Publications by authors named "Joanna K Krueger"

14 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Small-Angle Scattering as a Structural Probe for Nucleic Acid Nanoparticles (NANPs) in a Dynamic Solution Environment.

Nanomaterials (Basel) 2019 May 2;9(5). Epub 2019 May 2.

UNC Charlotte Chemistry Department, Charlotte, NC 28223, USA.

Nucleic acid-based technologies are an emerging research focus area for pharmacological and biological studies because they are biocompatible and can be designed to produce a variety of scaffolds at the nanometer scale. The use of nucleic acids (ribonucleic acid (RNA) and/or deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA)) as building materials in programming the assemblies and their further functionalization has recently established a new exciting field of RNA and DNA nanotechnology, which have both already produced a variety of different functional nanostructures and nanodevices. It is evident that the resultant architectures require detailed structural and functional characterization and that a variety of technical approaches must be employed to promote the development of the emerging fields. Small-angle X-ray and neutron scattering (SAS) are structural characterization techniques that are well placed to determine the conformation of nucleic acid nanoparticles (NANPs) under varying solution conditions, thus allowing for the optimization of their design. SAS experiments provide information on the overall shapes and particle dimensions of macromolecules and are ideal for following conformational changes of the molecular ensemble as it behaves in solution. In addition, the inherent differences in the neutron scattering of nucleic acids, lipids, and proteins, as well as the different neutron scattering properties of the isotopes of hydrogen, combined with the ability to uniformly label biological macromolecules with deuterium, allow one to characterize the conformations and relative dispositions of the individual components within an assembly of biomolecules. This article will review the application of SAS methods and provide a summary of their successful utilization in the emerging field of NANP technology to date, as well as share our vision on its use in complementing a broad suite of structural characterization tools with some simulated results that have never been shared before.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/nano9050681DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6566709PMC
May 2019

Low- q Bicelles Are Mixed Micelles.

J Phys Chem Lett 2018 Aug 25;9(15):4469-4473. Epub 2018 Jul 25.

Department of Chemistry , University of Virginia , Charlottesville , Virginia 22904 , United States.

Bicelles are used in many membrane protein studies because they are thought to be more bilayer-like than micelles. We investigated the properties of "isotropic" bicelles by small-angle neutron scattering, small-angle X-ray scattering, fluorescence anisotropy, and molecular dynamics. All data suggest that bicelles with a q value below 1 deviate from the classic bicelle that contains lipids in the core and detergent in the rim. Thus not all isotropic bicelles are bilayer-like.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.jpclett.8b02079DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6353637PMC
August 2018

Structure and function of proteins in hydrated choline dihydrogen phosphate ionic liquid.

Phys Chem Chem Phys 2012 Jan 16;14(2):790-801. Epub 2011 Nov 16.

Department of Mechanical Engineering and Engineering Science, The University of North Carolina at Charlotte, Charlotte, North Carolina 28223, USA.

Ionic liquids are being intensely studied as promising media for the stabilization of proteins and other biomolecules. Choline dihydrogen phosphate (CDHP) has been identified as one of the most promising candidates for this application. In this work we have probed in more detail the effects that CDHP may have on the thermodynamics, structure, and stability of proteins, including one of therapeutic interest. Microcalorimetry and circular dichroism spectropolarimetry (CD) were used to assess the thermal stability of protein solutions in CDHP/water mixtures at various concentrations. Increasing thermal stability of lysozyme and interleukin-2 in proportion to CDHP concentration was observed. Isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) was used to quantify binding interactions, and indicate that the mechanism for stability does not appear to be dependent upon CDHP binding to protein. CD and small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) analyses were used to probe for structural changes due to the presence of CDHP. SAXS indicates charge effects on the surface of the protein play a role in protein stability in ionic liquids, and no significant alteration of the overall tertiary conformation of lysozyme was observed at 25 °C. However, after incubation at 37 °C or at higher concentrations of CDHP, small changes in protein structure were seen. Effects on protein activity were monitored using turbidity assays, and CDHP decreases protein activity but does not eliminate it. Protein solubility was also monitored using a turbidity assay and was found to be inversely proportional to the concentration of CDHP in solution.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/c1cp22965fDOI Listing
January 2012

Dehaloperoxidase-hemoglobin from Amphitrite ornata is primarily a monomer in solution.

J Phys Chem B 2011 Apr 21;115(14):4266-72. Epub 2011 Mar 21.

Department of Chemistry, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina 27695, USA.

The crystal structures of the dehaloperoxidase-hemoglobin from A. ornata (DHP A) each report a crystallographic dimer in the unit cell. Yet, the largest dimer interface observed is 450 Å(2), an area significantly smaller than the typical value of 1200-2000 Å(2) and in contrast to the extensive interface region of other known dimeric hemoglobins. To examine the oligomerization state of DHP A in solution, we used gel permeation by fast protein liquid chromatography and small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS). Gel permeation experiments demonstrate that DHP A elutes as a monomer (15.5 kDa) and can be separated from green fluorescent protein, which has a molar mass of 27 kDa, near the 31 kDa expected for the DHP A dimer. By SAXS, we found that DHP A is primarily monomeric in solution, but with a detectable level of dimer (~10%), under all conditions studied up to a protein concentration of 3.0 mM. These concentrations are likely 10-100-fold lower than the K(d) for dimer formation. Additionally, there was no significant effect either on the overall conformation of DHP A or its monomer-dimer equilibrium upon addition of the DHP A inhibitor, 4-iodophenol.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/jp201156rDOI Listing
April 2011

Global structure of HIV-1 neutralizing antibody IgG1 b12 is asymmetric.

Biochem Biophys Res Commun 2010 Jan 5;391(1):947-51. Epub 2009 Dec 5.

Institute of Microbial Technology, Sector 39-A, Chandigarh 160036, India.

Human antibody IgG1 b12 is one of the four antibodies known to neutralize a broad range of human immunodeficiency virus-1. The crystal structure of this antibody displayed an asymmetric disposition of the Fab arms relative to its Fc portion. Comparison of structures solved for other IgG1 antibodies led to a notion that crystal packing forces entrapped a "snap-shot" of different conformations accessible to this antibody. To elucidate global structure of this unique antibody, we acquired small-angle X-ray scattering data from its dilute solution. Data analysis indicated that b12 adopts a bilobal globular structure in solution with a radius of gyration and a maximum linear dimension of approximately 54 and approximately 180A, respectively. Extreme similarity between its solution and crystal structure concludes that non-flexible, asymmetric shape is an inherent property of this rare antibody.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbrc.2009.11.170DOI Listing
January 2010

Structural analysis of a periplasmic binding protein in the tripartite ATP-independent transporter family reveals a tetrameric assembly that may have a role in ligand transport.

J Biol Chem 2008 Nov 22;283(47):32812-20. Epub 2008 Aug 22.

Department of Biochemistry, Duke University, Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina 27710, USA.

Several bacterial solute transport mechanisms involve members of the periplasmic binding protein (PBP) superfamily that bind and deliver ligand to integral membrane transport proteins in the ATP-binding cassette, tripartite tricarboxylate transporter, or tripartite ATP-independent (TRAP) families. PBPs involved in ATP-binding cassette transport systems have been well characterized, but only a few PBPs involved in TRAP transport have been studied. We have measured the thermal stability, determined the oligomerization state by small angle x-ray scattering, and solved the x-ray crystal structure to 1.9 A resolution of a TRAP-PBP (open reading frame tm0322) from the hyperthermophilic bacterium Thermotoga maritima (TM0322). The overall fold of TM0322 is similar to other TRAP transport related PBPs, although the structural similarity of backbone atoms (2.5-3.1 A root mean square deviation) is unusually low for PBPs within the same group. Individual monomers within the tetrameric asymmetric unit of TM0322 exhibit high root mean square deviation (0.9 A) to each other as a consequence of conformational heterogeneity in their binding pockets. The gel filtration elution profile and the small angle x-ray scattering analysis indicate that TM0322 assembles as dimers in solution that in turn assemble into a dimer of dimers in the crystallographic asymmetric unit. Tetramerization has been previously observed in another TRAP-PBP (the Rhodobacter sphaeroides alpha-keto acid-binding protein) where quaternary structure formation is postulated to be an important requisite for the transmembrane transport process.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1074/jbc.M803595200DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2583322PMC
November 2008

Conformational rearrangement within the soluble domains of the CD4 receptor is ligand-specific.

J Biol Chem 2008 Feb 28;283(5):2761-72. Epub 2007 Nov 28.

Department of Chemistry, University of North Carolina at Charlotte, Charlotte, NC 28223, USA.

Ligand binding induces shape changes within the four modular ectodomains (D1-D4) of the CD4 receptor, an important receptor in immune signaling. Small angle x-ray scattering (SAXS) on both a two-domain and a four-domain construct of the soluble CD4 (sCD4) is consistent with known crystal structures demonstrating a bilobal and a semi-extended tetralobal Z conformation in solution, respectively. Detection of conformational changes within sCD4 as a result of ligand binding was followed by SAXS on sCD4 bound to two different glycoprotein ligands: the tick saliva immunosuppressor Salp15 and the HIV-1 envelope protein gp120. Ab initio modeling of these data showed that both Salp15 and gp120 bind to the D1 domain of sCD4 and yet induce drastically different structural rearrangements. Upon binding, Salp15 primarily distorts the characteristic lobal architecture of the sCD4 without significantly altering the semi-extended shape of the sCD4 receptor. In sharp contrast, the interaction of gp120 with sCD4 induces a shape change within sCD4 that can be described as a Z-to-U bi-fold closure of the four domains across its flexible D2-D3 linker. Placement of known crystal structures within the boundaries of the SAXS-derived models suggests that the ligand-induced shape changes could be a result of conformational changes within this D2-D3 linker. Functionally, the observed shape changes in CD4 receptor causes dissociation of lymphocyte kinase from the cytoplasmic domain of Salp15-bound CD4 and facilitates an interaction between the exposed V3 loops of CD4-bound gp120 molecule to the extracellular loops of its co-receptor, a step essential for HIV-1 viral entry.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1074/jbc.M708325200DOI Listing
February 2008

Global structure changes associated with Ca2+ activation of full-length human plasma gelsolin.

J Biol Chem 2007 Aug 29;282(35):25884-92. Epub 2007 Jun 29.

Department of Chemistry, University of North Carolina, Charlotte, North Carolina 28223-0001, USA.

Gelsolin regulates the dynamic assembly and disassembly of the actin-based cytoskeleton in non-muscle cells and clears the circulation of filaments released following cell death. Gelsolin is a six-domain (G1-G6) protein activated by calcium via a multi-step process that involves unfolding from a compact form to a more open form in which the three actin-binding sites (on the G1, G2, and G4 subdomains) become exposed. To follow the global structural changes that accompany calcium activation of gelsolin, small-angle x-ray scattering (SAXS) data were collected for full-length human plasma gelsolin at nanomolar to millimolar concentrations of free Ca2+. Analysis of these data showed that, upon increasing free Ca2+ levels, the radius of gyration (Rg) increased nearly 12 A, from 31.1+/-0.3 to 43+/-2 A, and the maximum linear dimension (Dmax) of the gelsolin molecule increased 55 A, from 100 to 155A. Structural reconstruction of gelsolin from these data provided a striking visual tracking of the gradual Ca2+-induced opening of the gelsolin molecule and highlighted the critical role played by the flexible linkers between homologous domains. The tightly packed architecture of calcium-free gelsolin, seen from both SAXS and x-ray crystallographic models, is already partially opened up in as low as 0.5 nM Ca2+. Our data confirm that, although the molecule springs open from 0 to 1 microM free Ca2+, even higher calcium concentrations help to stabilize a more open structure, with increases in Rg and Dmax of approximately 2 and approximately 15 A, respectively. At these higher calcium levels, the SAXS-based models provide a molecular shape that is compatible with that of the crystal structures solved for Ca2+/gelsolin C-terminal and N-terminal halves+/-monomeric G-actin. Placement of these crystal structures within the boundaries of the SAXS-based model suggests a movement of the G1/G2 subunits that would be required upon binding to actin.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1074/jbc.M702446200DOI Listing
August 2007

Antiviral peptides targeting the west nile virus envelope protein.

J Virol 2007 Feb 6;81(4):2047-55. Epub 2006 Dec 6.

Section of Rheumatology, Department of Internal Medicine, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT 06520, USA.

West Nile virus (WNV) can cause fatal murine and human encephalitis. The viral envelope protein interacts with host cells. A murine brain cDNA phage display library was therefore probed with WNV envelope protein, resulting in the identification of several adherent peptides. Of these, peptide 1 prevented WNV infection in vitro with a 50% inhibition concentration of 67 muM and also inhibited infection of a related flavivirus, dengue virus. Peptide 9, a derivative of peptide 1, was a particularly potent inhibitor of WNV in vitro, with a 50% inhibition concentration of 2.6 muM. Moreover, mice challenged with WNV that had been incubated with peptide 9 had reduced viremia and fatality compared with control animals. Peptide 9 penetrated the murine blood-brain barrier and was found in the brain parenchyma, implying that it may have antiviral activity in the central nervous system. These short peptides serve as the basis for developing new therapeutics for West Nile encephalitis and, potentially, other flaviviruses.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/JVI.01840-06DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1797586PMC
February 2007

Cutting edge: CD4 is the receptor for the tick saliva immunosuppressor, Salp15.

J Immunol 2006 Nov;177(10):6579-83

Department of Biology, University of North Carolina at Charlotte, Charlotte, NC 28223, USA.

Salp15 is an Ixodes scapularis salivary protein that inhibits CD4+ T cell activation through the repression of TCR ligation-triggered calcium fluxes and IL-2 production. We show in this study that Salp15 binds specifically to the CD4 coreceptor on mammalian host T cells. Salp15 specifically associates through its C-terminal residues with the outermost two extracellular domains of CD4. Upon binding to CD4, Salp15 inhibits the subsequent TCR ligation-induced T cell signaling at the earliest steps including tyrosine phosphorylation of the Src kinase Lck, downstream effector proteins, and lipid raft reorganization. These results provide a molecular basis to understanding the immunosuppressive activity of Salp15 and its specificity for CD4+ T cells.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4302324PMC
http://dx.doi.org/10.4049/jimmunol.177.10.6579DOI Listing
November 2006

Structural and functional evidence for the role of the TLR2 DD loop in TLR1/TLR2 heterodimerization and signaling.

J Biol Chem 2006 Oct 7;281(40):30132-42. Epub 2006 Aug 7.

Departments of Medicine, Digestive Health Center of Excellence, and Microbiology, University of Virginia Health System, Charlottesville, Virginia 22908, USA.

The Toll/Interleukin-1 receptor (TIR) domain of the Toll-like receptors (TLRs) plays an important role in innate host defense signaling. The TIR-TIR platform formed by the dimerization of two TLRs promotes homotypic protein-protein interactions with additional cytoplasmic adapter molecules to form an active signaling complex resulting in the expression of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokine genes. To generate a better understanding of the functional domains of TLR2 we performed a random mutagenesis analysis of the human TLR2 TIR domain and screened for TLR2/1 signaling-deficient mutants. Based upon the random mutagenesis results, we performed an alanine scanning mutagenesis of the TLR2 DD loop and part of the alphaD region. This resulted in the identification of four residues crucial for TLR2/1 signaling: Arg-748, Phe-749, Leu-752, and Arg-753. Computer-assisted energy minimization and docking studies indicated three regions of interaction in the TLR2/1 TIR-docked heterodimer. In Region I, residues Arg-748 and Phe-749 in TLR2 DD loop were involved in close contacts with Gly-676 in the TLR1 BB loop. Because this model suggested that steric hindrance would significantly alter the binding interactions between DD loop of TLR2 and BB loop of TLR1, Gly-676 in TLR1 was rationally mutated to Ala and Leu. As expected, in vitro functional studies involving TLR1 G676A and TLR1 G676L resulted in reduced PAM(3)CSK(4) mediated NF-kappaB activation lending support to the computerized predictions. Additionally, mutation of an amino acid residue (TLR2 Asp-730) in Region II also resulted in decreased activity in agreement with our model, providing new insights into the structure-function relationship of TLR2/1 TIR domains.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1074/jbc.M602057200DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1769446PMC
October 2006

Binding of full-length HIV-1 gp120 to CD4 induces structural reorientation around the gp120 core.

Biophys J 2006 Sep 14;91(6):L69-71. Epub 2006 Jul 14.

Department of Chemistry, University of North Carolina, Charlotte, NC 28213, USA.

Small-angle x-ray scattering data on the unliganded full-length fully glycosylated HIV-1 gp120, the soluble CD4 (domains 1-2) receptor, and their complex in solution are presented. Ab initio structure restorations using these data provides the first look at the envelope shape for the unliganded and the complexed gp120 molecule. Fitting known crystal structures of the unliganded SIV and the complexed HIV gp120 core regions within our resultant shape constraints reveals movement of the V3 loop upon binding.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1529/biophysj.106.090381DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1557575PMC
September 2006

Further insights into calmodulin-myosin light chain kinase interaction from solution scattering and shape restoration.

Biochemistry 2003 Sep;42(36):10579-88

Bioscience Division, MS M-888, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545, USA.

We have gained new insight into the interactions between the second-messenger protein calmodulin (CaM) and myosin light chain kinase from skeletal muscle (skMLCK) using small-angle solution scattering and shape restoration. Specifically, we explored the nature of a 2Ca(2+)-CaM-skMLCK complex and compared it to a 4Ca(2+)-CaM-skMLCK complex under the same conditions. The 2Ca(2+) complex has been proposed to be physiologically relevant. To aid in the interpretation of the data, we developed a shape restoration approach, implemented in GA_STRUCT, that combines many of the best features of other available methods into a single, automated package. Importantly, GA_STRUCT explicitly addresses the problem of the existence of multiple solutions to the inverse scattering problem and produces a consensus envelope from a set of shapes that fit the input intensity. Small-angle scattering intensity profiles measured or calculated from known structures were used to test GA_STRUCT, which was then used to generate low-resolution models for three complexes: 2Ca(2+)-CaM-skMLCK, 4Ca(2+)-CaM-skMLCK, and 4Ca(2+)-CaM-skMLCK with a bound substrate. These models were used in conjunction with high-resolution structures of the protein components to better understand the interactions among them. In the case of the 2Ca(2+)-CaM-skMLCK complex, the consensus envelope is consistent with CaM in a fully collapsed state with its two globular lobes in close contact with each other while the catalytic cleft of the kinase is open. The consensus envelope for the 4Ca(2+)-CaM-skMLCK complex indicates that the collapsed CaM has swung further away from the open catalytic cleft of the skMLCK than in the 2Ca(2+) complex, and further that substrate binding to this complex results in closure of the kinase catalytic cleft, in agreement with previous neutron scattering results. These results indicate that activation of MLCK by CaM can only occur once CaM is fully translocated away from the catalytic cleft, which is presumably linked to full release of the pseudo-substrate/inhibitory sequence. Our scattering data indicate that this step is completed only when all four calcium binding sites are loaded.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/bi0348664DOI Listing
September 2003