Publications by authors named "Joachim Oswald"

9 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Experimental hypoxia is a potent stimulus for radiotracer uptake in vitro: comparison of different tumor cells and primary endothelial cells.

Cancer Lett 2007 Aug 2;254(1):102-10. Epub 2007 Apr 2.

Institute of Radiopharmacy, Research Center Dresden-Rossendorf, Dresden, Germany.

Hypoxia causes upregulation of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) which is a key regulator in tumor angiogenesis and essential for the proliferation of endothelial cells. Endothelial cells have been described to accumulate radiotracers like (18)F-FDG. However, the contribution of radiotracer uptake by endothelial cells to uptake measured in tumors by positron emission tomography (PET) is still unclear. In this study (18)F-FDG and (18)F-FMISO radiotracer uptake in various tumor and primary endothelial cells cultured at hypoxic conditions was investigated. Experimental hypoxia was confirmed by significant upregulation of VEGF mRNA. In comparison to normoxic conditions, cellular uptake of (18)F-FDG was significantly increased at hypoxic conditions in two of the tumor and all endothelial cells, whereas (18)F-FMISO uptake was only enhanced in tumor cell lines HT-29 and MCF-7. Our data showed a marked influence of experimental hypoxia on the metabolism and gene expression of tumor and endothelial cells in vitro. This indicates an important contribution of endothelial cells to (18)F-FDG radiotracer uptake in tumors and for the visualization of tumors by means of PET.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.canlet.2007.02.016DOI Listing
August 2007

Polarization of human hematopoietic progenitors during contact with multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells: effects on proliferation and clonogenicity.

Stem Cells Dev 2006 Dec;15(6):815-29

Medical Clinic and Polyclinic I, University Hospital Carl Gustav Carus, D-01307, Dresden, Germany.

Establishment of a defined cell culture system that facilitates ex vivo expansion of isolated hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs) is a crucial issue in hematology and stem cell transplantation. Here we have evaluated the capacity of primary human multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) to support the ex vivo expansion of peripheral CD34(+)-enriched HSPCs. We observed that HSPCs co-cultured on MSCs showed a substantially higher total expansion rate compared to those growing without. Moreover, in addition to the expansion of CD34(+)CD133(+) and CD34(+)CD133(-) cells, a third population of CD133(+)CD34(-) stem cells became detectable after expansion. Direct contact between HSPCs and the feeder layer appears beneficial for the expansion of HSPCs harboring CD133(+) phenotype, i.e., CD34(+)CD133(+) and CD133(+)CD34(-), in contrast to CD34(+)CD133(-) cells. Interestingly, electron microscopy and immunofluorescence analyses revealed that adherent HSPCs display various morphologies; they are either round with, in some cases, the appearance of a microvillar pole or exhibit several distinct types of plasma membrane protrusions such as lamellipodium and magnupodium. CD133 is selectively concentrated therein, whereas CD34 is randomly distributed over the entire surface of HSPCs. Together, this co-culture offers a unique experimental system to further characterize the biology and role of markers of rare stem cell populations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/scd.2006.15.815DOI Listing
December 2006

Gene-expression profiling of CD34+ hematopoietic cells expanded in a collagen I matrix.

Stem Cells 2006 Mar 15;24(3):494-500. Epub 2005 Sep 15.

Med. Klinik und Poliklinik I, University Hospital Carl Gustav Carus, Liebniz Institute of Polymer Research Dresden, Germany.

CD34+ hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells (HSCs) reside in the bone marrow in close proximity to the endosteal bone surface, surrounded by osteoblasts, stromal cells, and various extracellular matrix molecules. We used a bioartificial matrix of fibrillar collagen I, the major matrix component of bone, as a scaffold for ex vivo expansion of HSCs. CD34+ HSCs were isolated from umbilical cord blood and cultivated within reconstituted collagen I fibrils in the presence of fms-like tyrosine kinase-3 ligand, stem cell factor, and interleukin (IL)-3. After 7 days of culture, the cell number, number of colony-forming units (CFU-C), and gene-expression profile of the cultured cells were assessed. Although the total expansion factor of CD34+ cells was slightly lower when cells were cultivated in the collagen I gel, the frequency of CFU-C was greater than in control suspension cultures. Gene-expression analysis with microarray chip technology revealed the upregulation of more than 50 genes in the presence of collagen I. Among these, genes for several growth factors, cytokines, and chemokines (e.g., IL-8 and macrophage inhibitory protein 1alpha) could be confirmed using quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Furthermore, greater expression levels of the negative cell-cycle regulator BTG2/TIS21 and an inhibitor of the mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway, DUSP2, underline the regulatory role of the extracellular matrix. Together, these data show that the expansion of CD34+ cord blood cells in a culture system containing a three-dimensional collagen I matrix induces a qualitative change in the gene-expression profile of cultivated HSCs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1634/stemcells.2005-0276DOI Listing
March 2006

Mesenchymal stem cells can be differentiated into endothelial cells in vitro.

Stem Cells 2004 ;22(3):377-84

Institute of Polymer Research Dresden and The Max Bergmann Center of Biomaterials Dresden, Dresden, Germany.

Human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have the potential to differentiate into mesenchymal tissues like osteocytes, chondrocytes, and adipocytes in vivo and in vitro. The aim of this study was to investigate the in vitro differentiation of MSCs into cells of the endothelial lineage. MSCs were generated out of mononuclear bone marrow cells from healthy donors separated by density gradient centrifugation. Cells were characterized by flow cytometry using a panel of monoclonal antibodies and were tested for their potential to differentiate along different mesenchymal lineages. Isolated MSCs were positive for the markers CD105, CD73, CD166, CD90, and CD44 and negative for typical hematopoietic and endothelial markers. They were able to differentiate into adipocytes and osteocytes after cultivation in respective media. Differentiation into endothelial-like cells was induced by cultivation of confluent cells in the presence of 2% fetal calf serum and 50 ng/ml vascular endothelial growth factor. Laser scanning cytometry analysis of the confluent cells in situ showed a strong increase of expression of endothelial-specific markers like KDR and FLT-1, and immunofluorescence analysis showed typical expression of the von Willebrand factor. The functional behavior of the differentiated cells was tested with an in vitro angiogenesis test kit where cells formed characteristic capillary-like structures. We could show the differentiation of expanded adult human MSCs into cells with phenotypic and functional features of endothelial cells. These predifferentiated cells provide new options for engineering of artificial tissues based on autologous MSCs and vascularized engineered tissues.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1634/stemcells.22-3-377DOI Listing
October 2005

Comparison of flow cytometry and laser scanning cytometry for the analysis of CD34+ hematopoietic stem cells.

Cytometry A 2004 Feb;57(2):100-7

Institute of Polymer Research Dresden, Department of Biocompatible Materials, and Max Bergmann Center of Biomaterials Dresden, Dresden, Germany.

Background: Characterization of hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) by laser scanning cytometry (LSC) was compared with conventional flow cytometry (FCM). The method was evaluated for application in the development of advanced cell culture substrates that were supposed to support the ex vivo expansion of HSC. For this purpose, adherent HSCs were grown in culture on thin polymer films coated with reconstituted collagen I fibrils and subsequently analyzed by LSC.

Methods: CD34+ HSCs were isolated from cord blood by immunomagnetic separation and cultivated on polymer films coated with reconstituted collagen I fibrils. Cell surface antigens (CD34, CD29) were stained with antibodies, and nuclei were labeled with a DNA stain (TO-PRO-3 iodide) that does not interfere with the fluorochromes of the antibodies. Fluorescence intensity of the adherent cells was measured by means of LSC. Before and after in vitro expansion for time periods of up to 7 days, suspension cells were analyzed with LSC and FCM.

Results: LSC-based analysis enabled reliable quantification of CD34+ cells with bright antigen expression before cell culture. At this stage, LSC and FCM data for CD34 expression at given HSC samples largely coincided. After in vitro expansion, LSC data deviated from FCM data for cells with dim CD34 antigen expression, whereas the fluorescence intensity of the CD29 antigen remained comparable. The deviation between LSC and FCM data for CD34dim was attributed to the better resolution of weak fluorescence by FCM. Based on the preceding evaluation of the method, LSC analysis could be applied to characterize HSCs cultivated on collagen I-coated polymer films without detachment of the cells from the substrate.

Conclusions: LSC-based analysis allows for the automated evaluation of adherent HSCs. Although resolution of weakly expressed antigens can be achieved more precisely with FCM, the method provides a valuable tool to study interactions of HSCs with bioartificial substrates.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cyto.a.10118DOI Listing
February 2004

Thermo-responsive PNiPAAm-g-PEG films for controlled cell detachment.

Biomacromolecules 2003 Nov-Dec;4(6):1733-9

Institute of Polymer Research Dresden & Max Bergmann Center of Biomaterials Dresden, Hohe Str. 6, 01069 Dresden, Germany.

A series of graft copolymers consisting of either poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNiPAAm) or poly(N,N-diethylacrylamide) (PDEAAm) as a thermo-responsive component in the polymer backbone and poly(ethyleneglycol) (PEG) were immobilized as thin films and cross-linked on a fluoropolymer substrate using low-pressure argon plasma treatment. The surface-immobilized hydrogels exhibit a transition from partially collapsed to completely swollen, which is in the range of 32-35 degrees C and corresponds to the lower critical solution temperature of the soluble polymers. The hydrogels were used as cell carriers in culture experiments with L929 mouse fibroblast cells to probe for cell adhesion, proliferation, and temperature-dependent detachment of cell layers. The fibroblast cells adhere, spread, and proliferate on the hydrogel layers at 37 degrees C and become completely detached after reducing the temperature by 3 K. The cell release characteristics were further correlated to the swelling and collapsing behavior of the hydrogel films and the polymer solutions as measured in PBS solution and RPMI cell cultivation medium. It could be shown that, long before the swelling has completed upon temperature reduction, the cells detach. This can be attributed to the large content of PEG present in the hydrogel, which weaken the cell adhesion strength to the hydrogel layers.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/bm034160pDOI Listing
July 2004

Fibronectin anchorage to polymer substrates controls the initial phase of endothelial cell adhesion.

J Biomed Mater Res A 2003 Nov;67(2):647-57

Institute of Polymer Research Dresden & The Max Bergmann Center of Biomaterials Dresden, Hohe Str. 6, 01069 Dresden, Germany.

Early stages of the adhesion of human endothelial cells onto a set of smooth polymer films were analyzed to reveal the modulation of cell-matrix interactions by the physicochemical constraints of predeposited fibronectin (FN). Hydrophobic and hydrophilic polymer substrates, consisting of poly(octadecene-alt-maleic anhydride) and poly(propene-alt-maleic anhydride) films, were coated with similar amounts of FN at conditions of either covalent or noncovalent immobilization. The well-defined substrates permit variation of the anchorage of FN at invariant topography, pliability, and molecular composition. Although all of the compared FN coatings were effective in stimulating attachment of endothelial cells, the initial formation of cell-matrix adhesions was found to be controlled by the type of interaction between predeposited FN and the underlying substrate. Covalent linkage and hydrophobic interactions of the predeposited FN with the polymer films interfered with the rapid generation of focal and fibrillar adhesions. It was demonstrated that this was caused by the fact that only weakly bound FN could become readily reorganized by the adherent cells. Upon prolonged culture periods at standard cell culture conditions, secretion and deposition of organized extracellular matrix by the attached cells was found to balance out the differences of the substrates.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jbm.a.10130DOI Listing
November 2003

Epigenetic modifications in an imprinting cluster are controlled by a hierarchy of DMRs suggesting long-range chromatin interactions.

Hum Mol Genet 2003 Feb;12(3):295-305

Laboratory of Developmental Genetics and Imprinting, Developmental Genetics Programme, The Babraham Institute, Cambridge CB2 4AT, UK.

Imprinted genes and their control elements occur in clusters in the mammalian genome and carry epigenetic modifications. Observations from imprinting disorders suggest that epigenetic modifications throughout the clusters could be under regional control. However, neither the elements that are responsible for regional control, nor its developmental timing, particularly whether it occurs in the germline or postzygotically, are known. Here we examine regional control of DNA methylation in the imprinted Igf2-H19 region in the mouse. Paternal germline specific methylation was reprogrammed after fertilization in two differentially methylated regions (DMRs) in Igf2, and was reestablished after implantation. Using a number of knockout strains in the region, we found that the DMRs themselves are involved in regional coordination in a hierarchical fashion. Thus the H19 DMR was needed on the maternal allele to protect the Igf2 DMRs 1 and 2 from methylation, and Igf2 DMR1 was needed to protect DMR2 from methylation. This regional coordination occurred exclusively after fertilization during somatic development, and did not involve linear spreading of DNA methylation, suggesting a model in which long-range chromatin interactions are involved in regional epigenetic coordination. These observations are likely to be relevant to other gene clusters in which epigenetic regulation plays a role, and in pathological situations in which epigenetic regulation is disrupted.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/hmg/ddg022DOI Listing
February 2003

DNA-methylation analysis by the bisulfite-assisted genomic sequencing method.

Methods Mol Biol 2002 ;200:143-54

Max-Planck-Institute for Molecular Genetics, Berlin, Germany.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1385/1-59259-182-5:143DOI Listing
October 2002