Publications by authors named "Jochen Hampe"

255 Publications

The RNA binding protein HuR is a gatekeeper of liver homeostasis.

Hepatology 2021 Sep 14. Epub 2021 Sep 14.

Institute for Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Technische Universität Dresden, Dresden, Germany.

Background And Aims: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is initiated by steatosis and can progress via fibrosis and cirrhosis to hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The RNA binding protein HuR controls RNAs at the posttranscriptional level; hepatocyte HuR has been implicated in the regulation of diet-induced hepatic steatosis. The present study aimed to understand the role of hepatocyte-HuR in NAFLD development and progression to fibrosis and HCC.

Approach And Results: Hepatocyte-specific HuR-deficient mice and control HuR-sufficient mice were fed either a normal diet or a NAFLD-inducing diet. Hepatic lipid accumulation, inflammation, fibrosis and HCC development were studied by histology, flow cytometry, quantitative PCR and RNA sequencing. The liver lipidome was characterized by lipidomics analysis and the HuR-RNA interactions in the liver were mapped by RNA immunoprecipitation-sequencing. Hepatocyte-specific HuR-deficient mice displayed spontaneous hepatic steatosis and fibrosis predisposition, compared to control HuR-sufficient mice. On a NAFLD-inducing diet, hepatocyte-specific HuR-deficiency resulted in exacerbated inflammation, fibrosis and HCC-like tumor development. A multi-omic approach, including lipidomics, transcriptomics and RNA-immunoprecipitation sequencing revealed that HuR orchestrates a protective network of hepatic-metabolic and lipid homeostasis-maintaining pathways. Consistently, HuR-deficient livers accumulated, already at steady-state, a triglyceride signature resembling that of NAFLD livers. Moreover, upregulation of Spp1 and its product osteopontin mediated, at least partially, the fibrosis development in hepatocyte-specific HuR deficiency on a NAFLD-inducing diet, as shown by experiments utilizing antibody blockade of osteopontin.

Conclusions: HuR is a gatekeeper of liver homeostasis preventing NAFLD-related fibrosis and HCC, suggesting that the HuR-dependent network could be exploited therapeutically.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/hep.32153DOI Listing
September 2021

Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease Stratification by Liver Lipidomics.

J Lipid Res 2021 Aug 9:100104. Epub 2021 Aug 9.

Max Planck Institute of Molecular Cell Biology and Genetics, Dresden, Germany. Electronic address:

Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a common metabolic dysfunction leading to hepatic steatosis. However, NAFLD's global impact on the liver lipidome is poorly understood. Using high-resolution shotgun mass spectrometry, we quantified the molar abundance of 316 species from 22 major lipid classes in liver biopsies of 365 patients, including non-steatotic patients with normal or excessive weight, patients diagnosed with NAFL (non-alcoholic fatty liver) or NASH (non-alcoholic steatohepatitis), and patients bearing common mutations of NAFLD-related protein factors. We confirmed the progressive accumulation of di- and tri- acylglycerols and cholesteryl esters in the liver of NAFL and NASH patients, while the bulk composition of glycerophospho- and sphingolipids remained unchanged. Further stratification by biclustering analysis identified sphingomyelin species comprising n24:2 fatty acid moieties as membrane lipid markers of NAFLD. Normalized relative abundance of sphingomyelins SM 43:3;2 and SM 43:1;2 containing n24:2 and n24:0 fatty acid moieties, respectively, showed opposite trends during NAFLD progression and distinguished NAFL and NASH lipidomes from the lipidome of non-steatoic livers. Together with several glycerophospholipids containing a C22:6 fatty acid moiety, these lipids serve as markers of early and advanced stages of NAFL.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jlr.2021.100104DOI Listing
August 2021

Combined effects of PNPLA3, TM6SF2 and HSD17B13 variants on severity of biopsy-proven non-alcoholic fatty liver disease.

Hepatol Int 2021 Aug 2;15(4):922-933. Epub 2021 Jun 2.

Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Department of Internal Medicine III, Medical University of Vienna, Waehringer Guertel 18-20, 1090, Vienna, Austria.

Objective: Several single-nucleotide polymorphisms have been identified to be disadvantageous or protective in regard to disease severity in patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). However, it is unclear, whether including genetic risk factor(s) either alone or combined into risk stratification algorithms for NAFLD actually provides incremental benefit over clinical risk factors.

Design: Patients with biopsy-proven NAFLD were genotyped for the PNPLA3-rs738409(minor allele:G), TM6SF2-rs58542926(minor allele:T) and HSD17B13- rs72613567 (minor allele:TA) variants. The NAFLD activity score (NAS) and fibrosis stage (F0-F4) were used to grade and stage all liver biopsy samples. Patients from seven centers throughout Central Europe were considered for the study.

Results: 703 patients were included: NAS ≥ 5:173(24.6%); Fibrosis: F3-4:81(11.5%). PNPLA3 G/G genotype was associated with a NAS ≥ 5(aOR 2.23, p = 0.007) and advanced fibrosis (aOR-3.48, p < 0.001).TM6SF2 T/- was associated with advanced fibrosis (aOR 1.99, p = 0.023). HSD17B13 TA/- was associated with a lower probability of NAS ≥ 5(TA/T: aOR 0.65, p = 0.041, TA/TA: aOR 0.40, p = 0.033). Regarding the predictive capability for NAS ≥ 5, well-known risk factors (age, sex, BMI, diabetes, and ALT; baseline model) had an AUC of 0.758, Addition of PNPLA3(AUC 0.766), HSB17B13(AUC 0.766), and their combination(AUC 0.775), but not of TM6SF2(AUC 0.762), resulted in a higher diagnostic accuracy of the model. Addition of genetic markers for the prediction of advanced fibrosis (baseline model: age, sex, BMI, diabetes: AUC 0.777) resulted in a higher AUC if PNPLA3(AUC 0.789), and TM6SF2(AUC 0.786) but not if HSD17B13(0.777) were added.

Conclusion: In biopsy-proven NAFLD, PNPLA3 G/-, TM6SF2 T/- and HSD17B13 TA/- carriage are associated with severity of NAFLD. Incorporating these genetic risk factors into risk stratification models might improve their predictive accuracy for severity of NAFLD and/or advanced fibrosis on liver biopsy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12072-021-10200-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8382644PMC
August 2021

Post-diagnostic reliance on plant-compared with animal-based foods and all-cause mortality in omnivorous long-term colorectal cancer survivors.

Am J Clin Nutr 2021 08;114(2):441-449

Institute of Epidemiology, University Hospital Schleswig-Holstein, University of Kiel, Kiel, Germany.

Background: Plant-rich diets are associated with lower cardiometabolic risks and longer survival in the general population, but their association with mortality in cancer survivors is still unclear.

Objectives: We aimed to examine the associations of 3 postdiagnostic plant-based diet indices with all-cause mortality in omnivorous long-term colorectal cancer (CRC) survivors.

Methods: Diet was assessed with FFQs at a median of 6 years after diagnosis in 1404 CRC survivors (56% male; median age, 69 years) in a Northern German prospective cohort study. An overall, a healthful plant-based, and an unhealthful plant-based diet index were derived by scoring intakes of animal foods reversely and intakes of healthy (whole grains, vegetables, fruits, legumes, nuts, oils, tea/coffee) and less healthy plant foods (refined grains, fruit juices, sugar-sweetened beverages, potatoes, sweets/desserts) positively or reversely, depending on the index. Vital status follow-up was conducted via population registries. Cox proportional hazards regression was applied to estimate HRs for all-cause mortality according to plant-based diet adherence.

Results: Within 7 years (median) after diet assessment, 204 deaths occurred. The overall plant-based diet index displayed a significant, inverse association with all-cause mortality (HR per 10-point increase in diet index, 0.72; 95% CI, 0.57-0.91). Although not statistically significant, higher healthful plant-based diet scores showed a strong tendency towards lower mortality (HR, 0.82; 95% CI, 0.67-1.01). The unhealthful plant-based diet index was associated with higher mortality, but lost statistical significance after multivariable adjustment (HR, 1.19; 95% CI, 0.96-1.48). A subgroup analysis revealed that the tendency towards a positive association of the unhealthful plant-based diet with mortality was restricted to less physically active individuals (<95 metabolic equivalent of task hours/week).

Conclusions: An overall plant-based diet was inversely associated with all-cause mortality in long-term CRC survivors. However, more research is needed to further disentangle the impacts of different qualities of plant-based diets on cancer survivors' health.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ajcn/nqab061DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8326049PMC
August 2021

Genome-wide analysis of 944 133 individuals provides insights into the etiology of haemorrhoidal disease.

Gut 2021 Apr 22. Epub 2021 Apr 22.

Department of Medicine I, Institute of Cancer Research, Medical University Vienna, Vienna, Austria.

Objective: Haemorrhoidal disease (HEM) affects a large and silently suffering fraction of the population but its aetiology, including suspected genetic predisposition, is poorly understood. We report the first genome-wide association study (GWAS) meta-analysis to identify genetic risk factors for HEM to date.

Design: We conducted a GWAS meta-analysis of 218 920 patients with HEM and 725 213 controls of European ancestry. Using GWAS summary statistics, we performed multiple genetic correlation analyses between HEM and other traits as well as calculated HEM polygenic risk scores (PRS) and evaluated their translational potential in independent datasets. Using functional annotation of GWAS results, we identified HEM candidate genes, which differential expression and coexpression in HEM tissues were evaluated employing RNA-seq analyses. The localisation of expressed proteins at selected loci was investigated by immunohistochemistry.

Results: We demonstrate modest heritability and genetic correlation of HEM with several other diseases from the GI, neuroaffective and cardiovascular domains. HEM PRS validated in 180 435 individuals from independent datasets allowed the identification of those at risk and correlated with younger age of onset and recurrent surgery. We identified 102 independent HEM risk loci harbouring genes whose expression is enriched in blood vessels and GI tissues, and in pathways associated with smooth muscles, epithelial and endothelial development and morphogenesis. Network transcriptomic analyses highlighted HEM gene coexpression modules that are relevant to the development and integrity of the musculoskeletal and epidermal systems, and the organisation of the extracellular matrix.

Conclusion: HEM has a genetic component that predisposes to smooth muscle, epithelial and connective tissue dysfunction.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/gutjnl-2020-323868DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8292596PMC
April 2021

Genetically predicted circulating concentrations of micronutrients and risk of colorectal cancer among individuals of European descent: a Mendelian randomization study.

Am J Clin Nutr 2021 06;113(6):1490-1502

Division of Cancer Epidemiology, German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), Heidelberg, Germany.

Background: The literature on associations of circulating concentrations of minerals and vitamins with risk of colorectal cancer is limited and inconsistent. Evidence from randomized controlled trials (RCTs) to support the efficacy of dietary modification or nutrient supplementation for colorectal cancer prevention is also limited.

Objectives: To complement observational and RCT findings, we investigated associations of genetically predicted concentrations of 11 micronutrients (β-carotene, calcium, copper, folate, iron, magnesium, phosphorus, selenium, vitamin B-6, vitamin B-12, and zinc) with colorectal cancer risk using Mendelian randomization (MR).

Methods: Two-sample MR was conducted using 58,221 individuals with colorectal cancer and 67,694 controls from the Genetics and Epidemiology of Colorectal Cancer Consortium, Colorectal Cancer Transdisciplinary Study, and Colon Cancer Family Registry. Inverse variance-weighted MR analyses were performed with sensitivity analyses to assess the impact of potential violations of MR assumptions.

Results: Nominally significant associations were noted for genetically predicted iron concentration and higher risk of colon cancer [ORs per SD (ORSD): 1.08; 95% CI: 1.00, 1.17; P value = 0.05] and similarly for proximal colon cancer, and for vitamin B-12 concentration and higher risk of colorectal cancer (ORSD: 1.12; 95% CI: 1.03, 1.21; P value = 0.01) and similarly for colon cancer. A nominally significant association was also noted for genetically predicted selenium concentration and lower risk of colon cancer (ORSD: 0.98; 95% CI: 0.96, 1.00; P value = 0.05) and similarly for distal colon cancer. These associations were robust to sensitivity analyses. Nominally significant inverse associations were observed for zinc and risk of colorectal and distal colon cancers, but sensitivity analyses could not be performed. None of these findings survived correction for multiple testing. Genetically predicted concentrations of β-carotene, calcium, copper, folate, magnesium, phosphorus, and vitamin B-6 were not associated with disease risk.

Conclusions: These results suggest possible causal associations of circulating iron and vitamin B-12 (positively) and selenium (inversely) with risk of colon cancer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ajcn/nqab003DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8168352PMC
June 2021

The rs738409 G Allele in PNPLA3 Is Associated With a Reduced Risk of COVID-19 Mortality and Hospitalization.

Gastroenterology 2021 06 27;160(7):2599-2601.e2. Epub 2021 Feb 27.

Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, University Hospital of Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1053/j.gastro.2021.02.059DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7912355PMC
June 2021

Genetic architectures of proximal and distal colorectal cancer are partly distinct.

Gut 2021 Jul 25;70(7):1325-1334. Epub 2021 Feb 25.

Cancer Prevention and Control Program, Catalan Institute of Oncology - IDIBELL, L'Hospitalet de Llobregat, Barcelona, Spain.

Objective: An understanding of the etiologic heterogeneity of colorectal cancer (CRC) is critical for improving precision prevention, including individualized screening recommendations and the discovery of novel drug targets and repurposable drug candidates for chemoprevention. Known differences in molecular characteristics and environmental risk factors among tumors arising in different locations of the colorectum suggest partly distinct mechanisms of carcinogenesis. The extent to which the contribution of inherited genetic risk factors for CRC differs by anatomical subsite of the primary tumor has not been examined.

Design: To identify new anatomical subsite-specific risk loci, we performed genome-wide association study (GWAS) meta-analyses including data of 48 214 CRC cases and 64 159 controls of European ancestry. We characterised effect heterogeneity at CRC risk loci using multinomial modelling.

Results: We identified 13 loci that reached genome-wide significance (p<5×10) and that were not reported by previous GWASs for overall CRC risk. Multiple lines of evidence support candidate genes at several of these loci. We detected substantial heterogeneity between anatomical subsites. Just over half (61) of 109 known and new risk variants showed no evidence for heterogeneity. In contrast, 22 variants showed association with distal CRC (including rectal cancer), but no evidence for association or an attenuated association with proximal CRC. For two loci, there was strong evidence for effects confined to proximal colon cancer.

Conclusion: Genetic architectures of proximal and distal CRC are partly distinct. Studies of risk factors and mechanisms of carcinogenesis, and precision prevention strategies should take into consideration the anatomical subsite of the tumour.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/gutjnl-2020-321534DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8223655PMC
July 2021

Variants in PCSK7, PNPLA3 and TM6SF2 are risk factors for the development of cirrhosis in hereditary haemochromatosis.

Aliment Pharmacol Ther 2021 04 10;53(7):830-843. Epub 2021 Feb 10.

London, UK.

Background: Cirrhosis develops in <10% of individuals homozygous for the C282Y variant in the homeostatic iron regulator (HFE) gene. Carriage of PCSK7:rs236918 is associated with an increased risk of cirrhosis in this population.

Aim: To determine if genetic variants significantly associated with the risk of alcohol- and NAFLD-related cirrhosis also modulate the cirrhosis risk in C282Y homozygotes.

Methods: Variants in PCSK7, PNPLA3, TM6SF2, MBOAT7 and HSD17B13 were genotyped in 1319 C282Y homozygotes, from six European countries, of whom 171 (13.0%) had cirrhosis. Genotypic and allelic associations with the risk for developing cirrhosis were assessed, adjusting for age and sex. Fixed effects meta-analyses of the adjusted summary data for each country were performed. Post hoc association testing was undertaken in the 131 (76.6%) cases and 299 (26.0%) controls with available liver histology.

Results: Significant associations were observed between PCSK7:rs236918 (OR = 1.52 [95% CI 1.06-2.19]; P = 0.022; I  = 0%); PNPLA3:rs738409 (OR = 1.60 [95% CI 1.22-2.11]; P = 7.37 × 10 ; I  = 45.5%) and TM6SF2:rs58542926 (OR = 1.94 [95% CI 1.28-2.95]; P = 1.86 × 10 ; I  = 0%) and the cirrhosis risk in C282Y homozygotes. These findings remained significant in the subpopulation with available liver histology. The population-attributable fractions were 5.6% for PCSK7:rs236918, 13.8% for PNPLA3:rs738409, 6.5% for TM6SF2:rs58542926 and 24.0% for carriage of all three variants combined.

Conclusions: The risk of cirrhosis associated with carriage of PCSK7:rs236918 was confirmed in this much larger population of C282Y homozygotes. In addition, PNPLA3:rs738409 and TM6SF2:rs58542926 were established as significant additional risk factors. More detailed genetic testing of C282Y homozygotes would allow risk stratification and help guide future management.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/apt.16252DOI Listing
April 2021

Adiposity, metabolites, and colorectal cancer risk: Mendelian randomization study.

BMC Med 2020 12 17;18(1):396. Epub 2020 Dec 17.

Division of Clinical Epidemiology and Aging Research, German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), Heidelberg, Germany.

Background: Higher adiposity increases the risk of colorectal cancer (CRC), but whether this relationship varies by anatomical sub-site or by sex is unclear. Further, the metabolic alterations mediating the effects of adiposity on CRC are not fully understood.

Methods: We examined sex- and site-specific associations of adiposity with CRC risk and whether adiposity-associated metabolites explain the associations of adiposity with CRC. Genetic variants from genome-wide association studies of body mass index (BMI) and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR, unadjusted for BMI; N = 806,810), and 123 metabolites from targeted nuclear magnetic resonance metabolomics (N = 24,925), were used as instruments. Sex-combined and sex-specific Mendelian randomization (MR) was conducted for BMI and WHR with CRC risk (58,221 cases and 67,694 controls in the Genetics and Epidemiology of Colorectal Cancer Consortium, Colorectal Cancer Transdisciplinary Study, and Colon Cancer Family Registry). Sex-combined MR was conducted for BMI and WHR with metabolites, for metabolites with CRC, and for BMI and WHR with CRC adjusted for metabolite classes in multivariable models.

Results: In sex-specific MR analyses, higher BMI (per 4.2 kg/m) was associated with 1.23 (95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.08, 1.38) times higher CRC odds among men (inverse-variance-weighted (IVW) model); among women, higher BMI (per 5.2 kg/m) was associated with 1.09 (95% CI = 0.97, 1.22) times higher CRC odds. WHR (per 0.07 higher) was more strongly associated with CRC risk among women (IVW OR = 1.25, 95% CI = 1.08, 1.43) than men (IVW OR = 1.05, 95% CI = 0.81, 1.36). BMI or WHR was associated with 104/123 metabolites at false discovery rate-corrected P ≤ 0.05; several metabolites were associated with CRC, but not in directions that were consistent with the mediation of positive adiposity-CRC relations. In multivariable MR analyses, associations of BMI and WHR with CRC were not attenuated following adjustment for representative metabolite classes, e.g., the univariable IVW OR for BMI with CRC was 1.12 (95% CI = 1.00, 1.26), and this became 1.11 (95% CI = 0.99, 1.26) when adjusting for cholesterol in low-density lipoprotein particles.

Conclusions: Our results suggest that higher BMI more greatly raises CRC risk among men, whereas higher WHR more greatly raises CRC risk among women. Adiposity was associated with numerous metabolic alterations, but none of these explained associations between adiposity and CRC. More detailed metabolomic measures are likely needed to clarify the mechanistic pathways.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12916-020-01855-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7745469PMC
December 2020

Non-invasive stratification of hepatocellular carcinoma risk in non-alcoholic fatty liver using polygenic risk scores.

J Hepatol 2021 04 25;74(4):775-782. Epub 2020 Nov 25.

Translational Medicine - Department of Transfusion Medicine and Hematology, Fondazione IRCCS Ca' Granda Ospedale Maggiore Policlinico, Milan, Italy; Department of Pathophysiology and Transplantation, Università degli Studi di Milano, Milan, Italy. Electronic address:

Background & Aims: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) risk stratification in individuals with dysmetabolism is a major unmet need. Genetic predisposition contributes to non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). We aimed to exploit robust polygenic risk scores (PRS) that can be evaluated in the clinic to gain insight into the causal relationship between NAFLD and HCC, and to improve HCC risk stratification.

Methods: We examined at-risk individuals (NAFLD cohort, n = 2,566; 226 with HCC; and a replication cohort of 427 German patients with NAFLD) and the general population (UK Biobank [UKBB] cohort, n = 364,048; 202 with HCC). Variants in PNPLA3-TM6SF2-GCKR-MBOAT7 were combined in a hepatic fat PRS (PRS-HFC), and then adjusted for HSD17B13 (PRS-5).

Results: In the NAFLD cohort, the adjusted impact of genetic risk variants on HCC was proportional to the predisposition to fatty liver (p = 0.002) with some heterogeneity in the effect. PRS predicted HCC more robustly than single variants (p <10). The association between PRS and HCC was mainly mediated through severe fibrosis, but was independent of fibrosis in clinically relevant subgroups, and was also observed in those without severe fibrosis (p <0.05). In the UKBB cohort, PRS predicted HCC independently of classical risk factors and cirrhosis (p <10). In the NAFLD cohort, we identified high PRS cut-offs (≥0.532/0.495 for PRS-HFC/PRS-5) that in the UKBB cohort detected HCC with ~90% specificity but limited sensitivity; PRS predicted HCC both in individuals with (p <10) and without cirrhosis (p <0.05).

Conclusions: Our results are consistent with a causal relationship between hepatic fat and HCC. PRS improved the accuracy of HCC detection and may help stratify HCC risk in individuals with dysmetabolism, including those without severe liver fibrosis. Further studies are needed to validate our findings.

Lay Summary: By analyzing variations in genes that contribute to fatty liver disease, we developed two risk scores to help predict liver cancer in individuals with obesity-related metabolic complications. These risk scores can be easily tested in the clinic. We showed that the risk scores helped to identify the risk of liver cancer both in high-risk individuals and in the general population.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhep.2020.11.024DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7987554PMC
April 2021

Thoracic Pain and Pericardial Effusion in a Patient With Chronic Pancreatitis.

Gastroenterology 2021 Jul 19;161(1):e1-e3. Epub 2020 Nov 19.

Department of Medicine I, University Hospital Dresden, Technische Universität Dresden, Dresden, Germany; Center for Regenerative Therapies Dresden, Technische Universität Dresden, Dresden, Germany. Electronic address:

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1053/j.gastro.2020.10.050DOI Listing
July 2021

Identifying Novel Susceptibility Genes for Colorectal Cancer Risk From a Transcriptome-Wide Association Study of 125,478 Subjects.

Gastroenterology 2021 03 12;160(4):1164-1178.e6. Epub 2020 Oct 12.

Department of Cancer Biology and Genetics and the Comprehensive Cancer Center, The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio.

Background And Aims: Susceptibility genes and the underlying mechanisms for the majority of risk loci identified by genome-wide association studies (GWAS) for colorectal cancer (CRC) risk remain largely unknown. We conducted a transcriptome-wide association study (TWAS) to identify putative susceptibility genes.

Methods: Gene-expression prediction models were built using transcriptome and genetic data from the 284 normal transverse colon tissues of European descendants from the Genotype-Tissue Expression (GTEx), and model performance was evaluated using data from The Cancer Genome Atlas (n = 355). We applied the gene-expression prediction models and GWAS data to evaluate associations of genetically predicted gene-expression with CRC risk in 58,131 CRC cases and 67,347 controls of European ancestry. Dual-luciferase reporter assays and knockdown experiments in CRC cells and tumor xenografts were conducted.

Results: We identified 25 genes associated with CRC risk at a Bonferroni-corrected threshold of P < 9.1 × 10, including genes in 4 novel loci, PYGL (14q22.1), RPL28 (19q13.42), CAPN12 (19q13.2), MYH7B (20q11.22), and MAP1L3CA (20q11.22). In 9 known GWAS-identified loci, we uncovered 9 genes that have not been reported previously, whereas 4 genes remained statistically significant after adjusting for the lead risk variant of the locus. Through colocalization analysis in GWAS loci, we additionally identified 12 putative susceptibility genes that were supported by TWAS analysis at P < .01. We showed that risk allele of the lead risk variant rs1741640 affected the promoter activity of CABLES2. Knockdown experiments confirmed that CABLES2 plays a vital role in colorectal carcinogenesis.

Conclusions: Our study reveals new putative susceptibility genes and provides new insight into the biological mechanisms underlying CRC development.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1053/j.gastro.2020.08.062DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7956223PMC
March 2021

rs641738C>T near MBOAT7 is associated with liver fat, ALT and fibrosis in NAFLD: A meta-analysis.

J Hepatol 2021 01 31;74(1):20-30. Epub 2020 Aug 31.

MRC Integrative Epidemiology Unit (IEU), University of Bristol, Bristol, UK.

Background & Aims: A common genetic variant near MBOAT7 (rs641738C>T) has been previously associated with hepatic fat and advanced histology in NAFLD; however, these findings have not been consistently replicated in the literature. We aimed to establish whether rs641738C>T is a risk factor across the spectrum of NAFLD and to characterise its role in the regulation of related metabolic phenotypes through a meta-analysis.

Methods: We performed a meta-analysis of studies with data on the association between rs641738C>T genotype and liver fat, NAFLD histology, and serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT), lipids or insulin. These included directly genotyped studies and population-level data from genome-wide association studies (GWAS). We performed a random effects meta-analysis using recessive, additive and dominant genetic models.

Results: Data from 1,066,175 participants (9,688 with liver biopsies) across 42 studies were included in the meta-analysis. rs641738C>T was associated with higher liver fat on CT/MRI (+0.03 standard deviations [95% CI 0.02-0.05], p = 4.8×10) and diagnosis of NAFLD (odds ratio [OR] 1.17 [95% CI 1.05-1.3], p = 0.003) in Caucasian adults. The variant was also positively associated with presence of advanced fibrosis (OR 1.22 [95% CI 1.03-1.45], p = 0.021) in Caucasian adults using a recessive model of inheritance (CC + CT vs. TT). Meta-analysis of data from previous GWAS found the variant to be associated with higher ALT (p = 0.002) and lower serum triglycerides (p = 1.5×10). rs641738C>T was not associated with fasting insulin and no effect was observed in children with NAFLD.

Conclusions: Our study validates rs641738C>T near MBOAT7 as a risk factor for the presence and severity of NAFLD in individuals of European descent.

Lay Summary: Fatty liver disease is a common condition where fat builds up in the liver, which can cause liver inflammation and scarring (including 'cirrhosis'). It is closely linked to obesity and diabetes, but some genes are also thought to be important. We did this study to see whether one specific change ('variant') in one gene ('MBOAT7') was linked to fatty liver disease. We took data from over 40 published studies and found that this variant near MBOAT7 is linked to more severe fatty liver disease. This means that drugs designed to work on MBOAT7 could be useful for treating fatty liver disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhep.2020.08.027DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7755037PMC
January 2021

Circulating bilirubin levels and risk of colorectal cancer: serological and Mendelian randomization analyses.

BMC Med 2020 09 3;18(1):229. Epub 2020 Sep 3.

Public Health Directorate, Asturias, Spain.

Background: Bilirubin, a byproduct of hemoglobin breakdown and purported anti-oxidant, is thought to be cancer preventive. We conducted complementary serological and Mendelian randomization (MR) analyses to investigate whether alterations in circulating levels of bilirubin are associated with risk of colorectal cancer (CRC). We decided a priori to perform analyses separately in men and women based on suggestive evidence that associations may differ by sex.

Methods: In a case-control study nested in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC), pre-diagnostic unconjugated bilirubin (UCB, the main component of total bilirubin) concentrations were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography in plasma samples of 1386 CRC cases and their individually matched controls. Additionally, 115 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) robustly associated (P < 5 × 10) with circulating total bilirubin were instrumented in a 2-sample MR to test for a potential causal effect of bilirubin on CRC risk in 52,775 CRC cases and 45,940 matched controls in the Genetics and Epidemiology of Colorectal Cancer Consortium (GECCO), the Colon Cancer Family Registry (CCFR), and the Colorectal Transdisciplinary (CORECT) study.

Results: The associations between circulating UCB levels and CRC risk differed by sex (P = 0.008). Among men, higher levels of UCB were positively associated with CRC risk (odds ratio [OR] = 1.19, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.04-1.36; per 1-SD increment of log-UCB). In women, an inverse association was observed (OR = 0.86 (0.76-0.97)). In the MR analysis of the main UGT1A1 SNP (rs6431625), genetically predicted higher levels of total bilirubin were associated with a 7% increase in CRC risk in men (OR = 1.07 (1.02-1.12); P = 0.006; per 1-SD increment of total bilirubin), while there was no association in women (OR = 1.01 (0.96-1.06); P = 0.73). Raised bilirubin levels, predicted by instrumental variables excluding rs6431625, were suggestive of an inverse association with CRC in men, but not in women. These differences by sex did not reach formal statistical significance (P ≥ 0.2).

Conclusions: Additional insight into the relationship between circulating bilirubin and CRC is needed in order to conclude on a potential causal role of bilirubin in CRC development.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12916-020-01703-wDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7469292PMC
September 2020

Genome-wide Modeling of Polygenic Risk Score in Colorectal Cancer Risk.

Am J Hum Genet 2020 09 5;107(3):432-444. Epub 2020 Aug 5.

School of Public Health, Imperial College London, London SW7 2AZ, UK.

Accurate colorectal cancer (CRC) risk prediction models are critical for identifying individuals at low and high risk of developing CRC, as they can then be offered targeted screening and interventions to address their risks of developing disease (if they are in a high-risk group) and avoid unnecessary screening and interventions (if they are in a low-risk group). As it is likely that thousands of genetic variants contribute to CRC risk, it is clinically important to investigate whether these genetic variants can be used jointly for CRC risk prediction. In this paper, we derived and compared different approaches to generating predictive polygenic risk scores (PRS) from genome-wide association studies (GWASs) including 55,105 CRC-affected case subjects and 65,079 control subjects of European ancestry. We built the PRS in three ways, using (1) 140 previously identified and validated CRC loci; (2) SNP selection based on linkage disequilibrium (LD) clumping followed by machine-learning approaches; and (3) LDpred, a Bayesian approach for genome-wide risk prediction. We tested the PRS in an independent cohort of 101,987 individuals with 1,699 CRC-affected case subjects. The discriminatory accuracy, calculated by the age- and sex-adjusted area under the receiver operating characteristics curve (AUC), was highest for the LDpred-derived PRS (AUC = 0.654) including nearly 1.2 M genetic variants (the proportion of causal genetic variants for CRC assumed to be 0.003), whereas the PRS of the 140 known variants identified from GWASs had the lowest AUC (AUC = 0.629). Based on the LDpred-derived PRS, we are able to identify 30% of individuals without a family history as having risk for CRC similar to those with a family history of CRC, whereas the PRS based on known GWAS variants identified only top 10% as having a similar relative risk. About 90% of these individuals have no family history and would have been considered average risk under current screening guidelines, but might benefit from earlier screening. The developed PRS offers a way for risk-stratified CRC screening and other targeted interventions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ajhg.2020.07.006DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7477007PMC
September 2020

Loss of hepatic Mboat7 leads to liver fibrosis.

Gut 2021 May 26;70(5):940-950. Epub 2020 Jun 26.

Department of General, Visceral, Vascular and Transplantation Surgery, University of Rostock, Rostock, Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, Germany.

Objective: The rs641738C>T variant located near the membrane-bound O-acyltransferase domain containing 7 (MBOAT7) locus is associated with fibrosis in liver diseases, including non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), alcohol-related liver disease, hepatitis B and C. We aim to understand the mechanism by which the rs641738C>T variant contributes to pathogenesis of NAFLD.

Design: Mice with hepatocyte-specific deletion of MBOAT7 (Mboat7) were generated and livers were characterised by histology, flow cytometry, qPCR, RNA sequencing and lipidomics. We analysed the association of rs641738C>T genotype with liver inflammation and fibrosis in 846 NAFLD patients and obtained genotype-specific liver lipidomes from 280 human biopsies.

Results: Allelic imbalance analysis of heterozygous human liver samples pointed to lower expression of the MBOAT7 transcript on the rs641738C>T haplotype. Mboat7 mice showed spontaneous steatosis characterised by increased hepatic cholesterol ester content after 10 weeks. After 6 weeks on a high fat, methionine-low, choline-deficient diet, mice developed increased hepatic fibrosis as measured by picrosirius staining (p0.05), hydroxyproline content (p0.05) and transcriptomics, while the inflammatory cell populations and inflammatory mediators were minimally affected. In a human biopsied NAFLD cohort, MBOAT7 rs641738C>T was associated with fibrosis (p0.004) independent of the presence of histological inflammation. Liver lipidomes of Mboat7 mice and human rs641738TT carriers with fibrosis showed increased total lysophosphatidylinositol levels. The altered lysophosphatidylinositol and phosphatidylinositol subspecies in MBOAT7 livers and human rs641738TT carriers were similar.

Conclusion: Mboat7 deficiency in mice and human points to an inflammation-independent pathway of liver fibrosis that may be mediated by lipid signalling and a potentially targetable treatment option in NAFLD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/gutjnl-2020-320853DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8040158PMC
May 2021

Genome-Wide Association Study for Alcohol-Related Cirrhosis Identifies Risk Loci in MARC1 and HNRNPUL1.

Gastroenterology 2020 10 16;159(4):1276-1289.e7. Epub 2020 Jun 16.

Medical Department 1, University Hospital Dresden, Technische Universität Dresden, Germany.

Background And Aims: Little is known about genetic factors that affect development of alcohol-related cirrhosis. We performed a genome-wide association study (GWAS) of samples from the United Kingdom Biobank (UKB) to identify polymorphisms associated with risk of alcohol-related liver disease.

Methods: We performed a GWAS of 35,839 participants in the UKB with high intake of alcohol against markers of hepatic fibrosis (FIB-4, APRI, and Forns index scores) and hepatocellular injury (levels of aminotransferases). Loci identified in the discovery analysis were tested for their association with alcohol-related cirrhosis in 3 separate European cohorts (phase 1 validation cohort; n=2545). Variants associated with alcohol-related cirrhosis in the validation at a false discovery rate of less than 20% were then directly genotyped in 2 additional European validation cohorts (phase 2 validation, n=2068).

Results: In the GWAS of the discovery cohort, we identified 50 independent risk loci with genome-wide significance (P < 5 × 10). Nine of these loci were significantly associated with alcohol-related cirrhosis in the phase 1 validation cohort; 6 of these 9 loci were significantly associated with alcohol-related cirrhosis in phase 2 validation cohort, at a false discovery rate below 5%. The loci included variants in the mitochondrial amidoxime reducing component 1 gene (MARC1) and the heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein U like 1 gene (HNRNPUL1). After we adjusted for age, sex, body mass index, and type-2 diabetes in the phase 2 validation cohort, the minor A allele of MARC1:rs2642438 was associated with reduced risk of alcohol-related cirrhosis (adjusted odds ratio, 0.76; P=.0027); conversely, the minor C allele of HNRNPUL1:rs15052 was associated with an increased risk of alcohol-related cirrhosis (adjusted odds ratio, 1.30; P=.020).

Conclusions: In a GWAS of samples from the UKB, we identified and validated (in 5 European cohorts) single-nucleotide polymorphisms that affect risk of alcohol-related cirrhosis in opposite directions: the minor A allele in MARC1:rs2642438 decreases risk, whereas the minor C allele in HNRNPUL1:rs15052 increases risk.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1053/j.gastro.2020.06.014DOI Listing
October 2020

SETDB1 is required for intestinal epithelial differentiation and the prevention of intestinal inflammation.

Gut 2021 03 5;70(3):485-498. Epub 2020 Jun 5.

Department of Medicine I, University Medical Center Dresden, Technische Universität (TU) Dresden, Dresden, Germany

Objective: The intestinal epithelium is a rapidly renewing tissue which plays central roles in nutrient uptake, barrier function and the prevention of intestinal inflammation. Control of epithelial differentiation is essential to these processes and is dependent on cell type-specific activity of transcription factors which bind to accessible chromatin. Here, we studied the role of SET Domain Bifurcated Histone Lysine Methyltransferase 1, also known as ESET (SETDB1), a histone H3K9 methyltransferase, in intestinal epithelial homeostasis and IBD.

Design: We investigated mice with constitutive and inducible intestinal epithelial deletion of , studied the expression of SETDB1 in patients with IBD and mouse models of IBD, and investigated the abundance of variants in healthy individuals and patients with IBD.

Results: Deletion of intestinal epithelial in mice was associated with defects in intestinal epithelial differentiation, barrier disruption, inflammation and mortality. Mechanistic studies showed that loss of SETDB1 leads to de-silencing of endogenous retroviruses, DNA damage and intestinal epithelial cell death. Predicted loss-of-function variants in human were considerably less frequently observed than expected, consistent with a critical role of SETDB1 in human biology. While the vast majority of patients with IBD showed unimpaired mucosal SETDB1 expression, comparison of IBD and non-IBD exomes revealed over-representation of individual rare missense variants in in IBD, some of which are predicted to be associated with loss of function and may contribute to the pathogenesis of intestinal inflammation.

Conclusion: SETDB1 plays an essential role in intestinal epithelial homeostasis. Future work is required to investigate whether rare variants in contribute to the pathogenesis of IBD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/gutjnl-2020-321339DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7873423PMC
March 2021

The safety and efficacy of a new 20-mm lumen apposing metal stent (lams) for the endoscopic treatment of pancreatic and peripancreatic fluid collections: a large international, multicenter study.

Surg Endosc 2021 04 22;35(4):1741-1748. Epub 2020 Apr 22.

Department of Surgical Gastroenterology, Aarhus University Hospital, Aarhus, Denmark.

Background: Lumen apposing metal stent (LAMS) allows an easy access to peripancreatic fluid collections (PPFCs) and the possibility of performing direct endoscopic necrosectomy (DEN). The aim of our study was to evaluate the safety and efficacy of a new 20-mm LAMS in the management of PPFCs. This novel stent represents the largest diameter LAMS available on the market to date.

Methods: This is an international, multicenter retrospective study involving 20 centers. Consecutive patients who underwent EUS-guided PPFC drainage using a 20-mm LAMS were included. Primary outcomes were technical and clinical success. Secondary outcomes were rate and the severity of adverse events.

Results: A total 105 patients underwent PPFC drainage using the new 20-mm LAMS and 106 LAMS were placed. Technical success was 100% (106/106). 7/105 patients died due to causes not related to the stent. Clinical success was achieved in 92/98 patients (93.9%). Significant adverse events occurred in 8/98 patients (8.16%): 4 cases (4.08%) of bleeding, 3 cases (3.06%) of suprainfection, 1 case of gastric outlet obstruction.

Conclusions: This multicenter study demonstrated acceptable rates of technical and clinical success using a new 20-mm LAMS for PPFC, including walled-off pancreatic necrosis (WOPN). The results of our study suggest that a new 20-mm LAMS is non-inferior in terms of safety, efficacy, and adverse events as compared to smaller diameter LAMS in the management of PPFCs, including pancreatic psuedocysts (PP) and WOPN. Randomized controlled studies will be needed to determine the ideal size of LAMS need to achieve the greatest clinical benefit with the minimized risk exposure for this high-risk patient population.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00464-020-07567-8DOI Listing
April 2021

Mendelian Randomization of Circulating Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids and Colorectal Cancer Risk.

Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2020 04 12;29(4):860-870. Epub 2020 Feb 12.

Department of Clinical Genetics, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden.

Background: Results from epidemiologic studies examining polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) and colorectal cancer risk are inconsistent. Mendelian randomization may strengthen causal inference from observational studies. Given their shared metabolic pathway, examining the combined effects of aspirin/NSAID use with PUFAs could help elucidate an association between PUFAs and colorectal cancer risk.

Methods: Information was leveraged from genome-wide association studies (GWAS) regarding PUFA-associated SNPs to create weighted genetic scores (wGS) representing genetically predicted circulating blood PUFAs for 11,016 non-Hispanic white colorectal cancer cases and 13,732 controls in the Genetics and Epidemiology of Colorectal Cancer Consortium (GECCO). Associations per SD increase in the wGS were estimated using unconditional logistic regression. Interactions between PUFA wGSs and aspirin/NSAID use on colorectal cancer risk were also examined.

Results: Modest colorectal cancer risk reductions were observed per SD increase in circulating linoleic acid [OR = 0.96; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.93-0.98; = 5.2 × 10] and α-linolenic acid (OR = 0.95; 95% CI = 0.92-0.97; = 5.4 × 10), whereas modest increased risks were observed for arachidonic (OR = 1.06; 95% CI = 1.03-1.08; = 3.3 × 10), eicosapentaenoic (OR = 1.04; 95% CI = 1.01-1.07; = 2.5 × 10), and docosapentaenoic acids (OR = 1.03; 95% CI = 1.01-1.06; = 1.2 × 10). Each of these effects was stronger among aspirin/NSAID nonusers in the stratified analyses.

Conclusions: Our study suggests that higher circulating shorter-chain PUFAs (i.e., LA and ALA) were associated with reduced colorectal cancer risk, whereas longer-chain PUFAs (i.e., AA, EPA, and DPA) were associated with an increased colorectal cancer risk.

Impact: The interaction of PUFAs with aspirin/NSAID use indicates a shared colorectal cancer inflammatory pathway. Future research should continue to improve PUFA genetic instruments to elucidate the independent effects of PUFAs on colorectal cancer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/1055-9965.EPI-19-0891DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7125012PMC
April 2020

Erratum to "CFTR Expression Analysis for Subtyping of Human Pancreatic Cancer Organoids".

Stem Cells Int 2019;2019:9209764. Epub 2019 Sep 18.

Department of Visceral, Thoracic and Vascular Surgery, Medical Faculty and University Hospital Carl Gustav Carus, Technische Universität Dresden, Dresden, Germany.

[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1155/2019/1024614.].
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2019/9209764DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6766667PMC
September 2019

Physical activity and risks of breast and colorectal cancer: a Mendelian randomisation analysis.

Nat Commun 2020 01 30;11(1):597. Epub 2020 Jan 30.

Public Health Sciences Division, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, WA, USA.

Physical activity has been associated with lower risks of breast and colorectal cancer in epidemiological studies; however, it is unknown if these associations are causal or confounded. In two-sample Mendelian randomisation analyses, using summary genetic data from the UK Biobank and GWA consortia, we found that a one standard deviation increment in average acceleration was associated with lower risks of breast cancer (odds ratio [OR]: 0.51, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.27 to 0.98, P-value = 0.04) and colorectal cancer (OR: 0.66, 95% CI: 0.48 to 0.90, P-value = 0.01). We found similar magnitude inverse associations for estrogen positive (ER) breast cancer and for colon cancer. Our results support a potentially causal relationship between higher physical activity levels and lower risks of breast cancer and colorectal cancer. Based on these data, the promotion of physical activity is probably an effective strategy in the primary prevention of these commonly diagnosed cancers.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-020-14389-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6992637PMC
January 2020

Endoscopic ultrasound-guided drainage of pancreatic walled-off necrosis using 20-mm versus 15-mm lumen-apposing metal stents: an international, multicenter, case-matched study.

Endoscopy 2020 03 30;52(3):211-219. Epub 2020 Jan 30.

University of Alabama, Birmingham, Alabama, United States.

Backgrounds: Endoscopic ultrasound (EUS)-guided placement of lumen-apposing metal stents (LAMSs) has gained popularity for the treatment of pancreatic walled-off necrosis (WON). We compared the 20-mm and 15-mm LAMSs for the treatment of symptomatic WON in terms of clinical success and adverse events.

Methods: We conducted a retrospective, case-matched study of 306 adults at 22 tertiary centers from 04/2014 to 10/2018. A total of 102 patients with symptomatic WON who underwent drainage with 20-mm LAMS (cases) and 204 patients who underwent drainage with 15-mm LAMS (controls) were matched by age, sex, and drainage approach. Conditional logistic regression analysis was performed to compare clinical success (resolution of WON on follow-up imaging without reintervention) and adverse events (according to American Society for Gastrointestinal Endoscopy criteria).

Results: Clinical success was achieved in 92.2 % of patients with 20-mm LAMS and 91.7 % of patients with 15-mm LAMS (odds ratio 0.92;  = 0.91). Patients with 20-mm LAMS underwent fewer direct endoscopic necrosectomy (DEN) sessions (mean 1.3 vs. 2.1;  < 0.001), despite having larger WON collections (transverse axis 118.2 vs. 101.9 mm,  = 0.003; anteroposterior axis 95.9 vs. 80.1 mm,  = 0.01). There was no difference in overall adverse events (21.6 % vs. 15.2 %;  = 0.72) and bleeding events (4.9 % vs. 3.4 %;  = 0.54) between the 20-mm and 15-mm LAMS groups, respectively.

Conclusions: The 20-mm LAMS showed comparable clinical success and safety profile to the 15-mm LAMS, with the need for fewer DEN sessions for WON resolution.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1055/a-1096-3299DOI Listing
March 2020

EUS-guided stent removal in buried lumen-apposing metal stent syndrome: a case series.

VideoGIE 2020 Jan 25;5(1):37-40. Epub 2019 Oct 25.

Medical Department 1, University Hospital Dresden, Technische Universität Dresden, Dresden, Germany.

Background And Aims: Lumen-apposing metal stents (LAMSs) play an increasing role in transgastric and transduodenal drainage of pancreatic fluid collections and allow novel EUS-guided interventions. Alongside the main adverse events of bleeding and occlusion, LAMSs can be overgrown by mucosa, which leads to the inability to visualize the stent in endoscopy.

Methods: We describe a series of 4 cases of buried LAMSs that were removed under EUS guidance for identification of the stent followed by removal with rat-tooth forceps.

Results: The median in situ time of the LAMSs in the reported 4 cases was 53 days. All stents could no longer be visualized endoscopically when drainage of necrosis was complete. All 4 buried LAMSs could be identified by EUS and were removed successfully with forceps. In 1 case, balloon dilation of the stent tract was performed before stent removal. No adverse events were observed after the procedure.

Conclusions: Buried stent syndrome is a rare adverse event of LAMSs. Here we describe a safe and effective approach for stent identification and removal without prior mucosal dissection.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.vgie.2019.09.002DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6945230PMC
January 2020

Circulating Levels of Insulin-like Growth Factor 1 and Insulin-like Growth Factor Binding Protein 3 Associate With Risk of Colorectal Cancer Based on Serologic and Mendelian Randomization Analyses.

Gastroenterology 2020 04 27;158(5):1300-1312.e20. Epub 2019 Dec 27.

Department of Cancer Biology and Genetics and the Comprehensive Cancer Center, The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio.

Background & Aims: Human studies examining associations between circulating levels of insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1) and insulin-like growth factor binding protein 3 (IGFBP3) and colorectal cancer risk have reported inconsistent results. We conducted complementary serologic and Mendelian randomization (MR) analyses to determine whether alterations in circulating levels of IGF1 or IGFBP3 are associated with colorectal cancer development.

Methods: Serum levels of IGF1 were measured in blood samples collected from 397,380 participants from the UK Biobank, from 2006 through 2010. Incident cancer cases and cancer cases recorded first in death certificates were identified through linkage to national cancer and death registries. Complete follow-up was available through March 31, 2016. For the MR analyses, we identified genetic variants associated with circulating levels of IGF1 and IGFBP3. The association of these genetic variants with colorectal cancer was examined with 2-sample MR methods using genome-wide association study consortia data (52,865 cases with colorectal cancer and 46,287 individuals without [controls]) RESULTS: After a median follow-up period of 7.1 years, 2665 cases of colorectal cancer were recorded. In a multivariable-adjusted model, circulating level of IGF1 associated with colorectal cancer risk (hazard ratio per 1 standard deviation increment of IGF1, 1.11; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.05-1.17). Similar associations were found by sex, follow-up time, and tumor subsite. In the MR analyses, a 1 standard deviation increment in IGF1 level, predicted based on genetic factors, was associated with a higher risk of colorectal cancer risk (odds ratio 1.08; 95% CI 1.03-1.12; P = 3.3 × 10). Level of IGFBP3, predicted based on genetic factors, was associated with colorectal cancer risk (odds ratio per 1 standard deviation increment, 1.12; 95% CI 1.06-1.18; P = 4.2 × 10). Colorectal cancer risk was associated with only 1 variant in the IGFBP3 gene region (rs11977526), which also associated with anthropometric traits and circulating level of IGF2.

Conclusions: In an analysis of blood samples from almost 400,000 participants in the UK Biobank, we found an association between circulating level of IGF1 and colorectal cancer. Using genetic data from 52,865 cases with colorectal cancer and 46,287 controls, a higher level of IGF1, determined by genetic factors, was associated with colorectal cancer. Further studies are needed to determine how this signaling pathway might contribute to colorectal carcinogenesis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1053/j.gastro.2019.12.020DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7152801PMC
April 2020

Mutual Zonated Interactions of Wnt and Hh Signaling Are Orchestrating the Metabolism of the Adult Liver in Mice and Human.

Cell Rep 2019 12;29(13):4553-4567.e7

Rudolf-Schönheimer-Institute of Biochemistry, Faculty of Medicine, Leipzig University, Leipzig 04103, Germany. Electronic address:

The Hedgehog (Hh) and Wnt/β-Catenin (Wnt) cascades are morphogen pathways whose pronounced influence on adult liver metabolism has been identified in recent years. How both pathways communicate and control liver metabolic functions are largely unknown. Detecting core components of Wnt and Hh signaling and mathematical modeling showed that both pathways in healthy liver act largely complementary to each other in the pericentral (Wnt) and the periportal zone (Hh) and communicate mainly by mutual repression. The Wnt/Hh module inversely controls the spatiotemporal operation of various liver metabolic pathways, as revealed by transcriptome, proteome, and metabolome analyses. Shifting the balance to Wnt (activation) or Hh (inhibition) causes pericentralization and periportalization of liver functions, respectively. Thus, homeostasis of the Wnt/Hh module is essential for maintaining proper liver metabolism and to avoid the development of certain metabolic diseases. With caution due to minor species-specific differences, these conclusions may hold for human liver as well.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.celrep.2019.11.104DOI Listing
December 2019

Cumulative Burden of Colorectal Cancer-Associated Genetic Variants Is More Strongly Associated With Early-Onset vs Late-Onset Cancer.

Gastroenterology 2020 04 19;158(5):1274-1286.e12. Epub 2019 Dec 19.

Public Health Sciences Division, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, Washington; Department of Epidemiology, University of Washington School of Public Health, Seattle, Washington.

Background & Aims: Early-onset colorectal cancer (CRC, in persons younger than 50 years old) is increasing in incidence; yet, in the absence of a family history of CRC, this population lacks harmonized recommendations for prevention. We aimed to determine whether a polygenic risk score (PRS) developed from 95 CRC-associated common genetic risk variants was associated with risk for early-onset CRC.

Methods: We studied risk for CRC associated with a weighted PRS in 12,197 participants younger than 50 years old vs 95,865 participants 50 years or older. PRS was calculated based on single nucleotide polymorphisms associated with CRC in a large-scale genome-wide association study as of January 2019. Participants were pooled from 3 large consortia that provided clinical and genotyping data: the Colon Cancer Family Registry, the Colorectal Transdisciplinary Study, and the Genetics and Epidemiology of Colorectal Cancer Consortium and were all of genetically defined European descent. Findings were replicated in an independent cohort of 72,573 participants.

Results: Overall associations with CRC per standard deviation of PRS were significant for early-onset cancer, and were stronger compared with late-onset cancer (P for interaction = .01); when we compared the highest PRS quartile with the lowest, risk increased 3.7-fold for early-onset CRC (95% CI 3.28-4.24) vs 2.9-fold for late-onset CRC (95% CI 2.80-3.04). This association was strongest for participants without a first-degree family history of CRC (P for interaction = 5.61 × 10). When we compared the highest with the lowest quartiles in this group, risk increased 4.3-fold for early-onset CRC (95% CI 3.61-5.01) vs 2.9-fold for late-onset CRC (95% CI 2.70-3.00). Sensitivity analyses were consistent with these findings.

Conclusions: In an analysis of associations with CRC per standard deviation of PRS, we found the cumulative burden of CRC-associated common genetic variants to associate with early-onset cancer, and to be more strongly associated with early-onset than late-onset cancer, particularly in the absence of CRC family history. Analyses of PRS, along with environmental and lifestyle risk factors, might identify younger individuals who would benefit from preventive measures.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1053/j.gastro.2019.12.012DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7103489PMC
April 2020

Identification of Novel Loci and New Risk Variant in Known Loci for Colorectal Cancer Risk in East Asians.

Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2020 02 11;29(2):477-486. Epub 2019 Dec 11.

Laboratory for Statistical Analysis, RIKEN Center for Integrative Medical Sciences, Kanagawa, Japan.

Background: Risk variants identified so far for colorectal cancer explain only a small proportion of familial risk of this cancer, particularly in Asians.

Methods: We performed a genome-wide association study (GWAS) of colorectal cancer in East Asians, including 23,572 colorectal cancer cases and 48,700 controls. To identify novel risk loci, we selected 60 promising risk variants for replication using data from 58,131 colorectal cancer cases and 67,347 controls of European descent. To identify additional risk variants in known colorectal cancer loci, we performed conditional analyses in East Asians.

Results: An indel variant, rs67052019 at 1p13.3, was found to be associated with colorectal cancer risk at × 10 in Asians ( per allele deletion = 1.13, 95% confidence interval = 1.08-1.18). This association was replicated in European descendants using a variant (rs2938616) in complete linkage disequilibrium with rs67052019 ( = 7.7 × 10). Of the remaining 59 variants, 12 showed an association at < 0.05 in the European-ancestry study, including rs11108175 and rs9634162 at < 5 × 10 and two variants with an association near the genome-wide significance level (rs60911071, = 5.8 × 10; rs62558833, = 7.5 × 10) in the combined analyses of Asian- and European-ancestry data. In addition, using data from East Asians, we identified 13 new risk variants at 11 loci reported from previous GWAS.

Conclusions: In this large GWAS, we identified three novel risk loci and two highly suggestive loci for colorectal cancer risk and provided evidence for potential roles of multiple genes and pathways in the etiology of colorectal cancer. In addition, we showed that additional risk variants exist in many colorectal cancer risk loci identified previously.

Impact: Our study provides novel data to improve the understanding of the genetic basis for colorectal cancer risk.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/1055-9965.EPI-19-0755DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7571256PMC
February 2020
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