Publications by authors named "Joachim Tjaden"

11 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Molecular identification and functional characterization of Arabidopsis thaliana mitochondrial and chloroplastic NAD+ carrier proteins.

J Biol Chem 2009 Nov 10;284(45):31249-59. Epub 2009 Sep 10.

Department of Pharmaco-Biology, Laboratory of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Bari, Bari, Italy.

The Arabidopsis thaliana L. genome contains 58 membrane proteins belonging to the mitochondrial carrier family. Two mitochondrial carrier family members, here named AtNDT1 and AtNDT2, exhibit high structural similarities to the mitochondrial nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD(+)) carrier ScNDT1 from bakers' yeast. Expression of AtNDT1 or AtNDT2 restores mitochondrial NAD(+) transport activity in a yeast mutant lacking ScNDT. Localization studies with green fluorescent protein fusion proteins provided evidence that AtNDT1 resides in chloroplasts, whereas only AtNDT2 locates to mitochondria. Heterologous expression in Escherichia coli followed by purification, reconstitution in proteoliposomes, and uptake experiments revealed that both carriers exhibit a submillimolar affinity for NAD(+) and transport this compound in a counter-exchange mode. Among various substrates ADP and AMP are the most efficient counter-exchange substrates for NAD(+). Atndt1- and Atndt2-promoter-GUS plants demonstrate that both genes are strongly expressed in developing tissues and in particular in highly metabolically active cells. The presence of both carriers is discussed with respect to the subcellular localization of de novo NAD(+) biosynthesis in plants and with respect to both the NAD(+)-dependent metabolic pathways and the redox balance of chloroplasts and mitochondria.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1074/jbc.M109.041830DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2781523PMC
November 2009

Characterization of the Arabidopsis Brittle1 transport protein and impact of reduced activity on plant metabolism.

Plant J 2008 Oct 28;56(1):51-63. Epub 2008 Jun 28.

Universität Kaiserslautern, Pflanzenphysiologie, Biologie, Erwin-Schrödinger-Strasse, D-67663 Kaiserslautern, Germany.

The Arabidopsis genome contains a gene (Atbt1) encoding a highly hydrophobic membrane protein of the mitochondrial carrier family, with six predicted transmembrane domains, and showing substantial structural similarity to Brittle1 proteins from maize and potato. We demonstrate that AtBT1 transports AMP, ADP and ATP (but not ADP-glucose), shows a unidirectional mode of transport, and locates to the plastidial membrane and not to the ER as previously proposed. Analysis using an Atbt1 promoter-GUS construct revealed substantial gene expression in rapidly growing root tips and maturating or germinating pollen. Survival of homozygous Atbt1::T-DNA mutants is very limited, and those that do survive produce non-fertile seeds. These observations indicate that no other carrier protein or metabolic mechanism can compensate for the loss of this transporter. Atbt1 RNAi dosage mutants show substantially retarded growth, adenylate levels similar to those of wild-type plants, increased glutamine contents and unchanged starch levels. Interestingly, the growth retardation of Atbt1 RNAi mutant plants was circumvented by adenosine feeding, and was accompanied by increased adenylate levels. Further observations showed the presence of a functional nucleotide salvage pathway in Atbt1 RNAi mutants. In summary, our data indicate that AtBT1 is a plastidial nucleotide uniport carrier protein that is strictly required to export newly synthesized adenylates into the cytosol.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-313X.2008.03583.xDOI Listing
October 2008

Identification of a novel adenine nucleotide transporter in the endoplasmic reticulum of Arabidopsis.

Plant Cell 2008 Feb 22;20(2):438-51. Epub 2008 Feb 22.

Pflanzenphysiologie, Technische Universität Kaiserslautern, D-67663 Kaiserslautern, Germany.

Many metabolic reactions in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) require high levels of energy in the form of ATP, which is important for cell viability. Here, we report on an adenine nucleotide transporter residing in the ER membranes of Arabidopsis thaliana (ER-ANT1). Functional integration of ER-ANT1 in the cytoplasmic membrane of intact Escherichia coli cells reveals a high specificity for an ATP/ADP antiport. Immunodetection in transgenic ER-ANT1-C-MYC-tag Arabidopsis plants and immunogold labeling of wild-type pollen grain tissue using a peptide-specific antiserum reveal the localization of this carrier in ER membranes. Transgenic ER-ANT1-promoter-beta-glucuronidase Arabidopsis lines show high expression in ER-active tissues (i.e., pollen, seeds, root tips, apical meristems, or vascular bundles). Two independent ER-ANT1 Arabidopsis knockout lines indicate a high physiological relevance of ER-ANT1 for ATP transport into the plant ER (e.g., disruption of ER-ANT1 results in a drastic retardation of plant growth and impaired root and seed development). In these ER-ANT1 knockout lines, the expression levels of several genes encoding ER proteins that are dependent on a sufficient ATP supply (i.e., BiP [for luminal binding protein] chaperones, calreticulin chaperones, Ca2+-dependent protein kinase, and SEC61) are substantially decreased.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1105/tpc.107.057554DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2276436PMC
February 2008

Molecular and biochemical analysis of the plastidic ADP-glucose transporter (ZmBT1) from Zea mays.

J Biol Chem 2007 Aug 11;282(31):22481-91. Epub 2007 Jun 11.

Abteilung Pflanzenphysiologie, Fachbereich Biologie, Technische Universität Kaiserslautern, P. O. Box 3049, D-67653 Kaiserslautern, Germany.

Physiological studies on the Brittle1 maize mutant have provided circumstantial evidence that ZmBT1 (Zea mays Brittle1 protein) is involved in the ADP-Glc transport into maize endosperm plastids, but up to now, no direct ADP-Glc transport mediated by ZmBT1 has ever been shown. The heterologous synthesis of ZmBT1 in Escherichia coli cells leads to the functional integration of ZmBT1 into the bacterial cytoplasmic membrane. ZmBT1 transports ADP-Glc in counterexchange with ADP with apparent affinities of about 850 and 465 mum, respectively. Recently, a complete ferredoxin/thioredoxin system has been identified in cereal amyloplasts and BT1 has been proposed as a potential Trx target protein (Balmer, Y., Vensel, W. H., Cai, N., Manieri, W., Schurmann, P., Hurkman, W. J., and Buchanan, B. B. (2006) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 103, 2988-2993). Interestingly, we revealed that the transport activity of ZmBT1 is reversibly regulated by redox reagents such as diamide and dithiothreitol. The expression of ZmBT1 is restricted to endosperm tissues during starch synthesis, whereas a recently identified BT1 maize homologue, the ZmBT1-2, exhibits a ubiquitous expression pattern in hetero- and autotrophic tissues indicating different physiological roles for both maize BT1 isoforms. BT1 homologues are present in both mono- and dicotyledonous plants. Phylogenetic analyses classify the BT1 family into two phylogenetically and biochemically distinct groups. The first group comprises BT1 orthologues restricted to cereals where they mediate the ADP-Glc transport into cereal endosperm storage plastids during starch synthesis. The second group occurs in mono- and dicotyledonous plants and is most probably involved in the export of adenine nucleotides synthesized inside plastids.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1074/jbc.M702484200DOI Listing
August 2007

Molecular identification and physiological characterization of a novel monosaccharide transporter from Arabidopsis involved in vacuolar sugar transport.

Plant Cell 2006 Dec 8;18(12):3476-90. Epub 2006 Dec 8.

Pflanzenphysiologie, Technische Universität Kaiserslautern, D-67653 Kaiserslautern, Germany.

The tonoplast monosaccharide transporter (TMT) family comprises three isoforms in Arabidopsis thaliana, and TMT-green fluorescent protein fusion proteins are targeted to the vacuolar membrane. TMT promoter-beta-glucuronidase plants revealed that the TONOPLAST MONOSACCHARIDE TRANSPORTER1 (TMT1) and TMT2 genes exhibit a tissue- and cell type-specific expression pattern, whereas TMT3 is only weakly expressed. TMT1 and TMT2 expression is induced by drought, salt, and cold treatments and by sugar. During cold adaptation, tmt knockout lines accumulated less glucose and fructose compared with wild-type plants, whereas no differences were observed for sucrose. Cold adaptation of wild-type plants substantially promoted glucose uptake into isolated leaf mesophyll vacuoles. Glucose uptake into isolated vacuoles was inhibited by NH(4)(+), fructose, and phlorizin, indicating that transport is energy-dependent and that both glucose and fructose were taken up by the same carrier. Glucose import into vacuoles from two cold-induced tmt1 knockout lines or from triple knockout plants was substantially lower than into corresponding wild-type vacuoles. Monosaccharide feeding into leaf discs revealed the strongest response to sugar in tmt1 knockout lines compared with wild-type plants, suggesting that TMT1 is required for cytosolic glucose homeostasis. Our results indicate that TMT1 is involved in vacuolar monosaccharide transport and plays a major role during stress responses.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1105/tpc.106.047290DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1785410PMC
December 2006

Mitochondria, hydrogenosomes and mitosomes: products of evolutionary tinkering!

Curr Genet 2006 Oct 9;50(4):225-45. Epub 2006 Aug 9.

Department of Evolutionary Microbiology, Faculty of Science, Radboud University Nijmegen, Toernooiveld 1, 6525, ED Nijmegen, The Netherlands.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00294-006-0088-8DOI Listing
October 2006

Characterization and developmentally regulated localization of the mitochondrial carrier protein homologue MCP6 from Trypanosoma brucei.

Eukaryot Cell 2006 Aug;5(8):1194-205

Zentrum für Molekulare Biologie (ZMBH), Im Neuenheimer Feld 282, D-69120 Heidelberg, Germany.

Proteins of the mitochondrial carrier family (MCF) are located mainly in the inner mitochondrial membrane and mediate the transport of a large range of metabolic intermediates. The genome of Trypanosoma brucei harbors 29 genes encoding different MCF proteins. We describe here the characterization of MCP6, a novel T. brucei MCF protein. Sequence comparison and phylogenetic reconstruction revealed that MCP6 is closely related to different mitochondrial ADP/ATP and calcium-dependent solute carriers, including the ATP-Mg/Pi carrier of Homo sapiens. However, MCP6 lacks essential amino acids and sequence motifs conserved in these metabolite transporters, and functional reconstitution and transport assays with E. coli suggested that this protein indeed does not function as an ADP/ATP or ATP-Mg/Pi carrier. The subcellular localization of MCP6 is developmentally regulated: in bloodstream-form trypanosomes, the protein is predominantly glycosomal, whereas in the procyclic form, it is found mainly in the mitochondria. Depletion of MCP6 in procyclic trypanosomes resulted in growth inhibition, an increased cell size, aberrant numbers of nuclei and kinetoplasts, and abnormal kinetoplast morphology, suggesting that depletion of MCP6 inhibits division of the kinetoplast.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/EC.00096-06DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1539146PMC
August 2006

Identification and characterization of a novel plastidic adenine nucleotide uniporter from Solanum tuberosum.

J Biol Chem 2005 May 28;280(18):17992-8000. Epub 2005 Feb 28.

Pflanzenphysiologie, Technische Universität Kaiserslautern, Erwin-Schroedinger-Strasse 22, D-67663 Kaiserslautern, Germany.

Homologs of BT1 (the Brittle1 protein) are found to be phylogenetically related to the mitochondrial carrier family and appear to occur in both mono- and dicotyledonous plants. Whereas BT1 from cereals is probably involved in the transport of ADP-glucose, which is essential for starch metabolism in endosperm plastids, BT1 from a noncereal plant, Solanum tuberosum (StBT1), catalyzes an adenine nucleotide uniport when functionally integrated into the bacterial cytoplasmic membrane. Import studies into intact Escherichia coli cells harboring StBT1 revealed a narrow substrate spectrum with similar affinities for AMP, ADP, and ATP of about 300-400 mum. Transiently expressed StBT1-green fluorescent protein fusion protein in tobacco leaf protoplasts showed a plastidic localization of the StBT1. In vitro synthesized radioactively labeled StBT1 was targeted to the envelope membranes of isolated spinach chloroplasts. Furthermore, we showed by real time reverse transcription-PCR a ubiquitous expression pattern of the StBT1 in autotrophic and heterotrophic potato tissues. We therefore propose that StBT1 is a plastidic adenine nucleotide uniporter used to provide the cytosol and other compartments with adenine nucleotides exclusively synthesized inside plastids.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1074/jbc.M412462200DOI Listing
May 2005

A divergent ADP/ATP carrier in the hydrogenosomes of Trichomonas gallinae argues for an independent origin of these organelles.

Mol Microbiol 2004 Mar;51(5):1439-46

Department of Plant Physiology, University of Kaiserslautern, Erwin Schroedinger Strasse, D-67663 Kaiserslautern, Germany.

The evolution of mitochondrial ADP and ATP exchanging proteins (AACs) highlights a key event in the evolution of the eukaryotic cell, as ATP exporting carriers were indispensable in establishing the role of mitochondria as ATP-generating cellular organelles. Hydrogenosomes, i.e. ATP- and hydrogen-generating organelles of certain anaerobic unicellular eukaryotes, are believed to have evolved from the same ancestral endosymbiont that gave rise to present day mitochondria. Notably, the hydrogenosomes of the parasitic anaerobic flagellate Trichomonas seemed to be deficient in mitochondrial-type AACs. Instead, HMP 31, a different member of the mitochondrial carrier family (MCF) with a hitherto unknown function, is abundant in the hydrogenosomal membranes of Trichomonas vaginalis. Here we show that the homologous HMP 31 of closely related Trichomonas gallinae specifically transports ADP and ATP with high efficiency, as do genuine mitochondrial AACs. However, phylogenetic analysis and its resistance against bongkrekic acid (BKA, an efficient inhibitor of mitochondrial-type AACs) identify HMP 31 as a member of the mitochondrial carrier family that is distinct from all mitochondrial and hydrogenosomal AACs studied so far. Thus, our data support the hypothesis that the various hydrogenosomes evolved repeatedly and independently.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2958.2004.03918.xDOI Listing
March 2004

Functional integration of mitochondrial and hydrogenosomal ADP/ATP carriers in the Escherichia coli membrane reveals different biochemical characteristics for plants, mammals and anaerobic chytrids.

Eur J Biochem 2002 Jul;269(13):3172-81

Pflanzenphysiologie, Universität Kaiserslautern, Erwin-Schrödinger-Strasse, D-67663 Kaiserslautern, Germany.

The expression of mitochondrial and hydrogenosomal ADP/ATP carriers (AACs) from plants, rat and the anaerobic chytridiomycete fungus Neocallimastix spec. L2 in Escherichia coli allows a functional integration of the recombinant proteins into the bacterial cytoplasmic membrane. For AAC1 and AAC2 from rat, apparent Km values of about 40 microm for ADP, and 105 microm or 140 microm, respectively, for ATP have been determined, similar to the data reported for isolated rat mitochondria. The apparent Km for ATP decreased up to 10-fold in the presence of the protonophore m-chlorocarbonylcyanide phenylhydrazone (CCCP). The hydrogenosomal AAC isolated from the chytrid fungus Neocallimastix spec. L2 exhibited the same characteristics, but the affinities for ADP (165 microm) and ATP (2.33 mm) were significantly lower. Notably, AAC1-3 from Arabidopsis thaliana and AAC1 from Solanum tuberosum (potato) showed significantly higher external affinities for both nucleotides (10-22 microm); they were only slightly influenced by CCCP. Studies on intact plant mitochondria confirmed these observations. Back exchange experiments with preloaded E. coli cells expressing AACs indicate a preferential export of ATP for all AACs tested. This is the first report of a functional integration of proteins belonging to the mitochondrial carrier family (MCF) into a bacterial cytoplasmic membrane. The technique described here provides a relatively simple and highly reproducible method for functional studies of individual mitochondrial-type carrier proteins from organisms that do not allow the application of sophisticated genetic techniques.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1046/j.1432-1033.2002.02991.xDOI Listing
July 2002

Multiple origins of hydrogenosomes: functional and phylogenetic evidence from the ADP/ATP carrier of the anaerobic chytrid Neocallimastix sp.

Mol Microbiol 2002 Jun;44(6):1441-54

Department of Evolutionary Microbiology, University of Nijmegen, Toernooiveld 1, NL-6525 ED Nijmegen, The Netherlands.

A mitochondrial-type ADP/ATP carrier (AAC) has been identified in the hydrogenosomes of the anaerobic chytridiomycete fungus Neocallimastix sp. L2. Biochemical and immunocytochemical studies revealed that this ADP/ATP carrier is an integral component of hydrogenosomal membranes. Expression of the corresponding cDNA in Escherichia coli confers the ability on the bacterial host to incorporate ADP at significantly higher rates than ATP--similar to isolated mitochondria of yeast and animals. Phylogenetic analysis of this AAC gene (hdgaac) confirmed with high statistical support that the hydrogenosomal ADP/ATP carrier of Neocallimastix sp. L2 belongs to the family of veritable mitochondrial-type AACs. Hydrogenosome-bearing anaerobic ciliates possess clearly distinct mitochondrial-type AACs, whereas the potential hydrogenosomal carrier Hmp31 of the anaerobic flagellate Trichomonas vaginalis and its homologue from Trichomonas gallinae do not belong to this family of proteins. Also, phylogenetic analysis of genes encoding mitochondrial-type chaperonin 60 proteins (HSP 60) supports the conclusion that the hydrogenosomes of anaerobic chytrids and anaerobic ciliates had independent origins, although both of them arose from mitochondria.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1046/j.1365-2958.2002.02959.xDOI Listing
June 2002