Publications by authors named "Joe King Man Fan"

17 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Association of body fat distribution and metabolic syndrome with the occurrence of colorectal adenoma: A case-control study.

J Dig Dis 2021 Apr 29;22(4):222-229. Epub 2021 Mar 29.

Department of Surgery, University of Hong Kong-Shenzhen Hospital, Shenzhen, Guangdong Province, China.

Objective: Visceral fat is thought to play different roles in the carcinogenesis of the colon with peripheral fat. Our aim was to evaluate the association of body fat distribution measured by bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) with the incidence of colorectal adenoma (CRA).

Methods: A total of 410 asymptomatic participants who underwent a screening colonoscopy from July 2017 to December 2019 in our center were recruited, including 230 with adenomas and 180 without detected adenomas. The participants' body fat was measured by BIA, including their body fat mass (BFM), body fat percentage (BFP), and waist-to-hip ratio. Parameters of metabolic syndrome (MetS), including waist circumference, blood pressure, fasting blood glucose (FBG), blood level of triglyceride, cholesterol, and high-density lipoprotein were measured as well.

Results: According to univariate analysis, age, male sex, body mass index, waist circumference, BFM, waist-to-hip ratio, blood pressure, and FBG were higher in the adenoma group than in the adenoma-free group (P < 0.05). On multivariate logistical analysis (adjusted for age, sex, smoking, drinking, and family history of CRC), a high waist-to-hip ratio was associated with a high incidence of CRA (odds ratio [OR] 1.84, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.09-3.09, P = 0.02). Only a large waist circumference in components of MetS was independently associated with the incidence of CRA (OR 1.90, 95% CI 1.17-3.08, P = 0.01) in the multivariate analysis.

Conclusion: Body fat distribution is associated with CRA, central obesity is a core risk factor for CRA in MetS. Chinese Clinical Trial Registration number: ChiCTR-RRC-17010862.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1751-2980.12979DOI Listing
April 2021

Antibiotic is a safe and feasible option for uncomplicated appendicitis in pregnancy - A retrospective cohort study.

Asian J Endosc Surg 2021 Apr 12;14(2):207-212. Epub 2020 Aug 12.

Department of Surgery, The University of Hong Kong-Shenzhen Hospital, Shenzhen, China.

Introduction: Acute appendicitis is the commonest surgical emergency during pregnancy. The aim of this study is to evaluate the outcomes between antibiotic therapy and appendectomy in the management of uncomplicated appendicitis during gestation.

Methods: From January 2015 to April 2019, there were 2174 emergency appendicitis diagnosed in the University of Hong Kong-Shenzhen Hospital. Among them, 54 pregnant women were diagnosed with acute uncomplicated appendicitis and the clinical records were reviewed. Clinical demographics and outcomes including gestational age at delivery, mode of delivery, birth weight, APGAR score at 1 minute, fetal loss and overall length of stay were compared between the operation group and the antibiotic treatment group.

Results: The baseline characteristics showed no statistically significant difference between the two groups (P > .05). In the appendectomy group (n = 20), one patient had wound infection while none of the patients in the antibiotic therapy group (n = 34) experienced any complication. In the antibiotic treatment group, appendicitis recurred in one patient during pregnancy and in two patients after deliveries, which were all treated with appendectomy. The mean hospital stay of the antibiotic treatment group was shorter than that of the appendectomy group, but there was no significant difference (4.94 ± 2.6 days vs 6.25 ± 3.5 days, P = .540). There was no difference in gestational age at delivery, mode of delivery, birth weight and APGAR scores between the two groups (P > .05).

Conclusions: For acute uncomplicated appendicitis during pregnancy, antibiotics treatment is a safe and feasible option.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/ases.12851DOI Listing
April 2021

Combined endo-laparoscopic surgery for difficult benign colorectal polyps.

J Gastrointest Oncol 2020 Jun;11(3):475-485

Department of Surgery, The University of Hong Kong-Shenzhen Hospital, Shenzhen 518053, China.

Prevention of colorectal cancer (CRC) depends largely on the detection and removal of colorectal polyps. Despite the advances in endoscopic techniques, there are still a subgroup of polyps that cannot be treated purely by endoscopic approach, which comprise of about 10-15% of all the polyps. These so-called "difficult colorectal polyps" are polyps with large size, morphology, at difficult location, scarring or due to recurrence, which have historically been managed by surgical segmental resection. In treating benign difficult colorectal polyps, we have to balance the operative risks and morbidities associated with surgical segmental resection. Therefore, combined endoscopic and laparoscopic surgery (CELS) has been developed to remove this subgroup of difficult benign polyps. We review the currently use of CELS for difficult benign colorectal polyps which includes laparoscopy-assisted endoscopic polypectomy (LACP), full-thickness laparo-endoscopic excision (FLEX) and colonoscopy-assisted laparoscopic wedge resection (CAL-WR).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.21037/jgo.2019.12.11DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7340814PMC
June 2020

Preventable Deaths in Multiple Trauma Patients: The Importance of Auditing and Continuous Quality Improvement.

World J Surg 2020 06;44(6):1835-1843

Department of Surgery, The University of Hong Kong-Shenzhen Hospital, Shenzhen, China.

Background: Management errors during pre-hospital care, triage process and resuscitation have been widely reported as the major source of preventable and potentially preventable deaths in multiple trauma patients. Common tools for defining whether it is a preventable, potentially preventable or non-preventable death include the Advanced Trauma Life Support (ATLS) clinical guideline, the Injury Severity Score (ISS) and the Trauma and Injury Severity Score (TRISS). Therefore, these surrogated scores were utilized in reviewing the study's trauma services.

Methods: Trauma data were prospectively collected and retrospectively reviewed from January 1, 2018, to December 31, 2018. All cases of trauma death were discussed and audited by the Hospital Trauma Committee on a regular basis. Standardized form was used to document the patient's management flow and details in every case during the meeting, and the final verdict (whether death was preventable or not) was agreed and signed by every member of the team. The reasons for the death of the patients were further classified into severe injuries, inappropriate/delayed examination, inappropriate/delayed treatment, wrong decision, insufficient supervision/guidance or lack of appropriate guidance.

Results: A total of 1913 trauma patients were admitted during the study period, 82 of whom were identified as major trauma (either ISS > 15 or trauma team was activated). Among the 82 patients with major trauma, eight were trauma-related deaths, one of which was considered a preventable death and the other 7 were considered unpreventable. The decision from the hospital's performance improvement and patient safety program indicates that for every trauma patient, basic life support principles must be followed in the course of primary investigations for bedside trauma series X-ray (chest and pelvis) and FAST scan in the resuscitation room by a person who meets the criteria for trauma team activation recommended by ATLS.

Conclusion: Mechanisms to rectify errors in the management of multiple trauma patients are essential for improving the quality of trauma care. Regular auditing in the trauma service is one of the most important parts of performance improvement and patient safety program, and it should be well established by every major trauma center in Mainland China. It can enhance the trauma management processes, decision-making skills and practical skills, thereby continuously improving quality and reducing mortality of this group of patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00268-020-05423-3DOI Listing
June 2020

Mesh-preservation approach to treatment of mesh infection after large incisional ventral hernia repair-how I do it.

Ann Transl Med 2019 Nov;7(22):698

Department of Surgery, The University of Hong Kong-Shenzhen Hospital, Shenzhen 518053, China.

Mesh infection after large incisional ventral hernia repair is a clinical dilemma in abdominal wall hernia surgery. It is believed foreign material should be removed but it causes secondary trauma to the abdominal wall tissue and might be associated with a higher risk of complications. Currently, there is no consensus on mesh-preservation treatment in cases of mesh infection after hernia repair in general. Herein we present the case of a 27-year-old male who recovered well from mesh infection after large incisional ventral hernia repair by mesh-preservation approach. The path to success is choice of material of prosthetic mesh; surgical approach of hernia repair, sufficient wound irrigation and drainage, and acquiring sterility of the mesh surface by wound care techniques such as local iodophor packing and vacuum sealing drainage. Clinical cohorts are needed to verify the feasibility of mesh-preservation treatment of mesh infection after large incisional hernia repair.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.21037/atm.2019.10.82DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6944596PMC
November 2019

Laparoscopic sphincter-saving surgery for low rectal cancer through marker meeting approach.

Ann Transl Med 2018 Aug;6(16):324

Division of Gastrointestinal Surgery, Department of Surgery, The University of Hong Kong-Shenzhen Hospital, Shenzhen 518053, China.

Laparoscopic low anterior resection (LAR) with sphincter preservation for ultra-low rectal cancer is always a challenging operation in colorectal surgery. To achieve negative margins, reducing the difficulty and risks of the procedure are major goals for us. The marker meeting approach we reported can help to accomplish this goal. The key technique for the marker meeting approach is to ensure a clear distal margin in a low resection of the rectum by transanal dissection. This procedure allows access to the space around the distal rectum and mesorectum and to pack the gauzes in the distal part of the space as a landmark. Routine laparoscopic LAR was performed to dissect the space until reaching the gauzes packed above and achieve complete mobilization of the rectum and mesorectum. This surgical procedure is simpler and reduces the difficulty of the operation. Therefore, it is expected to reduce the risk of surgery-related complications and positive margins and is suitable to be widely applied and extended in clinical practice. The short-term and long-term clinical outcomes of the marker meeting approach need more research in large samples.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.21037/atm.2018.08.02DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6186979PMC
August 2018

Colorectal Surgery Training in the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region and China.

Ann Coloproctol 2018 Jun 30;34(3):111-118. Epub 2018 Jun 30.

Department of Surgery, The University of Hong Kong - Shenzhen Hospital, Shenzhen, China.

Until 1st July 1997, Hong Kong was under the governance of the British Government; therefore, the British system of education was followed. After internship, 7 years of general surgical training is required to obtain registration and fellowship qualifications of the College of Surgeon of Hong Kong and Edinburg. After having become a specialist in general surgery, the surgeon could choose to specialize in colorectal surgery with an additional 3 to 5 years of specialist training in an accredited centre and 6 months of overseas training with subsidies. On the contrary, China has more than 600 medical schools, and students can enroll in different programs to become a medical practitioner. Despite a great discrepancy exists in the quality of teaching and supervision but there are comprehensive regulations governing the accreditation of hospitals, credentialing of operations, medical records, etc. to ensure medical and patient safety. Vast amounts of resources are being invested to strengthen the quality and to advance the technology used in patient care, not only by supporting basic and clinical research but also by providing extra resources to "import" experts and help develop services with clinical excellence. To accomplish this, the aim of the "three fames project" with a 5-year funding of 3 million United States dollar is to invite overseas experts to help build medical teams in specific areas. Due to its huge population (more than 1.3 billion people), China is a country full of potential for development in clinical research, collaboration, knowledge exchange, and the provision of premier medical services.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3393/ac.2018.05.28DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6046540PMC
June 2018

Laparoscopic repair of multiple incisional hernias in a single midline incision by double composite mesh.

J Vis Surg 2018 23;4:58. Epub 2018 Mar 23.

Department of Surgery, The University of Hong Kong-Shenzhen Hospital, Shenzhen 518053, China.

Laparoscopic repair of ventral incisional hernia with intraperitoneal onlay mesh (IPOM) technique by anti-adhesion mesh has been widely adopted. Due to clinical heterogenicity in location, quantity and size of abdominal incisional hernia, strategy of such repair can be challenging. We hereby present the video of a patient with multiple swiss-cheese hernias in a single long midline incision repaired with double anti-adhesion mesh by IPOM technique. Patient demographics, technical details and clinical tips & tricks are discussed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.21037/jovs.2018.01.01DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5897676PMC
March 2018

Melanosis coli: Harmless pigmentation? A case-control retrospective study of 657 cases.

PLoS One 2017 31;12(10):e0186668. Epub 2017 Oct 31.

Department of Surgery, The Sixth Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, Guangdong Province, China.

Backgrounds And Aims: The association of melanosis coli with the development of colorectal polyps remains uncertain.

Methods: From a total of 18263 patients who had received colonoscopy in our hospital, 219 with melanosis coli cases and 438 controls matched by age and sex (at 1:2 ratio) were included in this study. The association of incidence, number, location, and pathology of colorectal neoplasm with grades and distribution of melanosis coli were analyzed.

Results: Melanosis coli was associated with significantly more colorectal polyps than control, a higher incidence of numerous colorectal polyps (number ≥ 20) (7.3% vs 0.5%; p < 0.001), and higher number of small colorectal polyps (diameter ≤ 5 mm; p < 0.01). Patients with melanosis coli had higher incidences of low-grade adenomas (31.1% vs 23.3%, p < 0.05) and non-adenoma polyps (20.1% vs 12.8%, p < 0.05) than the controls. On multivariate analysis, melanosis coli was independently associated with increased detecting rates of low grade adenoma (OR = 1.54; 95%: 1.06-2.23; p < .05), non-adenoma polyp (OR = 1.72; 95%: 1.11-2.70; p < .05) and numerous polyps (OR = 16.2, 95%: 3.66-71.6; p < .05). There was no significant difference in the incidence of high-grade adenomas or adenocarcinomas in the two population groups, but the numbers of these lesions were insufficient to permit firm conclusions. No significant differences in incidence, number, and pathology of colorectal polyps between individuals with melanosis coli of three different grades of severity were found. Melanosis located predominantly in the right colon had an interestingly lower incidence of colonic polyps in right colon than did melanosis located predominantly in the left colon or total colon (8.9% vs. 26.3%, 24.0%, p < 0.05). Patients with melanosis coli had significantly more nonspecific distal ileal ulcers than did controls (8.0% vs 0%, p < 0.001).

Conclusion: Melanosis coli is associated with a higher incidence and number of colonic non-adenoma polyps and low-grade adenomas, and higher incidence of distal ileal ulcers. Melanosis coli may not be a harmless pigmentation, but a sign of chronic injury of colonic and intestinal mucosa.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0186668PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5663380PMC
November 2017

Inguinal canal angioleiomyoma: case report of a rare disease entity within inguinal canal.

BMC Res Notes 2017 Sep 6;10(1):452. Epub 2017 Sep 6.

Department of Surgery, The University of Hong Kong-Shenzhen Hospital, Shenzhen, China.

Background: Angioleiomyoma is an uncommon benign soft tissue tumor and originates from the vascular smooth muscle. It often causes pain and is rarely found in inguinal region. We present a rare case of inguinal canal angioleiomyoma of a female patient who suffered from right groin pain for 4 years and mimicking inguinal hernia clinically.

Presentation Of Case: A 53-year-old Chinese female patient presented with 4-year history of right groin pain which was exacerbated by movement. Magnetic resonance imaging was performed in view of atypical presentation and absence of cough impulse. Inguinal canal was subsequently explored by open approach and the mass was found arising from the posterior wall of the inguinal canal and measured 5.2 cm × 3.8 cm. The posterior wall was repaired by Bassini approach after the mass was resected en-bloc. Inguinal pain was resolved and no hernia was found during follow-up. Pathology of the resected specimen confirmed angioleiomyoma with clear resection margins.

Conclusion: This is the first report of a case of angioleiomyoma of the inguinal canal, which presents as a painful mass. Magnetic resonance imaging should be considered when presenting history and physical examination does not confirm with the diagnosis of inguinal hernia. After inguinal canal exploration, suture or mesh repair should be performed to prevent weakening of posterior wall leading to inguinal hernia.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13104-017-2800-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5588679PMC
September 2017

An Exploratory Analysis of the Geographical Distribution of Trauma Incidents in Shenzhen, China.

World J Surg 2017 09;41(9):2207-2214

Departments of Surgery and Intensive Care Medicine, Aberdeen Royal Infirmary and Health Services Research Unit, University of Aberdeen, Aberdeen, UK.

Background: The city of Shenzhen, China, is planning to establish a trauma system. At present, there are few data on the geographical distribution of incidents, which is key to deciding on the location of trauma centres. The aim of this study was to perform a geographical analysis in order to inform the development of a trauma system in Shenzhen.

Methods: Retrospective analysis of trauma incidents attended by Shenzhen Emergency Medical Services (EMS) in 2014. Data were obtained from Shenzhen EMS. Incident distribution was explored using dot and kernel density estimate maps. Clustering was determined using the nearest neighbour index. The type of healthcare facilities which patients were taken to was compared against patients' needs, as assessed using the Field Triage Decision Scheme.

Results: There were 49,082 recorded incidents. A total of 3513 were classed as major trauma. Mapping demonstrates that incidents predominantly occurred in the western part of Shenzhen, with identifiable clusters. Nearest neighbour index was 0.048. Of patients deemed to have suffered major trauma, 8.5% were taken to a teaching hospital, 13.6% to a regional hospital, 42.6% to a community hospital, and 35.3% to a private hospital. The proportions of Step 1 or 2 negative patients were almost identical.

Conclusion: The majority of trauma patients, including trauma patients who are at greater likelihood of severe injury, are taken to regional and community hospitals. There are areas with identifiable concentrations of volume, which should be considered for the siting of high-level trauma centres, although further modelling is required to make firm recommendations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00268-017-4002-yDOI Listing
September 2017

Transperineal endoscopic drainage of a presacral and paraspinal abscess.

Endoscopy 2016 0;48(S 01):E361-E362. Epub 2016 Nov 16.

Division of Colorectal Surgery, Department of Surgery, The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, China.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1055/s-0042-118597DOI Listing
August 2017

[Association of colorectal adenoma and metabolic syndrome and relevant parameters].

Zhonghua Wei Chang Wai Ke Za Zhi 2016 Jun;19(6):675-9

Department of Esophageal Gastrointestinal Surgery, the Sixth Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510655, China.

Objective: To evaluate the association of colorectal adenoma with metabolic syndrome (MS) and relevant parameters.

Methods: Clinical data of 289 subjects who underwent screening colonoscopy in the University of Hong Kong-Shenzhen Hospital from January 2014 to June 2015 were retrospectively analyzed, including 130 normal subjects (normal group) and 159 cases with colorectal adenoma confirmed by pathology(adenoma group). Levels of MS-associated parameters were compared between the two groups, and the association of metabolic diseases with colorectal adenoma was examined.

Results: The gender, smoking and drinking habit, regular physical activity, family history of colorectal cancer, and consumption history of long-term non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs were not significantly different between two groups (all P>0.05). As compared to normal group, adenoma group had higher body mass index (BMI) [(23.5±3.2) kg/m(2) vs. (22.7±2.8) kg/m(2), t=1.97, P=0.050], larger abdominal circumference [(83.4±10.3) cm vs. (79.6±13.8) cm, t=2.46, P=0.015], higher serum high-density lipoprotein level [(1.3±0.3) mmol/L vs. (1.2±0.3) mmol/L, t=2.03, P=0.044], and higher serum cholesterol [(5.4±1.0) mmol/L vs. (5.0±1.1) mmol/L, t=2.39, P=0.018]. No significant difference was demonstrated in comparing hip circumference and waist-hip ratio, as well as serum fasting glucose and triglyceride(all P>0.05). Higher incidence of colorectal adenoma was found in subjects with MS [69.8%(37/53) vs. 1.7%(122/236), P=0.017], overweight or obesity [65.1% (56/86) vs. 50.7%(103/203), P=0.025], hypertension [67.3%(37/55) vs. 52.1%(122/234), P=0.046] and hypercholesterolemia [66.7%(64/96) vs. 49.2%(95/193), P=0.005].

Conclusions: Metabolic syndrome increased the risk of developing colorectal adenoma. The mechanism may be related to higher serum cholesterol and high density lipoprotein, which may lead to the elevated catabolism of serum cholesterol. Screening colonoscopy should be performed for patients diagnosed as metabolic syndrome, especially for those with central obesity and hypercholesterolemia, thus early diagnosis and treatment of colorectal adenoma may be available.
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June 2016

Outcome of laparoscopic colectomy for cancer in elderly patients.

Surg Endosc 2013 Jan 21;27(1):308-12. Epub 2012 Jul 21.

Division of Colorectal Surgery, Department of Surgery, Queen Mary Hospital, The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, SAR, China.

Background: Resection for colon cancer in the elderly is a major undertaking. However, data on the outcome and survival of elderly patients who underwent laparoscopic resection for colon cancer are limited. This study of patients older than 75 years compared outcome and survival between those who underwent laparoscopic resection and those who had open resection for colorectal cancer.

Methods: From 2000 to 2009, 434 patients ages 75 years and older who underwent elective resection for colon cancer were included in the study. Patients who had rectal cancer or had undergone emergency operations were excluded. Preoperative diagnosis was determined by colonoscopy, and computed tomography scan was performed for preoperative staging. Data on the patients' demographics, operative details, pathology results, postoperative results, and survival were collected prospectively. The patients who underwent laparoscopic surgery were compared with those who had open surgery.

Results: The study included 434 patients (210 men) with a median age of 80 years (range 75-95 years). Of these 434 patients, 189 underwent laparoscopic resection. Nine patients (4.8%) required conversion to open operation. The patients did not differ in terms of age, gender, incidence of medical comorbidities, or stage of disease. The median operating time was longer in the laparoscopic group, but the blood loss was significantly less. Laparoscopic resection was associated with a lower mortality rate and a shorter hospital stay (p < 0.05). The open resection group had significantly more cardiac complications (p < 0.05). The overall 5-year survival rates were similar between the patients who had laparoscopic resections and those who had open surgery.

Conclusions: For patients older than 75 years, laparoscopic resection of colon is associated with less intraoperative blood loss, a shorter hospital stay, fewer cardiac complication, and a lower mortality rate than open resection. Therefore, the authors recommend laparoscopic resection of colon cancer as the treatment of choice for elderly patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00464-012-2466-2DOI Listing
January 2013

Needlescopic totally extraperitoneal hernioplasty for unilateral inguinal hernia in adult patients.

Asian J Surg 2011 Jan;34(1):23-7

Division of Colorectal Surgery, Department of Surgery, University of Hong Kong, Queen Mary Hospital, Hong Kong SAR.

Objective: Totally extraperitoneal (TEP) inguinal hernioplasty for inguinal hernia is associated with less postoperative pain, shorter hospital stays, less chronic pain, and increased patient satisfaction when compared with the open Lichtenstein approach‥ However, only few studies to date have compared conventional with needlescopic TEP hernioplasty for treating unilateral inguinal hernias in adult patients. We report our prospective study that compared the postoperative outcomes of these two approaches over a 2-year period.

Methods: From July 2007 to June 2009, a total of 32 patients underwent attempted unilateral needlescopic TEP hernioplasty. All data were prospectively collected and analysed, including demographic features, types of hernia, and postoperative outcome. The results were compared with those of an agematched cohort of 32 patients who underwent conventional TEP hernioplasty in the same period.

Results: Needlescopic TEP hernioplasty was successfully performed in 24 patients. The other eight procedures were completed with conventional TEP approaches after changing one or two 5-mm ports. The most common hernia type was Nyhus type III (38/64, 59.3%). There was no significant difference in the mean operative time, hospital stay, and postoperative pain scores between the needlescopic and conventional approaches. There was no major complication detected on the first visit, except seroma formation (9 patients in the needlescopic group and 11 in the conventional group), all of which was resolved with conservative management. No recurrence of hernia was noted in either group during the mean follow-up period of 88.0 weeks.

Conclusion: Needlescopic TEP hernioplasty was a feasible technique in selected patients for inguinal hernia repair. Postoperative recovery following both approaches was similar. However, because this was a small cohort study, larger prospective, randomized controlled trials are required to establish the longterm benefit, safety and complications of needlescopic surgery.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1015-9584(11)60014-6DOI Listing
January 2011

Surgical smoke.

Asian J Surg 2009 Oct;32(4):253-7

Department of Surgery, The University of Hong Kong, Queen Mary Hospital, Hong Kong SAR.

Surgical smoke is the gaseous by-product formed during surgical procedures. Most surgeons, operating theatre staff and administrators are unaware of its potential health risks. Surgical smoke is produced by various surgical instruments including those used in electrocautery, lasers, ultrasonic scalpels, high speed drills, burrs and saws. The potential risks include carbon monoxide toxicity to the patient undergoing a laparoscopic operation, pulmonary fibrosis induced by non-viable particles, and transmission of infectious diseases like human papilloma virus. Cytotoxicity and mutagenicity are other concerns. Minimisation of the production of surgical smoke and modification of any evacuation systems are possible solutions. In general, a surgical mask can provide more than 90% protection to exposure to surgical smoke; however, in most circumstances it cannot provide air-tight protection to the user. An at least N95 grade or equivalent respirator offers the best protection against surgical smoke, but whether such protection is necessary is currently unknown.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1015-9584(09)60403-6DOI Listing
October 2009

Transvaginal cholecystectomy with endoscopic submucosal dissection instruments and single-channel endoscope: a survival study in porcine model.

Surg Laparosc Endosc Percutan Tech 2009 Feb;19(1):29-33

Department of Surgery, The University of Hong Kong Medical Center, Queen Mary Hospital, Hong Kong Special Administrative Region, China.

Background: Natural orifice transluminal endoscopic surgery has received much attention in recent years. Instead of using prototype devices, we explored the feasibility and practicability of using readily available off-the-shelf devices to perform Natural Orifice Transluminal Endoscopic Surgery in an animal model.

Methods: Twenty pigs underwent transvaginal cholecystectomy, 16 of which were used for surviving study after the procedure. A single-channel endoscope and standard instruments for endoscopic submucosal dissection (hook knife and Insulated Tip knife) were used for cholecystectomy. A single 5-mm laparoscopic port was inserted for gallbladder retraction.

Results: Completion of the procedure was achieved in all 20 pigs. In 16 pigs, which were used for surviving study after surgery, 15 survived. Death of 1 pig was due to leakage of urine from the colpotomy and urogenital sinus. Technical success was achieved in the access, dissection, and retrieval of specimen in all the animals.

Conclusions: A hybrid approach with single-channel endoscope together with endoscopic submucosal dissection instruments for transvaginal cholecystectomy was shown to be safe and feasible in this pig model and this serves as a good training model before application of this technique in human. A distinct pattern of complications was identified and needed to be addressed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/SLE.0b013e3181902ba7DOI Listing
February 2009