Publications by authors named "Jo Salmon"

333 Publications

Effect of commercial wearables and digital behaviour change resources on the physical activity of adolescents attending schools in socio-economically disadvantaged areas: the RAW-PA cluster-randomised controlled trial.

Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act 2021 Apr 12;18(1):52. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

Institute for Physical Activity and Nutrition (IPAN), School of Exercise and Nutrition Sciences, Deakin University, Geelong, Australia.

Background: There has been increasing interest in using wearable activity trackers to promote physical activity in youth. This study examined the short- and longer-term effects of a wearable activity tracker combined with digital behaviour change resources on the physical activity of adolescents attending schools in socio-economically disadvantaged areas.

Methods: The Raising Awareness of Physical Activity (RAW-PA) Study was a 12-week, multicomponent intervention that combined a Fitbit Flex (and accompanying app), and online digital behaviour change resources and weekly challenges delivered via Facebook. RAW-PA was evaluated using a cluster-randomised controlled trial with 275 adolescents (50.2% female; 13.7 ± 0.4 years) from 18 Melbourne secondary schools (intervention n = 9; wait-list control group n = 9). The primary outcome was moderate- to vigorous-intensity physical activity (MVPA), measured using hip-worn ActiGraph accelerometers. The secondary outcome was self-reported physical activity. Data were collected at baseline, 12-weeks (immediately post-intervention), and 6-months post-intervention (follow-up). Multilevel models were used to determine the effects of the intervention on daily MVPA over time, adjusting for covariates.

Results: No significant differences were observed between intervention and wait-list control adolescents' device-assessed MVPA immediately post-intervention. At 6-months post-intervention, adolescents in the intervention group engaged in 5 min (95% CI: - 9.1 to - 1.0) less MVPA per day than those in the wait-list control group. Males in the intervention group engaged in 11 min (95% CI: - 17.6 to - 4.5) less MVPA than males in the wait-list control group at 6-months post-intervention. No significant differences were observed for females at either time point. For self-reported physical activity, no significant effects were found at 12-weeks and 6-months post-intervention.

Conclusions: Combining a wearable activity tracker with digital behaviour change resources and weekly challenges did not increase inactive adolescents' accelerometer-derived and self-reported physical activity levels immediately post-intervention. This contrasts previous research that has suggested wearable activity tracker may increase youth physical activity levels in the short-term. Lower engagement in MVPA 6-months post-intervention was observed for males but not for females, though it is unclear why this finding was observed. The results suggest wearable activity trackers, in combination with supporting materials, may not be effective for increasing physical activity levels in adolescents.

Trial Registration: ACTRN12616000899448 . Australian and New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry. Registered 7 July 2016.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12966-021-01110-1DOI Listing
April 2021

Mechanisms of scaling up: combining a realist perspective and systems analysis to understand successfully scaled interventions.

Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act 2021 Mar 22;18(1):42. Epub 2021 Mar 22.

Solent University, School of Sport, Health and Social Science, Southampton, Hampshire, UK.

Background: Sustainable shifts in population behaviours require system-level implementation and embeddedness of large-scale health interventions. This paper aims to understand how different contexts of scaling up interventions affect mechanisms to produce intended and unintended scale up outcomes.

Methods: A mixed method study combining a realist perspective and systems analysis (causal loop diagrams) of scaled-up physical activity and/or nutrition interventions implemented at a state/national level in Australia (2010-18). The study involved four distinct phases: Phase 1 expert consultation, database and grey literature searches to identify scaled-up interventions; Phase 2 generating initial Context-Mechanism-Outcome configurations (CMOs) from the WHO ExpandNet framework for scaling up; Phase 3 testing and refining CMOs via online surveys and realist interviews with academics, government and non-government organisations (NGOs) involved in scale up of selected interventions (Phase 1); and Phase 4 generating cross-case mid-range theories represented in systems models of scaling up; validated by member checking. Descriptive statistics were reported for online survey data and realist analysis for interview data.

Results: Seven interventions were analysed, targeting nutrition (n = 1), physical activity (n = 1), or a combination (n = 5). Twenty-six participants completed surveys; 19 completed interviews. Sixty-three CMO pathways underpinned successful scale up, reflecting 36 scale up contexts, 8 key outcomes; linked via 53 commonly occurring mechanisms. All five WHO framework domains were represented in the systems models. Most CMO pathways included 'intervention attributes' and led to outcomes 'community sustainability/embeddedness' and 'stakeholder buy-in/perceived value'. Irrespective of interventions being scaled in similar contexts (e.g., having political favourability); mechanisms still led to both intended and unintended scale up outcomes (e.g., increased or reduced sustainability).

Conclusion: This paper provides the first evidence for mechanisms underpinning outcomes required for successful scale up of state or nationally delivered interventions. Our findings challenge current prerequisites for effective scaling suggesting other conditions may be necessary. Future scale up approaches that plan for complexity and encourage iterative adaptation throughout, may enhance scale up outcomes. Current linear, context-to-outcome depictions of scale up oversimplify what is a clearly a complex interaction between perceptions, worldviews and goals of those involved. Mechanisms identified in this study could potentially be leveraged during future scale up efforts, to positively influence intervention scalability and sustainability.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12966-021-01103-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7986035PMC
March 2021

Using compositional data analysis to explore accumulation of sedentary behavior, physical activity and youth health.

J Sport Health Sci 2021 Mar 15. Epub 2021 Mar 15.

Institute for Physical Activity and Nutrition, School of Exercise and Nutrition Sciences, Deakin University, Geelong 3216, Australia.

Purpose: This study aimed to describe youth time-use compositions, focusing on time spent in shorter and longer bouts of sedentary behavior and physical activity (PA), and to examine associations of these time-use compositions with cardiometabolic biomarkers.

Methods: Accelerometer and cardiometabolic biomarker data from 2 Australian studies involving youths 7-13 years old were pooled (complete cases with accelerometry and adiposity marker data n = 782). A 9-component time-use composition was formed using compositional data analysis: time in shorter and longer bouts of sedentary behavior; time in shorter and longer bouts of light-, moderate-, or vigorous-intensity PA; and "other time" (i.e., non-wear/sleep). Shorter and longer bouts of sedentary time were defined as <5 and ≥5 min, respectively. Shorter bouts of light-, moderate-, and vigorous-intensity PA were defined as <1 min; longer bouts were defined as ≥1 min. Regression models examined associations between overall time-use composition and cardiometabolic biomarkers. Then, associations were derived between ratios of longer activity patterns relative to shorter activity patterns, and of each intensity level relative to the other intensity levels and "other time," and cardiometabolic biomarkers.

Results: Confounder-adjusted models showed that the overall time-use composition was associated with adiposity, blood pressure, lipids and the summary score. Specifically, more time in longer bouts of light-intensity PA relative to shorter bouts of light-intensity PA was significantly associated with greater zBMI (β = 1.79, SE = 0.68) and waist circumference (β = 18.35, SE = 4.78). When each activity intensity was considered relative to all higher intensities and "other time," more time in light- and vigorous-intensity PA, and less time in sedentary behavior and moderate-intensity PA, were associated with lower waist circumference.

Conclusion: Accumulating PA, particularly light-intensity PA, in frequent short bursts may be more beneficial for limiting adiposity compared to accumulating the same amount of PA at these intensities in longer bouts.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jshs.2021.03.004DOI Listing
March 2021

Volume and accumulation patterns of physical activity and sedentary time: longitudinal changes and tracking from early to late childhood.

Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act 2021 Mar 17;18(1):39. Epub 2021 Mar 17.

Institute for Physical Activity and Nutrition (IPAN), School of Exercise and Nutrition Sciences, Deakin University, Geelong, Australia.

Background: Physical activity (PA) decreases and sedentary time (SED) increases across childhood, with both behaviours tracking. However, no studies have examined how accumulation patterns of PA and SED (i.e., prolonged bouts, frequency of breaks in sedentary time) change and track over time. The aim of this study was to investigate longitudinal changes in and tracking of total volume and accumulation patterns of SED, light-intensity PA (LPA), moderate-intensity PA (MPA), vigorous-intensity PA (VPA) among boys and girls.

Methods: In 2008/09 (T1), children in HAPPY (3-5y; n = 758) in Melbourne, Australia wore ActiGraph GT1M accelerometers to objectively assess SED, LPA, MPA and VPA. This was repeated at age 6-8y (T2; n = 473) and 9-11y (T3; n = 478). Ten pattern variables were computed: bouts of ≥ 5-, ≥ 10-, ≥ 15- and ≥ 20-min for SED, ≥ 1- and ≥ 5-min for LPA, ≥ 1-min for MPA, ≥ 1- and ≥ 5-min for VPA, and breaks in SED (interruptions of > 25 counts 15 s). Longitudinal mixed models examined changes from T1-3, controlling for T1 age. Generalized estimating equations assessed tracking over the three time points, controlling for T1 age and time between measurements. Analyses were stratified by sex.

Results: Total volume and bouts of SED and SED breaks increased, while total volume and bouts of LPA decreased for both sexes. There was a small decrease in total volume of MPA for girls, but time spent in ≥ 1-min bouts increased for both sexes. Total volume of VPA increased for both sexes, with time spent in ≥ 1-min bouts increasing for boys only. All volume and pattern variables tracked moderately for boys, except for all SED bouts ≥ 15-min, LPA bouts ≥ 5-min and MPA bouts ≥ 1-min (which tracked weakly). For girls, total SED and SED bouts ≥ 1-min tracked strongly, total volume of LPA, MPA and VPA, ≥ 5- and ≥ 10-min SED bouts, and ≥ 1-min LPA and MPA bouts tracked moderately, and SED breaks, all SED bouts ≥ 15 min, LPA bouts ≥ 5 min and all VPA bouts tracked weakly.

Conclusions: Patterns of SED and PA change from early to late childhood; with the exception of SED breaks and VPA, changes were detrimental. Total volumes and short bouts tended to track more strongly than longer bouts. Interventions to prevent declines in PA and increases in SED are important from early in life.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12966-021-01105-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7971959PMC
March 2021

Adaptation and evaluation of the neighborhood environment walkability scale for youth for Chinese children (NEWS-CC).

BMC Public Health 2021 Mar 11;21(1):480. Epub 2021 Mar 11.

Department of Sports Science and Physical Education, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, Hong Kong, China.

Background: The physical activity-environment relationship has been infrequently investigated in Chinese children. Reliable and valid environmental measures specific to the age group and the local context are crucial for better understanding this relationship. The purposes of this study were to adapt the Neighborhood Environment Walkability Scale for youth (NEWS-Y) for Chinese children (termed NEWS-CC), and to examine the reliability and factorial validity of the NEWS-CC.

Methods: The development of the NEWS-CC involved the translation of the NEWS-Y to Chinese and the addition of nine new items capturing Hong Kong specific environmental attributes which were generated in our previous study. A total of 953 Hong Kong children aged 9-14 years volunteered to complete the NEWS-CC twice with 7-14 days apart. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was performed to examine the factorial validity of the NEWS-CC. Test-retest reliability of subscales and individual items in the NEWS-CC was examined by intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs).

Results: The CFA identified a 7-factor measurement model for the NEWS-CC which fitted the data well, with an additional "pollution" factor not included in the original NEWS-Y. The final NEWS-CC consisted of 67 items in 10 subscales. The test-retest reliability of subscales (range of ICC = 0.47-0.86) and individual items (range of ICC = 0.41-0.79) in the final NEWS-CC was moderate to good.

Conclusion: The results of this study support the psychometric properties of the NEWS-CC. The NEWS-CC can be used to assess physical activity-related neighborhood environment among children in Hong Kong, as well as cities that share similar urban forms with Hong Kong.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12889-021-10530-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7949240PMC
March 2021

Children's moderate-to-vigorous physical activity on weekdays versus weekend days: a multi-country analysis.

Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act 2021 02 10;18(1):28. Epub 2021 Feb 10.

MRC Epidemiology Unit & Centre for Diet and Activity Research, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK.

Purpose: The Structured Days Hypothesis (SDH) posits that children's behaviors associated with obesity - such as physical activity - are more favorable on days that contain more 'structure' (i.e., a pre-planned, segmented, and adult-supervised environment) such as school weekdays, compared to days with less structure, such as weekend days. The purpose of this study was to compare children's moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) levels on weekdays versus weekend days using a large, multi-country, accelerometer-measured physical activity dataset.

Methods: Data were received from the International Children's Accelerometer Database (ICAD) July 2019. The ICAD inclusion criteria for a valid day of wear, only non-intervention data (e.g., baseline intervention data), children with at least 1 weekday and 1 weekend day, and ICAD studies with data collected exclusively during school months, were included for analyses. Mixed effects models accounting for the nested nature of the data (i.e., days within children) assessed MVPA minutes per day (min/day MVPA) differences between weekdays and weekend days by region/country, adjusted for age, sex, and total wear time. Separate meta-analytical models explored differences by age and country/region for sex and child weight-status.

Results/findings: Valid data from 15 studies representing 5794 children (61% female, 10.7 ± 2.1 yrs., 24% with overweight/obesity) and 35,263 days of valid accelerometer data from 5 distinct countries/regions were used. Boys and girls accumulated 12.6 min/day (95% CI: 9.0, 16.2) and 9.4 min/day (95% CI: 7.2, 11.6) more MVPA on weekdays versus weekend days, respectively. Children from mainland Europe had the largest differences (17.1 min/day more MVPA on weekdays versus weekend days, 95% CI: 15.3, 19.0) compared to the other countries/regions. Children who were classified as overweight/obese or normal weight/underweight accumulated 9.5 min/day (95% CI: 6.9, 12.2) and 10.9 min/day (95% CI: 8.3, 13.5) of additional MVPA on weekdays versus weekend days, respectively.

Conclusions: Children from multiple countries/regions accumulated significantly more MVPA on weekdays versus weekend days during school months. This finding aligns with the SDH and warrants future intervention studies to prioritize less-structured days, such as weekend days, and to consider providing opportunities for all children to access additional opportunities to be active.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12966-021-01095-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7877033PMC
February 2021

Correlates of dual trajectories of physical activity and sedentary time in youth: The UP & DOWN longitudinal study.

Scand J Med Sci Sports 2021 Jan 23. Epub 2021 Jan 23.

Cardiovascular and Nutritional Epidemiology, IMDEA-Food Institute, Madrid, Spain.

Trajectories of physical activity and sedentary time (SED) may differ between subgroups of youth. The aim of this study was to identify group-based dual trajectories of physical activity and SED and explore individual, social, and environmental correlates of these trajectories. Longitudinal data (three time points, baseline 2011-2012) of Spanish youth (n = 1597, mean age = 11.94 ± 2.52, 50.9% boys) were used. Moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and SED were assessed objectively at each time point, and 21 potential correlates were self-reported at baseline. Parallel process growth mixture models identified shared categorical latent groups, adjusting for school and age. Multinomial logistic regression models identified baseline correlates of a given trajectory. Four shared categorical latent groups were identified: (1) stable MVPA and decreasing SED (4%); (2) stable MVPA and increasing SED (3%); (3) consistently higher MVPA (18%); and (4) stable low MVPA and slight increase in SED (75%). Multinomial logistic regression models with group 3 as reference found: negative affect (RRR = 0.90, 95% CI 0.84-0.97), parental screen-time rules (RRR = 1.15, 95% CI 1.00-1.33), and household media equipment (RRR = 1.17, 95% CI 1.05-1.30) predicted likelihood of group 1 membership; cons of reducing SED (RRR = 2.70, 95% CI 1.77-4.10) predicted likelihood of group 2 membership; and co-participation in physical activity with friends (RRR = 0.80, 95% CI 0.69-0.94), fathers' modeling of TV viewing (RRR = 1.22, 95% CI 1.02-1.47), and household media equipment (RRR = 1.16, 95% CI 1.02-1.31) predicted likelihood of group 4 membership. Results suggest that strategies to improve MVPA and SED behaviors among youth may need to be multifaceted, targeting all levels of influence.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/sms.13927DOI Listing
January 2021

The Use of Digital Platforms for Adults' and Adolescents' Physical Activity During the COVID-19 Pandemic (Our Life at Home): Survey Study.

J Med Internet Res 2021 02 1;23(2):e23389. Epub 2021 Feb 1.

Institute for Physical Activity and Nutrition, Deakin University, Geelong, Australia.

Background: Government responses to managing the COVID-19 pandemic may have impacted the way individuals were able to engage in physical activity. Digital platforms are a promising way to support physical activity levels and may have provided an alternative for people to maintain their activity while at home.

Objective: This study aimed to examine associations between the use of digital platforms and adherence to the physical activity guidelines among Australian adults and adolescents during the COVID-19 stay-at-home restrictions in April and May 2020.

Methods: A national online survey was distributed in May 2020. Participants included 1188 adults (mean age 37.4 years, SD 15.1; 980/1188, 82.5% female) and 963 adolescents (mean age 16.2 years, SD 1.2; 685/963, 71.1% female). Participants reported demographic characteristics, use of digital platforms for physical activity over the previous month, and adherence to moderate- to vigorous-intensity physical activity (MVPA) and muscle-strengthening exercise (MSE) guidelines. Multilevel logistic regression models examined differences in guideline adherence between those who used digital platforms (ie, users) to support their physical activity compared to those who did not (ie, nonusers).

Results: Digital platforms include streaming services for exercise (eg, YouTube, Instagram, and Facebook); subscriber fitness programs, via an app or online (eg, Centr and MyFitnessPal); facilitated online live or recorded classes, via platforms such as Zoom (eg, dance, sport training, and fitness class); sport- or activity-specific apps designed by sporting organizations for participants to keep up their skills (eg, TeamBuildr); active electronic games (eg, Xbox Kinect); and/or online or digital training or racing platforms (eg, Zwift, FullGaz, and Rouvy). Overall, 39.5% (469/1188) of adults and 26.5% (255/963) of adolescents reported using digital platforms for physical activity. Among adults, MVPA (odds ratio [OR] 2.0, 95% CI 1.5-2.7), MSE (OR 3.3, 95% CI 2.5-4.5), and combined (OR 2.7, 95% CI 2.0-3.8) guideline adherence were higher among digital platform users relative to nonusers. Adolescents' MVPA (OR 2.4, 95% CI 1.3-4.3), MSE (OR 3.1, 95% CI 2.1-4.4), and combined (OR 4.3, 95% CI 2.1-9.0) guideline adherence were also higher among users of digital platforms relative to nonusers.

Conclusions: Digital platform users were more likely than nonusers to meet MVPA and MSE guidelines during the COVID-19 stay-at-home restrictions in April and May 2020. Digital platforms may play a critical role in helping to support physical activity engagement when access to facilities or opportunities for physical activity outside the home are restricted.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2196/23389DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7857525PMC
February 2021

What Factors Help Young Children Develop Positive Perceptions of Their Motor Skills?

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2021 01 18;18(2). Epub 2021 Jan 18.

Institute of Physical Activity and Nutrition, School of Exercise and Nutrition, Deakin University, Geelong, VIC 3220, Australia.

A positive perception of motor skills is important for physical activity participation. The aim was to investigate which modifiable factors predict children's perceived motor skills. Mothers completed questionnaires when their child was 3.5 and 5 years old. At 5 years old, the children's perceived motor competence (PMC) was assessed. Separate linear regression models (up to 300 children) examined which factors at each time point predicted children's PMC, adjusted for relevant confounders. Multivariate models were then run with factors associated ( < 0.10) with perception. At 3.5 years, the time spent with same age and older children (both higher tertiles) and parental physical activity facilitation (sum of facilitation in last month, e.g., taking child to park) were initially associated with higher perception. Dance/gymnastics participation were associated with lower perceptions. Other child behaviours, maternal beliefs, play equipment, and swimming lessons were non-significant. In the final prospective model ( = 226), parental physical activity facilitation when child was 3.5 years old was the only factor to predict PMC. No factors were significant for the cross-sectional analyses at 5 years. Perceptions are formed based on past experiences which may explain why factors at 3.5 years rather than current experiences (when children were 5 years old) were associated with childhood perceptions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18020759DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7830558PMC
January 2021

International Physical Activity and Built Environment Study of adolescents: IPEN Adolescent design, protocol and measures.

BMJ Open 2021 01 18;11(1):e046636. Epub 2021 Jan 18.

Herbert Wertheim School of Public Health and Human Longevity Science, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, California, USA.

Introduction: Only international studies can provide the full variability of built environments and accurately estimate effect sizes of relations between contrasting environments and health-related outcomes. The aims of the International Physical Activity and Environment Study of Adolescents (IPEN Adolescent) are to estimate the strength, shape and generalisability of associations of the community environment (geographic information systems (GIS)-based and self-reported) with physical activity and sedentary behaviour (accelerometer-measured and self-reported) and weight status (normal/overweight/obese).

Methods And Analysis: The IPEN Adolescent observational, cross-sectional, multicountry study involves recruiting adolescent participants (ages 11-19 years) and one parent/guardian from neighbourhoods selected to ensure wide variations in walkability and socioeconomic status using common protocols and measures. Fifteen geographically, economically and culturally diverse countries, from six continents, participated: Australia, Bangladesh, Belgium, Brazil, Czech Republic, Denmark, Hong Kong SAR, India, Israel, Malaysia, New Zealand, Nigeria, Portugal, Spain and USA. Countries provided survey and accelerometer data (15 countries), GIS data (11), global positioning system data (10), and pedestrian environment audit data (8). A sample of n=6950 (52.6% female; mean age=14.5, SD=1.7) adolescents provided survey data, n=4852 had 4 or more 8+ hours valid days of accelerometer data, and n=5473 had GIS measures. Physical activity and sedentary behaviour were measured by waist-worn ActiGraph accelerometers and self-reports, and body mass index was used to categorise weight status.

Ethics And Dissemination: Ethical approval was received from each study site's Institutional Review Board for their in-country studies. Informed assent by adolescents and consent by parents was obtained for all participants. No personally identifiable information was transferred to the IPEN coordinating centre for pooled datasets. Results will be communicated through standard scientific channels and findings used to advance the science of environmental correlates of physical activity, sedentary behaviour and weight status, with the ultimate goal to stimulate and guide actions to create more activity-supportive environments internationally.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmjopen-2020-046636DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7813342PMC
January 2021

Physical education class participation is associated with physical activity among adolescents in 65 countries.

Sci Rep 2020 12 17;10(1):22128. Epub 2020 Dec 17.

School of Health and Rehabilitation Sciences, The University of Queensland, Therapies Annex, St Lucia, Brisbane, QLD, 4072, Australia.

In this study we examined the associations of physical education class participation with physical activity among adolescents. We analysed the Global School-based Student Health Survey data from 65 countries (N = 206,417; 11-17 years; 49% girls) collected between 2007 and 2016. We defined sufficient physical activity as achieving physical activities ≥ 60 min/day, and grouped physical education classes as '0 day/week', '1-2 days/week', and ' ≥ 3 days/week' participation. We used multivariable logistic regression to obtain country-level estimates, and meta-analysis to obtain pooled estimates. Compared to those who did not take any physical education classes, those who took classes ≥ 3 days/week had double the odds of being sufficiently active (OR 2.05, 95% CI 1.84-2.28) with no apparent gender/age group differences. The association estimates decreased with higher levels of country's income with OR 2.37 (1.51-3.73) for low-income and OR 1.85 (1.52-2.37) for high-income countries. Adolescents who participated in physical education classes 1-2 days/week had 26% higher odds of being sufficiently active with relatively higher odds for boys (30%) than girls (15%). Attending physical education classes was positively associated with physical activity among adolescents regardless of sex or age group. Quality physical education should be encouraged to promote physical activity of children and adolescents.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-79100-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7746694PMC
December 2020

Is replacing sedentary time with bouts of physical activity associated with inflammatory biomarkers in children?

Scand J Med Sci Sports 2021 Mar 16;31(3):733-741. Epub 2020 Dec 16.

Institute for Physical Activity and Nutrition, School of Exercise and Nutrition Sciences, Deakin University, Geelong, VIC, Australia.

This study aimed to investigate the theoretical impact of reallocating a specific amount of sedentary time with an equal amount of (a) total and (b) ≥1-minute bout-accumulated time spent in different activity intensities, on inflammatory biomarkers in 8- to 9-year-old children. Accelerometry and inflammatory biomarker baseline data from the Transform-Us! Study (complete cases n = 149) were utilized. Isotemporal linear models with the Gaussian distribution and identity link functions were used to assess associations between the activity replacements and seven individual inflammatory biomarkers, including C-reactive protein (CRP), and Interleukin (IL)-2, IL-6, IL-8, and IL-10, as well as combined inflammatory and pro-inflammatory composite scores. Eighty-five percent of children met physical activity recommendations. Replacing 10 minutes of sedentary time per day with VPA, regardless of how this was accumulated, was beneficially associated with CRP and both combined composite scores. In contrast, replacing 10 min/day of sedentary time with ≥ 1-minute MPA bouts was detrimentally associated with CRP and the inflammatory composite score. Substitutions with other activity intensities were not significantly associated with any individual inflammatory biomarkers, or combined inflammatory and pro-inflammatory composite scores. In healthy and active school-aged children, evidence of the theoretical impact of replacing sedentary time with physical activity, regardless of intensity or accumulation, on markers of systemic inflammation was limited. Longitudinal research is needed to investigate the long-term impacts of reallocating sedentary time with physical activity, and particularly VPA, for inflammatory biomarkers in children, including those with increased risk of inflammation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/sms.13879DOI Listing
March 2021

Family history of non-communicable diseases and associations with weight and movement behaviours in Australian school-aged children: a prospective study.

BMJ Open 2020 11 3;10(11):e038789. Epub 2020 Nov 3.

School of Public Health, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, Queensland, Australia.

Objective: To assess differences in weight status and movement behaviour guideline compliance among children aged 5-12 years with and without a family history of non-communicable diseases (NCDs).

Design: Prospective.

Setting And Participants: Women born between 1973 and 1978 were recruited to the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health (ALSWH) via the database of the Health Insurance Commission (now Medicare; Australia's universal health insurance scheme). In 2016-2017, women in that cohort were invited to participate in the Mothers and their Children's Health Study and reported on their three youngest children (aged <13 years). Data from children aged 5-12 years (n=4416) were analysed.

Measures: Mothers reported their children's height and weight, used to calculate body mass index (kg/m), physical activity, screen time and sleep. In the 2015 ALSWH Survey, women reported diagnoses and family history of type 2 diabetes, heart disease and hypertension. Logistic regression models determined differences between outcomes for children with and without a family history of NCDs.

Results: Boys with a family history of type 2 diabetes had 30% (95% CI: 0.51%-0.97%) and 43% lower odds (95% CI: 0.37%-0.88%) of meeting the sleep and combined guidelines, respectively, and 40% higher odds (95% CI: 1.01%- 1.95%) of being overweight/obese. Girls with a family history of hypertension had 27% lower odds (95% CI: 0.57%-0.93%) of meeting the screen time guidelines. No associations were observed for family history of heart disease.

Conclusions: Children who have a family history of type 2 diabetes and hypertension may be at risk of poorer health behaviours from a young age. Mothers with a diagnosis or a family history of these NCDs may need additional support to help their children develop healthy movement behaviours and maintain healthy weight.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmjopen-2020-038789DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7640516PMC
November 2020

Embedding Active Pedagogies within Pre-Service Teacher Education: Implementation Considerations and Recommendations.

Children (Basel) 2020 Nov 2;7(11). Epub 2020 Nov 2.

Institute of Physical Activity and Nutrition (IPAN), Faculty of Health, Deakin University, Geelong, VIC 3220, Australia.

The physical activity levels of children in Australia are critically low and correlate with reduced academic achievement and poor health outcomes. Schools provide an ideal setting for physical activity interventions to help children move more. Instead of targeting in-service teachers, this study embedded an evidence-based active pedagogy program called Transform-Ed! into pre-service teacher education. Pre/post surveys and post-program interviews and focus group discussions were conducted with key stakeholders ( = 5), lecturers ( = 6), and pre-service teachers ( = 274) involved with the 12-week program. The design, implementation, and evaluation of the study were systematically guided by all five dimensions of Glasgow and colleagues' RE-AIM (reach, effectiveness, adoption, implementation, and maintenance) framework. Linear mixed models, descriptive analysis and a framework approach were used to analyse the data. Significant improvements were observed in pre-service teachers' willingness, confidence, and competence to implement physically active pedagogic strategies following the intervention. Pre-service teacher perceived effectiveness of such strategies on student outcomes also significantly increased and perceived barriers decreased. High adherence was consistently reported and the program was maintained after completion of the implementation trial by all lecturers. Four key themes spanning multiple dimensions and participant levels informed recommendations for program scalability: an "inter-systemic approach", a "co-design" approach, "embedded in professional practice", and "evidence of impact" on teacher practice. Anchored in real-world settings and tethered by implementation science, Transform-Ed! could have the potential to advance the teaching capability of teachers, and transform the learning experience and physical and academic outcomes of primary school students.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/children7110207DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7692750PMC
November 2020

Effects of an Activity Tracker and App Intervention to Increase Physical Activity in Whole Families-The Step It Up Family Feasibility Study.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2020 10 20;17(20). Epub 2020 Oct 20.

Physical Activity Research Group, School of Health, Medical and Applied Sciences, Appleton Institute, Central Queensland University, Building 77, Bruce Highway, Rockhampton, QLD 4702, Australia.

(1) Background: Interventions using activity trackers and smartphone apps have demonstrated their ability to increase physical activity in children and adults. However, they have not been tested in whole families. Further, few family-centered interventions have actively involved both parents and assessed physical activity effects separately for children, mothers and fathers. Objective: To examine the feasibility and short-term effects of an activity tracker and app intervention to increase physical activity in the whole family (children, mothers and fathers). (2) Methods: This was a single-arm feasibility study with pre-post intervention measures. Between 2017-2018, 40 families (58 children aged 6-10 years, 39 mothers, 33 fathers) participated in the 6-week program in Queensland, Australia. Using commercial activity trackers combined with apps (Garmin Vivofit Jr for children, Vivofit 3 for adults; Garmin Australasia Pty Ltd., Sydney, Australia), the intervention included individual and family-level goal-setting, self-monitoring, performance feedback, family step challenges, family social support and modelling, weekly motivational text messages and an introductory session. Parent surveys were used to assess physical activity effects measured as pre-post intervention changes in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) in children, mothers and fathers. Objective Garmin activity tracker data was recorded to assess physical activity levels (steps, active minutes) during the intervention. (3) Results: Thirty-eight families completed the post intervention survey (95% retention). At post intervention, MVPA had increased in children by 58 min/day (boys: 54 min/day, girls: 62 min/day; all < 0.001). In mothers, MVPA increased by 27 min/day ( < 0.001) and in fathers, it increased by 31 min/day ( < 0.001). The percentage of children meeting Australia's physical activity guidelines for children (≥60 MVPA min/day) increased from 34% to 89% ( < 0.001). The percentage of mothers and fathers meeting Australia's physical activity guidelines for adults (≥150 MVPA min/week) increased from 8% to 57% ( < 0.001) in mothers and from 21% to 68% ( < 0.001) in fathers. The percentage of families with 'at least one child and both parents' meeting the physical activity guidelines increased from 0% to 41% ( < 0.001). Objective activity tracker data recorded during the intervention showed that the mean () number of active minutes per day in children was 82.1 (17.1). Further, the mean () steps per day was 9590.7 (2425.3) in children, 7397.5 (1954.2) in mothers and 8161.7 (3370.3) in fathers. (4) Conclusions: Acknowledging the uncontrolled study design, the large pre-post changes in MVPA and rather high step counts recorded during the intervention suggest that an activity tracker and app intervention can increase physical activity in whole families. The program warrants further efficacy testing in a larger, randomized controlled trial.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17207655DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7588994PMC
October 2020

Individual, Social and Environmental Correlates of Active School Travel among Adolescents in India.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2020 10 15;17(20). Epub 2020 Oct 15.

Madras Diabetes Research Foundation & Dr.Mohan's Diabetes Specialities Centre, WHO Collaborating Centre for Non-Communicable Diseases & ICMR Centre for Advanced Research on Diabetes, Chennai 600086, India.

Active School Travel (AST) is an important domain for physical activity among adolescents; however, few studies in India have explored barriers or correlates of AST. This was a cross-sectional study of 324 adolescents aged 12-17 years recruited via households and schools from diverse areas of Chennai, India. Adolescents reported their mode of travel to school, neighbourhood correlates, and the barriers for AST. Adolescents were considered to be using AST to/from school if they walked/cycled ≥once/week during an average week. Half the adolescents usually performed AST (≥1 trip/week). School being too far was associated with 75% lower odds and parents not allowing their child to walk or cycle was associated with 82% lower odds of the adolescent performing AST to or from school at least once/week. AST among adolescents should be encouraged and there is considerable scope for improvement. Parental restriction and distance to school were the two strongest barriers for AST.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17207496DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7602439PMC
October 2020

Home-based screen time behaviors amongst youth and their parents: familial typologies and their modifiable correlates.

BMC Public Health 2020 Oct 1;20(1):1492. Epub 2020 Oct 1.

Institute for Physical Activity and Nutrition (IPAN), School of Exercise and Nutrition Sciences, Deakin University, Geelong, 221 Burwood Highway, Burnwood, Victoria, Australia.

Background: Excessive screen time behaviors performed by children and parents at home is a major public health concern. Identifying whether child and parent screen time behaviors cluster and understanding correlates of these familial clusters can help inform interventions for the whole family. This study characterized familial typologies of screen time behaviors and identified key modifiable correlates of these typologies.

Methods: Parents participating in the cross-sectional Sitting in the Home (SIT) study reported the duration (mins/day) they and their child (aged 11.2 ± 2.62 years) spent in six screen time behaviors at home (computer/laptop for home/work, computer/laptop for leisure, TV/videos/DVDs, tablet/smart phone for home/work, tablet/smart phone for leisure, and electronic games) and completed items related to 21 potential correlates framed by an adapted Social Cognitive Theory, Family Perspective. Latent Class Analysis was used to identify typologies based on parent and child data for the six behaviors. Multinomial logistic regression analysis assessed the relative risk of typology membership for each potential correlate, adjusting for child and parent age and sex.

Results: The sample comprised 542 parent-child dyads (parents: 40.7 ± 6.3 yrs., 94% female; children: 11.2 ± 2.6 yrs., 46% female). Three typologies were identified: 1) high computer/moderate TV (n = 197); 2) high TV/tablet/smartphone, low computer (n = 135); and 3) low-screen users (n = 210). 'Low-screen users' spent the least amount of time in all screen time behaviors (assigned as reference category). Greater child preference for screen time behaviors, parental support for screen time behaviors and frequency of homework requiring a tablet/laptop were associated with higher odds of being in the 'high computer/moderate TV' typology. The odds of being in the 'high TV/tablet/smartphone, low computer' typology were greater amongst children with a higher preference for screen time behaviors, and lower among more active parents.

Conclusions: Three familial typologies of screen time behaviors were identified. The findings highlight that screen time in the home can be influenced by the home environment, parental behaviours and role modelling, child preferences as well as school policies. Findings can inform the development of family screen time interventions, however more research exploring the influence of factors outside of the home is warranted.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12889-020-09581-wDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7528232PMC
October 2020

Reallocating sedentary time with total physical activity and physical activity bouts in children: Associations with cardiometabolic biomarkers.

J Sports Sci 2021 Feb 22;39(3):332-340. Epub 2020 Sep 22.

School of Exercise and Nutrition Sciences, Institute for Physical Activity and Nutrition, Deakin University , Geelong, Australia.

This cross-sectional study examined theoretical effects of reallocating sedentary time (SED) with total physical activity, and physical activity bouts of varying intensities, on children's cardiometabolic biomarkers. Baseline data from the Transform-Us! trial (Melbourne, Australia) was used. Participant data were included if accelerometer and blood biomarker data were complete (n = 169; 8.7 [0.4] years; 56% girls). Isotemporal substitution models assessed the impact of replacing 10 minutes of SED with 10 minutes of total physical activity or physical activity in bouts of varying intensities on cardiometabolic biomarkers. In adjusted models, replacing 10 minutes of SED with vigorous-intensity physical activity (VPA) was associated with lower triglycerides in the whole sample. Replacing SED with VPA was associated with better high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and triglycerides in children with healthy weight. Replacing SED with MPA was associated with better homoeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and HDL-C, in children with healthy weight and overweight, respectively. Substituting SED with VPA specifically accumulated in ≥1-min bouts was detrimentally associated with HOMA-IR in children with healthy weight but beneficially with the cardiometabolic summary score in the overweight sample. This suggests that replacing SED with MPA or VPA may have some benefits on cardiometabolic health.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/02640414.2020.1822584DOI Listing
February 2021

Examining Health-Related Effects of Refurbishment to Parks in a Lower Socioeconomic Area: The ShadePlus Natural Experiment.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2020 08 21;17(17). Epub 2020 Aug 21.

Institute for Physical Activity and Nutrition (IPAN), School of Exercise and Nutrition Sciences, Deakin University, Geelong, VIC 3220, Australia.

Degraded parks in disadvantaged areas are underutilized for recreation, which may impact long-term health. Using a natural experiment, we examined the effects of local government refurbishments to parks (n = 3 intervention; n = 3 comparison) in low socioeconomic areas (LSEA) of Melbourne on park use, health behavior, social engagement and psychological well-being. Amenities promoting physical activity and sun protection included walking paths, playground equipment and built shade. Outcomes were measured via systematic observations, and self-report surveys of park visitors over three years. The refurbishments significantly increased park use, while shade use increased only in parks with shade sails. A trend for increased social engagement was also detected. Findings infer improvement of quality, number and type of amenities in degraded parks can substantially increase park use in LSEA. Findings support provision of shade over well-designed playgrounds in future park refurbishments to enhance engagement and sun protection behavior. Further research should identify park amenities to increase physical activity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17176102DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7503361PMC
August 2020

Translatability of a Wearable Technology Intervention to Increase Adolescent Physical Activity: Mixed Methods Implementation Evaluation.

J Med Internet Res 2020 08 7;22(8):e13573. Epub 2020 Aug 7.

School of Exercise and Nutrition Sciences, Institute for Physical Activity and Nutrition, Deakin University, Burwood, Australia.

Background: Wearable technology interventions combined with digital behavior change resources provide opportunities to increase physical activity in adolescents. The implementation of such interventions in real-world settings is unknown. The Raising Awareness of Physical Activity (RAW-PA) study was a 12-week cluster randomized controlled trial targeting inactive adolescents attending schools in socioeconomically disadvantaged areas of Melbourne, Australia. The aim was to increase moderate- to vigorous-intensity physical activity using (1) a wrist-worn Fitbit Flex and app, (2) weekly challenges, (3) digital behavior change resources, and (4) email or text message alerts.

Objective: This paper presents adolescents' and teachers' perceptions of RAW-PA in relation to program acceptability, feasibility and perceived impact, adolescent engagement and adherence, and the potential for future scale-up.

Methods: A mixed methods evaluation of the RAW-PA study assessed acceptability, engagement, feasibility, adherence, and perceived impact. A total of 9 intervention schools and 144 intervention adolescents were recruited. Only adolescents and teachers (n=17) in the intervention group were included in the analysis. Adolescents completed web-based surveys at baseline and surveys and focus groups postintervention. Teachers participated in interviews postintervention. Facebook data tracked engagement with web-based resources. Descriptive statistics were reported by sex. Qualitative data were analyzed thematically.

Results: Survey data were collected from 142 adolescents at baseline (mean age 13.7 years, SD 0.4 years; 51% males) and 132 adolescents postintervention. A total of 15 focus groups (n=124) and 9 interviews (n=17) were conducted. RAW-PA had good acceptability among adolescents and teachers. Adolescents perceived the intervention content as easy to understand (100/120, 83.3%) and the Fitbit easy to use (112/120; 93.3%). Half of the adolescents perceived the text messages to be useful (61/120; 50.8%), whereas 47.5% (57/120) liked the weekly challenges and 38.3% (46/120) liked the Facebook videos. Facebook engagement declined over time; only 18.6% (22/118) of adolescents self-reported wearing the Fitbit Flex daily postintervention. Adolescents perceived the Fitbit Flex to increase their physical activity motivation (85/120, 70.8%) and awareness (93/119, 78.2%). The web-based delivery facilitated implementation of the intervention, although school-level policies restricting phone use were perceived as potential inhibitors to program roll-out.

Conclusions: RAW-PA showed good acceptability among adolescents attending schools in socioeconomically disadvantaged areas and their teachers. Low levels of teacher burden enhanced their perceptions concerning the feasibility of intervention delivery. Although adolescents perceived that RAW-PA had short-term positive effects on their motivation to be physically active, adolescent adherence and engagement were low. Future research exploring the feasibility of different strategies to engage adolescents with wearable technology interventions and ways of maximizing system-level embeddedness of interventions in practice would greatly advance the field.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2196/13573DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7442941PMC
August 2020

Protocol paper for the Movimente school-based program: A cluster-randomized controlled trial targeting physical activity and sedentary behavior among Brazilian adolescents.

Medicine (Baltimore) 2020 Jul;99(31):e21233

Institute for Physical Activity and Nutrition, Faculty of Health, Deakin University, Victoria, Australia.

Background: A better understanding of how multicomponent school-based interventions work and their effects on health and education outcomes are needed. This paper described the methods of the Movimente Program, a school-based intervention that aims to increase physical activity (PA) and decrease sedentary behavior (SB) among Brazilian students.

Methods: This is a cluster randomized controlled trial with adolescents from 7th to 9th grade in public schools from Florianopolis, Southern Brazil. After agreement, 6 schools were randomly selected to intervention or control groups (3 schools each), and all eligible students were invited to the study. The Movimente intervention program was performed during a school year and included 3 main components: Teacher training (including face-to-face meeting, social media platform, and handbook with lesson plans); improvements in the PA environment in school; and educational strategies. Control schools continued with their traditional schedule. Baseline (March/April 2017), postintervention (November/December 2017), and maintenance (June/July 2018) evaluations included PA and SB as primary outcomes (assessed by self-report and accelerometry). Secondary outcomes included psychosocial factors related to PA and SB (e.g., social support and self-efficacy), as well as health (e.g., quality of life and nutritional status) and education (e.g., academic achievement) outcomes. A program evaluation was performed based on the RE-AIM framework. Participants, intervention staffs, and evaluators were not blinded to group assignment, but a standardized evaluation protocol was applied independently of the trial allocation.

Results: Statistical analyses will include a multilevel approach for repeated measurements and mediation analysis. Any side effects of the intervention will be recorded. The sample size close to that expected (n = 1090) was reached (n = 999). The results of this trial will involve valuable information about the effect and the evaluation of a multicomponent intervention carried out in a middle-income country.

Conclusion: By creating opportunities for adolescents to be active at school using multicomponent strategies, the Movimente program has the potential to enhance students health and academic performance which may encourage the school community (e.g., teachers, principals) to adopt the program. Also, this trial will provide evidence for practitioners, policy makers, and researchers on how multicomponent program may be implemented in a school setting.

Trial Registration: The trial is registered at the Clinical Trial Registry (Trial ID: NCT02944318; date of registration: 18 October 2016).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MD.0000000000021233DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7402733PMC
July 2020

Long-term outcomes (2 and 3.5 years post-intervention) of the INFANT early childhood intervention to improve health behaviors and reduce obesity: cluster randomised controlled trial follow-up.

Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act 2020 07 25;17(1):95. Epub 2020 Jul 25.

School of Exercise and Nutrition Sciences, Institute for Physical Activity and Nutrition, Deakin University, Geelong, Australia.

Background: The few health behavior interventions commencing in infancy have shown promising effects. Greater insight into their longer-term benefits is required. This study aimed to assess post-intervention effects of the Melbourne INFANT Program to child age 5y on diet, movement and adiposity.

Methods: Two and 3.5y post-intervention follow-up (2011-13; analyses completed 2019) of participants retained in the Melbourne INFANT Program at its conclusion (child age ~ 19 m; 2008-10) was conducted. The Melbourne INFANT Program is a 15-month, six session program delivered within first-time parent groups in Melbourne, Australia, between child age 4-19 m. It involves strategies to help parents promote healthy diet, physical activity and reduced sedentary behavior in their infants. No intervention was delivered during the follow-up period reported in this paper. At all time points height, weight and waist circumference were measured by researchers, children wore Actigraph and activPAL accelerometers for 8-days, mothers reported children's television viewing and use of health services. Children's dietary intake was reported by mothers in three unscheduled telephone-administered 24-h recalls.

Results: Of those retained at program conclusion (child age 18 m, n = 480; 89%), 361 families (75% retention) participated in the first follow-up (2y post-intervention; age 3.6y) and 337 (70% retention) in the second follow-up (3.5y post-intervention; age 5y). At 3.6y children in the intervention group had higher fruit (adjusted mean difference [MD] = 25.34 g; CI:1.68,48.99), vegetable (MD = 19.41; CI:3.15,35.67) and water intake (MD = 113.33; CI:40.42,186.25), than controls. At 5y they consumed less non-core drinks (MD = -27.60; CI:-54.58,-0.62). Sweet snack intake was lower for intervention children at both 3.6y (MD = -5.70; CI:-9.75,-1.65) and 5y (MD = -6.84; CI:-12.47,-1.21). Intervention group children viewed approximately 10 min/day less television than controls at both follow-ups, although the confidence intervals spanned zero (MD = -9.63; CI:-30.79,11.53; MD = -11.34; CI:-25.02,2.34, respectively). There was no evidence for effect on zBMI, waist circumference z-score or physical activity.

Conclusions: The impact of this low-dose intervention delivered during infancy was still evident up to school commencement age for several targeted health behaviors but not adiposity. Some of these effects were only observed after the conclusion of the intervention, demonstrating the importance of long-term follow-up of interventions delivered during early childhood.

Trial Registration: ISRCTN Register ISRCTN81847050 , registered 7th November 2007.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12966-020-00994-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7382091PMC
July 2020

Three-year maintenance of a teacher-led programme targeting motor competence in early adolescent girls.

J Sports Sci 2020 Aug 25;38(16):1886-1896. Epub 2020 Jun 25.

Institute for Physical Activity and Nutrition (IPAN), School of Health and Social Development, Deakin University , Geelong, Australia.

Motor competence (MC) in youth is associated with positive health outcomes, yet few achieve their developmental capability. Although numerous MC studies address initial intervention effectiveness, fewer consider intervention sustainability. This study aimed to investigate whether teachers continued to implement an effective MC programme targeting girls (mean age 12.4 ± 0.3 years), three years post-intervention. Ongoing implementation was examined using three domains of the UK Medical Research Council's framework: (i) implementation, (ii) mechanisms of impact, and (iii) context. Teachers (n = 18) completed self-report questionnaires and participated in focus group discussions (FGs). Descriptive statistics analysed questionnaires. FGs were audio recorded, transcribed verbatim and analysed in NVivo 11 using a framework approach. All teachers had continued to implement the programme, or elements thereof, three years post-intervention. The intervention structure, in particular alignment to the physical education context and curriculum, most notably influenced ongoing programme implementation. Improvement, both teacher practice and student performance, emerged as a driver of sustained impact. The programme demand appeared to be the most important facilitator of programme sustainability. Adaptations made to enhance contextual fit of the programme, post-intervention, extended the programme reach. Framed by implementation science, these findings provide valuable insight into programme sustainability and potential scalability.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/02640414.2020.1763059DOI Listing
August 2020

Associations of Heart Rate Measures during Physical Education with Academic Performance and Executive Function in Children: A Cross-Sectional Study.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2020 06 16;17(12). Epub 2020 Jun 16.

GICAFE "Physical Activity and Exercise Sciences Research Group", University of Balearic Islands, 07122 Balearic Islands, Spain.

The current evidence for a relation between children's heart rate measures and their academic performance and executive functioning is infancy. Despite several studies observing dose-response effects of physical activity on academic performance and executive function in children, further research using objective measures of the relative intensity of physical activity (e.g., heart rate) is warranted. The present study aimed to inspect associations between heart rate response and various academic performance indicators and executive function domains. A total of 130 schoolchildren between the ages of 9 and 13 years (M = 10.69, SD 0.96 years old; 56.9% boys) participated in a cross-sectional study. Children's heart rate data were collected through participation in physical education classes using the polar Team hardware and software. One week before heart rate measures, academic performance was obtained from the school records in maths, Spanish language, Catalan language, physical education, and Grade point average. Executive function was measured by two domains, cognitive flexibility with the Trail Making Test and inhibition with the Stroop test. Associations between children's heart rate data and academic performance and executive function were analyzed using regression models. Academic performance was found to be positively related to four heart rate measures (β range, 0.191 to 0.275; all < 0.040). Additionally, the hard heart rate intensity level was positively related to two academic indicators (β range, 0.183 to 0.192; all < 0.044). Three heart rate measures were associated with two cognitive flexibility subdomains (β range, -0.248 to 0.195; all < 0.043), and three heart rate measures were related to one inhibition subdomain (β range, 0.198 to 0.278; all < 0.028). The results showed slight associations of heart rate responses during physical education lessons with academic performance but did not clearly indicate associations with executive function. Future experimental studies testing associations between different bouts of intensity levels are needed to disentangle the relationship with brain function during childhood.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17124307DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7344793PMC
June 2020

Cross-Sectional Associations of Total Daily Volume and Activity Patterns across the Activity Spectrum with Cardiometabolic Risk Factors in Children and Adolescents.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2020 06 16;17(12). Epub 2020 Jun 16.

Institute for Physical Activity and Nutrition, School of Exercise and Nutrition Sciences, Deakin University, Geelong 3220, Australia.

Sedentary and physical activity patterns (bouts/breaks) may be important for cardiometabolic health in early life. This study aimed to examine cross-sectional associations of total daily volume and patterns across the activity spectrum with cardiometabolic risk factors in youth aged 7-13 years. Objectively measured accelerometer and cardiometabolic risk factor data were pooled from two studies ( = 1219; 69% valid accelerometry). Total daily volume of sedentary time and light-, moderate-, and vigorous-intensity physical activity was determined. Time in sustained bouts and median bout lengths of all intensities and breaks in sedentary time were also calculated. Outcomes included body mass index, waist circumference, blood pressure, blood lipids, and a cardiometabolic summary score. Regression models revealed beneficial associations between total daily volumes of moderate- and vigorous-intensity physical activity and cardiometabolic risk. Time spent in ≥1 min vigorous-intensity physical activity bouts was beneficially associated with cardiometabolic risk, yet this disappeared after adjusting for total vigorous-intensity physical activity and confounders. Time accumulated in light- (≥1 min; ≥5 min) and moderate-intensity (≥1 min) physical activity bouts was detrimentally associated with cardiometabolic risk. Total daily volume and activity patterns may have implications for cardiometabolic risk early in life. Sporadic physical activity may be more beneficial for health than sustained physical activity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17124286DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7344989PMC
June 2020

The impact of height-adjustable desks and classroom prompts on classroom sitting time, social, and motivational factors among adolescents.

J Sport Health Sci 2020 May 20. Epub 2020 May 20.

Institute for Physical Activity and Nutrition (IPAN), School of Exercise and Nutrition Sciences, Deakin University, Geelong, VIC 3128, Australia.

Purpose: This quasi-experimental study examined the impact of height-adjustable desks in combination with prompts to break up prolonged sitting time during class time and identified social and motivational factors associated with breaking up sitting time among adolescents. Teachers' perceptions of strategies were also examined.

Methods: Over 17 weeks, 1 classroom in a government secondary school in Melbourne, Australia, was equipped with 27 height-adjustable desks and prompts (posters and desk stickers) to break up classroom sitting time. Teachers received professional development in the use of the desks and prompts. One group of adolescents (n = 55) had 2-5 lessons/week using the height-adjustable desks in an intervention classroom, and a comparison group matched by year level and subject (n = 50) was taught in traditional "seated" classrooms. Adolescents wore an activPAL monitor at baseline (T0), 4 weeks (T1), and 17 weeks (T2) and completed a survey at T0 and T2. Six teachers participated in interviews at T2. Effect sizes were calculated (d).

Results: Linear mixed models found that, compared to the traditional "seated" classrooms, the adolescents in the intervention classroom had significantly lower sitting time (T1: -9.7 min/lesson, d = -0.96; T2: -6.7 min/lesson, d = -0.70) and time spent in sitting bouts >15 min (T2: -11.2 min/lesson, d = -0.62), and had significantly higher standing time (T1: 7.3 min/lesson, d = 0.84; T2: 5.8 min/lesson, d = 0.91), number of breaks from sitting (T1: 1.3 breaks/lesson, d = 0.49; T2: 1.8 breaks/lesson, d = 0.67), and stepping time (T1: 2.5 min/lesson, d = 0.66). Intervention classroom adolescents reported greater habit strength (d = 0.58), self-efficacy for breaking up sitting time (d = 0.75), and indicated that having a teacher/classmate remind them to stand as helpful (d = 0.50).

Conclusion: This intervention shows promise for targeting sitting behaviors in the classroom and indicates that incorporating social and motivational strategies may further enhance outcomes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jshs.2020.05.002DOI Listing
May 2020

Why have youth physical activity trends flatlined in the last decade? Opinion piece on "Global trends in insufficient physical activity among adolescents: a pooled analysis of 298 population-based surveys with 1.6 million participants" by Guthold et al.

J Sport Health Sci 2020 07 19;9(4):335-338. Epub 2020 May 19.

Institute for Physical Activity and Nutrition (IPAN), School of Exercise and Nutrition Sciences, Deakin University, Geelong, VIA 3220, Australia.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jshs.2020.04.009DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7235568PMC
July 2020

Does light-intensity physical activity moderate the relationship between sitting time and adiposity markers in adolescents?

J Sport Health Sci 2020 Apr 14. Epub 2020 Apr 14.

Institute for Physical Activity and Nutrition (IPAN), School of Exercise and Nutrition Sciences, Deakin University, Geelong, VIA 3125, Australia.

Background: While the relationship between sedentary time and adiposity markers may be independent of moderate-to-vigorous intensity physical activity (MVPA) among adolescents, little is known about the role of light-intensity physical activity (LIPA) in this relationship. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to examine whether device-measured LIPA and MVPA moderate the associations between objectively measured sitting time and adiposity markers (body mass index (BMI)) and waist circumference (WC)) among adolescents.

Methods: This study included accelerometer and inclinometer data obtained from 219 adolescents (age = 14.9 ± 1.6 years, mean ± SD), collected during 2014 and 2015 in Melbourne, Australia. ActiGraph GT3X accelerometers were used to determine time spent in total-LIPA (101 counts/min to 3.99 metabolic equivalents(METs)), low-LIPA (101-799 counts/min), high-LIPA (800 counts/min to 3.99 METs), and MVPA (≥ 4 METs). The average time spent sitting was obtained from activPAL inclinometers. Anthropometric measures were assessed by trained staff. Interactions between sitting and total-LIPA, low-LIPA, high-LIPA, and MVPA on BMI z-score (zBMI) and WC z-score (zWC), respectively, were examined using linear regression, adjusting for age and sex; and moderation by total-LIPA, low-LIPA, high-LIPA, and MVPA were examined by adding interaction terms. Significant interaction effects were probed by comparing associations at the mean and at 1 SD below and above the mean.

Results: Total-LIPA significantly moderated the association between sitting time and zBMI, and low-LIPA significantly moderated the association between sitting time and zBMI and zWC. No other associations were found for total-LIPA, high-LIPA, or MVPA. Specifically, at high levels of total-LIPA (+1 SD), there is a negative association between sitting time and zBMI. In addition, at high levels of low-LIPA (+1 SD), there is a negative association between sitting time and zBMI and zWC.

Conclusion: Associations between sitting and adiposity depended on time spent in total-LIPA and low-LIPA, but not high-LIPA or MVPA. Results suggest that increasing time spent in LIPA may provide protection from the deleterious effects of sitting on adiposity markers among adolescents. Experimental evidence is needed to support these conclusions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jshs.2020.04.002DOI Listing
April 2020

Stand Out in Class: restructuring the classroom environment to reduce sitting time - findings from a pilot cluster randomised controlled trial.

Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act 2020 04 29;17(1):55. Epub 2020 Apr 29.

Bradford Institute for Health Research, Bradford Teaching Hospitals Foundation Trust, Bradford, UK.

Background: Excessive sedentary behaviour (sitting) is a risk factor for poor health in children and adults. Incorporating sit-stand desks in the classroom environment has been highlighted as a potential strategy to reduce children's sitting time. The primary aim of this study was to examine the feasibility of conducting a cluster randomised controlled trial (RCT) of a sit-stand desk intervention within primary school classrooms.

Methods: We conducted a two-armed pilot cluster RCT involving 8 primary schools in Bradford, United Kingdom. Schools were randomised on a 1:1 basis to the intervention or usual practice control arm. All children (aged 9-10 years) in participating classes were eligible to take part. Six sit-stand desks replaced three standard desks (sitting 6 children) in the intervention classrooms for 4.5-months. Teachers were encouraged to use a rotation system to ensure all pupils were exposed to the sit-stand desks for > 1 h/day on average. Trial feasibility outcomes (assessed using quantitative and qualitative measures) included school and participant recruitment and attrition, intervention and outcome measure completion rates, acceptability, and preliminary effectiveness of the intervention for reducing sitting time. A weighted linear regression model compared changes in weekday sitting time (assessed using the activPAL accelerometer) between trial arms.

Results: School and child recruitment rates were 33% (n = 8) and 75% (n = 176). At follow-up, retention rates were 100% for schools and 97% for children. Outcome measure completion rates ranged from 63 to 97%. A preliminary estimate of intervention effectiveness revealed a mean difference in change in sitting of - 30.6 min/day (95% CI: - 56.42 to - 4.84) in favour of the intervention group, after adjusting for baseline sitting and wear time. Qualitative measures revealed the intervention and evaluation procedures were acceptable to teachers and children, except for some problems with activPAL attachment.

Conclusion: This study provides evidence of the acceptability and feasibility of a sit-stand desk intervention and evaluation methods. Preliminary evidence suggests the intervention showed potential in reducing children's weekday sitting but some adaptations to the desk rotation system are needed to maximize exposure. Lessons learnt from this trial will inform the planning of a definitive trial.

Trial Registration: ISRCTN12915848 (registered: 09/11/16).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12966-020-00958-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7189432PMC
April 2020

Moderators of Parents' Perceptions of the Neighborhood Environment and Children's Physical Activity, Time Outside, and Screen Time.

J Phys Act Health 2020 05 1;17(5):557-565. Epub 2020 May 1.

Background: Increased physical inactivity and sedentary behavior among children are a global health concern.

Purpose: Examine associations between parents' perceived neighborhood environment and children's physical activity, outside time, and screen time, and whether these associations were moderated by age and socioeconomic position (SEP).

Methods: Parents (N = 1212) completed a survey during the Recording and EValuating Activity in a Modified Park study. The neighborhood perceptions (social and physical environment), children's age, physical activity, outside time, and screen time were parent-reported. The SEP was derived from the Index of Relative Socio-economic Advantage and Disadvantage. Multiple linear and logistic regressions were performed with age and SEP interactions.

Results: Favorable perceptions of opportunities to be active and exercise were associated with a higher likelihood of meeting physical activity guidelines. Favorable perceptions of neighborhood ease for walking and a larger social network were also associated with more outdoor time. Moderation analyses revealed that favorable perceptions of several physical and social neighborhood environment features were associated with a higher likelihood of meeting physical activity guidelines in the high-SEP group and were negatively associated with preschoolers' weekday screen time.

Conclusion: Future neighborhood environment initiatives and interventions aiming to promote active living communities should consider differences in age and SEP.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1123/jpah.2019-0433DOI Listing
May 2020