Publications by authors named "Jiri Hlusicka"

9 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Time delays in treatment of snakebite patients in rural Sri Lanka and the need for rapid diagnostic tests.

PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2020 11 30;14(11):e0008914. Epub 2020 Nov 30.

Monash Venom Group, Faculty of Medicine, Nursing and Health Sciences, Monash University, Australia.

Delays in treatment seeking and antivenom administration remain problematic for snake envenoming. We aimed to describe the treatment seeking pattern and delays in admission to hospital and administration of antivenom in a cohort of authenticated snakebite patients. Adults (> 16 years), who presented with a confirmed snakebite from August 2013 to October 2014 were recruited from Anuradhapura Hospital. Demographic data, information on the circumstances of the bite, first aid, health-seeking behaviour, hospital admission, clinical features, outcomes and antivenom treatment were documented prospectively. There were 742 snakebite patients [median age: 40 years (IQR:27-51; males: 476 (64%)]. One hundred and five (14%) patients intentionally delayed treatment by a median of 45min (IQR:20-120min). Antivenom was administered a median of 230min (IQR:180-360min) post-bite, which didn't differ between directly admitted and transferred patients; 21 (8%) receiving antivenom within 2h and 141 (55%) within 4h of the bite. However, transferred patients received antivenom sooner after admission to Anuradhapura hospital than those directly admitted (60min [IQR:30-120min] versus 120min [IQR:52-265min; p<0.0001]). A significantly greater proportion of transferred patients had features of systemic envenoming on admission compared to those directly admitted (166/212 [78%] versus 5/43 [12%]; p<0.0001), and had positive clotting tests on admission (123/212 [58%] versus 10/43 [23%]; p<0.0001). Sri Lankan snakebite patients present early to hospital, but there remains a delay until antivenom administration. This delay reflects a delay in the appearance of observable or measurable features of envenoming and a lack of reliable early diagnostic tests. Improved early antivenom treatment will require reliable, rapid diagnostics for systemic envenoming.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0008914DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7728389PMC
November 2020

MRI-based brain volumetry and retinal optical coherence tomography as the biomarkers of outcome in acute methanol poisoning.

Neurotoxicology 2020 09 15;80:12-19. Epub 2020 Jun 15.

Toxicological Information Centre, General University Hospital, Prague, Czech Republic; Department of Occupational Medicine, First Faculty of Medicine, Charles University, Prague, Czech Republic.

Background: Basal ganglia lesions are typical findings on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the brain in survivors of acute methanol poisoning. However, no data are available on the association between the magnitude of damaged brain regions, serum concentrations of markers of acute methanol toxicity, oxidative stress, neuroinflammation, and the rate of retinal nerve ganglion cell loss.

Objectives: To investigate the association between MRI-based volumetry of the basal ganglia, retinal nerve fibre layer (RNFL) thickness and prognostic laboratory markers of outcomes in acute methanol poisoning.

Methods: MRI-based volumetry of putamen, nucleus caudatus and globus pallidus was performed and compared with laboratory parameters of severity of poisoning and acute serum markers of oxidative damage of lipids (8-isoprostan, MDA, HHE, HNE), nucleic acids (8-OHdG, 8-OHG, 5-OHMU), proteins (o-Thyr, NO-Thyr, Cl-Thyr) and leukotrienes (LTC4, LTD4, LTE4, LTB4), as well as with the results of RNFL measurements by optic coherence tomography (OCT) in 16 patients with acute methanol poisoning (Group I) and in 28 survivors of poisoning two years after discharge with the same markers measured within the follow-up examination (Group II). The control group consisted of 28 healthy subjects without methanol poisoning.

Results: The survivors of acute methanol poisoning had significantly lower volumes of basal ganglia than the controls. The patients with MRI signs of methanol-induced toxic brain damage had significantly lower volumes of basal ganglia than those without these signs. A positive correlation was found between the volume of putamen and arterial blood pH on admission (r = 0.45; p = 0.02 and r = 0.44; p = 0.02 for left and right putamen, correspondingly). A negative correlation was present between the volumes of putamen and acute serum lactate (r = -0.63; p < 0.001 and r = -0.59; p = 0.01), creatinine (r = -0.53; p = 0.01 and r = -0.47; p = 0.01) and glucose (r = -0.55; p < 0.001 and r = -0.50; p = 0.01) concentrations. The volume of basal ganglia positively correlated with acute concentrations of markers of lipoperoxidation (8-isoprostan: r = 0.61; p < 0.05 and r = 0.59; p < 0.05 for left and right putamen, correspondingly) and inflammation (leukotriene LTB4: r = 0.61; p < 0.05 and r = 0.61; p < 0.05 for left and right putamen, correspondingly). The higher the volume of the basal ganglia, the higher the thickness of the RNFL, with the strongest positive association between global RNFL and the volume of putamen bilaterally (all p < 0.01). In the follow-up markers of oxidative stress and inflammation, only o-Thyr concentration negatively correlated with the volume of putamen bilaterally (r = -0.39; p < 0.05 and r = -0.37; p < 0.05 for left and right putamen, correspondingly).

Conclusion: In survivors of acute methanol poisoning with signs of toxic brain damage, the magnitude of affected areas correlated with acute parameters of severity of poisoning, markers of oxidative stress and neuroinflammation. There was a positive association between the basal ganglia volume and the thickness of RNFL, making OCT an important screening test and MRI-based volumetry the confirmative diagnostic method for the detection of CNS sequelae of methanol poisoning.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neuro.2020.06.006DOI Listing
September 2020

Peripheral polyneuropathy after acute methanol poisoning: Six-year prospective cohort study.

Neurotoxicology 2020 07 5;79:67-74. Epub 2020 May 5.

Toxicological Information Centre, General University Hospital, Prague, Czech Republic; Department of Occupational Medicine, 1st Faculty of Medicine, Charles University, Prague, Czech Republic.

Background: Methanol is a widely used industrial short-chain aliphatic alcohol with known neurotoxic properties. Mass poisoning outbreaks due to the consumption of methanol-adulterated alcoholic drinks present a challenge to healthcare providers due to the high mortality and serious central nervous system (CNS) damage in survivors. However, the impact of methanol exposure on the peripheral nervous system is unknown.

Objectives: To investigate the role of acute methanol exposure in the development of peripheral polyneuropathy (PNP) during the years following discharge from the hospital.

Methods: A total of 55 patients with confirmed methanol poisoning (mean age of 47.9 ± 3.6 years; 9 females) were examined 4 times within a 6-year prospective longitudinal cohort study. The program included neurological and electromyographic examinations, visual evoked potentials, ocular examinations with retinal nerve fibre layer thickness measurements, brain magnetic resonance imaging, and a series of biochemical and toxicological tests.

Results: PNP was observed in 20/55 (36 %) patients, which, in most of the cases, was mild axonal sensorimotor neuropathy. In 8/55 (15 %) patients, worsening of electromyographic findings was registered during the follow-up period, including 5 cases with newly diagnosed PNP and 3 cases of PNP progression. In one subject, complete reversal of PNP was registered after cessation of alcohol intake. The patients with PNP were significantly older (57.3 ± 5.3 versus 42.5 ± 3.9 years; p < 0.001), with higher blood glucose (5.93 ± 0.97 versus 4.81 ± 0.32 mmol/L; p = 0.035) and lower vitamin B (45.5 ± 7.4 versus 57.5 ± 5.2 ug/L; p = 0.015) concentrations. The number of chronic alcohol abusers was significantly higher in the PNP group (17/20 versus 20/35; p = 0.034). No associations between PNP prevalence/ dynamics and acute parameters of poisoning severity, arterial blood pH (7.26 ± 0.07 with PNP versus 7.18 ± 0.09 without PNP; p = 0.150), or serum methanol (1320.0 ± 700.0 with PNP versus 1430.0 ± 510.0 mg/L without PNP; p = 0.813) and ethanol (460.0 ± 560.0 with PNP versus 340.0 ± 230.0 mg/L without PNP; p = 0.675) concentrations at admission were found. No difference in the number of patients with visual (9/20 with PNP versus 12/35 patients without PNP; p = 0.431) and CNS sequelae (9/20 with PNP versus 15/35 patients without PNP; p = 0.877) of poisoning was present.

Discussion: Despite the relatively high number of PNP cases, no association was found between the severity of acute methanol poisoning and the prevalence of PNP and its dynamics during six years of observation. We did not find an association between methanol-induced visual/ brain damage and the prevalence of PNP in survivors of poisoning. A high prevalence of PNP and its progression might be attributed to other causes, mainly a history of chronic alcohol abuse and insufficiently treated diabetes mellitus. Our results highlight the importance of complete cessation of alcohol consumption and better control of glycaemia in diabetic patients in the prevention and treatment of peripheral PNP.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neuro.2020.04.010DOI Listing
July 2020

Health-related quality of life determinants in survivors of a mass methanol poisoning outbreak: six-year prospective cohort study.

Clin Toxicol (Phila) 2020 09 8;58(9):870-880. Epub 2020 Jan 8.

Department of Occupational Medicine, First Faculty of Medicine, Charles University, Prague, Czech Republic.

The effect of acute methanol poisoning on the follow-up quality of life of survivors in mass poisoning outbreaks is not known. The objective of this is to study the impact of visual and central nervous system (CNS) sequelae of methanol poisoning on long-term health-related quality of life (QoL) of survivors, its clinical determinants, and dynamics. A total of 54 patients with confirmed methanol poisoning (mean age 46.7 ± 13.4 years, 9 females) were examined consequently three times within six-year prospective cohort study and compared to 23 controls with the history of chronic alcohol abuse. The following tests were performed: SF-36 QoL questionnaire, visual evoked potentials (VEP) of optic nerve, ocular examination with retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness measurement, brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and biochemical and toxicological tests. Acute methanol poisoning led to significant decrease in physical component summary (PCS) compared to PCS of age-adjusted controls (mean score with SD 46.8 ± 11.0 versus 52.3 ± 9.4 points;  = .003). In 17/40 (42.5%) patients with three rounds of examination, signs of severe disability (≤30 points in at least one score) were present six years after discharge, with negative dynamics of PCS score during the observation period. The patients with abnormal RNFL thickness had lower PCS (mean difference 10.5 points; 95%CI 3.5-17.5,  = .004) and mental component summary score (9.5 points; 95%CI 1.9-17.1,  = .015) compared to the patients with normal RNFL. Signs of physical and mental adaptation to long-term visual sequelae were registered with gradual reduction of difference in most of physical and mental components scores compared to the patients with normal RNFL during six years of observation. Signs of hemorrhagic brain lesions were associated with permanent decrease of PCS score (mean difference 7.4 points; 95%CI 0.6-14.0;  = .033), bodily pain (8.7 points; 95%CI 1.6-17.6;  = .018), and social functioning (8.2 points; 95%CI 3.0-17.4;  = .005) six years after discharge. No effect of type of antidote (fomepizole versus ethanol) and extracorporeal enhanced elimination modality (intermittent hemodialysis versus continuous renal replacement therapy) applied in hospital on long-term QoL was found (all  > .05). Acute methanol poisoning was associated with a significant decrease of health-related quality of life of survivors persisting for at least six years after discharge. The more pronounced decrease in QoL scores was observed in the patients with hemorrhagic brain lesions and visual sequelae of poisoning with abnormal RNFL thickness.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/15563650.2019.1702994DOI Listing
September 2020

The impact of co-morbidities on a 6-year survival after methanol mass poisoning outbreak: possible role of metabolic formaldehyde.

Clin Toxicol (Phila) 2020 04 12;58(4):241-253. Epub 2019 Jul 12.

Department of Occupational Medicine, First Faculty of Medicine, Charles University, Prague, Czech Republic.

The influence of co-morbid conditions on the outcome of acute methanol poisoning in mass poisoning outbreaks is not known. The objective of this is to study the impact of burden of co-morbidities, complications, and methanol-induced brain lesions on hospital, follow-up, and total mortality. All patients hospitalized with methanol poisoning during a mass poisoning outbreak were followed in a prospective cohort study until death or final follow-up after 6 years. The age-adjusted Charlson co-morbidity index (ACCI) score was calculated for each patient. A multivariate Cox regression model was used to calculate the adjusted hazards ratio (HR) for death. The survival was modeled using the Kaplan-Meier method. Of 108 patients (mean age with SD 50.9 ± 2.6 years), 24 (54.4 ± 5.9 years) died during hospitalization (mean survival with SD 8 ± 4 days) and 84 (49.9 ± 3.0 years;  = .159) were discharged, including 27 with methanol-induced brain lesions. Of the discharged patients, 15 (56.3 ± 6.8 years) died during the follow-up (mean survival 37 ± 11 months) and 69 (48.5 ± 3.3 years;  = .044) survived. The hospital mortality was 22%, the follow-up mortality was 18%; the total mortality was 36%. Cardiac/respiratory arrest, acute respiratory failure, multiorgan failure syndrome, and arterial hypotension increased the HR for hospital and total (but not follow-up) mortality after adjustment for age, sex, and arterial pH (all  < .05). All patients who died in the hospital had at least one complication. A higher ACCI score was associated with greater total mortality (HR 1.22; 1.00-1.48 95% CI;  = .046). Of those who died, 35 (90%) had a moderate-to-high ACCI. The Kaplan-Meier curve demonstrated that patients with a high ACCI had greater follow-up mortality compared to ones with low ( = .027) or moderate ( = .020) scores. For the patients who died during follow-up, cancers of different localizations were responsible for 7/15 (47%) of the deaths. The character and number of complications affected hospital but not follow-up mortality, while the burden of co-morbidities affected follow-up mortality. Methanol-induced brain lesions did not affect follow-up mortality. Relatively high cancer mortality rate may be associated with acute exposure to metabolic formaldehyde produced by methanol oxidation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/15563650.2019.1637525DOI Listing
April 2020

Clinical and genetic determinants of chronic visual pathway changes after methanol - induced optic neuropathy: four-year follow-up study.

Clin Toxicol (Phila) 2019 06 17;57(6):387-397. Epub 2018 Nov 17.

a Toxicological Information Centre, Department of Occupational Medicine, First Faculty of Medicine , Charles University and General University Hospital , Prague , Czech Republic.

Context: Methanol poisoning induces acute optic neuropathy with possible long-term visual damage.

Objective: To study the dynamics and key determinants of visual pathway functional changes during 4 years after acute methanol poisoning.

Methods: A total of 42 patients with confirmed methanol poisoning (mean age 45.7 ± 4.4 years) were examined 4.9 ± 0.6, 25.0 ± 0.6, and 49.9 ± 0.5 months after discharge. The following tests were performed: visual evoked potential (VEP), retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) measurement, brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), complete ocular examination, biochemical tests, and apolipoprotein E (ApoE) genotyping.

Results: Abnormal VEP P1 latency was registered in 18/42 right eyes (OD) and 21/42 left eyes (OS), abnormal N1P1 amplitude in 10/42 OD and OS. Mean P1 latency shortening during the follow-up was 15.0 ± 2.0 ms for 36/42 (86%) OD and 14.9 ± 2.4 ms for 35/42 (83%) OS, with maximum shortening up to 35.0 ms. No significant change of mean N1P1 amplitude was registered during follow-up. A further decrease in N1P1 amplitude ≥1.0 mcV in at least one eye was observed in 17 of 36 patients (47%) with measurable amplitude (mean decrease -1.11 ± 0.83 (OD)/-2.37 ± 0.66 (OS) mcV versus -0.06 ± 0.56 (OD)/-0.83 ± 0.64 (OS) mcV in the study population; both p < .001). ApoE4 allele carriers had lower global and temporal RNFL thickness and longer initial P1 latency compared to the non-carriers (all p < .05). The odds ratio for abnormal visual function was 8.92 (3.00-36.50; 95%CI) for ApoE4 allele carriers (p < .001). The presence of ApoE4 allele was further associated with brain necrotic lesions (r = 0.384; p = .013) and brain hemorrhages (r = 0.395; p = .011).

Conclusions: Improvement of optic nerve conductivity occurred in more than 80% of patients, but evoked potential amplitude tended to decrease during the 4 years of observation. ApoE4 allele carriers demonstrated lower RNFL thickness, longer P1 latency, and more frequent methanol-induced brain damage compared to non-carriers.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/15563650.2018.1532083DOI Listing
June 2019

Neuroinflammation markers and methyl alcohol induced toxic brain damage.

Toxicol Lett 2018 Dec 4;298:60-69. Epub 2018 May 4.

Toxicological Information Centre, General University Hospital, Na Bojisti 1, 12000, Prague, Czech Republic; Department of Biomimetic Electrochemistry, J. Heyrovský Institute of Physical Chemistry of the AS CR, v.v.i, Dolejskova 2155/3, 18200, Prague, Czech Republic.

Methyl alcohol intoxication is a global problem with high mortality and long-term visual sequelae and severe brain damage in survivors. The role of neuroinflammation in the mechanisms of methyl alcohol-induced toxic brain damage has not been well studied. We measured the acute concentrations and dynamics of lipoxins LxA4 and LxB4 and the interleukins IL-4, IL-5, IL-9, IL-10, and IL-13 in the serum of patients treated with methyl alcohol poisoning and the follow-up concentrations in survivors two years after discharge from the hospital. A series of acute measurements was performed in 28 hospitalized patients (mean age 54.2 ± 5.2 years, mean observation time 88 ± 20 h) and the follow-up measurements were performed in 36 subjects who survived poisoning (including 12/28 survivors from the acute group). Visual evoked potentials (VEP) and magnetic resonance imaging of the brain (MRI) were performed to detect long-term visual and brain sequelae of intoxication. The acute concentrations of inflammatory mediators were higher than the follow-up concentrations: LxA4, 62.0 ± 6.0 vs. 30.0 ± 5.0 pg/mL; LxB4, 64.0 ± 7.0 vs. 34.0 ± 4.0 pg/mL; IL-4, 29.0 ± 4.0 vs. 15.0 ± 1.0 pg/mL; IL-5, 30.0 ± 4.0 vs. 13.0 ± 1.0 pg/mL; IL-9, 30.0 ± 4.0 vs. 13.0 ± 1.0 pg/mL; IL-10, 38.0 ± 5.0 vs. 16.0 ± 1.0 pg/mL; IL-13, 35.0 ± 4.0 vs. 14.0 ± 1.0 pg/mL (all p < 0.001). The patients with higher follow-up IL-5 concentration had prolonged latency P1 (r = 0.413; p = 0.033) and lower amplitude N1P1 (r = -0.498; p = 0.010) of VEP. The higher follow-up IL-10 concentration was associated with MRI signs of brain necrotic damage (r = 0.533; p = 0.001) and brain hemorrhage (r = 0.396; p = 0.020). Our findings suggest that neuroinflammation plays an important role in the mechanisms of toxic brain damage in acute methyl alcohol intoxication.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.toxlet.2018.05.001DOI Listing
December 2018

Role of activation of lipid peroxidation in the mechanisms of acute methanol poisoning

Clin Toxicol (Phila) 2018 10 2;56(10):893-903. Epub 2018 Apr 2.

a Toxicological Information Centre , General University Hospital in Prague , Prague , Czech Republic.

Context: The role of activation of lipid peroxidation in the mechanisms of acute methanol poisoning has not been studied.

Objective: We measured the concentrations of lipid peroxidation markers in acutely intoxicated patients with known serum concentrations of methanol and leukotrienes.

Methods: Blood serum samples were collected from 28 patients hospitalized with acute intoxication and from 36 survivors 2 years after discharge. In these samples, concentrations of 4-hydroxy-trans-2-hexenal (HHE), 4-hydroxynonenal (HNE), and malondialdehyde (MDA) were measured using the method of liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry.

Results: The maximum acute serum concentrations of all three lipid oxidative damage markers were higher than the follow-up serum concentrations: HNE 71.7 ± 8.0 ng/mL versus 35.4 ± 2.3 ng/mL; p < .001; HHE 40.1 ± 6.7 ng/mL versus 17.7 ± 4.1 ng/mL; p < .001; MDA 80.0 ± 7.2 ng/mL versus 40.9 ± 1.9 ng/mL; p < .001. The survivors without methanol poisoning sequelae demonstrated higher acute serum concentrations of the markers than the patients with sequelae. A correlation between measured markers and serum leukotrienes was present: HNE correlated with LTC4 (r = 0.663), LTD4 (r = 0.608), LTE4 (r = 0.771), LTB4 (r = 0.717), HHE correlated with LTC4 (r = 0.713), LTD4 (r = 0.676), LTE4 (r = 0.819), LTB4 (r = 0.746), MDA correlated with LTC4 (r = 0.785), LTD4 (r = 0.735), LTE4 (r = 0.814), LTB4 (r = 0.674); all p < .001. Lipid peroxidation markers correlated with anion gap (r= -0.428, -0.388, -0.334; p = .026, .045, .080 for HNE, HHE, MDA, respectively). The follow-up serum concentrations of lipid oxidation markers measured in survivors with and without visual/neurological sequelae 2 years after discharge did not differ.

Conclusion: Our results demonstrate that lipid peroxidation plays a significant role in the mechanisms of acute methanol poisoning. The acute concentrations of three measured biomarkers were elevated in comparison with the follow-up concentrations. Neuronal membrane lipid peroxidation seems to activate leukotriene-mediated inflammation as a part of the neuroprotective mechanisms. No cases of persistent elevation were registered among the survivors 2 years after discharge.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/15563650.2018.1455980DOI Listing
October 2018

Leukotriene-mediated neuroinflammation, toxic brain damage, and neurodegeneration in acute methanol poisoning.

Clin Toxicol (Phila) 2017 Apr 6;55(4):249-259. Epub 2017 Feb 6.

a Department of Occupational Medicine, First Faculty of Medicine , Charles University , Prague , Czech Republic.

Context: The role of neuroinflammation in methanol-induced toxic brain damage has not been studied.

Objective: We studied acute concentrations and the dynamics of leukotrienes (LT) in serum in hospitalized patients with acute methanol poisoning and in survivors.

Methods: Series of acute cysteinyl-LT and LTB4 concentration measurements were performed in 28/101 hospitalized patients (mean observation time: 88 ± 20 h). In 36 survivors, control LT measurements were performed 2 years after discharge.

Results: The acute maximum (C) LT concentrations were higher than concentrations in survivors: C for LTC4 was 80.7 ± 5.6 versus 47.9 ± 4.5 pg/mL; for LTD4, 51.0 ± 6.6 versus 23.1 ± 2.1 pg/mL; for LTE4, 64.2 ± 6.0 versus 26.2 ± 3.9 pg/mL; for LTB4, 59.8 ± 6.2 versus 27.2 ± 1.4 pg/mL (all p < 0.001). The patients who survived had higher LT concentrations than those who died (all p < 0.01). Among survivors, patients with CNS sequelae had lower LTE4 and LTB4 than did those without sequelae (both p < 0.05). The LT concentrations increased at a rate of 0.4-0.5 pg/mL/h and peaked 4-5 days after admission. The patients with better outcomes had higher cys-LTs (all p < 0.01) and LTB4 (p < 0.05). More severely poisoned patients had lower acute LT concentrations than those with minor acidemia. The follow-up LT concentrations in survivors with and without CNS sequelae did not differ (all p > 0.05). The mean decrease in LT concentration was 30.9 ± 9.0 pg/mL for LTC4, 26.3 ± 8.6 pg/mL for LTD4, 37.3 ± 6.4 pg/mL for LTE4, and 32.0 ± 8.8 pg/mL for LTB4.

Conclusions: Our findings suggest that leukotriene-mediated neuroinflammation may play an important role in the mechanisms of toxic brain damage in acute methanol poisoning in humans. Acute elevation of LT concentrations was moderate, transitory, and was not followed by chronic neuroinflammation in survivors.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/15563650.2017.1284332DOI Listing
April 2017
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