Publications by authors named "João Paulo Viana Leite"

22 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Antioxidant and Anti-Inflammatory Effects of L. and D. Extracts on the Liver of IL-10 Knockout Mice.

Evid Based Complement Alternat Med 2020 7;2020:3054521. Epub 2020 Dec 7.

Department of Nutrition and Health, Universidade Federal de Viçosa, Viçosa, Minas Gerais 36570-900, Brazil.

Background: The L. (cashew) and D. (cajuí) are plants commonly found in Brazil. They present phytochemical compounds with antioxidant and anti-inflammatory action. Therefore, the objective of this study was to analyze the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of ethanolic extracts from leaves of and and its effect on the hepatic tissue in experimental knockout models after they received Paracetamol®.

Methods: Ethanol extracts from and leaves were prepared. Total phenolics were determined by Folin-Ciocalteau reagent, and flavonoids are based on the complexation reaction with the aluminum metal, forming a colored complex. Fingerprint HPLC was performed to detect phenolic compounds. Knockout IL-10 mice randomly divided into six groups were used and received the following treatments: G1, only water; G2, extract; G3, extract; G4, Paracetamol®; G5, Paracetamol® +  extract (400 mg/kg); G6, Paracetamol® +  extract (400 mg/kg). Biochemical parameters of the blood and differential count of leukocytes were done. Oxidative markers and histopathological analyses were performed on their liver tissue.

Results: Phenolic compounds and total flavonoids were detected in both two extracts analyzed. The HPLC fingerprint detected phenolic acid, gallic acid, and catechin flavonoid in the two extracts. Histopathological analyses of the hepatic tissue permitted evaluation of nuclear increase, sinusoid congestion, and inflammatory infiltrate. pum presented more antioxidant activity increasing antioxidant enzyme levels and reducing TBARS and carbonyl protein when compared to the other treatments after exposure to Paracetamol®. Histopathological analyses showed a decrease in the inflammatory infiltrate after treatment with extracts.

Conclusion: Our findings indicate that both extracts, especially , can reduce hepatic damage in knockout mice exposed to paracetamol, indicating the curative power of these extracts reducing lipid peroxidation and in the morphofunctional damage to the liver parenchyma.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2020/3054521DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7744185PMC
December 2020

Antibacterial screening of plants from the Brazilian Atlantic Forest led to the identification of active compounds in (DC.) Naudin.

Nat Prod Res 2021 Dec 4;35(24):5904-5908. Epub 2020 Aug 4.

Departamento de Bioquímica e Biologia Molecular, Universidade Federal de Viçosa, Viçosa, Minas Gerais, Brasil.

Antibiotic resistance is a serious global threat to public health. This has promoted the research for new drug targets, and the use of other approaches, such as antimicrobial combined therapy. The present study evaluated the antibacterial activity of 88 extracts from Brazilian Atlantic Forest trees. The organic extract from leaves of (E) was the most promising for inhibiting the growth of (0.3 mg/mL) and (2.5 mg/mL). After the bioguided fractionation of E and metabolite profiling performed by UPLC-DAD-MS/MS, the ethyl acetate (AF) and aqueous (WF) fractions showed a mixture of phenolic compounds derived from ellagic acid and quercetin. The MIC value of AF was two-times lower than E for , suggesting that these phenolic compounds can perform bioactivity. Furthermore, E and AF showed synergism with ampicillin and tetracycline for and , respectively. These findings suggest that extract and fractions of the leaves can be used as therapeutic antibacterial agents.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/14786419.2020.1802271DOI Listing
December 2021

Croton urucurana Baillon stem bark ointment accelerates the closure of cutaneous wounds in knockout IL-10 mice.

J Ethnopharmacol 2020 Oct 10;261:113042. Epub 2020 Jun 10.

Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Viçosa Federal University, 35570-900, Viçosa, Minas Gerais, Brazil. Electronic address:

Ethnopharmacological Relevance: Croton urucurana Baill. (Euphorbiaceae) is a plant used in Brazilian popular medicine for the treatment of wound healing, inflammatory diseases, gastritis, infections, and hemorrhoids.

Aim: The present study aimed to evaluate the in vivo wound healing activity of an ointment based on ethanolic extract of C. urucurana stem bark, at concentrations of 5% and 10%, and to relate it with compounds that could be associated with this activity.

Materials And Methods: Analyses by FIA-ESI-IT-MS were carried out to investigate the chemical composition of C. urucurana. Knockout IL-10 (n = 60) mice and wild type C57 (n = 12) mice were separated into 6 groups to evaluate the wound healing activity. Knockout IL-10 mice: SAL (0.9% saline); BAS (ointment base); SS (1% silver sulfadiazine); CR1 (ointment with extract of C. urucurana 5%); CR2 (ointment with extract of C. urucurana 10%); and wild mice C57: SALC57 (Saline 0.9%). A circular wound with 10 mm in diameter was generated on the dorsal of the animals. Tissue specimen of the wounds were removed on days 7 and 14 of the treatment for histopathological, oxidative status and analyses of pro-and anti-inflammatory cytokines in scar tissue.

Results: In the phytochemical profile, twelve proanthocyanidins were identified (in the form of monomers, dimers, trimers, and tetramers), based on (epi)catechin and (epi)gallocatechin. Furthermore, two quercetin derivatives and two alkaloids were detected. The groups treated with CR1 and CR2 ointments presented higher rate of wound closure, increased total number of cells, mast cells, blood vessels and higher deposition of type III and I collagen. In addition, they showed increased amount of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL- 2 and IFN-γ), and anti-inflmatory cytokines (IL-4), on the 7th day of treatment.

Conclusion: The results presented support the popular use of preparations based on the bark of C. urucurana as a healing compound.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2020.113042DOI Listing
October 2020

Euterpe oleracea (Martius) Oil Reverses Testicular Alterations Caused after Cadmium Administration.

Biol Trace Elem Res 2020 Oct 2;197(2):555-570. Epub 2020 Jan 2.

Departament of General Biology, Federal University of Viçosa, Viçosa, Minas Gerais, Brazil.

Cadmium (Cd) is an environmental pollutant that induces reproductive toxicity by generating reactive oxygen species, which leads to oxidative stress. Euterpe oleracea fruits are known for being rich in oils containing triacylglycerol and phenolic compounds. They are considered as potent antioxidants to be used to counteract Cd effects within the testis. In the present study, adult males Swiss mice were treated with CdCl aqueous solution (4.28 mg/kg) by gavage for 7 days. The experimental groups were treated with Euterpe oleracea oil at the doses of 50, 100, and 150 mg/kg, for 42 days. The results showed that Cd intoxication led to increased tubular pathologies, such as reduction in epithelium height and area thus increasing both luminal diameter and tubule-epithelium ratio. Besides, Leydig cell's morphometry indicated reduction in nucleus and cytoplasm volumes of this cell type, which were recovered after E. oleracea oil intake. In addition, serum testosterone levels, testicular Mn and Zn concentrations, SOD and CAT activity, and germ cell viability increased after oil intake. Therefore, E. oleracea oil showed a regenerative effect in the testicular parenchyma negatively affected by Cd, mainly in the animals that received the highest oil concentration (150 mg/kg).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12011-019-02004-xDOI Listing
October 2020

Blue and red light affects morphogenesis and 20-hydroxyecdisone content of in vitro Pfaffia glomerata accessions.

J Photochem Photobiol B 2020 Jan 24;203:111761. Epub 2019 Dec 24.

Departamento de Biologia Vegetal/BIOAGRO, Universidade Federal de Viçosa, Viçosa, MG, Brazil. Electronic address:

The combination of different colors from light-emitting diodes (LEDs) may influence growth and production of secondary metabolites in plants. In the present study, the effect of light quality on morphophysiology and content of 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E), a phytoecdysteroid, was evaluated in accessions of an endangered medicinal species, Pfaffia glomerata, grown in vitro. Two accessions (Ac22 and Ac43) were cultured in vitro under three different ratios of red (R) and blue (B) LEDs: (i) 1R:1B, (ii) 1R:3B, and (iii) 3R:1B. An equal ratio of red and blue light (1R:1B) increased biomass accumulation, anthocyanin content, and 20E production (by 30-40%). Moreover, 1R:1B treatment increased the size of vascular bundles and vessel elements, as well as strengthened xylem lignification and thickening of the cell wall of shoots. The 1R:3B treatment induced the highest photosynthetic and electron transport rates and enhanced the activity of oxidative stress-related enzymes. Total Chl content, Chl/Car ratio, and NPQ varied more by accession type than by light source. Spectral quality affected primary metabolism differently in each accession. Specifically, in Ac22 plants, fructose content was higher under 1R:1B and 1R:3B treatments, whereas starch accumulation was higher under 1R:3B, and sucrose under 3R:1B. In Ac43 plants, sugars were not influenced by light spectral quality, but starch content was higher under 3R:1B conditions. In conclusion, red and blue LEDs enhance biomass and 20E production in P. glomerata grown in vitro.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jphotobiol.2019.111761DOI Listing
January 2020

Prenylated flavonoid-enriched fraction from Maclura tinctoria shows biological activity against Staphylococcus aureus and protects Galleria mellonella larvae from bacterial infection.

BMC Complement Altern Med 2019 Jul 29;19(1):189. Epub 2019 Jul 29.

Departamento de Bioquímica e Biologia Molecular, Universidade Federal de Viçosa, Viçosa, MG, 36570-900, Brazil.

Background: The Atlantic Forest biome extends along the entire Brazilian coast and is home to approximately 20,000 plant species, many of which are endemic; it is considered one of the hotspot regions of the planet. Several of these species are sources of natural products with biological activities that are still unknown. In this study, we evaluated the antimicrobial activity of 90 extracts derived from native Atlantic Forest tree species against Staphylococcus aureus, an important human and veterinary pathogen.

Methods: Extracts from native Atlantic Forest tree species were evaluated for their antimicrobial activity against S. aureus by in vitro standard methods. Phytochemical fractionation of the extract from Maclura tinctoria was performed by liquid-liquid partitioning. LC-DAD-ESI-MS was used for identification of constituents in the most active fraction. Damage of cells and alterations in the permeability of cell membrane were determined by atomic force microscopy (AFM) and crystal violet uptake assay, respectively. In vivo antimicrobial activity was evaluated using Galleria mellonella larvae infected with S. aureus with survival data collected using the Kaplan-Meier method.

Results: Among the organic or aqueous extracts tested here, 26 showed biological activity. Eight species showed relevant results, with a minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) below 1 mg/mL. Antibacterial activity was registered for three species for the first time. An organic extract from Maclura tinctoria leaves showed the lowest MIC (0.08 mg/mL). Fractionation of this extract by liquid-liquid partitioning led to obtaining fraction 11FO d with a MIC of 0.04 mg/mL. This fraction showed strong activity against veterinary S. aureus isolates and contributed to the increased survival of Galleria mellonella larvae infected with S. aureus ATCC 29213. The bacterial surface was not altered by the presence of 11FO d, and no cell membrane damage was detected. The LC-DAD-ESI/MS analyses identified prenylated flavonoids as the major constituents responsible for the antibacterial activity of this active extract.

Conclusion: A fraction enriched in prenylated isoflavones and flavanones from M. tinctoria showed in vitro and in vivo efficacy as antistaphylococcal agents. These findings justify the need for further research to elucidate the mechanisms of action of these compounds.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12906-019-2600-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6664575PMC
July 2019

Bioprospection for antiplasmodial activity, and identification of bioactive metabolites of native plants species from the Mata Atlântica biome, Brazil.

Nat Prod Res 2021 May 24;35(10):1732-1737. Epub 2019 Jun 24.

Departamento de Produtos Farmacêuticos, Faculdade de Farmácia, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, Brazil.

A total of 33 extracts of eleven different plants species from Mata Atlântica biome, Brazil, and different fractions of the bioactive extracts were evaluated against chloroquine-resistant W2 strain by LDH method and cytotoxicity to HepG2 cells by the MTT assay, and chemically characterized by LC-DAD-ESI-MS/MS analysis. The results allowed the identification of and as the most active plant species. Different flavonoids and tannins in and besides alkaloids in were identified. Bioguided fractionation of and leaves extracts led to fractions exhibiting high parasite growth inhibition. Seven known alkaloids were identified in the extract, and of these, only 5-carboxystrictosidine had been assayed for antiplasmodial activity what points to this species as the most promising among the eleven one assayed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/14786419.2019.1633645DOI Listing
May 2021

Antioxidant study indicative of antibacterial and antimutagenic activities of an ellagitannin-rich aqueous extract from the leaves of Miconia latecrenata.

J Ethnopharmacol 2019 May 7;236:114-123. Epub 2019 Mar 7.

Departamento de Bioquímica e Biologia Molecular, Universidade Federal de Viçosa, Av. P.H. Rolfs, s/n - Campus Universitário, CEP, 36570-000, Viçosa, MG, Brazil. Electronic address:

Ethnopharmacological relevance; Several plant species of Miconia genus are commonly used in Brazilian folk medicine as anti-inflammatory agents and for the treatment of infectious diseases. Infusions and extracts of Miconia species are also reported as analgesic, antimicrobial, antimalarial, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antinociceptive, antimutagenic, and antitumoral. Aim of the study; To determine the phytochemical composition of an aqueous extract of Miconia latecrenata leaves and to evaluate its antioxidant, antibacterial, antimutagenic and antigenotoxic activities. Materials and Methods; The following methods were used for the different effects: I) antioxidant - β-carotene/linoleic acid, lipid peroxidation, and DPPH• radical scavenging; II) antibacterial - agar well diffusion and MIC methods); III) antimutagenic assays - Ames Test; and IV) antigenotoxic - Plasmid cleavage test. The phytochemical analysis and phenolic quantification were carried out by UPLC-DAD-ESI-MS/MS and colorimetry, respectively. In addition, statistical correlation analysis was performed aiming to evaluate the Pearson correlation between phenolic compounds and biological assays. Results; A high content of tannins was observed and the ellagitannin isomers of 1,2,3,5-tris-galloyl-4,6-HHDP-glucose were identified as the main constituents of the leaves aqueous extract. High antioxidant effect, in different tests, high antibacterial activity to gram-positive and negative strains, as well as high antimutagenic activity were observed. Statistical analysis showed a high Pearson correlation for the tannin content in relation to the results of the antioxidant and antibacterial tests. In general, the antioxidant action of the aqueous extract showed low correlation with the antimutagenic activity. Conclusions; The present results confirmed the expectations regarding the pharmacological profile of M. latecrenata supporting its therapeutic potential in relation to ROS/RNS related disorders. Furthermore, the phenolic compounds of M. latecrenata can act, in turn, minimizing or inhibiting the biological macromolecules damage, especially DNA.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2019.03.007DOI Listing
May 2019

Assessment of the phenolic content, mutagenicity and genotoxicity of ethanolic extracts of stem bark and leaves from A. St.-hil.

Drug Chem Toxicol 2020 Sep 13;43(5):539-545. Epub 2018 Sep 13.

Departamento de Bioquímica e Biologia Molecular, Universidade Federal de Viçosa, Viçosa, MG, Brazil.

is a plant species whose stem bark is used as bitter tonic beverage. The phytochemical analysis, as well as quantification of phenolic constituents and antioxidant activity of ethanolic extracts from stem bark, and leaves were conducted. The extracts were tested for mutagenicity (Ames test) and DNA-damaging activity (Plasmid Cleavage test). Leaves recorded the largest amount of flavonoids. The performed high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) showed flavonoids such as isorhamnetin and strychnobiflavone (phytochemical markers of the investigated species) in stem barks, but not in leaves. The proanthocyanidin content and antioxidant activity were significantly higher in stem barks than in leaves. Stem bark and leaf extracts presented mutagenic activity against TA98 and TA100 strains with, and without, metabolic activation (S9). The Plasmid Cleavage test did not indicate DNA-damaging activity. Our results suggest that extracts deriving from should be used with extreme caution, mainly the stem bark extract, which is widely used in folk medicine.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/01480545.2018.1515218DOI Listing
September 2020

Mutagenic activity and chemical composition of phenolic-rich extracts of leaves from two species of Ficus medicinal plants.

J Toxicol Environ Health A 2018 23;81(17):861-872. Epub 2018 Jul 23.

a Departamento de Bioquímica e Biologia Molecular , Universidade Federal de Viçosa , Viçosa , Brazil.

Plant species from the Ficus genus are widely used as food, and in folk medicine as anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and anticancer agents, although some of these species are known to produce adverse effects. The aim of this study was to determine and compare the chemical composition as well as in vitro antioxidant and mutagenic activity of the aqueous extracts of leaves from F. adhatodifolia and F. obtusiuscula. Phytochemical screening using thin-layer chromatography identified 6 classes of secondary metabolites in the extracts. Total phenolic content was estimated by the Folin-Ciocalteau method and the phenolic profile was determined by UPLC-DAD-ESI/MS/MS. Antioxidant activities were evaluated by the DPPH radical assay and by the β-carotene/linoleic acid system. Mutagenic activity was measured by the Salmonella typhimurium reverse mutation test with 4 strains, in both the presence and absence of metabolic activation. Flavonoids, coumarins, and tannins were detected in both extracts, and 6 major derivatives were identified as flavone compounds. Antioxidant activities were demonstrated for both extracts, while F. obtusiuscula contained higher concentrations of phenolic compounds. Mutagenic activity of the TA97 strain without metabolic activation was observed for both tested extracts, as well as the TA102 strain with metabolic activation. In addition, the extract of F. adhatodifolia was shown to be mutagenic to the TA102 strain without metabolic activation. Evidence indicates that the use of teas obtained from these two plant extracts in folk medicine may raise concerns and needs further investigation as a result of potential pro-oxidant mutagenic effects in the absence or presence of metabolic activation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/15287394.2018.1498420DOI Listing
August 2019

Phytochemical characterization and antioxidant, antibacterial and antimutagenic activities of aqueous extract from leaves of Alchornea glandulosa.

J Toxicol Environ Health A 2018 12;81(16):805-818. Epub 2018 Jul 12.

b Departamento de Bioquímica e Biologia Molecular , Universidade Federal de Viçosa , Viçosa , MG , Brazil.

Plant extracts exist as a complex matrix which serves as a source of numerous bioactive metabolites. The ultra performance liquid chromatography with diode-array detection-coupled electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry technique was used to characterize the aqueous extract from leaves of Alchornea glandulosa (EAG), a species popularly used to treat gastrointestinal problems as an antiulcer agent. Quantification of phenolic derivatives was determined using Folin-Ciocalteu and aluminum trichloride (AlCl) methods. In addition, antioxidant (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl [DPPH] radical scavenging, β-carotene-linoleic acid, and lipid peroxidation), antibacterial (agar well diffusion method and minimum inhibitory concentration), antimutagenic (Ames test), and antigenotoxic (plasmid cleavage) assays were also performed on this plant extract. The ellagitannin tris-galloyl-hexahydroxydiphenic acid-glucose was identified as the predominant compound along with tannins as majority metabolites. EAG showed high antioxidant activity accompanied by moderate antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus. The highest antimutagenic activity was observed for TA97 strain without metabolic activation (S9) and with metabolic activation, TA100 and TA102 were completely inhibited. In addition, EAG exhibited potential signs of antigenotoxic action. The high antioxidant and antimutagenic activity observed for EAG suggests important therapeutic uses that still need to be verified in future studies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/15287394.2018.1492479DOI Listing
August 2019

A Computational Approach Using Bioinformatics to Screening Drug Targets for Species.

Evid Based Complement Alternat Med 2018 28;2018:6813467. Epub 2018 Mar 28.

Programa de Pós-Graduação em Ciências da Saúde: Infectologia e Medicina Tropical, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, MG, Brazil.

Background: The development of new therapeutic strategies to treat patients for leishmaniasis has become a priority. The antileishmanial activity of the strychnobiflavone flavonoid was recently demonstrated against and amastigotes and promastigotes. The biological effect of this molecule was identified due to its capacity to interfere in the parasite mitochondrial membrane; however, the underlying molecular mechanism remains unclear.

Methods And Results: In this study, a computational approach using bioinformatics was performed to screen biological targets of strychnobiflavone in . Computational programs, such as the target fishing approach and molecular docking assays, were used. Results showed that the putative pathway targeted by strychnobiflavone in is the methylglyoxal degradation superpathway, and one hydrolase-like protein was predicted to be the molecular target of this flavonoid in the parasites.

Conclusion: In this context, this study provides the basis for understanding the mechanism of action of strychnobiflavone in and presents a strategy based on bioinformatics programs to screen targets of other molecules with biological action against distinct pathogens.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2018/6813467DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5896251PMC
March 2018

Strychnos pseudoquina modulates the morphological reorganization of the scar tissue of second intention cutaneous wounds in rats.

PLoS One 2018 12;13(4):e0195786. Epub 2018 Apr 12.

Department Animal Biology, Universidade Federal de Viçosa, Viçosa, Minas Gerais, Brazil.

Natural substances are used in folk medicines to treat injuries. Strychnos pseudoquina has scarring, antipyretic, and antimalarial actions. The present study aimed to analyze the effect of S. pseudoquina on cutaneous wound healing in rats. The S. pseudoquina extract was submitted to phytochemical prospection. The levels of flavonoids and total phenolic compounds in the extract were 50.7 mg/g and 2.59 mg/g, respectively. Thirty Wistar rats were individualized in cages with food and water ad libitum (registration no. 730/2014). After anesthesia, three circular wounds (12mm diameter) were made in the animals, which were randomly separated into five treatments: Sal, saline; VO, ointment vehicles (lanolin and Vaseline); SS, positive control (silver sulfadiazine 1%); LE 5, freeze-dried extract 5%; and LE 10, lyophilized extract 10%. The animals were treated with the ointment daily for 21 days. Every seven days, the area and the rate of wound contraction were evaluated. Tissue samples were removed for histopathological analysis of the number of mast cells, elastic and collagen fibers, and biochemical analyses, quantification of malondialdehyde (MDA), carbonylated proteins (PCN), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), transforming growth factor β (TGF-β), Interleukin 10 (IL-10) and tumor necrosis factor (TNF). The number of mast cells, collagen and elastic fibers in the rat wounds were higher in the treatments with the plant. The extract also stimulated the activity of antioxidant enzymes, particularly SOD, presenting high levels, and maintained low levels of PCN. The TGF-β and IL-10 concentration was higher in the LE5 and LE10 treatment of the extract than in the Sal, OV and SS treatments on day 7. The ointment based on S. pseudoquina closed the wound faster and accelerated wound healing in animals.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0195786PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5896999PMC
July 2018

Identification of phenolic compounds and biologically related activities from Ocotea odorifera aqueous extract leaves.

Food Chem 2017 Sep 18;230:618-626. Epub 2017 Mar 18.

Departamento de Bioquímica e Biologia Molecular, Universidade Federal de Viçosa, MG, Brazil. Electronic address:

Ocotea odorifera (Vell.) Rohwer is popularly used as food and flavoring. The aim of this study was to determine the chemical composition of the aqueous extract from O. odorifera leaves and evaluate the correlation of their phytochemical composition and biological activities. The antioxidant effect was determined by DPPH radical scavenging, β-carotene-linoleic acid and lipid peroxidation assays; the antibacterial activity was evaluated by the hole plate and MIC techniques and the antimutagenic activity was evaluated by the Ames test. Identification of phytochemicals was performed by LC-ESI/MS and the correlation between the phytochemical composition of the extract and the evaluated activities. The results allowed the identification of 13 phenolic compounds in the extract that exhibited high antioxidant activity and moderate antibacterial and antimutagenic action. Statistical analyses showed correlation of the total phenolic content with biologically related activities. The phytochemical analyses, together with the biological results, support the popular use of O. odorifera.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2017.03.087DOI Listing
September 2017

Euterpe edulis effects on cardiac and renal tissues of Wistar rats fed with cafeteria diet.

Nutr Hosp 2017 Feb 1;34(1):186-192. Epub 2017 Feb 1.

Departamento de Medicina e Enfermagem. Universidade Federal de Viçosa. Minas Gerais, Brasil.

Introduction: This study's objective was to evaluate the antioxidant and toxic effects of E. edulison cardiac and renal tissues of Wistar rats fed with cafeteria diet.

Methods: Catalase (CAT), glutathione-S-transferase (GST), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and malondialdehyde (MDA) were measured in cardiac muscle and renal tissue of 60 animals, which were randomly assigned for 10 equal groups. Half of the rats were fed with cafeteria diet and the other half with commercial chow, combined or not to E. edulislyophilized extract, E. edulis deffated lyophilized extract or E. edulisoil. Data were evaluated using ANOVA, followed by the Student-Newman-Keuls test.

Results: Data showed a significant increase of CAT activity in cardiac tissue of animals from the groups fed with cafeteria diet associated to E. edulis lyophilized extract at 5%, E. edulis lyophilized extract at 10% and E. edulis deffated lyophilized extract at 10%. In addition, the same result was found in animals from the groups fed with commercial chow and commercial chow combined with E. edulislyophilized extract at 10% in comparison to the group fed exclusively with cafeteria diet. GST and SOD enzyme activity showed significant increase in the heart tissue of animals nourished with commercial chow when compared to the groups fed with cafeteria diet. On the other hand, there were no significant differences enzymatic levels in renal tissues.

Conclusion: The oil and the extract of E. edulishad an important role promoting an increase of antioxidant enzymes levels in cardiac muscle, which prevent the oxidative damage resulting from the cafeteria diet in Wistar rats. There were no evidenced signs of lipid peroxidation in renal or in cardiac tissue of the animals studied, indicating that the E. edulisuse did not promote any increase in malondialdehyde cytotoxic products formation. This show that both E. edulis oil and extracts evaluated in this study were well tolerated in the studied doses.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.20960/nh.996DOI Listing
February 2017

Euterpe edulis Extract but Not Oil Enhances Antioxidant Defenses and Protects against Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease Induced by a High-Fat Diet in Rats.

Oxid Med Cell Longev 2016 23;2016:8173876. Epub 2016 Jun 23.

Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Federal University of Viçosa, 36570-000 Viçosa, MG, Brazil.

We investigated the effects of E. edulis bioproducts (lyophilized pulp [LEE], defatted lyophilized pulp [LDEE], and oil [EO]) on nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) induced by a high-fat diet (HFD) in rats. All products were chemically analyzed. In vivo, 42 rats were equally randomized into seven groups receiving standard diet, HFD alone or combined with EO, LEE, or LDEE. After NAFLD induction, LEE, LDEE, or EO was added to the animals' diet for 4 weeks. LEE was rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids. From LEE degreasing, LDEE presented higher levels of anthocyanins and antioxidant capacity in vitro. Dietary intake of LEE and especially LDEE, but not EO, attenuated diet-induced NAFLD, reducing inflammatory infiltrate, steatosis, and lipid peroxidation in liver tissue. Although both E. edulis bioproducts were not hepatotoxic, only LDEE presented sufficient benefits to treat NAFLD in rats, possibly by its low lipid content and high amount of phenols and anthocyanins.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2016/8173876DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4935907PMC
March 2017

Schizocalyx cuspidatus (A. St.-Hil.) Kainul. & B. Bremer extract improves antioxidant defenses and accelerates the regression of hepatic fibrosis after exposure to carbon tetrachloride in rats.

Nat Prod Res 2016 Dec 17;30(23):2738-2742. Epub 2016 Feb 17.

c Department of General Biology , Federal University of Viçosa , Viçosa , Brazil.

The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of leaves extract of Schizocalyx cuspidatus (A. St.-Hil.) Kainul. & B. Bremer on hepatic morphofunctional dysfunction induced by carbon tetrachloride (CCl). Liver lesions were induced via intraperitoneal administration of CCl every 48 h for 12 days. Forty-nine rats were randomised into seven groups: G1: CCl; G2: CCl (animals euthanised 24 h after last CCl application); G3: CCl + DMSO; G4: SCE 400 mg/kg; G5: DMSO (700 μl); G6: CCl + SCE 200 mg/kg and G7: CCl + SCE 400 mg/kg. SCE administration resulted in reduction in hydroperoxide levels, lipidic droplets and necrosis compared to G1, G2 and G3. There was an increase in the amount of collagen fibres in G1, G2 and G3 compared to the groups. These results show that the extract of SCE leaves has great potential for the recovery of liver damage after the application of CCl.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/14786419.2016.1143825DOI Listing
December 2016

CHEMICAL COMPOSITION, CHARACTERIZATION OF ANTHOCYANINS AND ANTIOXIDANT POTENTIAL OF EUTERPE EDULIS FRUITS: APPLICABILITY ON GENETIC DYSLIPIDEMIA AND HEPATIC STEATOSIS IN MICE.

Nutr Hosp 2015 Aug 1;32(2):702-9. Epub 2015 Aug 1.

Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Federal University of Viçosa..

Unlabelled: The significance of polyphenol intake for the prevention of chronic diseases is controversial.

Objective: this study investigated the chemical composition and antioxidant potential of an anthocyanin-rich extract from Euterpe edulis fruits (LPEF) and its effects on liver steatosis in dyslipidemic apoE-/- knockout mice.

Materials And Methods: mice were divided into G1 (C57BL/6) standard diet; G2 (apoE-/-) standard diet, G3 (apoE-/-) 2% LPEF, G4 (apoE-/-) 6% LPEF, G5 (apoE-/-) 10% LPEF, G6 (apoE-/-) 2% α-tocopherol acetate. After 75 days of treatment, the animals were euthanized. The LPEF contained a high level of monomeric anthocyanins (301.4 mg/100g) and marked antioxidant activity.

Results: Catalase activity was reduced in G3, G4, G5 and G6 compared to G2. Superoxide dismutase was reduced only in G4. The animals in G4, G5, and G6 showed low HDL and triglycerides levels compared to G2. The proportion of lipid droplets in liver tissue was reduced in G4 and G5 compared to G2, G3, and G6.

Conclusion: The results indicated that E. edulis pulp is rich in anthocyanins and the LPEF dietary consumption can reduce the severity of liver steatosis in apoE-/- mice, an effect that is potentially mediated by the antioxidant activity of this extract and modulation of triglyceride serum levels.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3305/nh.2015.32.2.8885DOI Listing
August 2015

Strychnos pseudoquina and Its Purified Compounds Present an Effective In Vitro Antileishmanial Activity.

Evid Based Complement Alternat Med 2013 30;2013:304354. Epub 2013 Sep 30.

Programa de Pós-Graduação em Ciências da Saúde: Infectologia e Medicina Tropical, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais 31.270-901, Brazil.

The development of new and cost-effective alternative therapeutic strategies to treat leishmaniasis has become a high priority. In the present study, the antileishmanial activity of Strychnos pseudoquina St. Hil. was investigated and pure compounds that presented this biological effect were isolated. An ethyl acetate extract was prepared, and it proved to be effective against Leishmania amazonensis. A bioactivity-guided fractionation was performed, and two flavonoids were identified, quercetin 3-O-methyl ether and strychnobiflavone, which presented an effective antileishmanial activity against L. amazonensis, and studies were extended to establish their minimum inhibitory concentrations (IC50), their leishmanicidal effects on the intra-macrophage Leishmania stage, as well as their cytotoxic effects on murine macrophages (CC50), and in O+ human red blood cells. The data presented in this study showed the potential of an ethyl acetate extract of S. pseudoquina, as well as two flavonoids purified from it, which can be used as a therapeutic alternative on its own, or in association with other drugs, to treat disease evoked by L. amazonensis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2013/304354DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3806161PMC
November 2013

Time-dependent effects of low-level laser therapy on the morphology and oxidative response in the skin wound healing in rats.

Lasers Med Sci 2013 Feb 22;28(2):383-90. Epub 2012 Feb 22.

Department of Morphology, Federal University of Pelotas, Pelotas, RS, Brazil.

This study aims to investigate the effect of different energy densities provided by low-level laser therapy (LLLT) on the morphology of scar tissue and the oxidative response in the healing of secondary intention skin wounds in rats. Twenty-four male adult Wistar rats were used. Skin wounds were made on the backs of the animals, which were randomized into three groups of eight animals each as follows, 0.9% saline (control); laser GaAsAl 30 J/cm(2) (L30); laser GaAsAl 90 J/cm(2) (L90). The experiment lasted 21 days. Every 7 days, the wound contraction index (WCI) was calculated and tissue from different wounds was removed to assess the proportion of cells and blood vessels, collagen maturation index (CMI), thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS) levels and catalase activity (CAT). On the 7th and 14th days, the WCI and the proportion of cells were significantly higher in groups L30 and L90 compared to the control (p < 0.05). At all the time points analyzed, there was a greater proportion of blood vessels and a higher CMI in group L90 compared to the other groups (p < 0.05). On the 7th and 14th days, lower TBARS levels and increased CAT activity were found in the L90 group compared to the control (p < 0.05). On the 7th day, a moderately negative correlation was found between TBARS levels and WCI, CMI and CAT in all the groups. LLLT may modulate the oxidative status of wounded tissue, constituting a possible mechanism through which the LLLT exerts its effects in the initial phases of tissue repair.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10103-012-1066-7DOI Listing
February 2013

The mutagenic, DNA-damaging and antioxidative properties of bark and leaf extracts from Coutarea hexandra (Jacq.) K. Schum.

Environ Toxicol Pharmacol 2012 Mar 15;33(2):297-303. Epub 2011 Dec 15.

Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biological, Federal University of Viçosa, MG, Brazil.

Coutarea hexandra is a species commonly known in Brazil as quina, and its bark is used in folk medicine. In this study, we assess the mutagenic and DNA-damaging effects of ethanol extracts from C. hexandra stem bark (SCH) and leaves (LCH) by employing the Ames test on the TA98 and TA100 strains of Salmonella typhimurium in addition to a plasmid treatment test. Furthermore, we performed a phytochemical analysis by TLC and HPLC, a quantification of the phenolic constituents and an assessment of the antioxidative activity. SCH and LCH showed mutagenic action in the Ames test for TA98 strains after metabolic activation. LCH also showed mutagenicity for the TA100 strain after metabolic activation. The findings from the plasmid treatment test did not indicate any DNA-damaging activity for either of the extracts with the tested dosages. SCH showed greater flavonoid content and greater antioxidative potential in relation to LCH. This study suggests that caution is advisable in the use of this plant. However, in vivo studies should be conducted to confirm these data.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.etap.2011.12.003DOI Listing
March 2012

Effect of bark extract of Bathysa cuspidata on hepatic oxidative damage and blood glucose kinetics in rats exposed to paraquat.

Toxicol Pathol 2012 21;40(1):62-70. Epub 2011 Oct 21.

Department of General Biology, Federal University of Viçosa, MG, Brazil.

This study investigated the effect of bark extract of Bathysa cuspidata on hepatic oxidative damage and blood glucose kinetics in rats exposed to paraquat. Wistar rats were exposed to a single dose of paraquat (30 mg/kg, i.p.) and treated with an ethanolic extract of Bathysa cuspidata (200 and 400 mg/kg). Analyses were conducted of liver edema, blood glucose, serum transaminases, alkaline phosphatase, collagen, malondialdehyde, catalase, superoxide dismutase, and histomorphometry. In the animals intoxicated with paraquat and treated with 400 mg/kg of extract, edema, hypertrophy of the nucleus of hepatocytes, serum transaminases, alkaline phosphatase, and malondialdehyde levels decreased significantly (p < .05). Catalase and superoxide dismutase activity, the number of hepatocytes per unit volume, and the glycogen proportion were maintained. The increase followed by progressive reduction of blood glucose observed in paraquat-exposed groups was significantly attenuated in the group treated with 400 mg/kg of extract (p < .05). Phytochemical analysis of the extract revealed the presence of flavonoids, proanthocyanidins, and phenolic compounds. The bark extract of Bathysa cuspidata was able to inhibit large variations in blood glucose and reduce hepatic damage in rats exposed to paraquat. This finding suggests a contribution of the extract in reducing lipid peroxidation and the morphofunctional damage to the liver parenchyma.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0192623311425059DOI Listing
August 2012
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