Publications by authors named "Jocelyn Gravel"

111 Publications

Cognitive and behavioural development in children presenting with complex febrile seizures: at onset and school age.

Epileptic Disord 2021 Apr 2. Epub 2021 Apr 2.

Department of Psychology, University of Montreal, Marie Victorin Building, 90 Vincent-D'Indy Avenue, Montreal, Quebec, H2V 2S9, Canada, CHU Sainte-Justine, 3175 Côte Ste-Catherine, Montreal, Qc., H3T 1C5, Canada.

Objective: Our goal was to assess development, cognition and behaviour following an initial complex febrile seizure (FS), at onset and school age, in the context of known risk factors for cognitive development.

Methods: Two cohorts were recruited. Thirty-five infants with an initial complex FS were assessed within the first year post-seizure and compared to 30 controls (simple FS) based on measures of cognitive, motor and language development, behaviour and emotions. Additionally, 19 school-age children with previous complex FS (11 multiple, eight prolonged) were assessed and compared to 19 controls (simple FS) based on measures of intelligence, learning/memory, executive functioning, behaviour and emotions.

Results: Within the first year post-onset, infants with complex FS did not significantly differ from controls based on developmental measures. Seizure duration and age at seizure onset did not impact developmental outcome. School-age children with complex FS showed unaltered global intelligence, but lower executive functioning, compared to controls. Children with prolonged FS also showed evidence of a lower level of learning and memory abilities. Neuropsychological scores correlated with seizure duration. Children with complex FS showed more attentional problems and anxious/depressed symptomatology at onset and school age, and more hyperactivity at school age.

Significance: Infants with complex FS seemed to show normal development within the first year post-seizure onset. However, challenges in executive functioning, learning and memory at school age were found in children with a history of FS. Hence, at school age, cognitive challenges cannot be excluded based on undifferentiated early cognitive development, and may occur even in the absence of the most severe form of FS (i.e., FSE). Beyond the limits of this study (i.e., small sample size, use of parental questionnaires for emotional/behavioural outcome, absence of focal cases in the school-age cohort), our results suggest that a follow-up is necessary beyond the early preschool years in order to understand the long-term outcome.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1684/epd.2021.1260DOI Listing
April 2021

Effect on Pain of an Oral Sucrose Solution vs. Placebo in Children 1 to 3 Months Old Needing Nasopharyngeal Aspiration: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

J Emerg Med 2021 Mar 29. Epub 2021 Mar 29.

Departments of Pediatric Emergency Medicine & Pediatrics, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Sainte-Justine, Université de Montréal, Montreal, Quebec, Canada.

Background: Oral sweet solutions have been proposed as effective pain-reducing agents for procedures.

Objectives: To compare the efficacy of an oral sucrose solution vs. placebo in alleviating pain in children (1-3 months) during nasopharyngeal aspiration (NPA).

Methods: A randomized, double-blind, controlled clinical trial was conducted in a pediatric hospital emergency department. Participants (aged 1-3 months) requiring NPA were randomly allocated to receive 2 mL of 88% sucrose (SUC) or 2 mL of a placebo (PLA) 2 min prior to the procedure. The primary outcome was the mean difference in pain scores at 1 min post NPA as assessed by the Face, Legs, Activity, Cry and Consolability (FLACC) Pain Scale.

Results: Seventy-two participants completed the study, 37 receiving SUC and 35 PLA. The mean difference in FLACC scores compared with baseline was 3.3 (2.5-4.1) for SUC vs. 3.2 (2.3-4.1) for PLA (p = .094) at 1 min and -1.2 (-1.7-0.7) for SUC vs. -0.8 (-1.5 to -0.1) for PLA (p = 0.66) at 3 min after NPA. For the Neonatal Infant Pain Scale scores, it was 2.3 (1.6-3.0) (SUC) vs. 2.5 (1.8-3.2) (PLA) (p = .086) at 1 min and -1.2 (-1.6 to -0.8) (SUC) vs. -0.8 (-1.3 to 0.2) (PLA) (p = 0.59) 3 min after NPA. There was no difference in the mean crying time, 114 (98-130) s, SUC vs. 109 (92-126) s, PLA (p = 0.81). No significant difference was found in participants' heart rate at 1 min 174 (154-194) beats/min in SUC vs. 179 (160-198) beats/min in PLA (p = 0.32).

Conclusions: In infants (1-3 months) undergoing NPA, administration of an oral sweet solution did not statistically decrease pain scores.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jemermed.2021.02.021DOI Listing
March 2021

Fruit-Induced Anaphylaxis: Clinical Presentation and Management.

J Allergy Clin Immunol Pract 2021 Mar 13. Epub 2021 Mar 13.

Division of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, Department of Pediatrics, Montreal Children's Hospital, McGill University Health Centre, Montreal, QC, Canada.

Background: Data are sparse regarding the clinical characteristics and management of fruit-induced anaphylaxis.

Objective: To assess clinical characteristics and management of patients with fruit-induced anaphylaxis and determine factors associated with severe reactions and epinephrine use.

Methods: Over 9 years, children and adults presenting with anaphylaxis to seven emergency departments in four Canadian provinces and patients requiring emergency medical services in Outaouais, Quebec were recruited as part of the Cross-Canada Anaphylaxis Registry. A standardized form documenting symptoms, triggers, and management was collected. Multivariate logistic regression was used to identify factors associated with severe reactions and epinephrine treatment in the pre-hospital setting.

Results: We recruited 250 patients with fruit-induced anaphylaxis, median age 10.2 years (interquartile range, 3.6-23.4 years); 48.8% were male. The most common fruit triggers were kiwi (15.6%), banana (10.8%), and mango (9.2%). Twenty-three patients reported having eczema (9.3%). Epinephrine use was low in both the pre-hospital setting and the emergency department (28.4% and 40.8%, respectively). Severe reactions to fruit were more likely to occur in spring and among those with eczema (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 1.12, 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.03-1.23; and 1.17, 95% CI, 1.03-1.34, respectively). Patients with moderate and severe reactions (aOR = 1.23; 95% CI, 1.06-1.43) and those with a known food allergy (aOR = 1.38; 95% CI, 1.24-1.54) were more likely to be treated with epinephrine in the pre-hospital setting.

Conclusions: Severe anaphylaxis to fruit is more frequent in spring. Cross-reactivity to pollens is a potential explanation that should be evaluated further.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jaip.2021.02.055DOI Listing
March 2021

Evaluation of bedside sonography performed by emergency physicians to detect intussusception in children in the emergency department.

Acad Emerg Med 2021 Feb 6. Epub 2021 Feb 6.

Division of Emergency Medicine, CHU Sainte-Justine, Montréal, Quebec, Canada.

Objective: The aim of our study was to evaluate the test characteristics of point-of-care ultrasound (POCUS) performed by emergency physicians with varying levels of experience among children having undergone diagnostic radiology ultrasound for intussusception in a pediatric emergency department (PED).

Methods: This was a subanalysis of a prospective cohort study conducted at a tertiary care PED. The study population was a sample of children younger than 5 years old who required an abdominal ultrasound for suspected intussusception. Participating physicians had varying levels of POCUS experience. They received a 1-hour didactic and practical training session on intussusception ultrasound. All POCUS was performed following the initial physical examination and prior to further radiologic evaluation. The final outcome was determined by radiologic evaluation performed by a pediatric radiologist. Test characteristics were calculated for POCUS compared with the criterion standard of ultrasound read by a pediatric radiologist. A secondary analysis compared test characteristics of POCUS performed by physicians with different level of POCUS training.

Results: A total of 131 children were evaluated by POCUS, of whom 45 (34%) had an intussusception. Twenty-four physicians performed between one and 25 POCUS procedures. POCUS identified 39 of 45 intussusception cases, with a sensitivity of 0.87 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.74 to 0.94). A normal or inconclusive POCUS was reported for 83 of the 86 negative studies, with a specificity of 0.97 (95% CI = 0.90 to 0.99). When excluding the 28 patients for whom the physician reported an inconclusive examination, the sensitivity improved to 0.98 (95% CI = 0.97 to 1.00) and the specificity to 0.94 (95% CI = 0.85 to 0.99). The accuracy of diagnosis using POCUS was 42 of 43 (98%) for experienced sonographers in comparison to 81 of 88 (92%) for novices.

Conclusion: This study demonstrated a very good sensitivity and specificity of POCUS for intussusception in children when performed by multiple emergency physicians with varying POCUS experience.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/acem.14226DOI Listing
February 2021

Oropharyngeal Carriage of Kingella kingae and Transient Synovitis of the Hip in Young Children: A Case-control Study.

Pediatr Infect Dis J 2021 Mar;40(3):182-185

Department of Pediatric Medical Biology, Sainte-Justine Hospital, University of Montreal, Montreal, QC, Canada.

Background: Transient synovitis of the hip affects mostly preschool children, and its etiology is unknown. Kingella kingae has been identified recently as a common etiologic agent of osteoarticular infections (OAI) in young children and could potentially be associated to transient synovitis of the hip. The main objective of this study was to evaluate the association between transient synovitis of the hip and oropharyngeal carriage of K. kingae among preschool children.

Methods: This was a prospective case-control study conducted at a tertiary care pediatric emergency department. Cases were children between 6 and 71 months of ages with a diagnosis of transient synovitis of the hip. For each transient synovitis case, an age-matched control was recruited among children presenting for a trauma. A second control group included children with any OAI. The independent variable was the presence of oropharyngeal K. kingae identified by a specific polymerase chain reaction assay. The primary analysis was the association between oropharyngeal K. kingae carriage and final diagnosis.

Results: A total of 73 children were included in the study. Among them, 25 had a transient synovitis, 16 an OAI, and 22 controls. Baseline demographics were similar between the groups. There was no difference in oropharyngeal carriage of K. kingae for children with transient synovitis (5/25; 0.20) in comparison to controls (3/22; 0.14), while it was higher for children with OAI (10/16; 0.63).

Conclusions: There is no association between oropharyngeal K. kingae and transient synovitis of the hip among preschool children.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/INF.0000000000002944DOI Listing
March 2021

Management and recurrence of spontaneous pneumothorax in children.

Paediatr Child Health 2020 Mar 16;25(2):86-92. Epub 2019 Mar 16.

Department of Pediatrics Emergency Medicine, CHU Sainte-Justine, Université de Montréal, Montréal, Quebec.

Objective: No guideline clearly prescribes an approach to management of spontaneous pneumothorax in children. The objectives of this study were to evaluate practice variation in the management of spontaneous pneumothorax in children and its probability of recurrence.

Methods: This study was a retrospective chart review followed by a phone follow-up that included all children who had visited a tertiary care paediatric hospital for a first episode of spontaneous pneumothorax between 2008 and 2017. The primary outcomes were the management of pneumothorax (observation, oxygen, needle aspiration, intercostal chest tube, surgery) and the probability of recurrence. All charts were evaluated by a rater using a standardized report form and 10% of the charts were evaluated in duplicate. All children/families were contacted by phone to assess recurrence. The primary analyses were the proportions of each treatment modalities and recurrence, respectively.

Results: During the study period, 76 children were deemed eligible for the study. Among them, 59 had a primary spontaneous pneumothorax while 17 were secondary. The most common first therapeutic approaches were chest tube insertion (31), oxygen alone (27), and observation (14). A total of 54 patients were available for follow-up among whom a recurrence was observed in 28 (37% of the total cohort or 52% of available children).

Conclusion: Chest tube insertion was the first line of treatment in about 40% of children with a first spontaneous pneumothorax. In this population, the recurrence probability is established between 37 and 52% and the majority occurs in the following months.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/pch/pxz032DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7757772PMC
March 2020

Head CT overuse in children with a mild traumatic brain injury within two Canadian emergency departments.

Paediatr Child Health 2020 Feb 14;25(1):26-32. Epub 2019 Jan 14.

Faculty of Medicine, Université Laval, Quebec City, Quebec.

Background: The validated Pediatric Emergency Care Applied Network (PECARN) rule helps determine the relevance of a head computerized tomography (CT) for children with mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI). We sought to estimate the potential overuse of head CT within two Canadian emergency departments (EDs).

Methods: We conducted a retrospective chart review of children seen in 2016 in a paediatric Level I (site 1) and a general Level II (site 2) trauma centre. We reviewed charts to determine the appropriateness of head CT use according to the PECARN rule in a random subset of children presenting with head trauma. Simple descriptive statistics were applied.

Results: One thousand five hundred and forty-six eligible patients younger than 17 years consulted during the study period. Of the 203 randomly selected cases per setting, 16 (7.9%) and 24 (12%), respectively from sites 1 and 2 had a head CT performed. Based on the PECARN rule, we estimated the overuse for the younger group (<2 years) to be below 3% for both hospitals without significant difference between them. For the older group (≥2 years), the overuse rate was higher at site 2 (9.3%, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 4.8 to 17% versus 1.2%, 95% CI: 0.2 to 6.5%, P=0.03).

Conclusion: Both EDs demonstrated overuse rates below 10% although it was higher for the older group at site 2. Such low rates can potentially be explained by the university affiliation of both hospitals and by two Canadian organizations working to raise awareness among physicians about the overuse of diagnostic tools and dangers inherent to radiation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/pch/pxy180DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7757778PMC
February 2020

Effect of Nebulized Magnesium vs Placebo Added to Albuterol on Hospitalization Among Children With Refractory Acute Asthma Treated in the Emergency Department: A Randomized Clinical Trial.

JAMA 2020 11;324(20):2038-2047

Sections of Pediatric Emergency Medicine and Gastroenterology, Departments of Pediatrics and Emergency Medicine, Alberta Children's Hospital, Alberta Children's Hospital Research Institute, Cumming School of Medicine, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta, Canada.

Importance: While intravenous magnesium decreases hospitalizations in refractory pediatric acute asthma, it is variably used because of invasiveness and safety concerns. The benefit of nebulized magnesium to prevent hospitalization is unknown.

Objective: To evaluate the effectiveness of nebulized magnesium in children with acute asthma remaining in moderate or severe respiratory distress after initial therapy.

Design, Setting, And Participants: A randomized double-blind parallel-group clinical trial from September 26, 2011, to November 19, 2019, in 7 tertiary-care pediatric emergency departments in Canada. The participants were otherwise healthy children aged 2 to 17 years with moderate to severe asthma defined by a Pediatric Respiratory Assessment Measure (PRAM) score of 5 or greater (on a 12-point scale) after a 1-hour treatment with an oral corticosteroid and 3 inhaled albuterol and ipratropium treatments. Of 5846 screened patients, 4332 were excluded for criteria, 273 declined participation, 423 otherwise excluded, 818 randomized, and 816 analyzed.

Interventions: Participants were randomized to 3 nebulized albuterol treatments with either magnesium sulfate (n = 410) or 5.5% saline placebo (n = 408).

Main Outcomes And Measures: The primary outcome was hospitalization for asthma within 24 hours. Secondary outcomes included PRAM score; respiratory rate; oxygen saturation at 60, 120, 180, and 240 minutes; blood pressure at 20, 40, 60, 120, 180, and 240 minutes; and albuterol treatments within 240 minutes.

Results: Among 818 randomized patients (median age, 5 years; 63% males), 816 completed the trial (409 received magnesium; 407, placebo). A total of 178 of the 409 children who received magnesium (43.5%) were hospitalized vs 194 of the 407 who received placebo (47.7%) (difference, -4.2%; absolute risk difference 95% [exact] CI, -11% to 2.8%]; P = .26). There were no significant between-group differences in changes from baseline to 240 minutes in PRAM score (difference of changes, 0.14 points [95% CI, -0.23 to 0.50]; P = .46); respiratory rate (0.17 breaths/min [95% CI, -1.32 to 1.67]; P = .82); oxygen saturation (-0.04% [95% CI, -0.53% to 0.46%]; P = .88); systolic blood pressure (0.78 mm Hg [95% CI, -1.48 to 3.03]; P = .50); or mean number of additional albuterol treatments (magnesium: 1.49, placebo: 1.59; risk ratio, 0.94 [95% CI, 0.79 to 1.11]; P = .47). Nausea/vomiting or sore throat/nose occurred in 17 of the 409 children who received magnesium (4%) and 5 of the 407 who received placebo (1%).

Conclusions And Relevance: Among children with refractory acute asthma in the emergency department, nebulized magnesium with albuterol, compared with placebo with albuterol, did not significantly decrease the hospitalization rate for asthma within 24 hours. The findings do not support use of nebulized magnesium with albuterol among children with refractory acute asthma.

Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01429415.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jama.2020.19839DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7686869PMC
November 2020

Adapting two American Decision Aids for Mild Traumatic Brain Injury to the Canadian Context Using the Nominal Group Technique.

Patient 2020 12 20;13(6):729-743. Epub 2020 Oct 20.

Centre Intégré de Santé et de Services Sociaux de Chaudière-Appalaches, Lévis, QC, Canada.

Background: Decision aids are patient-focused tools that have the potential to reduce the overuse of head computed tomography (CT) scans.

Objective: The objective of this study was to create a consensus among Canadian mild traumatic brain injury and emergency medicine experts on modifications required to adapt two American decision aids about head CT use for adult and paediatric mild traumatic brain injury to the Canadian context.

Methods: We invited 21 Canadian stakeholders and the two authors of the American decision aids to a Nominal Group Technique consensus meeting to generate suggestions for adapting the decision aids. This method encourages idea generation and sharing between team members. Each idea was discussed and then prioritised using a voting system. We collected data using videotaping, writing material and online collaborative writing tools. The modifications proposed were analysed using a qualitative thematic content analysis.

Results: Twenty-one participants took part in the meeting, including researchers and clinician researchers (n = 9; 43%), patient partners (n = 3; 14%) and decision makers (n = 2; 10%). A total of 84 ideas were generated. Participants highlighted the need to clarify the purpose of the decision aids, the nature of the problem being addressed and the target population. The tools require sociocultural adaptations, better identification of their target population, better description of head CT utility, advantages and related risks, modification of the visual and written representation of the risk of brain injury and head CT use, and locally adapted, patient follow-up plans.

Conclusions: This study based on a Nominal Group Technique identified several adaptations for two American decision aids about head CT use for mild traumatic brain injury to support their use in Canada's different healthcare, social, cultural and legal context. These adaptations concerned the target users of the decision aids, the information presented, and how the benefits and risks were communicated in the decision aids. Future steps include prototyping the two adapted decision aids, conducting formative evaluations with actual emergency department patients and clinicians, and measuring the impact of the adapted tools on CT scan use.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s40271-020-00459-yDOI Listing
December 2020

Kids' Outcomes And Long-term Abilities (KOALA): protocol for a prospective, longitudinal cohort study of mild traumatic brain injury in children 6 months to 6 years of age.

BMJ Open 2020 10 19;10(10):e040603. Epub 2020 Oct 19.

Radiology, CHU Sainte-Justine, Montreal, Quebec, Canada.

Introduction: Mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) is highly prevalent, especially in children under 6 years. However, little research focuses on the consequences of mTBI early in development. The objective of the Kids' Outcomes And Long-term Abilities (KOALA) study is to document the impact of early mTBI on children's motor, cognitive, social and behavioural functioning, as well as on quality of life, stress, sleep and brain integrity.

Methods And Analyses: KOALA is a prospective, multicentre, longitudinal cohort study of children aged 6 months to 6 years at the time of injury/recruitment. Children who sustain mTBI (n=150) or an orthopaedic injury (n=75) will be recruited from three paediatric emergency departments (PEDs), and compared with typically developing children (community controls, n=75). A comprehensive battery of prognostic and outcome measures will be collected in the PED, at 10 days, 1, 3 and 12 months postinjury. Biological measures, including measures of brain structure and function (magnetic resonance imaging, MRI), stress (hair cortisol), sleep (actigraphy) and genetics (saliva), will complement direct testing of function using developmental and neuropsychological measures and parent questionnaires. Group comparisons and predictive models will test the a priori hypotheses that, compared with children from the community or with orthopaedic injuries, children with mTBI will (1) display more postconcussive symptoms and exhibit poorer motor, cognitive, social and behavioural functioning; (2) show evidence of altered brain structure and function, poorer sleep and higher levels of stress hormones. A combination of child, injury, socioenvironmental and psychobiological factors are expected to predict behaviour and quality of life at 1, 3 and 12 months postinjury.

Ethics And Dissemination: The KOALA study is approved by the Sainte-Justine University Hospital, McGill University Health Centre and University of Calgary Conjoint Health Research Ethics Boards. Parents of participants will provide written consent. Dissemination will occur through peer-reviewed journals and an integrated knowledge translation plan.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmjopen-2020-040603DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7574946PMC
October 2020

Risk of peanut- and tree-nut-induced anaphylaxis during Halloween, Easter and other cultural holidays in Canadian children.

CMAJ 2020 Sep;192(38):E1084-E1092

Division of Allergy and Clinical Immunology (Leung, Gabrielli, Ben-Shoshan), Department of Pediatrics, Montreal Children's Hospital, McGill University Health Centre, Montréal, Que.; Division of Rheumatology (Clarke, Shand), Department of Medicine, Cumming School of Medicine, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alta.; Department of Emergency Medicine (Morris), Hôpital Sacré-Coeur; Division of Pediatric Emergency Medicine (Gravel), Department of Pediatrics, Centre hospitalier universitaire Sainte-Justine, Montréal, Que.; Division of Pediatric Emergency Medicine (Lim), Department of Pediatrics, Children's Hospital at London Health Sciences Centre, London, Ont.; Divisions of Allergy and Immunology (Chan) and Emergency Medicine (Goldman, Enarson), Department of Pediatrics, BC Children's Hospital, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC; Department of Pediatrics (O'Keefe), Faculty of Medicine, Memorial University, St. John's, NL; Food Allergy Canada (Gerdts), Toronto, Ont.; Division of Clinical Immunology & Allergy (Chu), Department of Medicine, and Department of Health Research Methods, Evidence, and Impact (Chu), McMaster University, Hamilton, Ont.; Division of Immunology and Allergy (Upton), Department of Pediatrics, The Hospital for Sick Children, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ont.; Centre for Outcomes Research and Evaluation (Zhang), Research Institute of McGill University Health Centre, Montréal, Que.

Background: It is not established whether the risk of anaphylaxis induced by peanuts or tree nuts in children increases at specific times of the year. We aimed to evaluate the risk of peanut-and tree-nut-induced anaphylaxis during certain cultural holidays in Canadian children.

Methods: We collected data on confirmed pediatric cases of anaphylaxis presenting to emergency departments in 4 Canadian provinces as part of the Cross-Canada Anaphylaxis Registry. We assessed the mean number of cases per day and incidence rate ratio (IRR) of anaphylaxis induced by unknown nuts, peanuts and tree nuts presenting during each of 6 holidays (Halloween, Christmas, Easter, Diwali, Chinese New Year and Eid al-Adha) versus the rest of the year. We estimated IRRs and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) using Poisson regression.

Results: Data were collected for 1390 pediatric cases of anaphylaxis between 2011 and 2020. Their median age was 5.4 years, and 864 (62.2%) of the children were boys. During Halloween and Easter, there were higher rates of anaphylaxis to unknown nuts (IRR 1.66, 95% CI 1.13-2.43 and IRR 1.71, 95% CI 1.21-2.42, respectively) and peanuts (IRR 1.86, 95% CI 1.12-3.11 and IRR 1.57, 95% CI 0.94-2.63, respectively) compared to the rest of the year. No increased risk of peanut- or tree-nut-induced anaphylaxis was observed during Christmas, Diwali, Chinese New Year or Eid al-Adha. Anaphylaxis induced by unknown nuts, peanuts and tree nuts was more likely in children aged 6 years or older than in younger children.

Interpretation: We found an increased risk of anaphylaxis induced by unknown nuts and peanuts during Halloween and Easter among Canadian children. Educational tools are needed to increase awareness and vigilance in order to decrease the risk of anaphylaxis induced by peanuts and tree nuts in children during these holidays.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1503/cmaj.200034DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7532006PMC
September 2020

Symptom Burden, School Function, and Physical Activity One Year Following Pediatric Concussion.

J Pediatr 2021 01 25;228:190-198.e3. Epub 2020 Aug 25.

Children's Hospital of Eastern Ontario Research Institute, Ottawa, Canada; Faculty of Medicine, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, Canada.

Objectives: To characterize symptom burden, school function, and physical activity in youth 1 year following acute concussion and those with subsequent repeat concussion.

Study Design: Secondary analysis of Predicting Persistent Postconcussive Problems in Pediatrics prospective, multicenter cohort study conducted in 9 Canadian emergency departments. Participants were children between ages 5 and 18 years who presented consecutively ≤48 hours of concussion and agreed to participate in a post hoc electronic survey 1 year after injury. Outcomes were assessed using a standardized 25-question symptom scale derived from the Post-Concussion Symptom Inventory-Parent; school function and physical activity outcomes were queried. The primary outcome was total symptom score 1 year following concussion, defined as the number of symptoms experienced more than before injury.

Results: Of 3052 youth enrolled in the Predicting Persistent Postconcussive Problems in Pediatrics study, 432 (median [IQR] age, 11.5 [9,14] years; 266 [62%] male) completed the 1-year survey; 34 respondents reported a repeat concussion. Following acute concussion, youth were more likely to be symptom-free than following repeat concussion (75% vs 50%; difference = 25% [95% CI 8-41]; P = .002) and to have recovered fully (90% vs 74%; difference = 17% [95% CI 5-34]; P = .002) after 1 year. Although physical symptoms were less 1 year after initial emergency department presentation for both groups (P < .001), youth with a repeat concussion reported greater headache persistence (26% vs 13%; difference = 13% [95% CI 1,31]; P = .024). Both groups returned to their normal school routine (100% vs 95%; difference = 5% [95% CI -5 to 8; P = .618). Youth without repeat concussion more frequently returned to normal physical activities (98% vs 85%; difference = 13% [95% CI 4-28]; P < .0001) and sport (95% vs 82%; difference = 13% [95% CI 3-29]; P = .009).

Conclusions: Most youth are symptom-free and fully recovered 1 year following concussion. Some children with repeat concussion have worse outcomes and have delays in returning to normal school routines and sport.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jpeds.2020.08.061DOI Listing
January 2021

Quality of life 6 and 18 months after mild traumatic brain injury in early childhood: An exploratory study of the role of genetic, environmental, injury, and child factors.

Brain Res 2020 12 17;1748:147061. Epub 2020 Aug 17.

Department of Psychology, University of Montreal, P.O. Box 6128 Downtown Station, Montreal, Quebec H3C 3J7, Canada; Sainte-Justine Hospital Research Center, 3175 Côte Sainte-Catherine Road, Montreal, Quebec H3T 1C5, Canada. Electronic address:

Mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) in early childhood is prevalent, and some children may be at risk for short- and long-term difficulties that could affect quality of life (QoL). Despite growing efforts to understand associations between potential risk factors and outcomes after injury, prognosis is elusive and lacks the inclusion of genetic variables which may convey additional predictive power. This study assessed which factors contribute to pediatric QoL 6 and 18 months post-recruitment in 159 participants (mTBI = 52; orthopedic injury [OI] = 43; typically developing controls [TDC] = 64) aged 18 to 60 months at the time of injury (M = 37.50, SD = 11.69). Family environment, injury characteristics, and child cognitive-behavioral functioning were assessed at 6 months via parent questionnaires and socio-cognitive assessment. QoL was determined using the Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory at both time points. Genetic information (Brain-derived neurotrophic factor [BDNF] genotype) was collected using saliva samples. Hierarchical regression analyses testing biological, family-environmental, injury and cognitive-behavioral factors revealed that the BDNF Val66Met polymorphism was a significant independent predictor of better QoL 6 months post-injury in the mTBI group. Lower parental distress significantly and independently predicted higher QoL 18 months after mTBI, and 6 months post-recruitment in the TDC group. At 18 months, models were non-significant for both control groups. Genetic factors involved in neuroplasticity may play an important role in recovery 6 months after mTBI and contribute to outcome via their interplay with environmental factors. Over time, family factors appear to become the primary determinants of post-mTBI outcome.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.brainres.2020.147061DOI Listing
December 2020

Anaphylaxis as a presenting symptom of food allergy in children with no known food allergy.

J Allergy Clin Immunol Pract 2020 09 26;8(8):2811-2813.e2. Epub 2020 Apr 26.

Division of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, Department of Pediatrics, Montreal Children's Hospital, McGill University Health Centre, Montreal, QC, Canada.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jaip.2020.04.033DOI Listing
September 2020

Emergency physician performed ultrasound-assisted lumbar puncture in children: A randomized controlled trial.

Am J Emerg Med 2020 Feb 19. Epub 2020 Feb 19.

Department of Pediatric Emergency Medicine, CHU Sainte-Justine, Montreal, QC, Canada.

Background And Objective: Lumbar puncture (LP) is one of the most common procedures performed in pediatric emergency departments but first-attempt success rates remain low and traumatic LP remains frequent. The aim of this study was to determine if ultrasound performed by emergency physicians improves the probability of first-attempt success for lumbar puncture in children.

Methods: This was a prospective randomized controlled trial conducted in two tertiary care, pediatric, university-affiliated emergency departments in 2017-2018. Eligible participants were children younger than 19 years old requiring an LP in the emergency department. They were randomized to either the standard landmark-based LP (SLP) or ultrasound-assisted LP (UALP) groups. Our primary outcome was the first-attempt LP success rate.

Results: 166 patients were enrolled, with 84 in the UALP and 82 in the SLP group. A total of 23 physicians performed ultrasounds in the study. The proportion of successful first-attempt LP was higher in the ultrasound group (60/84; 68%) than for the standard procedure (52/82; 60%), but this failed to reach statistical significance (difference: 8.1%; 95% CI: -6.4 to 22.2).

Conclusion: Our study does not support the routine use of ultrasound for performing lumbar puncture in children. Considering the minimal harm and ease of performance, ultrasound may be used as an adjunct and teaching tool in certain clinical situations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ajem.2020.02.036DOI Listing
February 2020

Early versus delayed emergency department presentation following mild Traumatic Brain Injury and the presence of symptom at 1, 4 and 12 weeks in children.

Emerg Med J 2020 Jun 5;37(6):338-343. Epub 2020 Mar 5.

Pediatrics, CHEO, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada.

Objectives: We evaluated the association between timing of presentation and postconcussive symptoms (PCS) at 1, 4 and 12 weeks after injury.

Methods: This was a secondary analysis of a prospective cohort study conducted in nine Canadian paediatric EDs in 2013-2015 (5P study). Participants were children who suffered a head injury within the preceding 48 hours and met Zurich consensus concussion diagnostic criteria. The exposure was the time between head injury and ED presentation. The primary outcome was the presence of PCS at 1 week defined by the presence of at least three symptoms on the Post-Concussion Symptom Inventory (PCSI). Secondary outcomes evaluated PCS at 4 and 12 weeks. Multivariable logistic regression analyses were adjusted for ED PCSI and other potential confounders.

Results: There were 3041 patients with a concussion in which timing of the injury was known. 2287 (75%) participants sought care in the first 12 hours, 388 (13%) 12-24 hours after trauma and 366 (12%) between 24 and 48 hours. Compared with children who sought care >24 hours after trauma, children who sought care in the first 12 hours had a significantly lower incidence of PCS at 1 week (OR: 0.55 (95% CI 0.41 to 0.75)) and 4 weeks (OR: 0.74 (95% CI 0.56 to 0.99)) but not at 12 weeks (OR: 0.88 (95% CI 0.63 to 1.23)).

Conclusions: Patients who present early after a concussion appear to have a shorter duration of PCS than those presenting more than 12 hours later. Patients/families should be informed of the higher probability of PCS in children with delayed presentation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/emermed-2019-209054DOI Listing
June 2020

Improving delivery of care in rural emergency departments: a qualitative pilot study mobilizing health professionals, decision-makers and citizens in Baie-Saint-Paul and the Magdalen Islands, Québec, Canada.

BMC Health Serv Res 2020 Jan 29;20(1):62. Epub 2020 Jan 29.

Department of Family and Emergency Medicine, Université Laval, 143 Rue Wolfe, Lévis Québec, Québec, G6V 3Z1, Canada.

Background: Emergency departments (EDs) in rural and remote areas face challenges in delivering accessible, high quality and efficient services. The objective of this pilot study was to test the feasibility and relevance of the selected approach and to explore challenges and solutions to improve delivery of care in selected EDs.

Methods: We conducted an exploratory multiple case study in two rural EDs in Québec, Canada. A survey filled out by the head nurse for each ED provided a descriptive statistical portrait. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with ED health professionals, decision-makers and citizens (n = 68) and analyzed inductively and thematically.

Results: The two EDs differed with regards to number of annual visits, inter-facility transfers and wait time. Stakeholders stressed the influence of context on ED challenges and solutions, related to: 1) governance and management (e.g. lack of representation, poor efficiency, ill-adapted standards); 2) health services organization (e.g. limited access to primary healthcare and long-term care, challenges with transfers); 3) resources (e.g. lack of infrastructure, limited access to specialists, difficult staff recruitment/retention); 4) and professional practice (e.g. isolation, large scope, maintaining competencies with low case volumes, need for continuing education, teamwork and protocols). There was a general agreement between stakeholder groups.

Conclusions: Our findings show the feasibility and relevance of mobilizing stakeholders to identify context-specific challenges and solutions. It confirms the importance of undertaking a larger study to improve the delivery of care in rural EDs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12913-020-4916-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6988199PMC
January 2020

When and how pediatric anaphylaxis cases reach the emergency department: Findings from the Cross-Canada Anaphylaxis Registry.

J Allergy Clin Immunol Pract 2020 04 31;8(4):1406-1409.e2. Epub 2019 Oct 31.

Division of Pediatric Allergy and Clinical Immunology, Department of Pediatrics, McGill University Health Centre, Montreal, QC, Canada.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jaip.2019.10.009DOI Listing
April 2020

Impact of wait time during a first pediatric emergency room visit on likelihood of revisit in the next year.

Am J Emerg Med 2020 05 3;38(5):890-894. Epub 2019 Jul 3.

Department of Pediatric Emergency Medicine, CHU Sainte-Justine, 3175 Chemin de la Côte-Sainte Catherine, Montreal, Quebec, Canada.

Objective: Pediatric emergency departments (ED) develop strategies to decrease wait time. Yet, lowering wait times may incite patients to come back, and increase patient volume. We aim to determine if wait time in a first visit influenced the likelihood of a revisit to the same setting.

Methods: We performed a retrospective cohort study of children with a first visit to a single pediatric ED between November 1st 2016, and October 31st 2017. First visit was defined as no visit in the same ED in the previous 12 months. The primary outcome was the occurrence of a revisit at the same ED within 12 months of the first visit. Our main predictor was the wait time at the first visit for primary evaluation by a physician. We used multivariable logistic regression models to adjust for potential risk factors (age, triage level, day of visit and disposition).

Results: Among 85,844 ED visits during the study period, 36,844 were first visits and fulfilled inclusion/exclusion criteria. Median wait time was 101 min (interquartile range: 56-177 min). Among those with a first visit, 11,351 (30.8%) had a revisit within 12 months. In multivariable analysis, each one hour increase in wait time was associated with a lower probability of revisit (OR: 0.92; 95% CI: 0.91-0.94).

Conclusions: Shorter wait time was associated with higher likelihood of a revisit to the same ED in the following 12 months. Strategies to reduce wait times should take into consideration possible concomitant increase in patient volume.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ajem.2019.07.005DOI Listing
May 2020

The impact of pediatric emergency department crowding on patient and health care system outcomes: a multicentre cohort study.

CMAJ 2019 06;191(23):E627-E635

Division of Pediatric Emergency Medicine, Department of Pediatrics (Doan, Meckler), University of British Columbia; School of Population and Public Health (Wong), University of British Columbia; BC Children's Hospital Research Institute (Doan, Meckler), Vancouver, BC; Alberta Children's Hospital Research Institute (Johnson, Stang), University of Calgary, Calgary, Alta; Stollery Children's Hospital, and Women and Children's Health Research Institute (Dixon), University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alta.; Pediatric Emergency Medicine (Sawyer), University of Manitoba; Children's Hospital, Health Sciences Centre Winnipeg (Sawyer), Winnipeg, Man.; Paediatric Emergency Medicine (Principi), University of Toronto; The Hospital for Sick Children (Principi), Toronto, Ont.; Department of Pediatrics (Kam), McMaster University; McMaster Children's Hospital (Kam), Hamilton, Ont.; Paediatric Emergency Medicine (Joubert), Western University; Children's Hospital of Western Ontario (Joubert), London, Ont.; Département de pédiatrie (Gravel), Université de Montréal; CHU Sainte-Justine (Gravel), Montréal, Que.; Department of Pediatrics (Jabbour), University of Ottawa; Children's Hospital of Eastern Ontario (Jabbour), Ottawa, Ont.; ICES (Guttmann); Department of Paediatrics (Guttmann), University of Toronto, Toronto, Ont.

Background: Emergency department overcrowding has been associated with increased odds of hospital admission and mortality after discharge from the emergency department in predominantly adult cohorts. The objective of this study was to evaluate the association between crowding and the odds of several adverse outcomes among children seen at a pediatric emergency department.

Methods: We conducted a retrospective cohort study involving all children visiting 8 Canadian pediatric emergency departments across 4 provinces between 2010 and 2014. We analyzed the association between mean departmental length of stay for each index visit and hospital admission within 7 days or death within 14 days of emergency department discharge, as well as hospital admission at index visit and return visits within 7 days, using mixed-effects logistic regression modelling.

Results: A total of 1 931 465 index visits occurred across study sites over the 5-year period, with little variation in index visit hospital admission or median length of stay. Hospital admission within 7 days of discharge and 14-day mortality were low across provinces (0.8%-1.5% and < 10 per 100 000 visits, respectively), and their association with mean departmental length of stay varied by triage categories and across sites but was not significant. There were increased odds of hospital admission at the index visit with increasing departmental crowding among visits triaged to Canadian Triage and Acuity Scale (CTAS) score 1-2 (odds ratios [ORs] ranged from 1.01 to 1.08) and return visits among patients with a CTAS score of 4-5 discharged at the index visit at some sites (ORs ranged from 1.00 to 1.06).

Interpretation: Emergency department crowding was not significantly associated with hospital admission within 7 days of the emergency department visit or mortality in children. However, it was associated with increased hospital admission at the index visit for the sickest children, and with return visits to the emergency department for those less sick.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1503/cmaj.181426DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6565395PMC
June 2019

Emergency department and inpatient clinical decision tools for the management of febrile young infants among tertiary paediatric centres across Canada.

Paediatr Child Health 2019 Jun 5;24(3):e142-e154. Epub 2018 Oct 5.

Division of Emergency Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, Boston Children's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts.

Objectives: With no nationally-endorsed guidelines and the emergence of newer diagnostic tools, there exists significant variation in the management of febrile infants <90 days. We sought to evaluate the prevalence and content of clinical decision tools (CDTs) for the emergency department (ED) and inpatient management of febrile young infants across Canada.

Methods: We undertook a cross-sectional analysis of febrile young infant CDTs from ED and inpatient units at all 16 Canadian tertiary paediatric hospitals. Additional data were collected using an electronic survey of ED and inpatient representatives, characterizing their clinical settings and diagnostic test availability. Content of all existent CDTs was independently reviewed using list items determined a priori. The primary outcome was the proportion of EDs and inpatient units with CDTs.

Results: Information regarding CDTs was gathered from all 16 EDs and 16 inpatient units. CDTs were infrequently available (9/32, 28%), and were more common in the ED than inpatient setting (8/16 versus 1/16, P=0.02). Review of existing CDTs revealed inter-centre differences for inclusion ages, treatment regimens, lumbar puncture recommendations, diagnostic testing and normal laboratory values. Despite availability reported at nearly all centres, C-reactive protein and respiratory virus testing were recommended in 3/9 and 5/9 CDTs, respectively. Procalcitonin testing was available at only 2/16 (13%) centres, and not incorporated into any CDTs.

Conclusions: CDTs for the management of febrile young infants are infrequently available among Canadian tertiary paediatric centres, and rarely incorporate newer diagnostic tests. Heterogeneity among existent CDTs highlights the need for evidence-based unified ED and inpatient national guidelines.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/pch/pxy126DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6519581PMC
June 2019

Febrile seizures and increased stress sensitivity in children: How it relates to seizure characteristics.

Epilepsy Behav 2019 06 3;95:154-160. Epub 2019 May 3.

Department of Psychology, Université de Montréal, Marie Victorin Building, 90 Vincent-D'Indy Avenue, Montreal, Quebec, Canada; Centre de recherche en neuropsychologie et cognition, Université de Montréal, Marie Victorin Building, 90 Vincent-D'Indy Avenue, Montreal, Quebec, Canada; CHU Sainte-Justine Research Center, Université de Montréal, 3175 Chemin de la Côte-Sainte-Catherine, Montreal, Quebec, Canada. Electronic address:

Background: Studies suggest that the relationship between seizures and stress starts early in life. However, evidence of long-term altered stress reactivity following early-life seizures is lacking. Our objectives were to assess alterations in stress hormone reactivity in children with past febrile seizures (FS) and investigate how these alterations relate to clinical characteristics.

Method: This case-control study compared a convenience sample of children with simple FS (n = 24), complex FS (n = 18), and matched healthy controls (n = 42). Stress was induced by electrode placement for an electroencephalography (EEG) exam. Salivary cortisol to stress, using three samples collected before and after the stressor, was compared between groups and sex. The relationship between stress reactivity and clinical characteristics (i.e., FS duration, age at first FS, time since the last FS) was investigated.

Results: Cortisol reactivity to stress was significantly different depending on study groups, F(1, 78) = 6.415, p = 0.003, η = 0.141, but not sex nor was there a significant interaction between group and sex (p ≥ 0.581). Participants with simple FS showed higher cortisol reactivity to stress (M = 14.936, Standard deviation (SD) = 26.852) compared with those with complex FS (M = -4.663, SD = 18.649, p = 0.015) and controls (M = -3.817, SD = 18.907, p = 0.003). There was no significant difference between participants with complex FS and controls (p > 0.999). Stress reactivity was not linked to clinical characteristics.

Conclusions: Children with past simple FS showed greater changes in salivary cortisol following stress, suggesting enhanced stress sensitivity. As similar results were not found in a population with complex FS, our study shows that stress alterations are not caused by seizure severity. Future studies are needed to investigate whether stress sensitivity may be premorbid to simple FS and may contribute to simple FS incidence.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.yebeh.2019.03.022DOI Listing
June 2019

Predicting Wellness After Pediatric Concussion.

J Int Neuropsychol Soc 2019 04;25(4):375-389

Clinical Research Unit,Children's Hospital of Eastern Ontario Research Institute,Ottawa, Ontario,Canada, K1H 5B2.

Objective: Concussion in children and adolescents is a prevalent problem with implications for subsequent physical, cognitive, behavioral, and psychological functioning, as well as quality of life. While these consequences warrant attention, most concussed children recover well. This study aimed to determine what pre-injury, demographic, and injury-related factors are associated with optimal outcome ("wellness") after pediatric concussion.

Method: A total of 311 children 6-18 years of age with concussion participated in a longitudinal, prospective cohort study. Pre-morbid conditions and acute injury variables, including post-concussive symptoms (PCS) and cognitive screening (Standardized Assessment of Concussion, SAC), were collected in the emergency department, and a neuropsychological assessment was performed at 4 and 12 weeks post-injury. Wellness, defined by the absence of PCS and cognitive inefficiency and the presence of good quality of life, was the main outcome. Stepwise logistic regression was performed using 19 predictor variables.

Results: 41.5% and 52.2% of participants were classified as being well at 4 and 12 weeks post-injury, respectively. The final model indicated that children who were younger, who sustained sports/recreational injuries (vs. other types), who did not have a history of developmental problems, and who had better acute working memory (SAC concentration score) were significantly more likely to be well.

Conclusions: Determining the variables associated with wellness after pediatric concussion has the potential to clarify which children are likely to show optimal recovery. Future work focusing on wellness and concussion should include appropriate control groups and document more extensively pre-injury and injury-related factors that could additionally contribute to wellness. (JINS, 2019, 25, 375-389).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S1355617719000286DOI Listing
April 2019

Evaluation of Prehospital Management in a Canadian Emergency Department Anaphylaxis Cohort.

J Allergy Clin Immunol Pract 2019 Sep - Oct;7(7):2232-2238.e3. Epub 2019 Apr 26.

Division of Pediatric Allergy and Clinical Immunology, Department of Pediatrics, McGill University Health Centre, Montreal, Quebec, Canada.

Background: Studies assessing the use of antihistamines and corticosteroids for the treatment of anaphylaxis have not supported a conclusive effect.

Objective: To assess prehospital management of anaphylaxis by measuring the effect of epinephrine use compared with antihistamines and corticosteroids on negative outcomes of anaphylaxis (intensive care unit/hospital ward admission, multiple doses of epinephrine in the emergency department [ED], and intravenous fluids given in the ED).

Methods: The Cross-Canada Anaphylaxis Registry is a cohort study that enrolls anaphylaxis cases presenting to EDs in 5 Canadian provinces over a 6-year period. Participants were recruited prospectively and retrospectively and were excluded if the case did not meet the definition of anaphylaxis.

Results: A total of 3498 cases of anaphylaxis, of which 80.3% were children, presented to 9 EDs across Canada. Prehospital treatment with epinephrine was administered in 31% of cases, whereas antihistamines and corticosteroids were used in 46% and 2% of cases, respectively. Admission to the intensive care unit/hospital ward was associated with prehospital treatment with corticosteroids (adjusted odds ratio, 2.84; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.55, 6.97) while adjusting for severity, treatment with epinephrine and antihistamines, asthma, sex, and age. Prehospital treatment with epinephrine (adjusted odds ratio, 0.23; 95% CI, 0.14, 0.38) and antihistamines (adjusted odds ratio, 0.61; 95% CI, 0.44, 0.85) decreased the likelihood of receiving multiple doses of epinephrine in the ED, while adjusting for severity, treatment with corticosteroids, asthma, sex, and age.

Conclusions: Prompt epinephrine treatment is crucial. Use of antihistamines in conjunction with epinephrine may reduce the risk of uncontrolled reactions (administration of 2 or more doses of epinephrine in the ED), although our findings do not support the use of corticosteroids.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jaip.2019.04.018DOI Listing
September 2020

Practice Patterns in Pharmacological and Non-Pharmacological Therapies for Children with Mild Traumatic Brain Injury: A Survey of 15 Canadian and United States Centers.

J Neurotrauma 2019 10 17;36(20):2886-2894. Epub 2019 Jun 17.

Graduate School of Public Health, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania.

Given the lack of evidence regarding effective pharmacological and non-pharmacological interventions for pediatric mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) and the resultant lack of treatment recommendations reflected in consensus guidelines, variation in the management of pediatric mTBI is to be expected. We therefore surveyed practitioners across 15 centers in the United States and Canada who care for children with pediatric mTBI to evaluate common-practice variation in the management of pediatric mTBI. The survey, developed by a panel of pediatric mTBI experts, consisted of a 10-item survey instrument regarding providers' perception of common pediatric mTBI symptoms and mTBI interventions. Surveys were distributed electronically to a convenience sample of local experts at each center. Frequencies and percentages (with confidence intervals [CI]) were determined for survey responses. One hundred and seven respondents (71% response rate) included specialists in pediatric Emergency Medicine, Sports Medicine, Neurology, Neurosurgery, Neuropsychology, Neuropsychiatry, Physical and Occupational Therapy, Physiatry/Rehabilitation, and General Pediatrics. Respondents rated headache as the most prevalently reported symptom after pediatric mTBI, followed by cognitive problems, dizziness, and irritability. Of the 65 (61%; [95% CI: 51,70]) respondents able to prescribe medications, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory medications (55%; [95% CI: 42,68]) and acetaminophen (59%; [95% CI: 46,71]) were most commonly recommended. One in five respondents reported prescribing amitriptyline for headache management after pediatric mTBI, whereas topiramate (8%; [95% CI: 3,17]) was less commonly reported. For cognitive problems, methylphenidate (11%; [95% CI: 4,21]) was used more commonly than amantadine (2%; [95% CI: 0,8]). The most common non-pharmacological interventions were rest ("always" or "often" recommended by 83% [95% CI: 63,92] of the 107 respondents), exercise (59%; [95%CI: 49,69]), vestibular therapy (42% [95%CI: 33,53]) and cervical spine exercises (29% [95%CI: 21,39]). Self-reported utilization for common pediatric mTBI interventions varied widely across our Canadian and United States consortium. Future effectiveness studies for pediatric mTBI are urgently needed to advance the evidence-based care.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/neu.2018.6290DOI Listing
October 2019

Point-of-care ultrasound before attempting clean-catch urine collection in infants: a randomized controlled trial.

CJEM 2019 09;21(5):646-652

Department of Pediatrics, Division of Emergency Medicine, CHU Sainte-Justine, Université de Montréal, Montréal, QC.

Objective: A new non-invasive bladder stimulation technique has been described to obtain clean-catch urine specimens in infants. This study aimed to evaluate if point-of-care ultrasound (POCUS) guided feeding protocol to measure bladder volume prior to stimulation techniques improves clean-catch urine collection success.

Methods: A prospective randomized controlled trial study was conducted in a tertiary care pediatric emergency department. Infants aged less than 6 months needing a urine sample were randomized to either POCUS group or feeding group (standard procedure) before performing a standardized clean-catch urine stimulation technique. In the POCUS group, a feeding period was permitted if the bladder width was less than 2 cm, otherwise the clean-catch urine was performed immediately. The primary outcome was the success of the procedure defined by the collection of at least 2 mL of urine, obtained within 300 seconds of bladder stimulation manoeuvres. It was estimated that the recruitment of 200 children was necessary to yield 80% power to identify an improvement of 20% in the success rate.

Results: A total of 201 infants were included. The procedure was not more successful in the POCUS group (48%) compared to the feeding group (54%) (Difference: 6.5%; 95% CI: -7.3 to 19.8%). The mean time to collect urine samples from randomization to sample collection was not different between the two groups.

Conclusions: Our study failed to show a benefit of using POCUS to improve the success rate of stimulated clean-catch urine. Moreover, the importance of the feeding period prior to clean-catch urine manoeuvres should be evaluated further.

Clinical Trial Registration: NCT02751671.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/cem.2019.30DOI Listing
September 2019

Complications following chin laceration reparation using tissue adhesive compared to suture in children.

Injury 2019 Apr 29;50(4):903-907. Epub 2019 Mar 29.

Department of Paediatrics Emergency Medicine, CHU Sainte-Justine, Université de Montréal, Montréal, QC, Canada. Electronic address:

Background: Tissue adhesive is widely used in the emergency department to repair minor lacerations but there exists a debate as to whether it should be used for chin lacerations. The main objective of this study was to evaluate the rate of wound dehiscence of chin lacerations repaired with tissue adhesive in comparison to sutures.

Methods: This was a retrospective chart review including all children requiring a facial laceration reparation in a single tertiary care paediatric hospital. The primary outcome was wound dehiscence in the 30 days following reparation, comparing the use of tissue adhesive and sutures. The independent variable of interest was the use of tissue adhesive vs suture. A random sample of charts was reviewed in duplicate to insure reliability of the chart review.

Results: Among the 2044 children presenting with a facial laceration requiring an intervention, 1804 (88%) were repaired using tissue adhesive. The laceration was located on the chin in 360 (18%) of patients. The use of tissue adhesive was not statistically associated with a higher risk of dehiscence for all facial lacerations (difference: 0.2; 95%CI: -1.9 to 0.8%), nor for chin lacerations (difference 2.2%; 95%CI: -7.5 to 4.4%). However, the probability of dehiscence was higher for chin laceration in comparison to other localizations (difference of 1.6%; 95%CI: 0.5-3.6%).

Conclusion: While the rate of dehiscence was higher for chin lacerations compared to other facial localizations, the risk of dehiscence was not statistically different for chin laceration repaired with tissue adhesive or sutures.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.injury.2019.03.047DOI Listing
April 2019

Factors contributing to parent-child interaction quality following mild traumatic brain injury in early childhood.

J Neuropsychol 2020 03 19;14(1):98-120. Epub 2019 Feb 19.

Ste-Justine Research Center, Montreal, Quebec, Canada.

There is emerging evidence that parent-child interactions are affected by early childhood traumatic brain injury (TBI). These findings are of functional importance when considering the high prevalence of TBI in early childhood alongside evidence that young children exposed to positive relationships with their parents early in life exhibit better social functioning concurrently and longitudinally. Given that the overall quality of parent-child interactions is the result of both parent and child emotional and behavioural dispositions, it remains unclear which parental or child-related factors contribute to the quality of interactions post-TBI. The aim of this study was to investigate the factors that contribute to the quality of parent-child interactions following early childhood TBI. The sample included 68 children (18-60 months at recruitment) with accidental, uncomplicated mild TBI (mTBI). The quality of parent-child interactions was assessed 6 months post-injury using the Mutually Responsive Orientation scale, an observational measure of the dyadic quality of parent-child exchanges. Potential contributing factors were assessed among parental factors (e.g., age, socioeconomic status, family burden, parental stress, marital satisfaction) and child-related factors (e.g., age, sex, symptoms, fatigue, adaptive/behavioural skills). Socioeconomic status, child post-concussive symptoms, and child sleep problems were found to be significant independent contributing factors to parent-child interactions six months post-injury. This study provides the first evidence that both parental and child factors relate to the quality of parent-child interactions following mTBI, thus contributing to a better understanding of the scope and complexity of factors that play a role in childrens' recovery.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jnp.12179DOI Listing
March 2020

Genetic determinants of acute asthma therapy response in children with moderate-to-severe asthma exacerbations.

Pediatr Pulmonol 2019 04 15;54(4):378-385. Epub 2019 Jan 15.

Department of Pediatrics, University of Montreal, Montreal, Quebec, Canada.

Background: We documented inter-individual variability in the response to acute asthma therapy in children, attributed in part to five clinical factors (oxygen saturation, asthma severity score, virus detection, fever, symptoms between exacerbations; DOORWAY study). The contribution of genetic determinants of failure of acute asthma management have not been elucidated.

Objective: We aim to determine single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) associated with emergency department (ED) management failure in children.

Methods: A prospective cohort of 591 Caucasian children aged 1-17 years with moderate-to-severe asthma managed with standardized protocol were included. We examined 53 SNPs previously associated with asthma development, phenotypes, or bronchodilator or corticosteroids response. Associations between SNPs and management failure (hospitalization, active asthma management ≥8 h in ED, or a return visit within 72 h for one of two previous criteria) were examined using logistic regression, adjusting for the five clinical predictors of management failure.

Results: Four-hundred ninety-one subjects had complete clinical data and usable DNA samples. While controlling for clinical determinants, rs295137 in SPATS2L (OR = 1.77, 95%CI: 1.17, 2.68) was significantly associated with increased odds of ED management failure. Two SNPs in IL33 were associated with decreased odds of ED management failure: rs7037276 (OR = 0.55, 95%CI: 0.33, 0.90), and rs1342326 (OR = 0.52, 95%CI: 0.32, 0.86). The addition of these three SNPs to the clinical predictors significantly improved the model's predictive performance (P < 0.0004).

Conclusion: Three SNPs were significantly associated with ED management failure in addition to clinical predictors, contributing to inter-individual variability. None has been previously associated with treatment response to acute asthma management.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ppul.24247DOI Listing
April 2019

Derivation and Initial Validation of Clinical Phenotypes of Children Presenting with Concussion Acutely in the Emergency Department: Latent Class Analysis of a Multi-Center, Prospective Cohort, Observational Study.

J Neurotrauma 2019 06 6;36(11):1758-1767. Epub 2019 Mar 6.

2 Children's Hospital of Eastern Ontario Research Institute, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada.

The identification of clinical phenotypes may help parse the substantial heterogeneity that characterizes children with concussion. This study used latent class analysis (LCA) to identify discernible phenotypes among children with acute concussion and examine the association between phenotypes and persistent post-concussive symptoms (PPCS) at 4 and 12 weeks post-injury. We conducted LCA of variables representing pre-injury history, clinical presentation, and parent symptom ratings, derived from a prospective cohort, observational study that recruited participants from August 2013 until June 2015 at nine pediatric emergency departments within the Pediatric Emergency Research Canada network. This substudy included 2323 children from the original cohort ages 8.00-17.99 years who had data for at least 80% of all variables included in each LCA. Concussion was defined according to Zurich consensus statement diagnostic criteria. The primary outcome was PPCS at 4 and 12 weeks after enrollment. Participants were 39.5% female and had a mean age of 12.8 years (standard deviation = 2.6). Follow-up was completed by 1980 (85%) at 4 weeks and 1744 (75%) at 12 weeks. LCA identified four groups with discrete pre-injury histories, four groups with discrete clinical presentations, and seven groups with discrete profiles of acute symptoms. Clinical phenotypes based on the profile of group membership across the three LCAs varied significantly in their predicted probability of PPCS at 4 and 12 weeks. The results indicate that children with concussion can be grouped into distinct clinical phenotypes, based on pre-injury history, clinical presentation, and acute symptoms, with markedly different risks of PPCS. With further validation, clinical phenotypes may provide a useful heuristic for clinical assessment and management.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/neu.2018.6009DOI Listing
June 2019