Publications by authors named "Jocelyn Kernot"

12 Publications

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Caring for carers: Understanding the physical and psychological well-being of carers of veterans in Australia.

Health Soc Care Community 2021 May 28. Epub 2021 May 28.

Allied Health and Human Performance, Alliance for Research in Exercise, Nutrition, and Activity (ARENA), University of South Australia, Adelaide, SA, Australia.

Carers of veterans tend to put their own physical and psychological well-being needs behind the needs of the person they are caring for and often do not seek assistance for their own physical and psychological well-being. Combined, these factors lead to increased risk of acute and chronic illness and mental health issues. It is acknowledged that physical activity independently contributes to improved physical and mental health and may be a driver for mental well-being in carers. The aim of this pilot research was to understand how movement behaviour and health behaviours of carers of veterans in Australia relate to carers' physical and psychological well-being. Assessment occurred between February and July 2019 and included objective, validated measures to examine physical and psychological well-being. To assess the association between physical and psychological factors, correlational analyses were performed. Twenty-eight carers participated in the pilot study (96% female, mean age 61.6 years). Exercise capacity varied, and 84% of carers met the recommended 150 min of physical activity per week, with carers spending 8.6% of their time in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity; and 37.9% of the day sedentary. Psychological health outcomes reflect a population with high distress levels and lower than average mental well-being, but with normal resilience scores. Carers with higher levels of resilience had greater exercise capacity, covering further distance in the 6-min walk test, and as resilience increased, number of sedentary bouts decreased. This research demonstrates that there is a relationship between health behaviours and psychological well-being in carers of veterans and serving personnel. Based on the findings of this pilot study, programmes to support family carers should include information about physical activity, reducing sedentary time, and increasing resilience. Interventions designed to improve physical and psychological well-being should be trialled and evaluated for effectiveness.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/hsc.13449DOI Listing
May 2021

Water-Based Interventions for People With Neurological Disability, Autism, and Intellectual Disability: A Scoping Review.

Adapt Phys Activ Q 2021 Apr 19;38(3):474-493. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

University of South Australia.

The purpose of this study was to produce a descriptive overview of the types of water-based interventions for people with neurological disability, autism, and intellectual disability and to determine how outcomes have been evaluated. Literature was searched through MEDLINE, EMBASE, Ovid Emcare, SPORTDiscus, Google Scholar, and Google. One hundred fifty-three papers met the inclusion criteria, 115 hydrotherapy, 62 swimming, 18 SCUBA (self-contained underwater breathing apparatus), and 18 other water-based interventions. Common conditions included cerebral palsy, spinal cord injury, Parkinson's disease, and intellectual disability. Fifty-four papers explored physical outcomes, 36 psychosocial outcomes, and 24 both physical and psychosocial outcomes, with 180 different outcome measures reported. Overall, there is a lack of high-quality evidence for all intervention types. This review provides a broad picture of water-based interventions and associated research. Future research, guided by this scoping review, will allow a greater understanding of the potential benefits for people with neurological disability, autism, and intellectual disability.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1123/apaq.2020-0036DOI Listing
April 2021

Water-Based Interventions for People With Neurological Disability, Autism, and Intellectual Disability: A Scoping Review.

Adapt Phys Activ Q 2021 Apr 19;38(3):474-493. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

University of South Australia.

The purpose of this study was to produce a descriptive overview of the types of water-based interventions for people with neurological disability, autism, and intellectual disability and to determine how outcomes have been evaluated. Literature was searched through MEDLINE, EMBASE, Ovid Emcare, SPORTDiscus, Google Scholar, and Google. One hundred fifty-three papers met the inclusion criteria, 115 hydrotherapy, 62 swimming, 18 SCUBA (self-contained underwater breathing apparatus), and 18 other water-based interventions. Common conditions included cerebral palsy, spinal cord injury, Parkinson's disease, and intellectual disability. Fifty-four papers explored physical outcomes, 36 psychosocial outcomes, and 24 both physical and psychosocial outcomes, with 180 different outcome measures reported. Overall, there is a lack of high-quality evidence for all intervention types. This review provides a broad picture of water-based interventions and associated research. Future research, guided by this scoping review, will allow a greater understanding of the potential benefits for people with neurological disability, autism, and intellectual disability.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1123/apaq.2020-0036DOI Listing
April 2021

Consumer, health professional and employment specialist experiences of an individual placement and support programme.

Scand J Occup Ther 2020 Jan 24:1-13. Epub 2020 Jan 24.

Occupational Therapy Program, School of Health Science, University of South Australia, Adelaide, Australia.

Individuals with severe mental illness (SMI) are under-represented in the workforce. The Individual Placement and Support (IPS) programme is an evidence-based intervention that co-locates an Employment Specialist in a community mental health team to support individuals with a SMI with their goal of finding work. Previous research predominantly explored IPS programme outcomes rather than stakeholder experiences. To explore programme stakeholder perspectives and experiences during the early stages of IPS programme implementation. Qualitative descriptive methodology explored consumers ( 11), health professionals and employment specialist ( 11) perceptions and experiences of the IPS programme. Semi-structured interviews were conducted and thematically analysed. Three main themes emerged: enacting core care philosophies, IPS programme process and catalyst for supportive environments and relationships. The combination of IPS programme relationships, enactment of core care philosophies, and programme process promoted development of supportive environments and relationships for consumers participating in the programme. Findings suggest IPS processes promoted the enactment of person-centred and recovery-oriented care approaches and positively influenced care planning practices and service culture. IPS directly tackles the compounding disadvantage resulting from unemployment for people with a SMI. At a service level, IPS can foster positive changes to care practices and service culture.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/11038128.2020.1714719DOI Listing
January 2020

How Qualitative Case Study Methodology Informs Occupational Therapy Practice: A Scoping Review.

OTJR (Thorofare N J) 2020 01 4;40(1):6-16. Epub 2019 Jun 4.

Edith Cowan University, Perth, Australia.

Qualitative case study methodology (QCSM) is a useful research approach that has grown in popularity within the social sciences; however, it has received less attention in the occupational therapy literature. The current scoping review aims to explore how studies utilizing a QCSM help inform occupational therapy knowledge and practice. Electronic searches were conducted in April 2017, and the resultant 388 publications were screened by three reviewers in Covidence. In all, 27 publications met the inclusion criteria and were included in the scoping review. Case studies in the occupational therapy literature have explored phenomena relating to the delivery of intervention, theoretical concepts, clinical reasoning, and education and research methods and were situated in a range of different practice areas and contexts. QCSM is a valuable approach in occupational therapy research that contributes to the body of knowledge and theory that informs occupational therapy practice.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1539449219850123DOI Listing
January 2020

Effectiveness of a Facebook-Delivered Physical Activity Intervention for Postpartum Women: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

J Phys Act Health 2019 02 12;16(2):125-133. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Background: Facebook has over 1.8 billion users and offers unique opportunities for health intervention delivery due to its popularity, flexibility, high engagement, and social connectedness.

Methods: This study aimed to determine the effectiveness of the Mums Step It Up (MSIU) Facebook app, a team-based, 50-day physical activity intervention for postpartum women. A total of 120 postpartum women were recruited and randomly allocated to 1 of 3 conditions: MSIU (n = 41), pedometer only (n = 39), and control (n = 40). Assessments were completed at baseline, 6 weeks, and 6 months. Primary outcomes were accelerometer moderate to vigorous physical activity and self-reported walking. Analyses were undertaken on an intention to treat basis using random effects mixed modeling (P ≤ .05). Compliance and engagement with the MSIU app were analyzed, descriptively.

Results: There were no significant differences in changes in moderate to vigorous physical activity (P = .81, 6 wk; P = .91, 6 mo) or self-reported walking (P = .55, 6 wk; P = .90, 6 mo) across the 3 conditions. High engagement with the MSIU app was evident, with participants on average visiting the app 26 times and logging steps for 48/50 days.

Conclusion: Although engagement with the MSIU app was promising, the nonsignificant results suggest that further work needs to be done to enhance efficacy for postpartum women.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1123/jpah.2017-0573DOI Listing
February 2019

Posts, pics, or polls? Which post type generates the greatest engagement in a Facebook physical activity intervention?

Transl Behav Med 2018 11;8(6):953-957

Alliance for Research in Exercise, Nutrition, and Physical Activity, University of South Australia, Adelaide, South Australia, Australia.

Social networking websites have attracted considerable attention as a delivery platform for physical activity interventions. Current evidence highlights a need to enhance user engagement with these interventions to actualize their potential. The purpose of this study was to determine which post type generates the most engagement from participants and whether engagement was related to change in physical activity in an intervention delivered via Facebook. Subgroup analysis of the intervention condition of a randomized controlled trial was conducted. The group moderator posted a new message to the private Facebook group each day of the program. The Facebook posts (n = 118) were categorized into the following types: moderator-initiated running program, multimedia, motivational, opinion polls, or discussion question and participant-initiated experience shares, or questions. Four metrics were used to measure volume of engagement with each post type, "likes," "comments," "poll votes," and "photo uploads." One-way ANOVA was used to determine whether engagement differed by post type and an independent samples t-test to determine differences in engagement between moderator and participant-initiated posts. Pearson correlation was used to examine associations between total engagement and change in physical activity. Engagement varied by post type. Polls elicited the greatest engagement (p ≤ .01). The most common form of engagement was "likes," and engagement was higher for moderator-initiated rather than participant-initiated posts (mean = 8.0 [SD 6.8] vs. 5.3 [SD 3.2]; p ≤ .01). Total engagement with the Facebook group was not directly associated with change in physical activity (r = -.13, p = .47). However, engagement was associated with compliance with the running program (r = .37, p = .04) and there was a nonsignificant positive association between compliance and change in physical activity (r = .32, p = .08). Posts requiring a simple response generated the most engagement. Intervention moderators should facilitate familiarity between participants at the intervention outset, to encourage engagement between participants. Engagement was related to change in physical activity, and these recommendations should be incorporated to enhance engagement and efficacy of interventions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/tbm/iby006DOI Listing
November 2018

A Web-Based, Social Networking Beginners' Running Intervention for Adults Aged 18 to 50 Years Delivered via a Facebook Group: Randomized Controlled Trial.

J Med Internet Res 2018 02 26;20(2):e67. Epub 2018 Feb 26.

Alliance for Research in Exercise, Nutrition, and Physical Activity, University of South Australia, Adelaide, Australia.

Background: Online social networks continue to grow in popularity, with 1.7 billion users worldwide accessing Facebook each month. The use of social networking sites such as Facebook for the delivery of health behavior programs is relatively new.

Objective: The primary aim of this study was to determine the effectiveness of a Web-based beginners' running program for adults aged 18 to 50 years, delivered via a Facebook group, in increasing physical activity (PA) and cardiorespiratory fitness.

Methods: A total of 89 adults with a mean age of 35.2 years (SD 10.9) were recruited online and via print media. Participants were randomly allocated to receive the UniSA Run Free program, an 8-week Web-based beginners' running intervention, delivered via a closed Facebook group (n=41) that included daily interactive posts (information with links, motivational quotes, opinion polls, or questions) and details of the running sessions; or to the control group who received a hard copy of the running program (n=48). Assessments were completed online at baseline, 2 months, and 5 months. The primary outcome measures were self-reported weekly moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and objectively measured cardiorespiratory fitness. Secondary outcomes were social support, exercise attitudes, and self-efficacy. Analyses were undertaken using random effects mixed modeling. Compliance with the running program and engagement with the Facebook group were analyzed descriptively.

Results: Both groups significantly increased MVPA across the study period (P=.004); however, this was significantly higher in the Facebook group (P=.04). The Facebook group increased their MVPA from baseline by 140 min/week versus 91 min for the control at 2 months. MVPA remained elevated for the Facebook group (from baseline) by 129 min/week versus a 50 min/week decrease for the control at 5 months. Both groups had significant increases in social support scores at 2 months (P=.02); however, there were no group by time differences (P=.16). There were no significant changes in the other outcomes. A process evaluation revealed relatively high levels of engagement with the Facebook group during the 8-week intervention (eg, mean number of interactions 35 [SD 41]).

Conclusions: An 8-week beginners' running program delivered through Facebook produced sizable and sustained changes in weekly MVPA and received strong engagement and positive feedback from participants. Future research investigating this intervention approach is warranted in other populations and health behaviors.

Trial Registration: Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry ACTRN12616001500448; https://www.anzctr.org.au/Trial/Registration/TrialReview.aspx?id=371607&isReview=true (Archived by WebCite at http://www.webcitation.org/6xSAuz4NW).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2196/jmir.7862DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5847819PMC
February 2018

Does gamification increase engagement with online programs? A systematic review.

PLoS One 2017 31;12(3):e0173403. Epub 2017 Mar 31.

Alliance for Research in Exercise, Nutrition and Activity (ARENA), School of Health Sciences & Sansom Institute for Health Research, University of South Australia, Adelaide, South Australia, Australia.

Background: Engagement in online programs is difficult to maintain. Gamification is the recent trend that offers to increase engagement through the inclusion of game-like features like points and badges, in non-game contexts. This review will answer the following question, 'Are gamification strategies effective in increasing engagement in online programs?'

Method: Eight databases (Web of Science, PsycINFO, Medline, INSPEC, ERIC, Cochrane Library, Business Source Complete and ACM Digital Library) were searched from 2010 to the 28th of October 2015 using a comprehensive search strategy. Eligibility criteria was based on the PICOS format, where "population" included adults, "intervention" involved an online program or smart phone application that included at least one gamification feature. "Comparator" was a control group, "outcomes" included engagement and "downstream" outcomes which occurred as a result of engagement; and "study design" included experimental studies from peer-reviewed sources. Effect sizes (Cohens d and 95% confidence intervals) were also calculated.

Results: 1017 studies were identified from database searches following the removal of duplicates, of which 15 met the inclusion criteria. The studies involved a total of 10,499 participants, and were commonly undertaken in tertiary education contexts. Engagement metrics included time spent (n = 5), volume of contributions (n = 11) and occasions visited to the software (n = 4); as well as downstream behaviours such as performance (n = 4) and healthy behaviours (n = 1). Effect sizes typically ranged from medium to large in direct engagement and downstream behaviours, with 12 out of 15 studies finding positive significant effects in favour of gamification.

Conclusion: Gamification is effective in increasing engagement in online programs. Key recommendations for future research into gamification are provided. In particular, rigorous study designs are required to fully examine gamification's effects and determine how to best achieve sustained engagement.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0173403PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5376078PMC
August 2017

Usability testing and piloting of the Mums Step It Up program--a team-based social networking physical activity intervention for women with young children.

PLoS One 2014 1;9(10):e108842. Epub 2014 Oct 1.

Health and Use of Time (HUT) Group, Sansom Institute for Health Research, School of Health Sciences, University of South Australia, Adelaide, Australia.

Background: Women's physical activity levels decline during their transition to parenthood. Facebook is widely used by Australian mothers and provides the opportunity to target social networks in order to maintain and increase physical activity.

Method: This mixed method study aimed to pilot and assess the usability of the Mums Step It Up Facebook app, a new team-based physical activity intervention for mothers with young children. A purposive sample of five "Captain" women with young children, were recruited through personal contacts. These women used the app to recruit 3-7 Facebook friends (with children under 5) to join their respective teams (total n = 25). The app encourages women to take 10,000 steps a day measured by a pedometer. Women used the app for 28 days to log steps, interact with team mates and monitor progress. Physical activity was assessed at two time points (baseline and final week) using the Active Australia Survey. Usability testing with the five "Captain" women took place over two one hour face-to-face sessions. A questionnaire seeking feedback on the app was completed at time point two.

Results: Participants' total physical activity increased by an average of 177 minutes per week (p = 0.01). The complexity of the team forming process and issues using the Facebook environment, where a variety of devices and software platforms are used, was highlighted.

Discussion: A team-based Facebook app shows considerable promise for the recruitment and retention of participants to a social network-based physical activity intervention. A randomised controlled trial to further evaluate the effectiveness of the intervention is warranted.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0108842PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4182756PMC
January 2016

Test-retest reliability of the English version of the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale.

Arch Womens Ment Health 2015 Apr 11;18(2):255-257. Epub 2014 Sep 11.

Health and Use of Time (HUT) Group, Sansom Institute for Health Research, School of Health Sciences, University of South Australia, City East Campus, PO Box 2471, Adelaide, South Australia, 5001, Australia.

Test-retest reliability of the English version of the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) has not been established. This study aimed to address this gap in psychometrics by examining test-retest reliability in a sample of 118 Australian mothers with babies aged under 12 months, with a mean of 2.82 (SD 1.38) days between test occasions. The EPDS was found to have a high level of test-retest reliability for total scores (ICC = 0.92) and PND risk categories (90.7 % agreement).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00737-014-0461-4DOI Listing
April 2015

Effectiveness of a facebook-delivered physical activity intervention for post-partum women: a randomized controlled trial protocol.

BMC Public Health 2013 May 29;13:518. Epub 2013 May 29.

Health and Use of Time (HUT) group, Sansom Institute of Health Research, School of Health Sciences, University of South Australia, Adelaide, Australia.

Background: Physical activity is reduced during the post-partum period. Facebook is frequently used by Australian mothers, and offers flexibility, high levels of engagement and the ability to disseminate information and advice via social contacts. The Mums Step it Up Program is a newly developed 50 day team-based physical activity intervention delivered via a Facebook app. The program involves post-partum women working in teams of 4-8 friends aiming to achieve 10,000 steps per day measured by a pedometer. Women are encouraged to use the app to log their daily steps and undertake social and supportive interactions with their friends and other participants. This study aims to determine the effectiveness of the Mums Step it Up Program.

Method/design: A sample of 126 women up to 12 months post-partum will be recruited through community-based health and family services. Participants will be randomly allocated into one of three groups: control, pedometer only and the Mums Step it Up Program. Assessments will be completed at baseline, 6 weeks and 6 months. The primary outcome (objective physical activity) and the secondary outcomes (sleep quality and quantity, depressive symptoms, weight and quality of life) will be used to determine the effectiveness of the Mums Step it Up Program compared with the control and pedometer only groups. Analyses will be undertaken on an intention-to-treat-basis using random effects mixed modeling. The effect of theorized mediators (physical activity attitudes, subjective norms and perceived behavioral control) will also be examined.

Discussion: This study will provide information about the potential of a Facebook app for the delivery of health behavior interventions. If this intervention proves to be effective it will be released on a mass scale and promoted to the general public.

Trial Registration: Australia and New Zealand Clinical Trials Register: ACTRN12613000069752.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1471-2458-13-518DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3674954PMC
May 2013
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