Publications by authors named "Joe P Foley"

52 Publications

Simultaneous separation of small interfering RNA and lipids using ion-pair reversed-phase liquid chromatography.

J Chromatogr A 2019 Sep 27;1601:145-154. Epub 2019 Apr 27.

Analytical Sciences, Merck & Co., Inc, West Point, PA, 19486, USA.

RNA interference offers a novel approach for the development of new therapeutics for targets that are otherwise "undruggable" using traditional modalities. The safety and efficacy of siRNA-based therapy mainly rely on lipid or polymer-based nanocarriers to overcome inherent barriers to a systemic delivery of siRNA. A multicomponent lipid nanoparticle (LNP) system is a promising delivery platform, typically consisting of a cationic lipid, phospholipid, PEG-containing short-chain lipid, and cholesterol. Characterization and chemical analysis of the LNP formulation is important to assure drug product stability, a key consideration for chemistry, manufacturing and control strategy. Here we report an ion-pair reversed phase UHPLC method capable of simultaneously separating both siRNA and functional lipids in LNPs with a minimal retention gap for two classes of biologically essential yet chemically distinct molecules. Key chromatographic parameters critical to the separation are discussed, including the structure of the ion-pair agent, stationary phase chemistry, column temperature and an organic additive. The results showed that the retention time of siRNA is tunable by using various ion-pair reagents. The retention factor of the siRNA exhibited a first order relationship with the number of carbons in the alkyl chain of the ion-pair reagents. In contrast, the type of ion-pair reagent has no significant impact on the separation of phospholipids. Separations using a BEH phenyl column and dibutylammonium acetate as the ion-pair reagent showed satisfactory selectivity for a range of double-stranded siRNAs and phospholipids, key components for lipid nanoparticle formulations. Furthermore, the method was applied to the separation of an experimental LNP formulation, demonstrating good selectivity for siRNA, functional lipids and their potential degradation products.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chroma.2019.04.061DOI Listing
September 2019

Aqueous size-exclusion chromatography of polyelectrolytes on reversed-phase and hydrophilic interaction chromatography columns.

J Chromatogr A 2018 Jan 6;1532:161-174. Epub 2017 Dec 6.

Chemical Sciences Division, National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), 100 Bureau Drive, MS 8392, Gaithersburg, MD, 20899‑8392, USA.

The size-exclusion separation of a water-soluble polyelectrolyte polymer, sodium polystyrene sulfonate (NaPSS), was demonstrated on common reversed-phase (C C, phenyl, and cyano) and hydrophilic interaction chromatography (HILIC) columns. The effect of common solvents - acetonitrile (ACN), tetrahydrofuran (THF), and methanol (MeOH), used as mobile phase modifiers - on the elution of NaPSS and the effect of column temperature (within a relatively narrow range corresponding to typical chromatographic conditions, i.e., 10 °C-60 °C) on the partition coefficient, K, were also investigated. Non-size-exclusion chromatography (non-SEC) effects can be minimized by the addition of an electrolyte and an organic modifier to the mobile phase, and by increasing the column temperature (e.g., to 50 °C or 60 °C). Strong solvents such as THF and ACN are more successful in the reduction of such effects than is the weaker solvent MeOH. The best performance is seen on medium polarity and polar stationary phases, such as cyanopropyl- and diol-modified silica (HILIC), where the elution of the NaPSS polyelectrolyte is by a near-ideal SEC mechanism. Hydrophobic stationary phases, such as C, C, and phenyl, require a higher concentration of a strong solvent modifier (THF) in the mobile phase to reduce non-SEC interactions of the solute with the stationary phase.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chroma.2017.12.007DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6605059PMC
January 2018

Organic solvent modifier and temperature effects in non-aqueous size-exclusion chromatography on reversed-phase columns.

J Chromatogr A 2018 Jan 24;1531:83-103. Epub 2017 Nov 24.

Chemical Sciences Division, National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), 100 Bureau Drive, MS 8392, Gaithersburg, MD 20899-8392, USA.

Common reversed-phase columns (C, C, phenyl, and cyano) offer inert surfaces suitable for the analysis of polymers by size-exclusion chromatography (SEC). The effect of tetrahydrofuran (THF) solvent and the mixtures of THF with a variety of common solvents used in high performance liquid chromatography (acetonitrile, methanol, dimethylformamide, 2-propanol, ethanol, acetone and chloroform) on reversed-phase stationary phase characteristics relevant to size exclusion were studied. The effect of solvent on the elution of polystyrene (PS) and poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) and the effect of column temperature (within a relatively narrow range corresponding to typical chromatographic conditions, i.e., 10°C-60°C) on the SEC partition coefficients K of PS and PMMA polymers, were also investigated. The bonded phases show remarkable differences in size separations when binary mixtures of THF with other solvents are used as the mobile phase. The solvent impact can be two-fold: (i) change of the polymeric coil size, and possible shape, and (ii) change of the stationary phase pore volume. If the effect of this impact is properly moderated, then the greatest benefit of optimized solute resolution can be achieved. Additionally, this work provides an insight on solvent-stationary phase interactions and their effects on column pore volume. The only effect of temperature observed in our studies was a decreased elution volume of the polymers with increasing temperature. SEC partition coefficients were temperature-independent in the range of 10°C-60°C and therefore, over this temperature range elution of PS and PMMA polymers is by near-ideal SEC on reversed-phase columns. Non-ideal SEC appears to occur for high molar mass PMMA polymers on a cyano column when alcohols are used as mobile phase modifiers.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chroma.2017.11.027DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6604611PMC
January 2018

Peak capacity and peak capacity per unit time in capillary and microchip zone electrophoresis.

J Chromatogr A 2017 Nov 23;1523:80-89. Epub 2017 Aug 23.

Department of Chemistry, Drexel University, 3141 Chestnut Street, Philadelphia, PA 19104, United States.

The origins of the peak capacity concept are described and the important contributions to the development of that concept in chromatography and electrophoresis are reviewed. Whereas numerous quantitative expressions have been reported for one- and two-dimensional separations, most are focused on chromatographic separations and few, if any, quantitative unbiased expressions have been developed for capillary or microchip zone electrophoresis. Making the common assumption that longitudinal diffusion is the predominant source of zone broadening in capillary electrophoresis, analytical expressions for the peak capacity are derived, first in terms of migration time, diffusion coefficient, migration distance, and desired resolution, and then in terms of the remaining underlying fundamental parameters (electric field, electroosmotic and electrophoretic mobilities) that determine the migration time. The latter expressions clearly illustrate the direct square root dependence of peak capacity on electric field and migration distance and the inverse square root dependence on solute diffusion coefficient. Conditions that result in a high peak capacity will result in a low peak capacity per unit time and vice-versa. For a given symmetrical range of relative electrophoretic mobilities for co- and counter-electroosmotic species (cations and anions), the peak capacity increases with the square root of the electric field even as the temporal window narrows considerably, resulting in a significant reduction in analysis time. Over a broad relative electrophoretic mobility interval [-0.9, 0.9], an approximately two-fold greater amount of peak capacity can be generated for counter-electroosmotic species although it takes about five-fold longer to do so, consistent with the well-known bias in migration time and resolving power for co- and counter-electroosmotic species. The optimum lower bound of the relative electrophoretic mobility interval [μ, μ] that provides the maximum peak capacity per unit time is a simple function of the upper bound, but its direct application is limited to samples with analytes whose electrophoretic mobilities can be varied independently of electroosmotic flow. For samples containing both co- and counter-electroosmotic ions whose electrophoretic mobilities cannot be easily manipulated, comparable levels of peak capacity and peak capacity per unit time for all ions can be obtained by adjusting the EOF to devote the same amount of time to the separation of each class of ions; this corresponds to μ=-0.5.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chroma.2017.08.043DOI Listing
November 2017

In Silico Screening of Two-Dimensional Separation Selectivity for Ion Chromatography × Capillary Electrophoresis Separation of Low-Molecular-Mass Organic Acids.

Anal Chem 2017 09 24;89(17):8808-8815. Epub 2017 Aug 24.

Australian Centre for Research on Separation Science, School of Physical Sciences, University of Tasmania , Private Bag 75, Hobart, Tasmania 7001, Australia.

A prerequisite for ordered two-dimensional (2D) separations and full utilization of the enhanced 2D peak capacity is selective exploitation of the sample attributes, described as sample dimensionality. In order to take sample dimensionality into account prior to optimization of a 2D separation, a new concept based on construction of 2D separation selectivity maps is proposed and demonstrated for ion chromatography × capillary electrophoresis (IC×CE) separation of low-molecular-mass organic acids as test analytes. For this purpose, 1D separation selectivity maps were constructed based on calculation of pairwise separation factors and identification of critical pairs for four IC stationary phases and 28 levels of background electrolyte pH in CE. The derived IC and CE maps were then superimposed and the effectiveness of the respective 2D separations assessed using an in silico approach, followed by testing examples of one successful and one unsuccessful 2D combination experimentally. The results confirmed the efficacy of the predictions, which require a minimal number of experiments compared to the traditional one-at-a-time approach. Following the same principles, the proposed framework can also be adapted for optimization of separation selectivity in various 2D combinations and for other applications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.analchem.7b01187DOI Listing
September 2017

Separation of small interfering RNA stereoisomers using reversed-phase ion-pairing chromatography.

J Chromatogr A 2017 Jun 8;1500:84-88. Epub 2017 Apr 8.

Process Research & Development, Merck & Co., Inc., Rahway, NJ, 07065, United States.

Small interfering RNA (siRNA) therapeutics have received significant interest in recent years owing to their ability to elicit sequence-specific gene knockdown and subsequent suppression of protein expression. Chemical modifications can improve the hydrolytic stability and susceptibility of siRNAs to enzymatic degradation. One commonly used modification to improve hydrolytic stability, the replacement of the native phosphodiester linkage with a phosphorothioate moiety, introduces an additional phosphorous stereocenter into the molecule, resulting in the formation of diastereomers. The chromatographic separation of stereoisomeric siRNAs containing such phosphothioates is a challenging problem, especially when multiple phosphothioates are present within a modified siRNA duplex giving rise to multiple stereoisomers. In this study, we report an investigation into the use of an ion-pairing reversed phase UHPLC (or IP-RP UHPLC) method for the baseline separation of closely related diastereomers of an Apo-B gene targeting siRNA duplex under denaturing conditions. The related siRNA species consist of two diastereomers from the sense strand and the two pairs of diastereomers from the antisense strand. Key chromatographic parameters critical to stereoisomer separation are highlighted, including the structure of the ion-pairing agent, chemical composition of the stationary phase, and organic modifier. The method was applied to the separation of an siRNA stressed with iodine and demonstrated satisfactory selectivity for the parent siRNA and the desulfurization product.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chroma.2017.04.008DOI Listing
June 2017

Longitudinal On-Column Thermal Modulation for Comprehensive Two-Dimensional Liquid Chromatography.

Anal Chem 2017 01 22;89(2):1123-1130. Epub 2016 Dec 22.

Australian Centre for Research on Separation Science, School of Physical Sciences, University of Tasmania , Private Bag 75, Hobart, Tasmania 7001, Australia.

Longitudinal on-column thermal modulation for comprehensive two-dimensional liquid chromatography is introduced. Modulation optimization involved a systematic investigation of heat transfer, analyte retention, and migration velocity at a range of temperatures. Longitudinal on-column thermal modulation was realized using a set of alkylphenones and compared to a conventional valve-modulator employing sample loops. The thermal modulator showed a reduced modulation-induced pressure impact than valve modulation, resulting in reduced baseline perturbation by a factor of 6; yielding a 6-14-fold improvement in signal-to-noise. A red wine sample was analyzed to demonstrate the potential of the longitudinal on-column thermal modulator for separation of a complex sample. Discrete peaks in the second dimension using the thermal modulator were 30-55% narrower than with the valve modulator. The results shown herein demonstrate the benefits of an active focusing modulator, such as reduced detection limits and increased total peak capacity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.analchem.6b03279DOI Listing
January 2017

Multidimensional liquid-phase separations combining both chromatography and electrophoresis - A review.

Anal Chim Acta 2017 Jan 31;950:7-31. Epub 2016 Oct 31.

Australian Centre for Research on Separation Science, School of Physical Sciences, University of Tasmania, Private Bag 75, Hobart, Tasmania 7001, Australia. Electronic address:

Described as intrinsically powerful building blocks for two-dimensional separations by Giddings [Anal. Chem., 56 (1984) 1258A-1270A], the coupling of chromatography and electrophoresis has been proven to enhance the resolution of a wide array of molecules in complex biological, environmental and food samples. This review provides a comprehensive overview of multidimensional chromato-electrophoretic (LC - E) and electrophero-chromatographic (E - LC) separation systems from inception to the most recent published examples. LC separation modes include reversed phase, ion exchange, and size exclusion. Electromigration separation modes include capillary, microchip or free flow electrophoresis; micellar electrokinetic chromatography; electrochromatography; and isoelectric focusing. The advantages and disadvantages of various non-gel based off-line and on-line hyphenation technologies of LC - E and E - LC are discussed, with conditions and system characteristics also provided.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.aca.2016.10.025DOI Listing
January 2017

Dual-opposite injection capillary electrophoresis: Principles and misconceptions.

Electrophoresis 2017 03 14;38(5):607-616. Epub 2016 Dec 14.

Department of Chemistry, Drexel University, Philadelphia, PA, USA.

Dual-opposite injection capillary electrophoresis (DOI-CE) is a separation technique that utilizes both ends of the capillary for sample introduction. The electroosmotic flow (EOF) is suppressed to allow all ions to reach the detector quickly. Depending on the individual electrophoretic mobilities of the analytes of interest and the effective length that each analyte travels to the detection window, the elution order of analytes in a DOI-CE separation can vary widely. This review discusses the principles, applications, and limitations of dual-opposite injection capillary electrophoresis. Common misconceptions regarding DOI-CE are clarified.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/elps.201600337DOI Listing
March 2017

Stochastic approach for an unbiased estimation of the probability of a successful separation in conventional chromatography and sequential elution liquid chromatography.

J Chromatogr A 2016 Jul 24;1455:113-124. Epub 2016 May 24.

Department of Chemistry, Drexel University, 3141 Chestnut Street, Philadelphia, PA, 19104 USA. Electronic address:

A stochastic approach was utilized to estimate the probability of a successful isocratic or gradient separation in conventional chromatography for numbers of sample components, peak capacities, and saturation factors ranging from 2 to 30, 20-300, and 0.017-1, respectively. The stochastic probabilities were obtained under conditions of (i) constant peak width ("gradient" conditions) and (ii) peak width increasing linearly with time ("isocratic/constant N" conditions). The isocratic and gradient probabilities obtained stochastically were compared with the probabilities predicted by Martin et al. [Anal. Chem., 58 (1986) 2200-2207] and Davis and Stoll [J. Chromatogr. A, (2014) 128-142]; for a given number of components and peak capacity the same trend is always observed: probability obtained with the isocratic stochastic approach
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chroma.2016.05.074DOI Listing
July 2016

Direct determination of amino acids by hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography with charged aerosol detection.

J Chromatogr A 2016 May 18;1446:41-9. Epub 2016 Mar 18.

Department of Chemistry, Drexel University, 3141 Chestnut Street, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA. Electronic address:

A chromatographic analytical method for the direct determination of amino acids by hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography (HILIC) was developed. A dual gradient simultaneously varying the pH 3.2 ammonium formate buffer concentration and level of acetonitrile (ACN) in the mobile phase was employed. Using a charged aerosol detector (CAD) and a 2(nd) order regression analysis, the fit of the calibration curve showed R(2) values between 0.9997 and 0.9985 from 1.5mg/mL to 50μg/mL (600ng to 20ng on column). Analyte chromatographic parameters such as the sensitivity of retention to the water fraction in the mobile phase values (mHILIC) were determined as part of method development. A degradation product of glutamine (5-pyrrolidone-2-carboxylic acid; pGlu) was observed and resolved chromatographically with no method modifications. The separation was used to quantitate amino acid content in acid hydrolysates of various protein samples.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chroma.2016.03.042DOI Listing
May 2016

Size exclusion chromatography of synthetic polymers and biopolymers on common reversed phase and hydrophilic interaction chromatography columns.

J Chromatogr A 2016 Mar 2;1437:74-87. Epub 2016 Feb 2.

Analytical Chemistry Consultants Ltd, 207 Welwyn Rd, Wilmington, DE 19803 USA.

This work describes the applicability of common reversed phase and HILIC columns for size exclusion chromatography of synthetic and natural polymers. Depending on the nature of the solute and column stationary phase, a "non-retention" condition must be created with the aid of the mobile phase to achieve a unique size-based separation in isocratic mode. The various bonded phases show remarkable differences in size separations that are controlled by mobile phase conditions. Polymer-mobile phase and column-mobile phase solvation interactions determine polymer hydrodynamic volume (or solute bulkiness) and polymer-column steric interaction. Solvation interactions in turn depend on polymer, mobile phase and stationary phase polarities. Column-mobile phase solvation interactions determine the structural order of the bonded ligands that can vary from ordered (extended, aligned away from the silica substrate) to disordered (folded, pointing toward the silica substrate). Chain order increases with increased solvent penetration into the bonded phase. Increased chain order reduces pore volume, and therefore decreases the size-separation efficiency of a column. Conversely, decreased chain order increases pore volume and therefore increases the size-separation efficiency. The thermodynamic quality of the mobile phase also plays a significant role in the separation of polymers. "Poor" solvents can significantly reduce the hydrodynamic diameter of a solute and thus change their retention behavior. Medium polarity stationary phases, such as fluoro-phenyl and cyano, exhibit a unique retention behavior. With an appropriate polarity mobile phase, polar and non-polar synthetic polymers of the same molecular masses can be eluted at the same retention volumes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chroma.2016.01.055DOI Listing
March 2016

A systematic approach for avoiding co-detection of oppositely charged analytes in dual-opposite-injection capillary electrophoresis.

J Chromatogr A 2015 May 1;1395:180-9. Epub 2015 Apr 1.

Department of Chemistry, Drexel University, 3141 Chestnut Street, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA. Electronic address:

Dual-opposite-injection capillary electrophoresis (DOI-CE) is a separation technique that utilizes both ends of the capillary for sample introduction. Depending on the individual electrophoretic mobilities of the analytes of interest and the migration distance that each analyte travels to the detection window, the elution order of analytes in a DOI-CE separation can vary widely. One consequence of a variable elution order is that co-detection of oppositely charged analytes becomes possible under certain experimental conditions. While several approaches currently exist to avoid co-detection, they are often time consuming and inefficient. This paper describes a systematic approach to easily avoid co-detection by analyzing the net mobilities of the analytes of interest to aid in choosing appropriate capillary lengths for a particular separation. Simulated electropherograms that highlight various aspects of this new approach are shown. An electropherogram from the literature is replicated and the derived relationship is applied to show the potential advantages of this new approach.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chroma.2015.03.072DOI Listing
May 2015

Nonequilibrium capture rates induce protein accumulation and enhanced adsorption to solid-state nanopores.

ACS Nano 2014 Dec 26;8(12):12238-49. Epub 2014 Nov 26.

Department of Chemistry, Imperial College London , South Kensington, SW7 2AZ London, United Kingdom.

Single molecule capturing of analytes using an electrically biased nanopore is the fundamental mechanism in which nearly all nanopore experiments are conducted. With pore dimensions being on the order of a single molecule, the spatial zone of sensing only contains approximately a zeptoliter of volume. As a result, nanopores offer high precision sensing within the pore but provide little to no information about the analytes outside the pore. In this study, we use capture frequency and rate balance theory to predict and study the accumulation of proteins at the entrance to the pore. Protein accumulation is found to have positive attributes such as capture rate enhancement over time but can additionally lead to negative effects such as long-term blockages typically attributed to protein adsorption on the surface of the pore. Working with the folded and unfolded states of the protein domain PDZ2 from SAP97, we show that applying short (e.g., 3-25 s in duration) positive voltage pulses, rather than a constant voltage, can prevent long-term current blockades (i.e., adsorption events). By showing that the concentration of proteins around the pore can be controlled in real time using modified voltage protocols, new experiments can be explored which study the role of concentration on single molecular kinetics including protein aggregation, folding, and protein binding.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/nn5062645DOI Listing
December 2014

Investigation of a new core-shell particle column for ion-pair reversed-phase liquid chromatography analysis of oligonucleotides.

J Pharm Biomed Anal 2014 Aug 26;96:54-7. Epub 2014 Mar 26.

Department of Chemistry, Drexel University, Philadelphia, PA 19101, USA.

A new core-shell particle column showed excellent performance and durability for separation of short (∼21-mer) ribonucleic acid (RNA) oligonucleotides by ion-pair reversed-phase liquid chromatography (IP-RPLC). Previously investigated core-shell C18 columns showed excellent peak shapes and separations of closely eluting impurities by IP-RPLC. However, these columns showed only modest long-term stability at the neutral pH and elevated column temperatures of ≥60°C, typically used for IP-RPLC analysis of oligonucleotides. The newly introduced SunShell C18 column provided separations comparable to the previously evaluated core-shell columns, but with significantly improved long-term column stability when operated at neutral pH and elevated column temperature.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jpba.2014.03.029DOI Listing
August 2014

Sequential elution liquid chromatography can significantly increase the probability of a successful separation by simultaneously increasing the peak capacity and reducing the separation disorder.

J Chromatogr A 2014 Jan 16;1324:36-48. Epub 2013 Nov 16.

Department of Chemistry, Drexel University, 3141 Chestnut Street, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA. Electronic address:

This paper demonstrates that sequential elution liquid chromatography (SE-LC), an approach in which two or more elution modes are employed in series for the separation of two or more groups of compounds, can be used to separate not only weak acids (or weak bases) from neutral compounds, but weak acids and weak bases from neutral compounds (and each other) by the sequential application of either of two types of an extended pH gradient prior to a solvent gradient. It also details a comparison, based on peak capacity and separation disorder, of the probability of success of this approach with the unimodal elution approach taken by conventional column liquid chromatography. For an HPLC peak capacity of 120 and samples of moderate complexity (e.g., 12 components), the probability of success (Rs≥1) increases from 37.9% (HPLC) to 85.8% (SE-LC). Different columns were evaluated for their utility for SE-LC using the following criteria: (1) the prediction of the elution order of the groups based on the degree of ionization of the compounds; and (2) the closeness of the peak shape to the ideal Gaussian distribution. The best columns overall were the Zorbax SB-AQ and Waters XBridge Shield columns, as they provided both between-class and within-class separations of all compounds, as well as the lowest degree of tailing of 4-ethylaniline using the pH 2 to pH 8 gradient.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chroma.2013.11.016DOI Listing
January 2014

Factors influencing the separation of oligonucleotides using reversed-phase/ion-exchange mixed-mode high performance liquid chromatography columns.

J Chromatogr A 2013 Aug 27;1304:69-77. Epub 2013 Jun 27.

Merck Research Laboratories, Rahway, NJ 07065, USA.

New mixed-mode columns consisting of reversed-phase and ion-exchange separation modes were evaluated for the analysis of short RNA oligonucleotides (∼20mers). Conventional analysis for these samples typically involves using two complementary methods: strong anion-exchange liquid chromatography (SAX-LC) for separation based on charge, and ion-pair reversed-phase liquid chromatography (IP-RPLC) for separation based on hydrophobicity. Recently introduced mixed-mode high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) columns combine both reversed-phase and ion-exchange modes, potentially offering a simpler analysis by combining the benefits of both separation modes into a single method. Analysis of a variety of RNA oligonucleotide samples using three different mixed-mode stationary phases showed some distinct benefits for oligonucleotide separation and analysis. When using these mixed-mode columns with typical IP-RPLC mobile phase conditions, such as ammonium acetate or triethylammonium acetate as the primary ion-pair reagent, the separation was mainly based on the IP-RPLC mode. However, when changing the mobile phase conditions to those more typical for SAX-LC, such as salt gradients with NaCl or NaBr, very different separation patterns were observed due to mixed-mode interactions. In addition, the Scherzo SW-C18 and SM-C18 columns with sodium chloride or sodium bromide salt gradients also showed significant improvements in peak shape.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chroma.2013.06.050DOI Listing
August 2013

Evaluation of core-shell particle columns for ion-pair reversed-phase liquid chromatography analysis of oligonucleotides.

J Pharm Biomed Anal 2013 Jan 16;72:25-32. Epub 2012 Sep 16.

Merck, Rahway, NJ 07065, USA.

An investigation into the use of core-shell particle columns for separation of short (∼21 base pairs) RNA oligonucleotides by ion-pair reversed-phase liquid chromatography (IP-RPLC) showed improved resolution for a number of test analytes relative to conventional (fully-porous) reversed-phase columns. The best resolutions were obtained using columns packed with smaller sub-2μm core-shell particles.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jpba.2012.09.007DOI Listing
January 2013

Detection of prohibited substances in equestrian sport through direct injection of equine serum using micellar LC.

Bioanalysis 2010 Feb;2(2):229-35

Analytical Operations, GPSG, A Division of Ortho-McNeil-Janssen Pharmaceuticals Inc., 1125 Trenton-Harbourton Road, Titusville, NJ 08560, USA.

Background: Detection of prohibited substances in equestrian sports typically involves time-consuming and tedious sample-preparation methods. Micellar LC (MLC) allows for direct injection of equine serum to detect prohibited NSAIDs.

Results: The method was linear over the range of standards examined, with recoveries of 94.2-95.1% for phenylbutazone (12-18 µg/ml), and 83.9-88.7% and 87.9-105.0% for diclofenac and flunixin, respectively (0.1-1.2 µg/ml). The limit of detection was 0.1 µg/ml for all compounds and the limit of quantitation was 0.2 µg/ml for phenylbutazone and 0.3 µg/ml for diclofenac and flunixin.

Conclusion: The MLC method of direct equine serum injection was shown to be valid and simple for the quantitation of banned NSAIDs in equine serum.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4155/bio.09.171DOI Listing
February 2010

Method development and validation of capillary sodium dodecyl sulfate gel electrophoresis for the characterization of a monoclonal antibody.

J Pharm Biomed Anal 2010 Dec 30;53(5):1236-43. Epub 2010 Jul 30.

Analytical Development, Johnson and Johnson Pharmaceutical Research and Development, Malvern, PA, USA.

A capillary sodium dodecyl sulfate gel electrophoresis (cSDS) method has been developed and qualified for purity and impurity analysis of monoclonal antibodies. This method was optimized and qualified for the analysis of monoclonal antibody (mAb1) under reduced and non-reduced conditions. Some of the sample preparation parameters including sample buffer pH, incubation temperature and duration, alkylation conditions with iodoacetamide (IAM), and reduction conditions with 2-mercaptoethanol (2-ME) were optimized. It was observed that under slightly acidic conditions (pH 5.5-6.5) the thermally induced fragmentation of non-reduced mAb1 was greatly decreased. As such, a citrate-phosphate buffer at pH 6.5 was used for sample preparation to replace the original Beckman sample buffer (pH 9.0). The optimal sample preparation conditions were found to be as follows: (1) incubation temperature and duration (reduced and non-reduced), 65 degrees C for 5 min; (2) alkylation condition, 10 microL of 0.25 M IAM; (3) reduction condition, 10 microL of 5-fold diluted 2-ME. The method was qualified by evaluating specificity, accuracy, precision, limit of quantitation (LOQ), and linearity. The method exhibited no interference from sample buffer matrix. The method was found to be linear, accurate, and precise in the range of 0.25-3.0mg/mL protein concentration. The LOQ of the method was determined to be 0.02 mg/mL for reduced and non-reduced mAb1. In addition, some aspects of sample stability were examined during qualification.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jpba.2010.07.029DOI Listing
December 2010

Determination of residual cell culture media components by MEKC.

Electrophoresis 2009 Nov;30(22):3971-7

BIO Pharmaceutical Development, Centocor Research and Development, Radnor, PA, USA.

Folic acid, hypoxanthine, mycophenolic acid, nicotinic acid, riboflavin, and xanthine are widely used as cell culture media components in monoclonal antibody manufacturing. These components are subsequently removed during the downstream purification processes. This article describes a single MEKC method that can simultaneously determine all the listed compounds with acceptable LOD and LOQ. All the analytes were successfully separated by MEKC using running buffer containing 40 mM SDS, 20 mM sodium phosphate, and 20 mM sodium borate at pH 9.0. The MEKC method was compared to the corresponding CZE method using the same running buffer containing no SDS. The effect of SDS concentration on separation, the pH of the running buffer, and the detection wavelength were studied and optimal MEKC conditions were established. Good linearity was obtained with correlation coefficients of more than 0.99 for all analytes. Specificity, accuracy, and precision were also evaluated. The recovery was in the range of 89-112%. The precision results were in the range of 1.7-4.8%. The experimentally determined data demonstrated that the MEKC method is applicable to the determination of the six analytes in in-process samples from monoclonal antibody manufacturing processes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/elps.200900169DOI Listing
November 2009

The effect of co-surfactant-modified micelles on chiral separations in EKC.

Electrophoresis 2009 Aug;30(16):2829-36

Department of Chemistry, Drexel University, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA.

The use of chiral pseudostationary phases in EKC provides high efficiencies and excellent resolution for enantiomeric separations. The chiral pseudostationary phases of interest in this study are alcohol-modified ("swollen") micelles, in which a co-surfactant (medium chain-length alcohol) is added with the surfactant. In this study, the chiral surfactant, dodecoxycarbonylvaline (DDCV), along with the co-surfactant, 2-hexanol, has been prepared as swollen micelle in order to investigate the chiral separation of enantiomeric pairs. Three sets of experiments were investigated in which swollen micelle systems contained: chiral surfactant and racemic co-surfactant; chiral surfactant and chiral co-surfactant; and phase ratio increases, in which both chiral surfactant and chiral co-surfactant were employed. In the first two sets of experiments, co-surfactant concentration was held constant and the surfactant concentration was increased. In the third set of experiments, both surfactant and chiral surfactant concentrations were increased proportionally. The chromatographic figures of merit for each enantiomeric pair were investigated and compared with various chiral aggregate systems. In swollen micelle compositions using constant racemic 2-hexanol concentration, when DDCV concentration increased, enantioselectivity and resolution increased; whereas, efficiency remained constant for most of the test compounds. Compositions using constant S-2-hexanol concentration reached a maximum in all chromatographic figures of merit when DDCV concentration was increased from 2 to 3%. An increase in both surfactant and co-surfactant concentrations led to noisy baselines and chiral aggregates that were generally unstable in solution.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/elps.200800828DOI Listing
August 2009

Optimization and qualification of capillary zone electrophoresis method for glycoprotein isoform distribution of erythropoietin for quality control laboratory.

J Pharm Biomed Anal 2009 Oct 19;50(3):538-43. Epub 2009 May 19.

BIO Pharmaceutical Development, Centocor Research and Development, Radnor, PA, USA.

The European Pharmacopoeia (Ph. Eur.) monograph for Erythropoietin Concentrated Solution describes a capillary zone electrophoresis method for identification of recombinant human erythropoietin. However, this method has shown poor reproducibility due to inadequate capillary conditioning. We have modified the Ph. Eur. method to make it more robust and suitable for the quality control laboratory for the analysis of epoetin alfa and epoetin alfa after formulation with polysorbate 80. This study qualified the modified method by showing improved robustness and reproducibility. The study also characterized and qualified a secondary standard of epoetin alfa as a substitute for the primary standard, Ph. Eur. erythropoietin Biological Reference Preparation, which is available in limited supply. Four sets of analyses were performed to assess repeatability, intermediate precision, and the secondary standard. The results showed that the modified method is suitable for its intended purpose to test epoetin alfa and formulated epoetin alfa samples. The epoetin alfa secondary standard is a suitable substitute for the primary standard. Further, we developed a procedure for the removal of polysorbate 80 from formulated epoetin alfa, allowing the material to be analyzed by the modified Ph. Eur. method.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jpba.2009.05.007DOI Listing
October 2009

Effect of microemulsion component purity on the chromatographic figures of merit in chiral microemulsion electrokinetic chromatography.

J Chromatogr A 2009 Apr 14;1216(16):3488-91. Epub 2008 Oct 14.

Department of Chemistry, Drexel University, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA.

Numerous combinations of one-, two-, and three-chiral-component microemulsions have been previously prepared in our group, using N-dodecoxycarbonylvaline (DDCV), 2-hexanol, and ethyl acetate, dibutyl tartrate, or diethyl tartrate. A few results of the various formulations investigated suggested the possible presence of minor impurities in one or more components of the microemulsion. In this study, the purity of the current lots of R- and S-surfactant were measured, as was the subsequent effect of minor impurities on the relevant chromatographic figures of merit (CFOMs) that describe a chiral separation, i.e., efficiency, enantioselectivity, retention, migration window (elution range), and resolution. Two related methods are proposed for correcting enantioselectivities measured in the presence of chiral impurities in the chiral microemulsion.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chroma.2008.10.029DOI Listing
April 2009

Improved efficiency in micellar liquid chromatography using triethylamine and 1-butanol as mobile phase additives to reduce surfactant adsorption.

J Chromatogr A 2008 Sep 31;1205(1-2):36-45. Epub 2008 Jul 31.

Department of Chemistry, Drexel University, 3141 Chestnut Street, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA.

The effect of triethylamine as a mobile phase modifier on chromatographic efficiency in micellar liquid chromatography (MLC) is reported for nine different columns with various bonded stationary phases and silica pore sizes, including large-pore short alkyl chain, non-porous, and perfluorinated. Reduced plate height (h) versus reduced velocity (nu) plots were constructed for each column and the A' and C' terms calculated using a simplified Van Deemter equation introduced in our previous work. To further explore the practicality of using triethylamine in the micellar mobile phase, the efficiency of nine polar and non-polar substituted benzenes was studied on seven columns. Surfactant adsorption isotherms were measured for five columns with three micellar mobile phases to understand the relationship between adsorbed surfactant, mobile phase additive, and column efficiency. Clear improvements in efficiency were observed with the addition of 2% (v/v) triethylamine to a 1-butanol modified aqueous micellar mobile phase. This finding is supported by the lower amount of surfactant adsorbed onto the stationary phase when TEA is present in the mobile phase compared to an SDS only or a 1-butanol modified SDS mobile phase.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chroma.2008.07.082DOI Listing
September 2008

Compositional effects on electrophoretic and chromatographic figures of merit in electrokinetic chromatography with cetyltrimethylammonium bromide/sodium octyl sulfate vesicles as the pseudostationary phase. Part 1: effect of the phase ratio.

Electrophoresis 2008 Mar;29(5):1180-8

Department of Chemistry, Drexel University, Philadelphia, PA, USA.

The effect of the phase ratio on the electrophoretic and chromatographic properties of unilamellar vesicles comprised of cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) and sodium octyl sulfate (SOS) was investigated in EKC. The surfactant concentration of the vesicles was 0.9, 1.2, 1.5, and 1.8% w/v, with a mole ratio of 1:3.66 (CTAB/SOS). Results were compared to those obtained using SDS micelles at concentrations of 1.0% (w/v, 35 mM) and 1.5% (52 mM). The CTAB/SOS vesicles (0.9-1.8% w/v) provided a significantly larger elution range (5.7 < or = t(ves)/t(0) < or = 8.7) and greater hydrophobic (methylene) selectivity (2.8 < or = alpha(CH2) < or = 3.1) than SDS micelles (3.1 < or = t(mc)/t(0) < or = 3.3; alpha(CH2) = 2.2). Whereas the larger elution range can be attributed to the 25% reduction in EOF due to the interaction of unaggregated CTAB cations and the negatively charged capillary wall, the higher methylene selectivity is likely due to the lower concentration of water expected in the CTAB/SOS vesicle bilayer compared to the Palisades layer of SDS micelles. For a given phase ratio, CTAB/SOS vesicles are somewhat less retentive than SDS micelles, although retention factors comparable to those observed in 1.0-1.5% SDS can be obtained with 1.5-1.8% CTAB/SOS. A linear relationship was observed between phase ratio and retention factor, confirming the validity of the phase ratio model for these vesicles. Unique polar group selectivities and positional isomer shape selectivities were obtained with CTAB/SOS vesicles, with both types of selectivities being nearly independent of the phase ratio. For four sets of positional isomers, the elution order was always para < ortho < meta. Finally, the thermodynamics of solute retention was qualitatively similar to that reported for other surfactant aggregates (micelles and microemulsions); the enthalpic contribution to retention was consistently favorable for all compounds, whereas the entropic contribution was favorable only to hydrophobic solutes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/elps.200700809DOI Listing
March 2008

Influence of microemulsion chirality on chromatographic figures of merit in EKC: results with novel three-chiral-component microemulsions and comparison with one- and two-chiral-component microemulsions.

Electrophoresis 2007 Aug;28(17):3024-40

Department of Chemistry, Drexel University, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA.

Novel microemulsion formulations containing all chiral components are described for the enantioseparation of six pairs of pharmaceutical enantiomers (atenolol, ephedrine, metoprolol, N-methyl ephedrine, pseudoephedrine, and synephrine). The chiral surfactant dodecoxycarbonylvaline (DDCV, R- and S-), the chiral cosurfactant S-2-hexanol, and the chiral oil diethyl tartrate (R- and S-) were combined to create four different chiral microemulsions, three of which were stable. Results obtained for enantioselectivity, efficiency, and resolution were compared for the triple-chirality systems and the single-chirality system that contained chiral surfactant only. Improvements in enantioselectivity and resolution were achieved by simultaneously incorporating three chiral components into the aggregate. The one-chiral-component microemulsion provided better efficiencies. Enantioselective synergies were identified for the three-chiral-component nanodroplets using a thermodynamic model. Additionally, two types of dual-chirality systems, chiral surfactant/chiral cosurfactant and chiral surfactant/chiral oil, were examined in terms of chromatographic figures of merit, with the former providing much better resolution. The two varieties of two-chiral-component microemulsions gave similar values for enantioselectivity and efficiency. Lastly, the microemulsion formulations were divided into categories based on the number of chiral microemulsion reagents and the average results for each pair of enantiomers were analyzed for trends. In general, enantioselectivity and resolution were enhanced while efficiency was decreased as more chiral components were used to create the pseudostationary phase (PSP).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/elps.200700152DOI Listing
August 2007

Review of aqueous chiral electrokinetic chromatography (EKC) with an emphasis on chiral microemulsion EKC.

Electrophoresis 2007 Aug;28(15):2503-26

Department of Chemistry, Drexel University, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA.

The separation of enantiomers using electrokinetic chromatography (EKC) with chiral microemulsions is comprehensively reviewed through December 1, 2006. Aqueous chiral EKC separations based on other pseudostationary phases such as micelles and vesicles or on other chiral selectors such as CDs, crown ethers, glycopeptides, ligand exchange moeities are also reviewed from both mechanistic and applications perspective for the period of January 2005 to December 1, 2006.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/elps.200600808DOI Listing
August 2007

Two-chiral component microemulsion EKC - chiral surfactant and chiral oil. Part 2: diethyl tartrate.

Electrophoresis 2007 Aug;28(15):2644-57

Department of Chemistry, Drexel University, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA.

In this second study on dual-chirality microemulsions containing a chiral surfactant and a chiral oil, a less hydrophobic and lower interfacial tension chiral oil, diethyl tartrate, is employed (Part 1, Foley, J. P. et al.., Electrophoresis, DOI: 10.1002/elps.200600551). Six stereochemical combinations of dodecoxycarbonylvaline (DDCV: R, S, or racemic, 2.00% w/v), racemic 2-hexanol (1.65% v/v), and diethyl tartrate (D, L, or racemic, 0.88% v/v) were examined as pseudostationary phases (PSPs) for the enantioseparation of six chiral pharmaceutical compounds: pseudoephedrine, ephedrine, N-methyl ephedrine, metoprolol, synephrine, and atenolol. Average efficiencies increased with the addition of a chiral oil to R-DDCV PSP formulations. Modest improvements in resolution and enantioselectivity (alpha(enant)) were achieved with two-chiral-component systems over the one-chiral-component microemulsion. Slight enantioselective synergies were confirmed using a thermodynamic model. Results obtained in this study are compared to those obtained in Part 1 as well as those obtained with chiral MEEKC using an achiral, low-interfacial-tension oil (ethyl acetate). Dual-chirality microemulsions with the more hydrophobic oil dibutyl tartrate yielded, relative to diethyl tartrate, higher efficiencies (100,000-134,000 vs. 80,800-94,300), but lower resolution (1.64-1.91 vs. 2.08-2.21) due to lower enantioselectivities (1.060-1.067 vs. 1.078-1.081). Atenolol enantiomers could not be separated with the dibutyl tartrate-based microemulsions but were partially resolved using diethyl tartrate microemulsions. A comparable single-chirality microemulsion based on the achiral oil ethyl acetate yielded, relative to diethyl tartrate, lower efficiency (78 300 vs. 91 600), higher resolution (1.99 vs. 1.83), and similar enantioselectivities.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/elps.200600747DOI Listing
August 2007

Convenient and rapid determination of cimetidine in human plasma using perchloric acid-mediated plasma protein precipitation and high-performance liquid chromatography.

Biomed Chromatogr 2007 Sep;21(9):949-57

Institute of Pharmaceutical Technology, Johann Wolfgang Goethe University, D-60438, Frankfurt am Main, Germany.

This study demonstrates the analysis of cimetidine in human plasma with HPLC using a simplified sample preparation by protein precipitation with perchloric acid. Plasma cimetidine concentration was determined by plotting peak height ratio of cimetidine to ranitidine (internal standard, IS) against cimetidine concentrations in plasma. The cimetidine and ranitidine peaks were completely separated and no interference from plasma was observed. The lower limit of quantification (LLOQ) of the method was established at 0.1 microg/mL with a precision of 4.3% and a relative error of 1.9%. The average analytical recovery was >90% over the range of cimetidine concentrations (0.1-15.0 microg/mL). The linearity of calibration curve was excellent (r(2) > 0.999). The within- and between-day precision and accuracy, expressed as the coefficients of variation and relative error, were found to be less than 5%. Compared with previously reported methods, the analytical technique for cimetidine determination in human plasma presented here demonstrates comparable accuracy and precision, an acceptable analysis time, shorter and simpler sample preparation, and a reduced need for complicated equipment. The method presented here is simple and rapid, and the precision and sensitivity are appropriate for the determination of cimetidine in plasma in pharmacokinetic studies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/bmc.838DOI Listing
September 2007
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