Publications by authors named "Jiyuan Wang"

32 Publications

PavGA2ox-2L inhibits the plant growth and development interacting with PavDWARF in sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.).

Plant Physiol Biochem 2022 Sep 21;186:299-309. Epub 2022 Jul 21.

Department of Plant Science, School of Agriculture and Biology, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Minhang, Shanghai, 200240, China. Electronic address:

Dwarf dense planting is helpful to improve the yield and quality of sweet cherry, which has enormous market demand. GA2oxs (GA oxidases) affect plant height, dormancy release, flower development, and seed germination by participating in the metabolic regulation and signal transduction of GA (Gibberellin). However, the research on GA2ox in sweet cherry is little and worthy of further investigation. Therefore, we identified the PavGA2ox-2L gene from sweet cherry, close to PynGA2ox-2 from Prunus yedoensis var. Nudiflora. The phylogenetic analysis indicated conserved functions with these evolutionarily closer GA2ox subfamily genes. Subcellular localization forecast analysis indicated that PavGA2ox-2L was localized in the nucleus or cytoplasm. The expression levels of PavGA2ox-2L were higher in winter, indicating that PavGA2ox-2L promoted maintained flower bud dormancy. The expression levels of PavGA2ox-2L were significantly increased after GA treatment while decreased after GR24 (a synthetic analog of SLs (Strigolactones)) or TIS108 (a triazole-type SL-biosynthesis inhibitor) treatments. Over-expression of PavGA2ox-2L resulted in decreased plant height, delayed flowering time, and low seed germination rate in Arabidopsis thaliana. Furthermore, the interaction between PavGA2ox-2L and PavDWARF was verified by Y2H and BiFC assays. In the current investigation, PavGA2ox-2L functions as a GA metabolic gene that promotes dwarf dense planting, delays flowering time, and inhibits seed germination. In addition, it also participates in regulating plant growth and development through the interaction with the critical negative regulator PavDWARF of Gibberellin. These results will help us better explore the molecular mechanism of GA2ox-mediated dwarf and late-maturing varieties for fruit trees.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.plaphy.2022.07.019DOI Listing
September 2022

Identification and Comprehensive Ggenome-Wide Analysis of Glutathione S-Transferase Gene Family in Sweet Cherry () and Their Expression Profiling Reveals a Likely Role in Anthocyanin Accumulation.

Front Plant Sci 2022 12;13:938800. Epub 2022 Jul 12.

Department of Plant Science, School of Agriculture and Biology, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai, China.

Glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) in plants are multipurpose enzymes that are involved in growth and development and anthocyanins transportation. However, members of the GST gene family were not identified in sweet cherry (). To identify the GST genes in sweet cherry, a genome-wide analysis was conducted. In this study, we identified 67 GST genes in genome and nomenclature according to chromosomal distribution. Phylogenetic tree analysis revealed that genes were classified into seven chief subfamily: TCHQD, Theta, Phi, Zeta, Lambda, DHAR, and Tau. The majority of the genes had a relatively well-maintained exon-intron and motif arrangement within the same group, according to gene structure and motif analyses. Gene structure (introns-exons) and conserved motif analysis revealed that the majority of the genes showed a relatively well-maintained motif and exons-introns configuration within the same group. The chromosomal localization, GO enrichment annotation, subcellular localization, syntenic relationship, Ka/Ks analysis, and molecular characteristics were accomplished using various bioinformatics tools. Mode of gene duplication showed that dispersed duplication might play a key role in the expansion of gene family. Promoter regions of genes contain numerous -regulatory components, which are involved in multiple stress responses, such as abiotic stress and phytohormones responsive factors. Furthermore, the expression profile of sweet cherry showed significant results under LED treatment. Our findings provide the groundwork for future research into induced LED anthocyanin and antioxidants deposition in sweet cherries.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpls.2022.938800DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9315441PMC
July 2022

Climatic suitability projection for deciduous fruit tree cultivation in main producing regions of northern China under climate warming.

Int J Biometeorol 2022 Jul 28. Epub 2022 Jul 28.

School of Agriculture and Biology, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai, 200240, China.

China is the largest fruit producer and consumer market in the world. Understanding the growing conditions responses to climate change is the key to predict future site suitability of main cultivation areas for certain deciduous fruit trees. In this study, we used dynamic and growing degree day models driven by downscaled daily temperatures from 22 global climate models to project the effects of climate change on growing conditions for deciduous fruit trees under two representative concentration pathway (RCP) 4.5 and RCP8.5 scenarios over 2 future time periods (represented by central years 2050s and 2085s) in northern China. The results showed a general increase of available winter chill for all sites under RCP4.5 scenario, and the most dramatic increase in chill accumulation could reach up to 36.8% in northeast regions for RCP8.5. However, the forecasted chill will decrease by 6.4% in southeast stations under RCP8.5 by 2085s. Additionally, the increase rate of growing season heat showed spatially consistency, and the most pronounced increase was found in the RCP8.5 by 2085s. For the southwest station, median heat accumulation increased by 20.8% in the 2050s and 37.1% in the 2085s under RCP8.5. Similar increasing range could be found in the northeast station; the median growing season heat increased by 19.8% and 38.8% in the 2050s and 2085s under RCP8.5, respectively. Moreover, the date of last spring frost was expected to advance and the frequency of frost occurrences was projected to decline in the study area compared to the past. Overall, the present study improves understanding regarding site-specific characteristics of climatic suitability for deciduous fruit tree cultivation in main producing regions of northern China. The results could provide growers and decision-makers with theoretical evidence to take adaptive measure to ensure fruit production in future.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00484-022-02335-wDOI Listing
July 2022

Evolutionary and Integrative Analysis of Gibberellin-Dioxygenase Gene Family and Their Expression Profile in Three Rosaceae Genomes (, , and ) Under Phytohormone Stress.

Front Plant Sci 2022 7;13:942969. Epub 2022 Jul 7.

School of Agriculture and Biology, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai, China.

The gibberellin-dioxygenase (GAox) gene family plays a crucial role in regulating plant growth and development. GAoxs, which are encoded by many gene subfamilies, are extremely critical in regulating bioactive GA levels by catalyzing the subsequent stages in the biosynthesis process. Moreover, GAoxs are important enzymes in the GA synthesis pathway, and the GAox gene family has not yet been identified in Rosaceae species ( L., , and ), especially in response to gibberellin and PCa (prohexadione calcium; reduce biologically active GAs). In the current investigation, 399 GAox members were identified in sweet cherry, Japanese apricot, and strawberry. Moreover, they were further classified into six (A-F) subgroups based on phylogeny. According to motif analysis and gene structure, the majority of the genes have a remarkably well-maintained exon-intron and motif arrangement within the same subgroup, which may lead to functional divergence. In the systematic investigation, genes have several duplication events, but segmental duplication occurs frequently. A calculative analysis of orthologous gene pairs in L., , and revealed that GAox genes are subjected to purifying selection during the evolutionary process, resulting in functional divergence. The analysis of -regulatory elements in the upstream region of the 140 members suggests a possible relationship between genes and specific functions of hormone response-related elements. Moreover, the genes display a variety of tissue expression patterns in diverse tissues, with most of the genes displaying tissue-specific expression patterns. Furthermore, most of the genes express significant expression in buds under phytohormonal stresses. Phytohormones stress analysis demonstrated that some of genes are responsible for maintaining the GA level in plant-like , , and . The subcellular localization of protein utilizing a tobacco transient transformation system into the tobacco epidermal cells predicted that GFP signals were mostly found in the cytoplasm. These findings will contribute to a better understanding of the GAox gene family's interaction with prohexadione calcium and GA, as well as provide a strong framework for future functional characterization of GAox genes in sweet cherry.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpls.2022.942969DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9302438PMC
July 2022

Pain-related reorganization in the primary somatosensory cortex of patients with postherpetic neuralgia.

Hum Brain Mapp 2022 Jun 25. Epub 2022 Jun 25.

CAS Key Laboratory of Behavioral Science, Institute of Psychology, Beijing, China.

Studies on functional and structural changes in the primary somatosensory cortex (S1) have provided important insights into neural mechanisms underlying several chronic pain conditions. However, the role of S1 plasticity in postherpetic neuralgia (PHN) remains elusive. Combining psychophysics and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), we investigated whether pain in PHN patients is linked to S1 reorganization as compared with healthy controls. Results from voxel-based morphometry showed no structural differences between groups. To characterize functional plasticity, we compared S1 responses to noxious laser stimuli of a fixed intensity between both groups and assessed the relationship between S1 activation and spontaneous pain in PHN patients. Although the intensity of evoked pain was comparable in both groups, PHN patients exhibited greater activation in S1 ipsilateral to the stimulated hand. Pain-related activity was identified in contralateral superior S1 (SS1) in controls as expected, but in bilateral inferior S1 (IS1) in PHN patients with no overlap between SS1 and IS1. Contralateral SS1 engaged during evoked pain in controls encoded spontaneous pain in patients, suggesting functional S1 reorganization in PHN. Resting-state fMRI data showed decreased functional connectivity between left and right SS1 in PHN patients, which scaled with the intensity of spontaneous pain. Finally, multivariate pattern analyses (MVPA) demonstrated that BOLD activity and resting-state functional connectivity of S1 predicted within-subject variations of evoked and spontaneous pain intensities across groups. In summary, functional reorganization in S1 might play a key role in chronic pain related to PHN and could be a potential treatment target in this patient group.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/hbm.25992DOI Listing
June 2022

Protective effect of hydroxysafflor yellow A on cyclosporin A-induced renal oxidative stress in vitro and in vivo.

Authors:
Jiyuan Wang Yu Chen

Acta Cir Bras 2022 15;37(3):e370305. Epub 2022 Jun 15.

MSc. Second Military Medical University - Shanghai ChangZheng Hospital - Department of Organ Transplantation - Shanghai, China.

Purpose: To explore the mechanism and investigate the protective effect of hydroxysafflor yellow A (HSYA) on renal oxidative stress, which cyclosporine A (CsA) induces.

Methods: HK-2 cells were treated with CsA to get CsA-induced oxidative stress. The effects on oxidative stress and apoptosis of HK-2 cells were detected. The contents of SOD, MDA, GSH-Px, ROS, and CAT in serum were measured, and the expression of apoptosis-related proteins was detected by western blot. Then, established the renal oxidative stress injury rats to verify the efficacy of HSYA.

Results: HSYA could reduce the ROS and MDA contents induced by CsA. Compared with the CsA group, the activities of SOD, CAT, and GSH-Px increased significantly when treated with HSYA. HSYA could inhibit CsA-induced apoptosis in HK-2 cells, and promote the protein of Bcl-2 and inhibit the expression of Bax. Animal experiments showed that HSYA could reduce CsA-induced renal cell injury by reducing glomerular cell vacuoles and inflammatory factors in tissues. It also decreased serum creatinine (Crea) and blood urea nitrogen, increased Crea clearance significantly.

Conclusions: HSYA could significantly improve the antioxidant capacity of the kidney cells and inhibit cell apoptosis, thereby effectively ameliorating CsA-induced oxidative stress in vitro and in vivo.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/acb370305DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9211037PMC
June 2022

SIRT1 ameliorates renal ischemia-reperfusion injury through suppressing endoplasmic reticulum stress-mediated autophagy.

Am J Transl Res 2022 15;14(5):3419-3429. Epub 2022 May 15.

Department of Organ Transplantation, Shanghai Changzheng Hospital, Navy Medical University Shanghai, China.

Background: Renal ischemia-reperfusion (IR) injury is a therapeutic challenge for surgeons. Sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) is an NAD-dependent deacetylase that plays a vital role in modulating cellular senescence and aging. In this study, we determined whether SIRT1 upregulation could alleviate renal IR injury and the underlying mechanism.

Methods: A renal IR model was induced in male C57BL/6 mice. Blood urea nitrogen and serum creatinine were evaluated as markers of kidney function, and renal injury was assessed by pathological examination. The inflammatory milieu was analyzed by real-time RT-PCR and myeloperoxidase immunofluorescence assays. Western blotting was used to quantify SIRT1 protein expression, endoplasmic reticulum stress, and autophagy.

Results: SIRT1 was upregulated in renal tissue after IR. Blood analysis and histopathologic examination demonstrated that SIRT1 preserved renal function and reduced renal damage. Further evaluation illustrated that IR induced autophagy and endoplasmic reticulum stress, while SIRT1 upregulation reduced endoplasmic reticulum stress-mediated autophagy levels.

Conclusions: SIRT1 upregulation protects the kidney against IR-induced injury by inhibiting endoplasmic reticulum stress-mediated autophagy.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9185025PMC
May 2022

Preparation of norfloxacin-grafted chitosan antimicrobial sponge and its application in wound repair.

Int J Biol Macromol 2022 Jun 7;210:243-251. Epub 2022 May 7.

Faculty of Chemistry and Environment Science, Guangdong Ocean University, Zhanjiang 524088, China.

Trauma is one of the most common health issues in humans, and bacterial infection of the wound may result in many complications. In this paper, using 1-(3-dimethylaminopropyl)-3-ethylcarbodiimide hydrochloride (EDC) as a coupling agent, chitosan (CS) was grafted with norfloxacin (NF), an antibacterial agent, to prepare a CS-NF sponge by freezing-induced phase separation. The CS-NF sponge was characterized by ultra violet-visible spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and scanning electron microscopy. Its porosity and water absorption ratio were determined, the antimicrobial activity was evaluated by inhibition zone assay, and its wound repair effect was investigated in a full-thickness cutaneous excisional wound animal model. The results showed that NF was successfully grafted onto CS, and the obtained CS-NF sponge had both a high porosity and water absorption ratio. The CS-NF sponge displayed significant antimicrobial activities in the inhibition zone assay. In vivo the CS-NF sponge exhibited a strong wound healing effect, with a wound healing rate close to 100% by day 15. Therefore, the CS-NF sponge is a novel promising wound-healing dressing for clinical practice.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2022.05.022DOI Listing
June 2022

MYB transcription factor family in sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.): genome-wide investigation, evolution, structure, characterization and expression patterns.

BMC Plant Biol 2022 Jan 3;22(1). Epub 2022 Jan 3.

Department of Plant Science, School of Agriculture and Biology, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai, China.

Back Ground: MYB Transcription factors (TFs) are most imperative and largest gene family in plants, which participate in development, metabolism, defense, differentiation and stress response. The MYB TFs has been studied in various plant species. However, comprehensive studies of MYB gene family in the sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.) are still unknown.

Results: In the current study, a total of 69 MYB genes were investigated from sweet cherry genome and classified into 28 subfamilies (C1-C28 based on phylogenetic and structural analysis). Microcollinearity analysis revealed that dispersed duplication (DSD) events might play an important role in the MYB genes family expansion. Chromosomal localization, the synonymous (Ks) and nonsynonymous (Ka) analysis, molecular characteristics (pI, weight and length of amino acids) and subcellular localization were accomplished using several bioinformatics tools. Furthermore, the members of distinct subfamilies have diverse cis-acting regions, conserved motifs, and intron-exon architectures, indicating functional heterogeneity in the MYB family. Moreover, the transcriptomic data exposed that MYB genes might play vital role in bud dormancy. The quantitative real-time qRT-PCR was carried out and the expression pattern indicated that MYB genes significantly expressed in floral bud as compared to flower and fruit.

Conclusion: Our comprehensive findings provide supportive insights into the evolutions, expansion complexity and functionality of PavMYB genes. These PavMYB genes should be further investigated as they seem to be brilliant candidates for dormancy manipulation in sweet cherry.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12870-021-03374-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8722155PMC
January 2022

Cold induced genes (CIGs) regulate flower development and dormancy in Prunus avium L.

Plant Sci 2021 Dec 20;313:111061. Epub 2021 Sep 20.

Department of Plant Science, School of Agriculture and Biology, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Minhang, Shanghai 200240, China. Electronic address:

The flower buds continue to develop during the whole winter in tree fruit species, which is affected by environmental factors and hormones. However, little is known about the molecular mechanism of flower development during dormancy phase of sweet cherry in response to light, temperature and ABA. Therefore, we identified two cold induced gene (CIG) PavCIG1 and PavCIG2 from sweet cherry, which were closely to PpCBF and PyDREB from Prunus persica and Prunus yedoensis by using phylogenetic analysis, suggesting conserved functions with these evolutionarily closer DREB subfamily genes. Subcellular localization analysis indicated that, PavCIG1 and PavCIG2 were both localized in the nucleus. The seasonal expression levels of PavCIG1 and PavCIG2 were higher at the stage of endodormancy in winter, and induced by low temperature. Ectopic expression of PavCIG1 and PavCIG2 resulted in a delayed flowering in Arabidopsis. Furthermore, PavCIG2 increased light-responsive gene PavHY5 transcriptional activity by binding to its promoter, meanwhile, PavHY5-mediated positive feedback regulated PavCIG2. Moreover, ABA-responsive protein PavABI5-like could also increase transcriptional activity of PavCIG and PavCIG2. In addition, PavCIG and PavCIG2 target gene PavCAL-like was involved in floral initiation, demonstrated by ectopic expression in Arabidopsis. These findings provide evidences to better understand the molecular mechanism of CIG-mediated flower development and dormancy in fruit species, including sweet cherry.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.plantsci.2021.111061DOI Listing
December 2021

The Role of Strigolactones in the Regulation of Root System Architecture in Grapevine ( L.) in Response to Root-Restriction Cultivation.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 Aug 16;22(16). Epub 2021 Aug 16.

Department of Plant Science, School of Agriculture and Biology, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240, China.

This study investigated the effects of root-restriction cultivation on the root architecture, endogenous strigolactone (SL) content, and SL-related genes expression in grapevine ( L.). In addition, we clarified the effects of synthetic SL analog GR24 application on grapevine roots to explore the role of SLs in their development. The results showed that the root architecture changed significantly under root-restriction cultivation. At 40 days after transplantation (DAT), the contents of two types of SLs in roots under root restriction were both significantly lower than that in roots of the control. SL content was significantly positively correlated with the expression levels of and , indicating that they play vital roles in SLs synthesis. After GR24 treatment for 20 days, the root length was significantly shorter than in the control. A low concentration (0.1 μM) of GR24 significantly reduced the root diameter and increased the fine-root density, while a high concentration (10 μM) of GR24 significantly reduced the lateral root (LR) length and increased the LR density. Concomitantly, GR24 (0.1 μM) reduced endogenous SL content. After GR24 treatment for 5 days, the total content of two tested SLs was highly positively correlated with the expression levels of , whereas it was highly negatively correlated with at 20 days after GR24 treatment. This study helps to clarify the internal mechanism of root-restriction cultivation affecting the changes in grapevine root architecture, as well as further explore the important role of SLs in the growth of grapevine roots in response to root-restriction treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms22168799DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8395845PMC
August 2021

VvMYB114 mediated by miR828 negatively regulates trichome development of Arabidopsis.

Plant Sci 2021 Aug 7;309:110936. Epub 2021 May 7.

Department of Plant Science, School of Agriculture and Biology, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai, 200240, China; Institute of Agro-food Science and Technology/Key Laboratory of Agro-products Processing Technology of Shandong, Shandong Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Jinan, 250100, China. Electronic address:

Trichome is a specialized structure differentiated during the morphogenesis of plant leaf epidermal cells. In recent years, with the continuous researches on trichome development of Arabidopsis and other plants, more and more genes related to trichome morphogenesis have been discovered, including R2R3-type MYB genes. In this study, we cloned a R2R3-type MYB family gene from grape, VvMYB114, a target gene of vvi-miR828. qRT-PCR showed that VvMYB114 mRNA accumulated during grape fruit ripening, and VvMYB114 protein had transcriptional activation activity. Heterologous overexpression of VvMYB114 in Arabidopsis reduced the number of trichome on leaves and stems. Mutating the miR828-binding site in VvMYB114 without altering amino-acid sequence had no effect on trichome development in Arabidopsis. The results showed a different role of the regulation of miR828 to VvMYB114 in Arabidopsis from in grape, which indicated the functional divergence of miRNA targeting homoeologous genes in different species played an important roles in evolution and useful trait selection.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.plantsci.2021.110936DOI Listing
August 2021

SVP-like gene PavSVP potentially suppressing flowering with PavSEP, PavAP1, and PavJONITLESS in sweet cherries (Prunus avium L.).

Plant Physiol Biochem 2021 Feb 17;159:277-284. Epub 2020 Dec 17.

Department of Plant Science, School of Agriculture and Biology, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Minhang, Shanghai, 200240, China. Electronic address:

The MADS-box transcription factor SHORT VEGETATIVE PHASE (SVP) gene have important functions in flowering and dormancy regulation. However, the molecular mechanism of PavSVP regulating flowering and dormancy in sweet cherry remains unknown. We identified a MADS-box gene SVP-like named PavSVP from sweet cherry, which was closely to PmSVP and PpSVP from Prunus mume and Prunus persica by using phylogenetic tree analysis, suggesting a conserved function with these evolutionarily closer SVP homologs. Subcellular localization analysis indicated that, PavSVP was localized in the nucleus and cytomembrane. PavSVP expression in sweet cherries were observed in vegetative and floral tissues, but much higher level in flower buds. The seasonal expression level of PavSVP was higher during the stage of summer growth in flower buds, and declined gradually toward dormancy and flower initiation. Ectopic expression of PavSVP induced a delayed flowering and the occurrence of abnormal flowers, including curly sepals and plicated siliques in Arabidopsis. Furthermore, protein interaction analysis showed that PavSVP interacted with PavSEP, PavAP1 and PavJONITLESS. Unlike PavSVP, over-expression of PavSEP in Arabidopsis caused early flowering phenotype. In addition, the expression of PavSEP in flower buds was low in summer. These results will help reveal the molecular mechanisms of PavSVP in maintaining the suppression phase of flowering in sweet cherry during summer and winter.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.plaphy.2020.12.013DOI Listing
February 2021

Melatonin pretreatment alleviates renal ischemia-reperfusion injury by promoting autophagic flux via TLR4/MyD88/MEK/ERK/mTORC1 signaling.

FASEB J 2020 09 14;34(9):12324-12337. Epub 2020 Jul 14.

Department of Organ Transplantation, Shanghai ChangZheng Hospital, Second Military Medical University, Shanghai, China.

Autophagy is an important mechanism for cellular homeostasis and survival during pathologic stress conditions in the kidney, such as ischemia-reperfusion (IR) injury. In this study, renal IR was induced in female C57BL/6 mice after melatonin administration. Renal function, histological damage, inflammatory infiltration, cytokine production, oxidative stress, antioxidant capacity, autophagy changing, apoptosis levels, and autophagy-associated intracellular signaling pathway were assessed to evaluate the impact of antecedent melatonin treatment on IR-induced renal injury. The administration of melatonin resulted in significantly preserved renal function, and the protective effect was associated with ameliorated oxidative stress, limited pro-inflammatory cytokine production, and neutrophil and macrophage infiltration. Moreover, autophagic flux was increased after melatonin administration while the apoptosis levels were decreased in the melatonin-pretreated mice. Using TAK-242 and CRX-527, we confirmed that MyD88-dependent TLR4 and MEK/ERK/mTORC1 signaling participated in melatonin-induced autophagy in IR mice. Collectively, our results provide novel evidence that antecedent melatonin treatment provides protection for the kidney against IR injury by enhancing autophagy, as regulated by the TLR4/MyD88/MEK/ERK/mTORC1 signaling pathway. Therefore, melatonin preconditioning offers a potential therapeutic approach to prevent renal IR injury related to various clinical conditions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1096/fj.202001252RDOI Listing
September 2020

Self-propelled torus colloids.

J Chem Phys 2020 Jul;153(1):014902

Chemical Physics Theory Group, Department of Chemistry, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario M5S 3H6, Canada.

Suspensions of chemically powered self-propelled colloidal particles are examples of active matter systems with interesting properties. While simple spherical Janus particles are often studied, it is known that geometry is important and recent experiments have shown that chemically active torus-shaped colloids behave differently from spherical colloids. In this paper, coarse-grained microscopic simulations of the dynamics of self-diffusiophoretic torus colloids are carried out in bulk solution in order to study how torus geometric factors influence their active motion. The concentration and velocity fields are key ingredients in self-diffusiophoretic propulsion, and the forms that these fields take in the colloid vicinity are shown to be strong functions of torus geometric parameters such as the torus hole size and thickness of the torus tube. This work utilizes a method where self-diffusiophoretic torus colloids with various geometric and dynamical characteristics can be built and studied in fluid media that include chemical reactions and fluid flows. The model can be used to investigate the collective properties of these colloids and their dynamics in confined systems, topics that are of general importance for applications that use colloidal motors with complex geometries.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/5.0012265DOI Listing
July 2020

The Cytochrome P450 Monooxygenase Inventory of Grapevine ( L.): Genome-Wide Identification, Evolutionary Characterization and Expression Analysis.

Front Genet 2020 18;11:44. Epub 2020 Feb 18.

Department of Plant Science, School of Agriculture and Biology, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai, China.

The cytochrome P450 (CYP) monooxygenase superfamily, belonging to heme-thiolate protein products, plays a vital role in metabolizing physiologically valuable compounds in plants. To date, CYP superfamily genes have not yet been characterized in grapevine ( L.), and their functions remain unclear. In this study, a sum of 236 , divided into 46 families and clustered into nine clans, have been identified based on bioinformatics analyses in grapevine genome. The characteristics of both exon-intron organizations and motif structures further supported the close evolutionary relationships of superfamily as well as the reliability of phylogenetic analysis. The gene number-based hierarchical cluster of CYP subfamilies of different plants demonstrated that the loss of CYP families seems to be limited to single species or single taxa. Promoter analysis elucidated various -regulatory elements related to phytohormone signaling, plant growth and development, as well as abiotic/biotic stress responses. The tandem duplication mainly contributed to the expansion of the superfamily, followed by singleton duplication in grapevine. Global RNA-sequencing data of grapevine showed functional divergence of as diverse expression patterns of in various organs, tissues, and developmental phases, which were confirmed by quantitative real-time reverse transcription PCR (qRT-PCR). Taken together, our results provided valuable inventory for understanding the classification and biological functions of the and paved the way for further functional verification of these and are helpful to grapevine molecular breeding.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fgene.2020.00044DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7040366PMC
February 2020

[Research and application of orthotopic DR chest radiograph quality control system based on artificial intelligence].

Sheng Wu Yi Xue Gong Cheng Xue Za Zhi 2020 Feb;37(1):158-168

Chengdu Jinpan Electronic Science and Technology Multimedia Technology Co., Ltd., Chengdu 611731, P.R.China.

With the change of medical diagnosis and treatment mode, the quality of medical image directly affects the diagnosis and treatment of the disease for doctors. Therefore, realization of intelligent image quality control by computer will have a greater auxiliary effect on the radiographer's filming work. In this paper, the research methods and applications of image segmentation model and image classification model in the field of deep learning and traditional image processing algorithm applied to medical image quality evaluation are described. The results demonstrate that deep learning algorithm is more accurate and efficient than the traditional image processing algorithm in the effective training of medical image big data, which explains the broad application prospect of deep learning in the medical field. This paper developed a set of intelligent quality control system for auxiliary filming, and successfully applied it to the Radiology Department of West China Hospital and other city and county hospitals, which effectively verified the feasibility and stability of the quality control system.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7507/1001-5515.201904017DOI Listing
February 2020

Grapevine ABA receptor VvPYL1 regulates root hair development in Transgenic Arabidopsis.

Plant Physiol Biochem 2020 Apr 11;149:190-200. Epub 2020 Feb 11.

Department of Plant Science, School of Agriculture and Biology, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai, China; Institute of Agro-food Science and Technology, Key Laboratory of Agro-products Processing Technology of Shandong, Shandong Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Jinan, China. Electronic address:

Root architecture is very important for plant growth. In this study, we characterized the process of root formation in grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.). Continuous observation of root morphology during development revealed that the establishment of root system could be divided into five stages: initial cultivation (stage I), preliminary development (stage II), even change (stage III), root system formation (stage IV), and root architecture stability (stage V). The level of abscisic acid (ABA) increased from stages II to IV and was stable at stage V. Quantitative expression analysis of 11 genes encoding ABA-related rate-limiting enzymes in different tissues showed that the expression of VvPYL1 was the highest in roots. Spatiotemporal expression analysis showed that VvPYL1 was highly expressed during stages II and III. Furthermore, VvPYL1 was highly expressed in lateral roots of grapevine seedlings in tissue culture. Overexpression of VvPYL1 in Arabidopsis thaliana resulted in longer root hairs compared with wild-type plants. Moreover, the root hair length of transgenic lines was hypersensitive to exogenously applied ABA. Additionally, VvPYL1 overexpressing plants showed greater drought tolerance and longer root hairs than wild-type plants under osmotic stress. These results suggest that VvPYL1 may play a key role in root development and drought resistance.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.plaphy.2020.02.008DOI Listing
April 2020

Dormancy-Associated MADS-Box () Genes Influence Chilling Requirement of Sweet Cherries and Co-Regulate Flower Development with Gene.

Int J Mol Sci 2020 Jan 30;21(3). Epub 2020 Jan 30.

Department of Plant Sciences, School of Agriculture and Biology, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Minhang, Shanghai 200240, China.

Floral bud dormancy release of fruit tree species is greatly influenced by climate change. The lack of chilling accumulation often results in the occurrence of abnormal flower and low yields of sweet cherries ( L.) in warm regions. To investigate the regulation of dormancy in sweet cherries, six genes with homology to peach , designated , have been identified and characterized. Phylogenetic analysis indicate that these genes are similar to in peach, apple and pear. The expression patterns of the in the low-chill cultivar 'Royal Lee' were different from that in the high-chill cultivar 'Hongdeng'. 'Royal Lee' exhibits lower transcriptional level of compared to 'Hongdeng', especially at the stage of chilling accumulation, and transcriptional levels of were high in both cultivars during the endodormancy. Ectopic expression of and in resulted in plants with abnormal flower and seed development, especially the . Higher transcriptional levels of were observed in transgenic lines, and ectopic expression of had the similar floral phenotype. Further, protein interaction analysis demonstrated that PavDAM1/5 could interact with PavSOC1 in vivo and in vitro, which will help clarify the molecular mechanism of the flower development in sweet cherry or other fruit trees.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms21030921DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7037435PMC
January 2020

Genome-Wide Identification, Characterization, and Transcript Analysis of the TCP Transcription Factors in .

Front Genet 2019 20;10:1276. Epub 2019 Dec 20.

Department of Plant Science, School of Agriculture and Biology, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai, China.

The TEOSINTE BRANCHED 1/CYCLOIDEA/PROLIFERATING CELL FACTORS (TCP) protein, belonging to a plant-specific transcription factors (TFs) family, participates in the control of plant growth and development by regulating cell proliferation. Until now, a comprehensive study of concerning the TCP gene family and their roles in grapevine ( L.) has not been completed. Using bioinformatics approaches, 17 genes were identified and further classified into two classes, designated class I (PCF subclass) and class II (CIN and CYC/TB1 subclass), which was further supported by exon-intron organizations and conserved motif analysis. Promoter analysis demonstrated that have numerous -acting elements related to plant growth and development, phytohormone, and abiotic/biotic stress responses. The singleton duplication of grapevine genes contributed to this gene family expansion. The syntenic analyses among , , and showed that these genes located in corresponding syntenic blocks arose before the divergence of , , and . The expression levels of 17 were determined in different tissues and fruit developmental stages, and abscisic acid (ABA) treatment. Seventeen exhibited distinct tissue-specific expression patterns, potentially illustrating the functional divergence of in all tested tissues. Eleven were down-regulated in five berry developmental stages, while three were up-regulated. Additionally, many members were strongly modulated by ABA treatment, suggesting these have important and diverse regulatory roles in ABA treatment. Our results provide valuable information on the evolution and functions of the , pave the way for further functional verification of these in grapevine.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fgene.2019.01276DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6934063PMC
December 2019

Spermidine ameliorates liver ischaemia-reperfusion injury through the regulation of autophagy by the AMPK-mTOR-ULK1 signalling pathway.

Biochem Biophys Res Commun 2019 11 4;519(2):227-233. Epub 2019 Sep 4.

Department of Organ Transplantation, Shanghai Changzheng Hospital, Second Military Medical University, Shanghai, 200003, China. Electronic address:

Background: Hepatic ischaemia-reperfusion (IR) injury is a common clinical challenge lacking effective therapy. The aim of this study was to investigate whether spermidine has protective effects against hepatic IR injury through autophagy.

Methods: Liver ischaemia reperfusion was induced in male C57BL/6 mice. Then, liver function, histopathology, cytokine production and immunofluorescence were evaluated to assess the impact of spermidine pre-treatment on IR-induced liver injury. Autophagosome formation was observed by transmission electron microscopy. Western blotting was used to explore the underlying mechanism and its relationship with autophagy, and TUNEL staining was conducted to determine the relationship between apoptosis and autophagy in the ischaemic liver.

Results: The results of the transaminase assay, histopathological examination, and pro-inflammatory cytokine production and immunofluorescence evaluations demonstrated that mice pre-treated with spermidine showed significantly preserved liver function. Further experiments demonstrated that mice administered spermidine before the induction of IR exhibited increased autophagy via the AMPK-mTOR-ULK1 pathway, and TUNEL staining revealed that spermidine attenuated IR-induced apoptosis in the liver.

Conclusions: Our results provide the first line of evidence that spermidine provides protection against IR-induced injury in the liver by regulating autophagy through the AMPK-mTOR-ULK1 signalling pathway. These results suggest that spermidine may be beneficial for hepatic IR injury.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbrc.2019.08.162DOI Listing
November 2019

Characterization of the ABA Receptor VlPYL1 That Regulates Anthocyanin Accumulation in Grape Berry Skin.

Front Plant Sci 2018 18;9:592. Epub 2018 May 18.

Department of Plant Science, School of Agriculture and Biology, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai, China.

ABA plays a crucial role in controlling several ripening-associated processes in grape berries. The soluble proteins named as PYR (pyrabactin resistant)/PYL (PYR-like)/RCAR (regulatory component of ABA receptor) family have been characterized as ABA receptors. Here, the function of a grape PYL1 encoding gene involved in the response to ABA was verified through heterologous expression. The expression level of was highest in grape leaf and fruit tissues of the cultivar Kyoho, and the expression of was increased during fruit development and showed a reduction in ripe berries. Over-expression of enhances ABA sensitivity in Arabidopsis. Using the transient overexpression technique, the gene was over-expressed in grape berries. Up-regulation of the gene not only promoted anthocyanin accumulation but also induced a set of ABA-responsive gene transcripts, including and . Although tobacco rattle virus (TRV)-induced gene silencing (VIGS) was not successfully applied in the "Kyoho" grape, the application of the transient overexpression technique in grape fruit could be used as a novel tool for studying grape fruit development.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpls.2018.00592DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5968127PMC
May 2018

Enhanced fluoride removal behaviour and mechanism by dicalcium phosphate from aqueous solution.

Environ Technol 2019 Dec 8;40(28):3668-3677. Epub 2018 Jun 8.

State Key Laboratory for Structural Chemistry of Unstable and Stable Species, CAS Research/Education Center for Excellence in Molecular Sciences, Institute of Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, People's Republic of China.

Dicalcium phosphate was prepared by ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid as a calcium chelating agent, and further explored to remove the fluoride ions from aqueous solution. The as-prepared samples main existed in the monetite phase from the result of XRD. The dried sample consisted of small nanoparticles and displayed irregular particles with a size of ca. 3 μm due to the agglomeration. The fluoride removal ability was evaluated by batch adsorption experiments. The as-prepared adsorbent exhibited the enhanced fluoride removal behaviour with the maximum adsorption capacity of 66.72 mg/g from the Langmuir isotherm model, which was higher than that of other previously reported calcium phosphate. The adsorbent could be utilized in the wide pH range of 3-10. The adsorption kinetics could be better described by the pseudo-second-order model than first-second-order model. The co-existing anions had a negligible influence on the fluoride adsorption. The investigation of adsorption mechanism suggested that the chemical reaction and/or dissolution - precipitation mechanism should be dominant in the fluoride adsorption process, accompanying with electronic interaction and ions exchange, which enhanced the fluoride removal performance.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09593330.2018.1484523DOI Listing
December 2019

Rocket-inspired tubular catalytic microjets with grating-structured walls as guiding empennages.

Nanoscale 2017 Dec;9(47):18590-18596

Department of Materials Science, State Key Lab of ASIC and System, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433, P. R. China.

Controllable locomotion in the micro-/nanoscale is challenging and attracts increasing research interest. Tubular microjets self-propelled by microbubbles are intensively investigated due to their high energy conversion efficiency, but the imperfection of the tubular geometry makes it harder to realize linear motion. Inspired by the macro rocket, we designed a tubular microjet with a grating-structured wall which mimics the guiding empennage of the macro rocket, and we found that the fluid can be effectively guided by the grooves. Both theoretical simulation and experimental work have been carried out, and the obtained results demonstrate that the stability margin of the grating-structured microjet can be enhanced. Compared with microjets with smooth walls, the structured microjets show an enhanced ability of moving linearly. In 10% HO, only 20% of the smooth microjets demonstrate linear trajectories, while 80% of the grating-structured microjets keep moving straight. The grating-structured microjet can maintain linear motion under external disturbance. We further propose to increase the stability by introducing a helical grating structure.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/c7nr07006cDOI Listing
December 2017

MutL homolog 1 expression in thyroid carcinoma and its clinical significance.

J Cancer Res Ther 2016 Dec;12(Supplement):C281-C283

Department of General Surgery, School of Medicine, Suzhou Kowloon Hospital Affiliated with Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Suzhou, Jiangsu, P.R. China.

Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the MutL homolog 1 (MLH1) protein expression in thyroid cancer patients and its association with clinical pathological characteristics.

Materials And Methods: Forty thyroid cancer tissues and 22 partial paired normal thyroid tissues from 40 thyroid cancer patients who received surgery were collected in this study. MLH1 protein expression was tested by immunohistochemical method for the 40 cancer tissues and 22 partial paired normal thyroid tissues. The positive expression rate of MLH1 was compared between cancer tissue and normal tissue. The association between clinical pathological features such as gender, age, pathology type, clinical stage, lymph node metastasis, and MLH1 protein expression was calculated.

Results: MLH1 protein was mainly expressed in the nucleus with a small amount of expression in cytoplasm. The MLH1-positive expression rates in cancer and normal tissue were 47.5% and 81.8%, respectively, with statistical difference (P = 0.008); MLH1 protein positive expression was correlated with clinical stage (P = 0.04) and cancer lymph node metastasis (P = 0.03). However, its expression was not associated with gender (P = 0.63), age (P = 0.77), and pathology type (P = 0.77).

Conclusion: MLH1-negative expression may play an important role in thyroid cancer tissue development and lymph node metastasis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/0973-1482.200764DOI Listing
December 2016

Levosimendan Reduces Lung Injury in a Canine Model of Cardiopulmonary Bypass.

Korean Circ J 2016 May 2;46(3):402-7. Epub 2016 May 2.

The First Ward of Cardiovascular Surgery Department of the First Affiliated Hospital of Anhui Medical University, Hefei, China .

Background And Objectives: To explore the lung-protective effect of levosimendan (LS) during cardiopulmonary bypass in a canine model by determining the wet/dry weight (W/D) ratio of lung tissue, malonaldehyde (MDA) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) concentrations, and performing a histological evaluation.

Materials And Methods: Thirty-two canines were divided randomly into four groups and underwent a routine aortic cross-clamping cardiopulmonary bypass procedure for 1 h, followed by recovery for 2 h. Animals were handled as follows: group C (means control group), no special treatment after aortic cross clamping; group P (means pulmonary artery perfusion group), pulmonary artery perfusion with cold oxygenated blood after aortic cross clamping; group LSIV (means intravenous injection of LS group), intravenous injection of LS (65 µg/kg) before thoracotomy, and the rest of the procedure was identical to the control group; group LPS (means pulmonary perfusion with LS group), pulmonary perfusion with cold oxygenated blood combined with LS (65 µg/kg) after aortic cross clamping. Lung tissues were removed and subjected to evaluation of pathological alterations, W/D ratio and MDA and SOD concentrations.

Results: In group C, the W/D ratio and MDA concentration were higher, while the SOD concentrations were lower (p<0.05). Compared with groups P and LSIV, the MDA concentration was lower in group LPS, while that of SOD was higher (p<0.05); Light and electron microscopy indicated that LS intervention reduced impairment of lung tissues.

Conclusion: Our findings suggest that LS plays an important role in protecting lung tissues.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4070/kcj.2016.46.3.402DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4891605PMC
May 2016

Differential effects of tumor necrosis factor-α on matrix metalloproteinase-2 expression in human myometrial and uterine leiomyoma smooth muscle cells.

Hum Reprod 2015 Jan 14;30(1):61-70. Epub 2014 Nov 14.

Department of Pathophysiology, Nankai University School of Medicine, Tianjin, China

Study Question: Does tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) differentially regulate matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) expression in leiomyomas compared with normal myometrium?

Summary Answer: TNF-α up-regulates MMP-2 expression and stimulates cell migration through the activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) signaling pathway in leiomyoma smooth muscle cells (SMCs), but not in normal myometrial SMCs.

What Is Known Already: Uterine leiomyoma, the benign smooth muscle cell tumor, is the single most common indication for hysterectomy. High expression of MMPs or TNF-α has been reported in uterine leiomyomas; however, the molecular mechanism underlying these observations remains unknown.

Study Design, Size, Duration: Samples were obtained between 2009 and 2013 from 12 women of reproductive age at the proliferative phase of the menstrual cycle by hysterectomy. Leiomyomas and matched normal myometrium from each woman were analyzed in vitro.

Participants/materials, Setting, Methods: Western blot, RT-qPCR and a wound-healing assay were used to investigate the effects of TNF-α on MMP-2 expression and intracellular signal transduction in cultured SMCs from leiomyomas and matched myometrium.

Main Results And The Role Of Chance: Western blot and RT-qPCR analyses using tissues from clinical patients showed that the levels of MMP-2 protein (P = 0.008) and mRNA (P = 0.009) were significantly higher in uterine leiomyomas compared with their matched myometrium. Treatment with TNF-α significantly up-regulated the protein (P = 0.039) and mRNA (P = 0.037) levels of MMP-2 in cultured leiomyoma SMCs but not in matched myometrial SMCs. The extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) pathways were activated by TNF-α in leiomyoma SMCs. Specific inhibitors of the ERK or NF-κB pathway (PD98059 or Bay11-7082) suppressed TNF-α-induced MMP-2 expression in leiomyoma SMCs. The wound-healing assay revealed that TNF-α promoted the migration of cultured leiomyoma SMCs (P = 0.036); however, PD98059 compromised the cell migration triggered by TNF-α.

Limitations, Reasons For Caution: This study is descriptive and although we observed clear differential regulation of MMP-2 by TNF-α at mRNA and protein levels in leiomyoma, future studies are needed to identify why the difference in TNF-α response exists between human leiomyoma tissue and normal myometrium. Including some of the experiments such as transfection studies for TNF-α and MMP-2 promoter mapping could have added more insight as to why this difference exists. In addition, further studies in vivo are needed to verify the results obtained from primary cultured SMCs.

Wider Implications Of The Findings: Considering the positive effect of TNF-α on leiomyoma SMC migration, strategies targeting TNF-α, in parallel with the production of more specific inhibitors of MMPs, may provide alternative therapeutic approaches for the treatment of leiomyoma.

Study Funding/competing Interests: This work was partially supported by grants from the Program for New Century Excellent Talents in University (NCET-12-0282), National Natural Science Foundation of China (81371620) and Tianjin Natural Science Foundation (12JCZDJC24900). The authors have no conflicts of interest to declare.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/humrep/deu300DOI Listing
January 2015

Hydrodynamics and propulsion mechanism of self-propelled catalytic micromotors: model and experiment.

Soft Matter 2014 Oct 1;10(38):7511-8. Epub 2014 Aug 1.

Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001, P. R. China.

The hydrodynamic behavior and propulsion mechanism of self-propelled micromotors are studied theoretically and experimentally. A hydrodynamic model to describe bubble growth and detachment is proposed to investigate the mechanism of a self-propelled conical tubular catalytic micromotor considering bubble geometric asymmetry and buoyancy force. The growth force caused by the growth of the bubble surface against the fluid is the driving force for micromotor motion. Also, the buoyancy force plays a primary role in bubble detachment. The effect of geometrical parameters on the micromotor velocity and drag force is presented. The bubble radius ratio is investigated for different micromotor radii to determine its hydrodynamic behavior during bubble ejection. The average micromotor velocity is found to be strongly dependent on the semi-cone angle, expelling frequency and bubble radius ratio. The semi-cone angle has a significant effect on the expelling frequency for conical tubular micromotors. The predicted results are compared to already existing experimental data for cylindrical micromotors (semi-cone angle δ = 0°) and conical micromotors. A good agreement is found between the theoretical calculation and experimental results. This model provides a profound explanation for the propulsion mechanism of a catalytic micromotor and can be used to optimize the micromotor design for its biomedical and environmental applications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/c4sm01070aDOI Listing
October 2014

A novel family of antimicrobial peptides from the skin of Amolops loloensis.

Biochimie 2008 Jun 8;90(6):863-7. Epub 2008 Feb 8.

Key Laboratory of Microbiological Engineering of Agricultural Environment, Ministry of Agriculture, Life Sciences College of Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing, Jiangsu 210095, China.

While conducting experiments to investigate antimicrobial peptides of amphibians living in the Yunnan-Sichuan region of southwest China, a new family of antimicrobial peptides was identified from skin secretions of the rufous-spotted torrent frog, Amolops loloensis. Members of the new peptide family named amolopins are composed of 18 amino acids with a unique sequence, for example, NILSSIVNGINRALSFFG. By BLAST search, amolopins did no show similarity to any known peptides. Among the tested microorganisms, native and synthetic peptides only showed antimicrobial activities against Staphylococcus aureus ATCC2592 and Bacillus pumilus, no effects on other microorganisms. The CD spectroscopy showed that it adopted a structure of random combined with beta-sheet in water, Tris-HCl or Tris-HCl-SDS. Several cDNAs encoding amolopins were cloned from the skin cDNA library of A. loloensis. The precursors of amolopin are composed of 62 amino acid residues including predicted signal peptides, acidic propieces, and mature antimicrobial peptides. The preproregion of amolopin precursor comprises a hydrophobic signal peptide of 22 residues followed by an 18 residue acidic propiece which terminates by a typical prohormone processing signal Lys-Arg. The preproregions of precursors are very similar to other amphibian antimicrobial peptide precursors but the mature amolopins are different from other antimicrobial peptide families. The remarkable similarity of preproregions of precursors that give rise to very different antimicrobial peptides in distantly related frog species suggests that the corresponding genes form a multigene family originating from a common ancestor.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biochi.2008.02.003DOI Listing
June 2008

The development of an Arabidopsis model system for genome-wide analysis of polyploidy effects.

Biol J Linn Soc Lond 2004 Aug;82(4):689-700

Intercollegiate Program in Genetics and Department of Soil and Crop Sciences, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX 77843-2474, USA.

Arabidopsis is a model system not only for studying numerous aspects of plant biology, but also for understanding mechanisms of the rapid evolutionary process associated with genome duplication and polyploidization. Although in animals interspecific hybrids are often sterile and aneuploids are related to disease syndromes, both Arabidopsis autopolyploids and allopolyploids occur in nature and can be readily formed in the laboratory, providing an attractive system for comparing changes in gene expression and genome structure among relatively 'young' and 'established' or 'ancient' polyploids. Powerful reverse and forward genetics in Arabidopsis offer an exceptional means by which regulatory mechanisms of gene and genome duplication may be revealed. Moreover, the Arabidopsis genome is completely sequenced; both coding and non-coding sequences are available. We have developed spotted oligo-gene and chromosome microarrays using the complete Arabidopsis genome sequence. The oligo-gene microarray consists of ~26 000 70-mer oligonucleotides that are designed from all annotated genes in Arabidopsis, and the chromosome microarray contains 1 kb genomic tiling fragments amplified from a chromosomal region or the complete sequence of chromosome 4. We have demonstrated the utility of microarrays for genome-wide analysis of changes in gene expression, genome organization and chromatin structure in Arabidopsis polyploids and related species.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1095-8312.2004.00351.xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2136415PMC
August 2004
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