.0/49.5) days and 27.0 (15.5/32.5) days, respectively. The duration of mechanical ventilation was 24.0 (18.5/31.0) days. The overall mortality was 53%. Twenty-four hours after the first surfactant application, pulmonary function significantly improved. The median OI was 14 (5.5/26) before and 7 (4.5/14.5) 24 h after surfactant application (P= 0.027). The hypoxemia score was 91.7 (69.9/154.2) before and 148.4 (99.2/167.6) 24 h after surfactant application (P = 0.0026). Seven children received a second application, which did not further improve pulmonary function. The lung injury score was not influenced by either surfactant application. We conclude that a single surfactant application improves pulmonary function in children with ARDS. A second application of surfactant showed no further benefit. Outcome was not affected in our study population.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/00024382-200204000-00001DOI Listing
April 2002

Cold water submersion and cardiac arrest in treatment of severe hypothermia with cardiopulmonary bypass.

Resuscitation 2002 Mar;52(3):255-63

Department of Cardiothoracic Surgery, University and General Hospital of Vienna, Währinger Gürtel 18-20, A-1090, Vienna, Austria.

In the paediatric population, submersion injury with drowning or near-drowning represents a significant cause of morbidity and mortality. This study reviews retrospectively our own experiences and the literature on the use of cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) to rewarm paediatric victims of cold water submersion who suffer severe hypothermia (<28 degrees C) and cardiac arrest (asystole or ventricular fibrillation). In addition to three children treated at our institution, nine other victims were found in the literature. In this cohort of 12 children aged between 2 and 12 years, there was a tendency to better outcome with lower core temperature at the beginning of extracorporeal circulation (mean temperature in nine survivors, 20 degrees C; in three non-survivors, 25.5 degrees C). The lowest temperature survived was 16 degrees C. Neither base excess, pH nor serum potassium levels were reliable prognostic factors. The lowest base excess in a survivor was -36.5 mmol/l, the lowest pH 6.29. We consider CPB as the method of choice for resuscitation and rewarming of children with severe accidental hypothermia and cardiac arrest (asystole or ventricular fibrillation). Compared with adults, children, especially smaller ones, require special consideration with regard to intravenous cannulation as drainage can be inadequate using femoral-femoral cannulation. In hypothermic children we advocate, therefore, emergency median sternotomy. Until more information regarding prognostic factors are available, children who are severely hypothermic and clinically dead after submersion in cold water--even if for an unknown length of time--should receive cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) and be transported without delay to a facility with capabilities for CPB instituted via a median sternotomy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/s0300-9572(01)00474-9DOI Listing
March 2002
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