Publications by authors named "Joan Navarro"

37 Publications

PyFF: A Fog-Based Flexible Architecture for Enabling Privacy-by-Design IoT-Based Communal Smart Environments.

Sensors (Basel) 2021 May 24;21(11). Epub 2021 May 24.

Grup de Recerca en Internet Technologies & Storage (GRITS), La Salle-Universitat Ramon Llull, C/Quatre Camins, 30, 08022 Barcelona, Spain.

The advent of the Internet of Things (IoT) and the massive growth of devices connected to the Internet are reshaping modern societies. However, human lifestyles are not evolving at the same pace as technology, which often derives into users' reluctance and aversion. Although it is essential to consider user involvement/privacy while deploying IoT devices in a human-centric environment, current IoT architecture standards tend to neglect the degree of trust that humans require to adopt these technologies on a daily basis. In this regard, this paper proposes an architecture to enable privacy-by-design with human-in-the-loop IoT environments. In this regard, it first distills two IoT use-cases with high human interaction to analyze the interactions between human beings and IoT devices in an environment which had not previously been subject to the Internet of People principles.. Leveraging the lessons learned in these use-cases, the Privacy-enabling Fog-based and Flexible (PyFF) human-centric and human-aware architecture is proposed which brings together distributed and intelligent systems are brought together. PyFF aims to maintain end-users' privacy by involving them in the whole data lifecycle, allowing them to decide which information can be monitored, where it can be computed and the appropriate feedback channels in accordance with human-in-the-loop principles.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/s21113640DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8197254PMC
May 2021

Interannual trophic behaviour of a pelagic fish predator in the western Mediterranean Sea.

Mar Environ Res 2021 Jun 6;168:105288. Epub 2021 Mar 6.

Institut de Ciències del Mar - CSIC, Passeig Marítim de la Barceloneta, 37-49, 08003, Barcelona, Spain.

The exploitation of forage fish species can modify the functioning of marine ecosystems potentially impacting the population status of predators. This may be the case for the western Mediterranean Sea, where a reduction in the biomass of two key pelagic forage fish (European anchovy Engraulis encrasicolus and European sardine Sardina pilchardus) could produce a change in the diet composition of their main predators, which would consume alternative preys or change the size of the prey consumed. Here, we aimed to investigate the potential effect of biomass reduction of sardine and anchovy in the western Mediterranean Sea on the trophic preferences of the little tunny (Euthynnus alletteratus), a medium-sized predator that present a high consumption of these forage fish. We compared its interannual trophic ecology by combining the analysis of stomach contents and stable isotopes. Specifically, we examined if the diet of little tunny changed in its main trophic habits (diet composition, prey size, and trophic niche) during a 6-year period. We found that small pelagic fish, especially clupeiformes, were the most important prey group for the little tunny during the study period. However, we found changes in the body size of anchovy and the relative importance of sardine in recent years, probably reflecting the reported reduction in the biomass and body size of these two forage fish in the study area. In addition to these changes, we found an increase in some demersal and benthopelagic species in the diet of little tunny, which could act as an alternative diet resource.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.marenvres.2021.105288DOI Listing
June 2021

Main drivers of spatial change in the biomass of commercial species between summer and winter in the NW Mediterranean Sea.

Mar Environ Res 2021 Feb 3;164:105227. Epub 2020 Dec 3.

Institut de Ciències del Mar (ICM-CSIC), P. Marítim de la Barceloneta, 37-49, 08003, Barcelona, Spain.

There is a general lack of information related to the spatial structure and functioning of marine ecosystems considering seasonality. Here, we modeled the biomass distribution of eight commercial marine species in the northwestern Mediterranean Sea during winter and summer. We hypothesised that the seasonal differences of the water column and the spatial heterogeneity of oceanographic conditions in the study area could result in seasonal variations on the species biomass distributions. We employed a Bayesian hierarchical species distribution modelling approach (B-SDM) with data from two experimental trawl surveys to analyse which are the significant drivers in each season. Our results showed that bathymetry, temperature and fishing patterns are important variables explaining the species spatial biomass distributions. Furthermore, we found seasonal differentiation in the spatial distribution of biomass for all the studied species. Our results provide essential knowledge about the seasonal distributions of key species in the Mediterranean Sea, with important management implications.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.marenvres.2020.105227DOI Listing
February 2021

Potentially handicapped but otherwise functional: Malformations in prey capture tools show no impacts on octopus life.

Ecol Evol 2020 Dec 17;10(23):12685-12689. Epub 2020 Oct 17.

Institut de Ciències del Mar (CSIC) Barcelona Spain.

Larval mortality is a keystone ecological factor for many benthic octopus since it mostly occurs before their settlement in the sea bottom as benthic juveniles. The literature had revealed that records of adult animals with morphological abnormalities (teratologies) are fewer in species with complex life cycle than in those with direct development. This is a direct consequence of the morphological, physiological, and development challenges that the transition from the larval to the adult morphology represents. During a routine fishing sample, we found an immature female horned octopus with additional buccal structures in two suckers of its ventral arms, likely rendering these suckers as inefficient. Based on the literature about the natural history of octopus, we provide evidence that these abnormalities were present at the moment of hatch. We evaluated the impact of the teratologies by comparing the shape of the buccal beaks and the trophic niche of the individual with five normal conspecifics. Although the beaks showed a different shape than normal individuals, the trophic niche was similar. Surprisingly, the teratological condition of the individual likely had no severe impacts on its life, even though it likely represents a handicap for its survival during its planktonic life. We also comment on other previous records from the literature of teratological adult octopus to highlight the amazing adaptive capacity of octopus to deal with challenging morphologies.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ece3.6903DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7713964PMC
December 2020

Author Correction: Sea ice phenology and primary productivity pulses shape breeding success in Arctic seabirds.

Sci Rep 2020 Nov 9;10(1):19772. Epub 2020 Nov 9.

Norwegian Polar Institute, Fram Centre, 9296, Tromsø, Norway.

An amendment to this paper has been published and can be accessed via a link at the top of the paper.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-75964-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7652875PMC
November 2020

Marine protected areas for demersal elasmobranchs in highly exploited Mediterranean ecosystems.

Mar Environ Res 2020 Sep 30;160:105033. Epub 2020 May 30.

Institut de Ciències del Mar - CSIC, Passeig Marítim de la Barceloneta 37-49, 08003, Barcelona, Spain.

Marine ecosystems are complex socio-ecological systems where sustainable solutions can be best gained by satisfying both conservation and socioeconomic demands. Concretely, the Mediterranean Sea is facing a huge demand of resources and marine activities while hosting abundant and unique biodiversity. It is considered an important elasmobranch hotspot where seventy-two elasmobranch species are present in the basin. Despite the recognised importance of elasmobranchs as umbrella species, to date only a small number of marine protected areas have been designated towards their protection. The paucity of spatially-explicit abundance data on elasmobranchs often precludes the designation of these areas to protect these marine predators. Here, we aimed to identify marine areas to protect elasmobranch species by means of a systematic spatial planning approach. We first estimated the spatial distribution of five elasmobranch species (three sharks and two rays) in the western Mediterranean Sea and then applied Marxan decision support tools to find priority marine conservation areas. We found that the five elasmobranchs are distributed in coastal and slope areas of the southern waters of the study area while in the northern region they are abundant in the continental slope and towards offshore waters. Conservation priority areas were identified in the southern part of the western Mediterranean. Adding more complex cost layers and zoning to the analysis did not alter conservation priority areas, confirming such areas are highly consistent and highly important for elasmobranch protection. The marine conservation priority areas identified here can contribute to designate a proactive area-based protection strategy towards elasmobranch conservation, related species and the habitats that they depend in the western Mediterranean Sea.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.marenvres.2020.105033DOI Listing
September 2020

Year-round energy dynamics of sardine and anchovy in the north-western Mediterranean Sea.

Mar Environ Res 2020 Jul 20;159:105021. Epub 2020 May 20.

Institut de Ciències Del Mar (ICM-CSIC), 08003, Barcelona, Spain.

Variability in body condition and energy storage has important implications for fish recruitment and ecosystem structure. Understanding strategies for energy allocation to maintenance, reproduction and growth is essential to evaluate the state of the fish stocks. In this study, we address the energetics dynamics of the annual cycle of anchovies (Engraulis encrasicolus) and sardines (Sardina pilchardus) in the north-western Mediterranean Sea using indirect and direct condition indices. We assessed and validated the use of morphometric, biochemical and energetic indices for both species. Annual patterns of the relative condition index (Kn), gonadosomatic index (GSI), lipid content (% lipids) and energy density (ED) were linked to the energy allocation strategy. Our results highlight that anchovy mainly rely on income energy to reproduce, while sardine accumulate the energy during the resting period to be used in the reproduction period. Consequently, variability in the lipid content and ED between seasons was lower in anchovy than in sardine. In both species, we observed an early decline in energy reserves in late summer-early fall, which may be related to unfavourable environmental conditions during spring and summer. Regarding the use of different condition indices, both direct indices, lipid content and ED, were highly correlated with Kn for sardine. ED was better correlated with Kn than lipid content for anchovy. For the first time, a relationship between ED of gonads and GSI for sardine and anchovy was provided, highlighting the importance of the energy invested in reproduction. This work provides new insights into the energy dynamics of sardine and anchovy. We also demonstrate which are the most suitable indices to measure changes in the physiological condition of both species, providing tools for the future monitoring of the populations of these two commercially and ecologically important fish species.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.marenvres.2020.105021DOI Listing
July 2020

Dust and bullets: Stable isotopes and GPS tracking disentangle lead sources for a large avian scavenger.

Environ Pollut 2020 Nov 18;266(Pt 3):115022. Epub 2020 Jun 18.

Department of Conservation Biology, Doñana Biological Station-CSIC, Avda. Américo Vespucio, 26, 41092, Seville, Spain.

Lead intoxication is an important threat to human health and a large number of wildlife species. Animals are exposed to several sources of lead highlighting hunting ammunition and lead that is bioavailable in topsoil. Disentangling the role of each in lead exposure is an important conservation issue, particularly for species potentially affected by lead poisoning, such as vultures. The identification of lead sources in vultures and other species has been classically addressed by means of stable-isotope comparisons, but the extremely varied isotope signatures found in ammunition hinders this identification when it overlaps with topsoil signatures. In addition, assumptions related to the exposure of individual vultures to lead sources have been made without knowledge of the actual feeding grounds exploited by the birds. Here, we combine lead concentration analysis in blood, novel stable isotope approaches to assign the origin of the lead and GPS tracking data to investigate the main foraging grounds of two Iberian griffon vulture populations (N = 58) whose foraging ranges differ in terms of topsoil lead concentration and intensity of big game hunting activity. We found that the lead signature in vultures was closer to topsoil than to ammunition, but this similarity decreased significantly in the area with higher big game hunting activity. In addition, attending to the individual home ranges of the tracked birds, models accounting for the intensity of hunting activity better explained the higher blood lead concentration in vultures than topsoil exposure. In spite of that, our finding also show that lead exposure from topsoil is more important than previously thought.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2020.115022DOI Listing
November 2020

Humans shape the year-round distribution and habitat use of an opportunistic scavenger.

Ecol Evol 2020 Jun 15;10(11):4716-4725. Epub 2020 Apr 15.

Institut de Ciències del Mar - CSIC Barcelona Spain.

Research focused on evaluating how human food subsidies influence the foraging ecology of scavenger species is scarce but essential for elucidating their role in shaping behavioral patterns, population dynamics, and potential impacts on ecosystems. We evaluate the potential role of humans in shaping the year-round distribution and habitat use of individuals from a typical scavenger species, the yellow-legged gull (), breeding at southwestern Spain. To do this, we combined long-term, nearly continuous GPS-tracking data with spatially explicit information on habitat types and distribution of human facilities, as proxied by satellite imagery of artificial night lights. Overall, individuals were mainly associated with freshwater habitats (mean proportion, 95% CI: 40.6%, 36.9%-44.4%) followed by the marine-related systems (40.3, 37.7%-42.8%), human-related habitats (13.5%, 13.2%-13.8%), and terrestrial systems (5.5%, 4.6%-6.5%). However, these relative contributions to the overall habitat usage largely changed throughout the annual cycle as a likely response to ecological/physiological constraints imposed by varying energy budgets and environmental constraints resulting from fluctuations in the availability of food resources. Moreover, the tight overlap between the year-round spatial distribution of gulls and that of human facilities suggested that the different resources individuals relied on were likely of anthropogenic origin. We therefore provide evidence supporting the high dependence of this species on human-related food resources throughout the annual cycle. Owing to the ability of individuals to disperse and reach transboundary areas of Spain, Portugal, or Morocco, international joint efforts aimed at restricting the availability of human food resources would be required to manage this overabundant species and the associated consequences for biodiversity conservation (e.g., competitive exclusion of co-occurring species) and human interests (e.g., airports or disease transmission).
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ece3.6226DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7297764PMC
June 2020

Stepped Coastal Water Warming Revealed by Multiparametric Monitoring at NW Mediterranean Fixed Stations.

Sensors (Basel) 2020 May 6;20(9). Epub 2020 May 6.

Oceans Catalonia International SL, 17300 Blanes, Spain.

Since 2014, the global land and sea surface temperature has scaled 0.23 °C above the decadal average (2009-2018). Reports indicate that Mediterranean Sea temperatures have been rising at faster rates than in the global ocean. Oceanographic time series of physical and biogeochemical data collected from an onboard and a multisensor mooring array in the northwestern Mediterranean Sea (Blanes submarine canyon, Balearic Sea) during 2009-2018 revealed an abrupt temperature rising since 2014, in line with regional and global warming. Since 2014, the oligotrophic conditions of the water column have intensified, with temperature increasing 0.61 °C on the surface and 0.47 °C in the whole water column in continental shelf waters. Water transparency has increased due to a decrease in turbidity anomaly of -0.1 FTU. Since 2013, inshore chlorophyll concentration remained below the average (-0.15 mg·l) and silicates showed a declining trend. The mixed layer depth showed deepening in winter and remained steady in summer. The net surface heat fluxes did not show any trend linked to the local warming, probably due to the influence of incoming offshore waters produced by the interaction between the Northern Current and the submarine canyon. Present regional and global water heating pattern is increasing the stress of highly diverse coastal ecosystems at unprecedented levels, as reported by the literature. The strengthening of the oligotrophic conditions in the study area may also apply as a cautionary warning to similar coastal ecosystems around the world following the global warming trend.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/s20092658DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7248696PMC
May 2020

Behavioral rhythms of an opportunistic predator living in anthropogenic landscapes.

Mov Ecol 2020 24;8:17. Epub 2020 Apr 24.

1Institut de Ciències del Mar - CSIC, Barcelona, Spain.

Background: Human activities have profoundly altered the spatio-temporal availability of food resources. Yet, there is a clear lack of knowledge on how opportunistic species adapt to these new circumstances by scheduling their daily rhythms and adjust their foraging decisions to predicable patterns of anthropic food subsidies. Here, we used nearly continuous GPS tracking data to investigate the adaptability of daily foraging activity in an opportunistic predator, the yellow-legged gull (), in response to human schedules.

Methods: By using waveform analysis, we compared timing and magnitude of peaks in daily activity of different GPS-tracked individuals in eleven different habitat types, in relation to type of day (i.e., weekday vs. weekend).

Results: Daily activity rhythms varied greatly depending on whether it was a weekday or weekend, thus suggesting that gulls' activity peaks matched the routines of human activity in each habitat type. We observed for the first time two types of activity as modelled by waveforms analysis: marine habitats showed unimodal patterns with prolonged activity and terrestrial habitats showed bimodal patterns with two shorter and variable activity peaks.

Conclusions: Our results suggest that gulls are able to fine-tune their daily activity rhythms to habitat-specific human schedules, since these likely provide feeding opportunities. Behavioral plasticity may thus be an important driver of expansive population dynamics. Information on predictable relationships between daily activity patterns of gulls and human activities is therefore relevant to their population management.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s40462-020-00205-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7183138PMC
April 2020

Feeding ecology of a Mediterranean endemic mesopredator living in highly exploited ecosystems.

Mar Environ Res 2020 May 26;157:104932. Epub 2020 Feb 26.

Institut de Ciències Del Mar - CSIC, Passeig Marítim de La Barceloneta, 37-49, 08003, Barcelona, Spain. Electronic address:

Knowledge of marine predator trophic ecology is essential for defining their ecological role and trophic position in ecosystems. Based on their trophic habits, sharks and batoids occupy higher and medium trophic levels in the food webs, although differences in the trophic preferences exist between species. They are important organisms in marine ecosystems by maintaining the species below them in the food chain and serving as an indicator for ocean health. In comparison to sharks, batoids usually receive less research attention, with very little diet information available. This is true of the speckled ray (Raja polystigma), one of the three endemic batoids in Mediterranean waters. Here, by combining analyses of stomach contents and stable isotopes, we examined the trophic ecology (dietary composition and trophic position) of this ray in the north-western Mediterranean Sea. We also compared its trophic niche with the trophic position of other sympatric elasmobranchs present in same marine ecosystem. The results revealed that R. polystigma mainly consumes shrimps and to a lesser extent crabs, fin-fish, cephalopods, polychaetes and, surprisingly, small demersal sharks. We also found that R. polystigma shows similar trophic position to other crustacean-consumer elasmobranchs such rays and small demersal sharks. The results of this study provide new insights into the ecological role of this endemic ray species in the Mediterranean Sea.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.marenvres.2020.104932DOI Listing
May 2020

Tetrabromobisphenol A inhibits carboxylesterase activity of marine organisms from different trophic levels.

Chemosphere 2020 Jan 14;238:124592. Epub 2019 Aug 14.

Institut de Ciències del Mar (ICM-CSIC), Pg. Marítim de la Barceloneta 37-49, 08003, Barcelona, Spain. Electronic address:

Tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA), a brominated flame retardant used in synthetic polymers and electronics, is present in the aquatic environment and recent evidence suggests it can be potentially biomagnified in the marine ecosystem. However, the toxicity of TBBPA in the marine biota has not been investigated in detail. In this study we aimed to understand the role of carboxylesterases (CEs) in xenobiotic metabolism under the exposure of marine organisms to a chemical of environmental concern, TBBPA. Specifically, we tested for in vitro inhibition of CE activity in a range of marine organisms covering different ecological niches, from species from low (mussels and copepods), medium (sardines and anchovies) and high trophic levels (tuna). The results revealed that the highest inhibition of CE activity to 100 μM TBBPA was recorded in mussels (66.5% inhibition) and tunids (36.3-76.4%), whereas copepods and small pelagic fish showed comparatively lower effects (respectively, 30% and 36.5-55.6%). Our results suggest that CE-mediated detoxification and physiological processes could be compromised in TBBPA-exposed organisms and could ultimately affect humans as many of them are market species.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2019.124592DOI Listing
January 2020

Pathogen transmission risk by opportunistic gulls moving across human landscapes.

Sci Rep 2019 07 23;9(1):10659. Epub 2019 Jul 23.

Estación Biológica de Doñana - CSIC, Sevilla, Spain.

Wildlife that exploit human-made habitats hosts and spreads bacterial pathogens. This shapes the epidemiology of infectious diseases and facilitates pathogen spill-over between wildlife and humans. This is a global problem, yet little is known about the dissemination potential of pathogen-infected animals. By combining molecular pathogen diagnosis with GPS tracking of pathogen-infected gulls, we show how this knowledge gap could be filled at regional scales. Specifically, we generated pathogen risk maps of Salmonella, Campylobacter and Chlamydia based on the spatial movements of pathogen-infected yellow-legged gulls (Larus michahellis) equipped with GPS recorders. Also, crossing this spatial information with habitat information, we identified critical habitats for the potential transmission of these bacteria in southern Europe. The use of human-made habitats by infected-gulls could potentially increase the potential risk of direct and indirect bidirectional transmission of pathogens between humans and wildlife. Our findings show that pathogen-infected wildlife equipped with GPS recorders can provide accurate information on the spatial spread risk for zoonotic bacteria. Integration of GPS-tracking with classical epidemiological approaches may help to improve zoonosis surveillance and control programs.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-019-46326-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6650491PMC
July 2019

New High-Tech Flexible Networks for the Monitoring of Deep-Sea Ecosystems.

Environ Sci Technol 2019 06 5;53(12):6616-6631. Epub 2019 Jun 5.

Instituto de Ciencias del Mar (ICM-CSIC) , Paseo Marítimo de la Barceloneta, 37-49 , 08012 Barcelona , Spain.

Increasing interest in the acquisition of biotic and abiotic resources from within the deep sea (e.g., fisheries, oil-gas extraction, and mining) urgently imposes the development of novel monitoring technologies, beyond the traditional vessel-assisted, time-consuming, high-cost sampling surveys. The implementation of permanent networks of seabed and water-column-cabled (fixed) and docked mobile platforms is presently enforced, to cooperatively measure biological features and environmental (physicochemical) parameters. Video and acoustic (i.e., optoacoustic) imaging are becoming central approaches for studying benthic fauna (e.g., quantifying species presence, behavior, and trophic interactions) in a remote, continuous, and prolonged fashion. Imaging is also being complemented by in situ environmental-DNA sequencing technologies, allowing the traceability of a wide range of organisms (including prokaryotes) beyond the reach of optoacoustic tools. Here, we describe the different fixed and mobile platforms of those benthic and pelagic monitoring networks, proposing at the same time an innovative roadmap for the automated computing of hierarchical ecological information on deep-sea ecosystems (i.e., from single species' abundance and life traits to community composition, and overall biodiversity).
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.est.9b00409DOI Listing
June 2019

Additive Traits Lead to Feeding Advantage and Reproductive Isolation, Promoting Homoploid Hybrid Speciation.

Mol Biol Evol 2019 08;36(8):1671-1685

Department of Zoology, University of Venda, Private Bag X5050, Thohoyandou 0950, Republic of South Africa.

Speciation through homoploid hybridization (HHS) is considered extremely rare in animals. This is mainly because the establishment of reproductive isolation as a product of hybridization is uncommon. Additionally, many traits are underpinned by polygeny and/or incomplete dominance, where the hybrid phenotype is an additive blend of parental characteristics. Phenotypically intermediate hybrids are usually at a fitness disadvantage compared with parental species and tend to vanish through backcrossing with parental population(s). It is therefore unknown whether the additive nature of hybrid traits in itself could lead successfully to HHS. Using a multi-marker genetic data set and a meta-analysis of diet and morphology, we investigated a potential case of HHS in the prions (Pachyptila spp.), seabirds distinguished by their bills, prey choice, and timing of breeding. Using approximate Bayesian computation, we show that the medium-billed Salvin's prion (Pachyptila salvini) could be a hybrid between the narrow-billed Antarctic prion (Pachyptila desolata) and broad-billed prion (Pachyptila vittata). Remarkably, P. salvini's intermediate bill width has given it a feeding advantage with respect to the other Pachyptila species, allowing it to consume a broader range of prey, potentially increasing its fitness. Available metadata showed that P. salvini is also intermediate in breeding phenology and, with no overlap in breeding times, it is effectively reproductively isolated from either parental species through allochrony. These results provide evidence for a case of HHS in nature, and show for the first time that additivity of divergent parental traits alone can lead directly to increased hybrid fitness and reproductive isolation.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/molbev/msz090DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6657733PMC
August 2019

Maiden voyage into death: are fisheries affecting seabird juvenile survival during the first days at sea?

R Soc Open Sci 2019 Jan 30;6(1):181151. Epub 2019 Jan 30.

Estación Biológica de Doñana (EBD-CSIC), Avda. Américo Vespucio 26, Sevilla 41092, Spain.

The study of juvenile migration behaviour of seabird species has been limited so far by the inability to track their movements during long time periods. Foraging and flying skills of young individuals are assumed to be inferior to those of adults, making them more vulnerable during long-distance migrations. In addition to natural oceanographic effects and intrinsic conditions, incidental seabird harvest by human fisheries is one of the main causes of worldwide seabird population declines, and it has been hypothesized that juveniles are particularly vulnerable to bycatch during their first weeks at sea after leaving the nest. We used solar-powered satellite tags to track the at-sea movements of adults and juveniles of Scopoli's shearwater () after the autumn departure from their breeding colony in Chafarinas Islands (southwestern Mediterranean Sea). Eighty per cent of juvenile tags stopped transmitting during the first week at sea, within 50 km of their natal colony, in an area with one of the highest concentrations of fishing activities in the Mediterranean Sea. All adult birds tagged and only 20% of juveniles migrated into the Atlantic and southwards along the coast of West Africa. The two age groups showed different habitat preferences, with juveniles travelling farther from the coast, in windier and less productive waters than adults. We conclude that Scopoli's shearwater juveniles are particularly vulnerable to mortality events, and we highlight that fisheries, along with differential age-related behaviour skills between adults and juveniles, are likely causes of this mortality. Overall, our study highlights the importance of conducting tracking studies during the first stages of juvenile migration.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rsos.181151DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6366166PMC
January 2019

Spatial congruence between multiple stressors in the Mediterranean Sea may reduce its resilience to climate impacts.

Sci Rep 2018 10 5;8(1):14871. Epub 2018 Oct 5.

Department of Wetland Ecology, Estación Biológica de Doñana (CSIC), C/Américo Vespucio 26, 41092, Sevilla, Spain.

Climate impacts on marine ecosystems may be exacerbated by other, more local stressors interacting synergistically, such as pollution and overexploitation of marine resources. The reduction of these human stressors has been proposed as an achievable way of retaining ecosystems within a "safe operating space" (SOS), where they remain resilient to ongoing climate change. However, the operability of an SOS requires a thorough understanding of the spatial distribution of these climate and human impacts. Using the Mediterranean Sea as a case study, we illustrate the spatial congruence between climate and human stressors impacting this iconic "miniature ocean" synergistically. We use long-term, spatially-explicit information on the distribution of multiple stressors to identify those highly impacted marine areas where human stressors should be prioritized for management if the resilience to climate impacts is to be maintained. Based on our spatial analysis, we exemplify how the management of an essential supporting service (seafood provision) and the conservation of a highly impacted Mediterranean sub-region (the Adriatic Sea) may benefit from the SOS framework.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-018-33237-wDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6173748PMC
October 2018

Real-Time Distributed Architecture for Remote Acoustic Elderly Monitoring in Residential-Scale Ambient Assisted Living Scenarios.

Sensors (Basel) 2018 Aug 1;18(8). Epub 2018 Aug 1.

FICOSA-Can Mitjans, s/n, 08232 Viladecavalls, Barcelona, Spain.

Ambient Assisted Living (AAL) has become a powerful alternative to improving the life quality of elderly and partially dependent people in their own living environments. In this regard, tele-care and remote surveillance AAL applications have emerged as a hot research topic in this domain. These services aim to infer the patients' status by means of centralized architectures that collect data from a set of sensors deployed in their living environment. However, when the size of the scenario and number of patients to be monitored increase (e.g., residential areas, retirement homes), these systems typically struggle at processing all associated data and providing a reasonable output in real time. The purpose of this paper is to present a fog-inspired distributed architecture to collect, analyze and identify up to nine acoustic events that represent abnormal behavior or dangerous health conditions in large-scale scenarios. Specifically, the proposed platform collects data from a set of wireless acoustic sensors and runs an automatic two-stage audio event classification process to decide whether or not to trigger an alarm. Conducted experiments over a labeled dataset of 7116 s based on the priorities of the Fundació Ave Maria health experts have obtained an overall accuracy of 94.6%.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/s18082492DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6112031PMC
August 2018

Tracking data and retrospective analyses of diet reveal the consequences of loss of marine subsidies for an obligate scavenger, the Andean condor.

Proc Biol Sci 2018 05;285(1879)

Department of Conservation Biology, Estación Biológica de Doñana, CSIC, E-41092 Sevilla, Spain.

Over the last century, marine mammals have been dramatically reduced in the world's oceans. We examined evidence that this change caused dietary and foraging pattern shifts of the Andean condor () in Patagonia. We hypothesized that, after the decrease in marine mammals and the increase in human use of coastlines, condor diet changed to a more terrestrial diet, which in turn influenced their foraging patterns. We evaluated the diet by means of stable isotope analysis (C, N and S) of current (last decade) and historical (1841-1933) feathers. We further evaluated the movement patterns of 23 condors using satellite tracking of individuals. Condors reduced their use of marine-derived prey in recent compared with historical times from 33 ± 13% to less than 8 ± 3% respectively; however, they still breed close to the coast. The average distance between the coast and nests was 62.5 km, but some nests were located close to the sea (less than 5 km). Therefore, some birds must travel up to 86 km from nesting sites, crossing over the mountain range to find food. The worldwide reduction in marine mammal carcasses, especially whales, may have major consequences on the foraging ecology of scavengers, as well as on the flux of marine inputs within terrestrial ecosystems.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rspb.2018.0550DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5998103PMC
May 2018

A Custom Approach for a Flexible, Real-Time and Reliable Software Defined Utility.

Sensors (Basel) 2018 Feb 28;18(3). Epub 2018 Feb 28.

Engineering Department, La Salle-Universitat Ramon Llull, 08022 Barcelona, Spain.

Information and communication technologies (ICTs) have enabled the evolution of traditional electric power distribution networks towards a new paradigm referred to as the smart grid. However, the different elements that compose the ICT plane of a smart grid are usually conceived as isolated systems that typically result in rigid hardware architectures, which are hard to interoperate, manage and adapt to new situations. In the recent years, software-defined systems that take advantage of software and high-speed data network infrastructures have emerged as a promising alternative to classic ad hoc approaches in terms of integration, automation, real-time reconfiguration and resource reusability. The purpose of this paper is to propose the usage of software-defined utilities (SDUs) to address the latent deployment and management limitations of smart grids. More specifically, the implementation of a smart grid's data storage and management system prototype by means of SDUs is introduced, which exhibits the feasibility of this alternative approach. This system features a hybrid cloud architecture able to meet the data storage requirements of electric utilities and adapt itself to their ever-evolving needs. Conducted experimentations endorse the feasibility of this solution and encourage practitioners to point their efforts in this direction.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/s18030718DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5876631PMC
February 2018

Does genetic structure reflect differences in non-breeding movements? A case study in small, highly mobile seabirds.

BMC Evol Biol 2017 07 5;17(1):160. Epub 2017 Jul 5.

Department of Animal Ecology and Systematics, Justus Liebig University Giessen, Heinrich-Buff-Ring 38, 35392, Giessen, Germany.

Background: In seabirds, the extent of population genetic and phylogeographic structure varies extensively among species. Genetic structure is lacking in some species, but present in others despite the absence of obvious physical barriers (landmarks), suggesting that other mechanisms restrict gene flow. It has been proposed that the extent of genetic structure in seabirds is best explained by relative overlap in non-breeding distributions of birds from different populations. We used results from the analysis of microsatellite DNA variation and geolocation (tracking) data to test this hypothesis. We studied three small (130-200 g), very abundant, zooplanktivorous petrels (Procellariiformes, Aves), each sampled at two breeding populations that were widely separated (Atlantic and Indian Ocean sectors of the Southern Ocean) but differed in the degree of overlap in non-breeding distributions; the wintering areas of the two Antarctic prion (Pachyptila desolata) populations are separated by over 5000 km, whereas those of the blue petrels (Halobaena caerulea) and thin-billed prions (P. belcheri) show considerable overlap. Therefore, we expected the breeding populations of blue petrels and thin-billed prions to show high connectivity despite their geographical distance, and those of Antarctic prions to be genetically differentiated.

Results: Microsatellite (at 18 loci) and cytochrome b sequence data suggested a lack of genetic structure in all three species. We thus found no relationship between genetic and spatial structure (relative overlap in non-breeding distributions) in these pelagic seabirds.

Conclusions: In line with other Southern Ocean taxa, geographic distance did not lead to genetic differences between widely spaced populations of Southern Ocean petrel species.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12862-017-1008-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5499058PMC
July 2017

Sea ice phenology and primary productivity pulses shape breeding success in Arctic seabirds.

Sci Rep 2017 07 3;7(1):4500. Epub 2017 Jul 3.

Norwegian Polar Institute, Fram Centre, 9296, Tromsø, Norway.

Spring sea ice phenology regulates the timing of the two consecutive pulses of marine autotrophs that form the base of the Arctic marine food webs. This timing has been suggested to be the single most essential driver of secondary production and the efficiency with which biomass and energy are transferred to higher trophic levels. We investigated the chronological sequence of productivity pulses and its potential cascading impacts on the reproductive performance of the High Arctic seabird community from Svalbard, Norway. We provide evidence that interannual changes in the seasonal patterns of marine productivity may impact the breeding performance of little auks and Brünnich's guillemots. These results may be of particular interest given that current global warming trends in the Barents Sea region predict one of the highest rates of sea ice loss within the circumpolar Arctic. However, local- to regional-scale heterogeneity in sea ice melting phenology may add uncertainty to predictions of climate-driven environmental impacts on seabirds. Indeed, our fine-scale analysis reveals that the inshore Brünnich's guillemots are facing a slower advancement in the timing of ice melt compared to the offshore-foraging little auks. We provide a suitable framework for analyzing the effects of climate-driven sea ice disappearance on seabird fitness.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-017-04775-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5495753PMC
July 2017

Carboxylesterase activities in chondrichthyans of the western Mediterranean Sea.

Mar Pollut Bull 2017 06 25;119(1):332-335. Epub 2017 Apr 25.

Institut de Ciències del Mar CSIC, Passeig Marítim de la Barceloneta, 37-49, 08003 Barcelona, Spain.

View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.marpolbul.2017.04.021DOI Listing
June 2017

homeSound: Real-Time Audio Event Detection Based on High Performance Computing for Behaviour and Surveillance Remote Monitoring.

Sensors (Basel) 2017 Apr 13;17(4). Epub 2017 Apr 13.

GTM-Grup de recerca en Tecnologies Mèdia, La Salle-Universitat Ramon Llull, C/Quatre Camins, 30, 08022 Barcelona, Catalonia, Spain.

The consistent growth in human life expectancy during the recent years has driven governments and private organizations to increase the efforts in caring for the eldest segment of the population. These institutions have built hospitals and retirement homes that have been rapidly overfilled, making their associated maintenance and operating costs prohibitive. The latest advances in technology and communications envisage new ways to monitor those people with special needs at their own home, increasing their quality of life in a cost-affordable way. The purpose of this paper is to present an Ambient Assisted Living (AAL) platform able to analyze, identify, and detect specific acoustic events happening in daily life environments, which enables the medic staff to remotely track the status of every patient in real-time. Additionally, this tele-care proposal is validated through a proof-of-concept experiment that takes benefit of the capabilities of the NVIDIA Graphical Processing Unit running on a Jetson TK1 board to locally detect acoustic events. Conducted experiments demonstrate the feasibility of this approach by reaching an overall accuracy of 82% when identifying a set of 14 indoor environment events related to the domestic surveillance and patients' behaviour monitoring field. Obtained results encourage practitioners to keep working in this direction, and enable health care providers to remotely track the status of their patients in real-time with non-invasive methods.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/s17040854DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5424731PMC
April 2017

Feathered Detectives: Real-Time GPS Tracking of Scavenging Gulls Pinpoints Illegal Waste Dumping.

PLoS One 2016 22;11(7):e0159974. Epub 2016 Jul 22.

Estación Biológica de Doñana CSIC, Avda. Américo Vespucio s/n, Sevilla, 41092, Spain.

Urban waste impacts human and environmental health, and waste management has become one of the major challenges of humanity. Concurrently with new directives due to manage this human by-product, illegal dumping has become one of the most lucrative activities of organized crime. Beyond economic fraud, illegal waste disposal strongly enhances uncontrolled dissemination of human pathogens, pollutants and invasive species. Here, we demonstrate the potential of novel real-time GPS tracking of scavenging species to detect environmental crime. Specifically, we were able to detect illegal activities at an officially closed dump, which was visited recurrently by 5 of 19 GPS-tracked yellow-legged gulls (Larus michahellis). In comparison with conventional land-based surveys, GPS tracking allows a much wider and cost-efficient spatiotemporal coverage, even of the most hazardous sites, while GPS data accessibility through the internet enables rapid intervention. Our results suggest that multi-species guilds of feathered detectives equipped with GPS and cameras could help fight illegal dumping at continental scales. We encourage further experimental studies, to infer waste detection thresholds in gulls and other scavenging species exploiting human waste dumps.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0159974PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4957755PMC
July 2017

Population genetic structure and long-distance dispersal of a recently expanding migratory bird.

Mol Phylogenet Evol 2016 06 16;99:194-203. Epub 2016 Mar 16.

Key Laboratory of the Zoological Systematics and Evolution, Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101, China.

Long-distance dispersal events and their derivable increases of genetic diversity have been highlighted as important ecological and evolutionary determinants that improve performances of range-expanding species. In the context of global environmental change, specific dispersal strategies have to be understood and foreseen if we like to prevent general biodiversity impoverishment or the spread of allochthonous diseases. We explored the genetic structure and potential population mixing on the recently range-expanding European bee-eater Merops apiaster. In addition, the species is suspected of harbouring and disseminating the most relevant disease for bees and apiculture, Nosema microsporidia. In agreement with complementary ringing recovery data and morphometric measurements, genetic results on two mitochondrial genes and 12 microsatellites showed a reasonably well-structured population partitioning along its breeding distribution. Microsatellite results indicated that not only did a few birds recently disperse long distance during their return migrations and change their natal breeding areas, but also that a group of allochthonous birds together founded a new colony. Although we did not provide evidence on the direct implication of birds in the widespread of Nosema parasites, our finding on the long-distance dispersal of bird flocks between remote breeding colonies adds concern about the role of European bee-eaters in the spread of such disease at a large, inter-continental scale.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ympev.2016.03.015DOI Listing
June 2016

Spatial distribution and ecological niches of non-breeding planktivorous petrels.

Sci Rep 2015 Jul 13;5:12164. Epub 2015 Jul 13.

British Antarctic Survey, Natural Environment Research Council, Cambridge CB3 0ET, UK.

According to niche theory, mechanisms exist that allow co-existence of organisms that would otherwise compete for the same prey and other resources. How seabirds cope with potential competition during the non-breeding period is poorly documented, particularly for small species. Here we investigate for the first time the potential role of spatial, environmental (habitat) and trophic (isotopic) segregation as niche-partitioning mechanisms during the non-breeding season for four species of highly abundant, zooplanktivorous seabird that breed sympatrically in the Southern Ocean. Spatial segregation was found to be the main partitioning mechanism; even for the two sibling species of diving petrel, which spent the non-breeding period in overlapping areas, there was evidence from distribution and stable isotope ratios for differences in habitat use and diving depth.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/srep12164DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4499811PMC
July 2015

Trophic Strategies of a Non-Native and a Native Amphibian Species in Shared Ponds.

PLoS One 2015 23;10(6):e0130549. Epub 2015 Jun 23.

Department of Ecology and Genetics, Uppsala Universitet, Norbyvägen 18 D, 752 36, Uppsala, Sweden.

One of the critical factors for understanding the establishment, success and potential impact on native species of an introduced species is a thorough knowledge of how these species manage trophic resources. Two main trophic strategies for resource acquisition have been described: competition and opportunism. In the present study our objective was to identify the main trophic strategies of the non-native amphibian Discoglossus pictus and its potential trophic impact on the native amphibian Bufo calamita. We determine whether D. pictus exploits similar trophic resources to those exploited by the native B. calamita (competition hypothesis) or alternative resources (opportunistic hypothesis). To this end, we analyzed the stable isotope values of nitrogen and carbon in larvae of both species, in natural ponds and in controlled laboratory conditions. The similarity of the δ15N and δ13C values in the two species coupled with isotopic signal variation according to pond conditions and niche partitioning when they co-occurred indicated dietary competition. Additionally, the non-native species was located at higher levels of trophic niches than the native species and B. calamita suffered an increase in its standard ellipse area when it shared ponds with D. pictus. These results suggest niche displacement of B. calamita to non-preferred resources and greater competitive capacity of D. pictus in field conditions. Moreover, D. pictus showed a broader niche than the native species in all conditions, indicating increased capacity to exploit the diversity of resources; this may indirectly favor its invasiveness. Despite the limitations of this study (derived from potential variability in pond isotopic signals), the results support previous experimental studies. All the studies indicate that D. pictus competes with B. calamita for trophic resources with potential negative effects on the fitness of the latter.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0130549PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4478020PMC
April 2016

Evolutionary factors affecting the cross-species utility of newly developed microsatellite markers in seabirds.

Mol Ecol Resour 2015 Sep 29;15(5):1046-58. Epub 2015 Jan 29.

Justus Liebig University Giessen, Department of Animal Ecology & Systematics, Heinrich-Buff-Ring 38, D-35392, Giessen, Germany.

Microsatellite loci are ideal for testing hypotheses relating to genetic segregation at fine spatio-temporal scales. They are also conserved among closely related species, making them potentially useful for clarifying interspecific relationships between recently diverged taxa. However, mutations at primer binding sites may lead to increased nonamplification, or disruptions that may result in decreased polymorphism in nontarget species. Furthermore, high mutation rates and constraints on allele size may also with evolutionary time, promote an increase in convergently evolved allele size classes, biasing measures of interspecific genetic differentiation. Here, we used next-generation sequencing to develop microsatellite markers from a shotgun genome sequence of the sub-Antarctic seabird, the thin-billed prion (Pachyptila belcheri), that we tested for cross-species amplification in other Pachyptila and related sub-Antarctic species. We found that heterozygosity decreased and the proportion of nonamplifying loci increased with phylogenetic distance from the target species. Surprisingly, we found that species trees estimated from interspecific FST provided better approximations of mtDNA relationships among the studied species than those estimated using DC , even though FST was more affected by null alleles. We observed a significantly nonlinear second order polynomial relationship between microsatellite and mtDNA distances. We propose that the loss of linearity with increasing mtDNA distance stems from an increasing proportion of homoplastic allele size classes that are identical in state, but not identical by descent. Therefore, despite high cross-species amplification success and high polymorphism among the closely related Pachyptila species, we caution against the use of microsatellites in phylogenetic inference among distantly related taxa.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1755-0998.12372DOI Listing
September 2015
-->