Publications by authors named "Jinyuan Zhou"

173 Publications

Site-Selective Transformation for Preparing Tripod-like [email protected] Boosts Enhanced Areal Capacity and Cycling Reliability.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2021 Jun 20;13(21):25316-25324. Epub 2021 May 20.

Institute of Advanced Materials (IAM), Nanjing Tech University (NanjingTech), Nanjing 211816, P. R. China.

Flexible power supply systems for future wearable electronics desperately require high areal capacity () and robust cycling reliability due to the limited surface area of the human body. Transition metal sulfides are preferred as cathode materials for their improved conductivity and rich redox centers, yet their practical applications are severely hindered by the sluggish charge transport kinetics and unavoidable capacity decay due to the phase transformation during charge/discharge processes. Herein, we develop a site-selective transformation strategy for preparing tripod-like [email protected] ([email protected]) arrays on carbon cloth. The mass loading of active materials is balanced with charge (electron and ion) transport efficiency. The optimized [email protected] delivers a superior of 494 μA h/cm (corresponding to 235 mA h/g) at 3 mA/cm. Due to the protection of the carbon layer that is derived from transformed metal-organic framework (MOF) sheath, the [email protected] displays excellent stability with 92% retention over 5000 charge/discharge cycles. The flexible full cell adopting FeO as the anode and [email protected] as the cathode exhibits an improved (areal energy density) of 389 μW h/cm at a (areal power density) of 4.22 mW/cm together with robust cycling reliability.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsami.1c05702DOI Listing
June 2021

Pulseq-CEST: Towards multi-site multi-vendor compatibility and reproducibility of CEST experiments using an open-source sequence standard.

Magn Reson Med 2021 May 7. Epub 2021 May 7.

Magnetic Resonance Center, Max Planck Institute for Biological Cybernetics, Tuebingen, Germany.

Purpose: As the field of CEST grows, various novel preparation periods using different parameters are being introduced. At the same time, large, multisite clinical studies require clearly defined protocols, especially across different vendors. Here, we propose a CEST definition standard using the open Pulseq format for a shareable, simple, and exact definition of CEST protocols.

Methods: We present the benefits of such a standard in three ways: (1) an open database on GitHub, where fully defined, human-readable CEST protocols can be shared; (2) an open-source Bloch-McConnell simulation to test and optimize CEST preparation periods in silico; and (3) a hybrid MR sequence that plays out the CEST preparation period and can be combined with any existing readout module.

Results: The exact definition of the CEST preparation period, in combination with the flexible simulation, leads to a good match between simulations and measurements. The standard allowed finding consensus on three amide proton transfer-weighted protocols that could be compared in healthy subjects and a tumor patient. In addition, we could show coherent multisite results for a sophisticated CEST method, highlighting the benefits regarding protocol sharing and reproducibility.

Conclusion: With Pulseq-CEST, we provide a straightforward approach to standardize, share, simulate, and measure different CEST preparation schemes, which are inherently completely defined.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/mrm.28825DOI Listing
May 2021

The Jahn-Teller Effect for Amorphization of Molybdenum Trioxide towards High-Performance Fiber Supercapacitor.

Research (Wash D C) 2021 29;2021:6742715. Epub 2021 Mar 29.

Institute of Advanced Materials (IAM), Nanjing Tech University (NanjingTech), Nanjing 211816, China.

Amorphous pseudocapacitive nanomaterials are highly desired in energy storage applications for their disordered crystal structures, fast electrochemical dynamics, and outstanding cyclic stability, yet hardly achievable using the state-of-the-art synthetic strategies. Herein, for the first time, high capacitive fiber electrodes embedded with nanosized amorphous molybdenum trioxide (A-MoO) featuring an average particle diameter of ~20 nm and rich oxygen vacancies are obtained a top-down method using -MoO bulk belts as the precursors. The Jahn-Teller distortion in MoO octahedra due to the doubly degenerate ground state of Mo, which can be continuously strengthened by oxygen vacancies, triggers the phase transformation of -MoO bulk belts (up to 30 m long and 500 nm wide). The optimized fibrous electrode exhibits among the highest volumetric performance with a specific capacitance ( ) of 921.5 F cm under 0.3 A cm, endowing the fiber-based weaveable supercapacitor superior and (energy density) of 107.0 F cm and 9.5 mWh cm, respectively, together with excellent cyclic stability, mechanical robustness, and rate capability. This work demonstrates a promising strategy for synthesizing nanosized amorphous materials in a scalable, cost-effective, and controllable manner.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.34133/2021/6742715DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8025085PMC
March 2021

Ammonium Intercalation Induced Expanded 1T-Rich Molybdenum Diselenides for Improved Lithium Ion Storage.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2021 Apr 13;13(15):17459-17466. Epub 2021 Apr 13.

Institute of Advanced Materials (IAM), Nanjing Tech University (NanjingTech), Nanjing 211816, P. R. China.

Transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs), particularly molybdenum diselenides (MoSe), have the merits of their unique two-dimensional (2D) layered structures, large interlayer spacing (∼0.64 nm), good electrical conductivities, and high theoretical capacities when applied in lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) as anode materials. However, MoSe remains suffering from inferior stability as well as unsatisfactory rate capability because of the unavoidable volume expansion and sluggish charge transport during lithiation-delithiation cycles. Herein, we develop a simultaneous reduction-intercalation strategy to synthesize expanded MoSe (e-MoSe) with an interlayer spacing of 0.98 nm and a rich 1T phase (53.7%) by rationally selecting the safe precursors of ethylenediamine (NHCHNH), selenium dioxide (SeO), and sodium molybdate (NaMoO). It is noteworthy that NHCHNH can effectively reduce SeO and MoO forming MoSe nanosheets; in the meantime, the generated ammonium (NH) efficiently intercalates between MoSe layers, leading to charge transfer, thus stabilizing 1T phases. The obtained e-MoSe exhibits high capacities of 778.99 and 611.40 mAh g at 0.2 and 1 C, respectively, together with excellent cycling stability (retaining >90% initial capacity at 0.2 C over 100 charge-discharge cycles). It is believed that the material design strategy proposed in this paper provides a favorable reference for the synthesis of other transition metal selenides with improved electrochemical performance for battery applications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsami.0c22923DOI Listing
April 2021

Improved lithium-ion battery performance by introducing oxygen-containing functional groups by plasma treatment.

Nanotechnology 2021 Apr 14;32(27). Epub 2021 Apr 14.

School of Physical Science and Technology, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000, People's Republic of China.

Metal sulfides are often used as cathode materials for lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) owing to their high theoretical specific capacity; however, excessively fast capacity decay during charging/discharging and rapid shedding during cycling limits their practical application in batteries. In this study, we proposed a strategy using plasma treatment combined with the solvothermal method to prepare cobalt sulfide (CoS)-carbon nanofibers (CNFs) composite. The plasma treatment could introduce oxygen-containing polar groups and defects, which could improve the hydrophilicity of the CNFs for the growth of the CoS, thereby increasing the specific capacity of the composite electrode. The results show that the composite electrode present a high discharge specific capacity (839 mAh gat a current density of 100 mA g) and good cycle stability (the capacity retention rate almost 100% at 2000 mA gafter 500 cycles), attributing to the high conductivity of the CNFs. This study proves the application of plasma treatment and simple vulcanization method in high-performance LIBs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/1361-6528/abf37dDOI Listing
April 2021

Recent Advances in Molybdenum-Based Materials for Lithium-Sulfur Batteries.

Research (Wash D C) 2021 2;2021:5130420. Epub 2021 Mar 2.

Institute of Advanced Materials (IAM), Nanjing Tech University (NanjingTech), Nanjing 211816, China.

Lithium-sulfur (Li-S) batteries as power supply systems possessing a theoretical energy density of as high as 2600 Wh kg are considered promising alternatives toward the currently used lithium-ion batteries (LIBs). However, the insulation characteristic and huge volume change of sulfur, the generation of dissolvable lithium polysulfides (LiPSs) during charge/discharge, and the uncontrollable dendrite formation of Li metal anodes render Li-S batteries serious cycling issues with rapid capacity decay. To address these challenges, extensive efforts are devoted to designing cathode/anode hosts and/or modifying separators by incorporating functional materials with the features of improved conductivity, lithiophilic, physical/chemical capture ability toward LiPSs, and/or efficient catalytic conversion of LiPSs. Among all candidates, molybdenum-based (Mo-based) materials are highly preferred for their tunable crystal structure, adjustable composition, variable valence of Mo centers, and strong interactions with soluble LiPSs. Herein, the latest advances in design and application of Mo-based materials for Li-S batteries are comprehensively reviewed, covering molybdenum oxides, molybdenum dichalcogenides, molybdenum nitrides, molybdenum carbides, molybdenum phosphides, and molybdenum metal. In the end, the existing challenges in this research field are elaborately discussed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.34133/2021/5130420DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7949955PMC
March 2021

TiCT MXene for Sensing Applications: Recent Progress, Design Principles, and Future Perspectives.

ACS Nano 2021 Mar 11;15(3):3996-4017. Epub 2021 Mar 11.

Frontiers Science Center for Flexible Electronics, Xi'an Institute of Flexible Electronics (IFE), and Xi'an Institute of Biomedical Materials and Engineering, Northwestern Polytechnical University (NPU), Xi'an 710072, P.R. China.

Sensors are becoming increasingly significant in our daily life because of the rapid development in electronic and information technologies, including Internet of Things, wearable electronics, home automation, intelligent industry, . There is no doubt that their performances are primarily determined by the sensing materials. Among all potential candidates, layered nanomaterials with two-dimensional (2D) planar structure have numerous superior properties to their bulk counterparts which are suitable for building various high-performance sensors. As an emerging 2D material, MXenes possess several advantageous features of adjustable surface properties, tunable bandgap, and excellent mechanical strength, making them attractive in various applications. Herein, we particularly focus on the recent research progress in MXene-based sensors, discuss the merits of MXenes and their derivatives as sensing materials for collecting various signals, and try to elucidate the design principles and working mechanisms of the corresponding MXene-based sensors, including strain/stress sensors, gas sensors, electrochemical sensors, optical sensors, and humidity sensors. In the end, we analyze the main challenges and future outlook of MXene-based materials in sensor applications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsnano.1c00248DOI Listing
March 2021

A thin, deformable, high-performance supercapacitor implant that can be biodegraded and bioabsorbed within an animal body.

Sci Adv 2021 Jan 8;7(2). Epub 2021 Jan 8.

Department of Mechanical Engineering, Texas Center for Superconductivity, University of Houston, Houston, TX 77204, USA.

It has been an outstanding challenge to achieve implantable energy modules that are mechanically soft (compatible with soft organs and tissues), have compact form factors, and are biodegradable (present for a desired time frame to power biodegradable, implantable medical electronics). Here, we present a fully biodegradable and bioabsorbable high-performance supercapacitor implant, which is lightweight and has a thin structure, mechanical flexibility, tunable degradation duration, and biocompatibility. The supercapacitor with a high areal capacitance (112.5 mF cm at 1 mA cm) and energy density (15.64 μWh cm) uses two-dimensional, amorphous molybdenum oxide (MoO ) flakes as electrodes, which are grown in situ on water-soluble Mo foil using a green electrochemical strategy. Biodegradation behaviors and biocompatibility of the associated materials and the supercapacitor implant are systematically studied. Demonstrations of a supercapacitor implant that powers several electronic devices and that is completely degraded after implantation and absorbed in rat body shed light on its potential uses.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/sciadv.abe3097DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7793580PMC
January 2021

Ultrathin NiMn layered double hydroxide nanosheets with a superior peroxidase mimicking performance to natural HRP for disposable paper-based bioassays.

J Mater Chem B 2021 01 4;9(4):983-991. Epub 2021 Jan 4.

School of Materials Science and Engineering, Henan Polytechnic University, Jiaozuo 454003, P. R. China.

The major obstacle to developing nanozymes which are considered as promising alternatives to natural enzymes is their moderate performance, including poor affinity for substrates, low catalytic activity, and severe pH-dependence. To address these issues, herein, we synthesize ultrathin layered double hydroxide (LDH) nanosheets with a thickness of 1.4 nm and an average lateral size of 23 nm using a fast-precipitation method. Through the rational design of their compositions, it is found that NiMn LDHs exhibit the optimum peroxidase mimicking performance with excellent substrate affinity, high catalytic activity (a limit of detection (LOD) of 0.04 μM HO) and robustness in a wide pH range (from 2.6 to 9.0), which is superior to that of natural horseradish peroxidase (HRP). The main active centers are identified as Mn sites because of their strong Lewis acidity and low redox potential. Furthermore, a series of disposable paper bioassays based on NiMn LDH nanozymes are designed and used for the highly sensitive detection of HO and ascorbic acid (AA).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d0tb02507kDOI Listing
January 2021

Brain development in children with developmental delay using amide proton transfer-weighted imaging and magnetization transfer imaging.

Pediatr Investig 2020 Dec 28;4(4):250-256. Epub 2020 Dec 28.

Imaging Center Beijing Children's Hospital Capital Medical University National Center for Children's Health Beijing China.

Importance: The process of brain development in children with developmental delay is not well known. Amide proton transfer-weighted (APTw) imaging is a novel molecular magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) technique that can noninvasively detect cytosolic endogenous mobile proteins and peptides involved in the myelination process, and may be useful for providing insights into brain development.

Objective: To assess the contribution of amide proton transfer-weighted (APTw) imaging and magnetization transfer (MT) imaging to the evaluation of children with developmental delay (DD).

Methods: Fifty-one patients with DD were recruited to this study. The patients were divided into two groups according to the state of myelination assessed on conventional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Thirty patients (10 girls, 20 boys; age range: 1-8 months; median age: 4 months) in group A showed delayed myelination on MRI, while 21 patients (3 girls, 18 boys; age range: 12-36months; median age: 25months) in group B showed normal myelination on MRI. Fifty-one age- and sex-matched children with normal developmental quotient (DQ) and normal MRI appearance were recruited as normal controls. Three-slice APTw/MT axial imaging was performed at the level of the centrum semiovale, the basal ganglia and the pons. Quantitative data of the MT ratio (MTR) and APTw were analyzed for multiple brain regions. Independent-sample -tests were used to compare differences in APTw and MTR signals between the two DD groups and normal controls. Analysis of Covariance was conducted to correct the statistical results. The level of statistical significance was set to 0.05.

Results: For group A, the MTR values were lower in all regions ( 0.004-0.033) compared with the normal controls, while the APTw values were higher in the pons, middle cerebellar peduncle, corpus callosum, frontal white matter, occipital white matter and centrum semiovale ( 0.004-0.040 ). For Group B, the MTR values were slightly reduced, and the APTw values were slightly increased compared with the normal controls, but the differences were not statistically significant ( 0.05).

Interpretation: For DD patients showing signs of delayed myelination on MRI, MTR and APTw imaging can help to diagnose myelination delay by quantifying semi-solid macromolecules and cytosolic endogenous mobile proteins and peptides at a molecular level, providing a new method for comprehensive evaluation of DD. For DD patients with normal myelination on MRI, the clinical values of MTR and APTw imaging remain to be explored.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ped4.12237DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7768295PMC
December 2020

Anatomic and Molecular MR Image Synthesis Using Confidence Guided CNNs.

IEEE Trans Med Imaging 2020 Dec 22;PP. Epub 2020 Dec 22.

Data-driven automatic approaches have demonstrated their great potential in resolving various clinical diagnostic dilemmas in neuro-oncology, especially with the help of standard anatomic and advanced molecular MR images. However, data quantity and quality remain a key determinant, and a significant limit of the potential applications. In our previous work, we explored the synthesis of anatomic and molecular MR image networks (SAMR) in patients with post-treatment malignant gliomas. In this work, we extend this through a confidence-guided SAMR (CG-SAMR) that synthesizes data from lesion contour information to multi-modal MR images, including T1-weighted (T1w), gadolinium enhanced T1w (Gd-T1w), T2-weighted (T2w), and fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR), as well as the molecular amide proton transferweighted (APTw) sequence. We introduce a module that guides the synthesis based on a confidence measure of the intermediate results. Furthermore, we extend the proposed architecture to allow training using unpaired data. Extensive experiments on real clinical data demonstrate that the proposed model can perform better than current the state-of-the-art synthesis methods. Our code is available at https://github.com/guopengf/CG-SAMR.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/TMI.2020.3046460DOI Listing
December 2020

Jahn-Teller distortions boost the ultrahigh areal capacity and cycling robustness of holey NiMn-hydroxide nanosheets for flexible energy storage devices.

Nanoscale 2020 Nov;12(43):22075-22081

School of Materials Science and Engineering, Henan Polytechnic University, Jiaozuo 454003, P. R. China.

Flexible energy storage devices with ultrahigh areal capacity and excellent cycling stability are highly desired for portable and wearable electronics. Bimetal hydroxides with low crystallinity are preferred as electrode materials due to their advantageous features of high electrochemical performance, rapid ion diffusion and high structure stability enabled by lattice disorder. Herein, holey NiMn-hydroxide (NiMn-OH) nanosheets with abundant lattice disorder induced by Jahn-Teller distortion are grown vertically on carbon cloth and their loading level reaches as high as 3.27 mg cm-2. The obtained NiMn-OH nanosheets demonstrate a superior capacity of 881 μAh cm-2 at 3 mA cm-2 and outstanding rate capability (66.4% capacity retained at 30 mA cm-2). The flexible all-solid hybrid device (NiMn-OH//Fe2O3) delivers a high energy density of 573.8 μW h cm-2 at a power density of 2.4 mW cm-2 and more importantly exhibits good cycling stability with 90.1% retained after 10 000 cycles and mechanical robustness. This proof-of-principle investigation is opening up a viable way to develop high performance electrodes for flexible energy storage devices.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d0nr06225aDOI Listing
November 2020

Improving Amide Proton Transfer-Weighted MRI Reconstruction Using T2-Weighted Images.

Med Image Comput Comput Assist Interv 2020 Oct 29;12262:3-12. Epub 2020 Sep 29.

Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD, USA.

Current protocol of Amide Proton Transfer-weighted (APTw) imaging commonly starts with the acquisition of high-resolution T2-weighted (Tw) images followed by APTw imaging at particular geometry and locations (i.e. slice) determined by the acquired Tw images. Although many advanced MRI reconstruction methods have been proposed to accelerate MRI, existing methods for APTw MRI lacks the capability of taking advantage of structural information in the acquired Tw images for reconstruction. In this paper, we present a novel APTw image reconstruction framework that can accelerate APTw imaging by reconstructing APTw images directly from highly undersampled k-space data and corresponding Tw image at the same location. The proposed framework starts with a novel sparse representation-based slice matching algorithm that aims to find the matched Tw slice given only the undersampled APTw image. A Recurrent Feature Sharing Reconstruction network (RFS-Rec) is designed to utilize intermediate features extracted from the matched Tw image by a Convolutional Recurrent Neural Network (CRNN), so that the missing structural information can be incorporated into the undersampled APT raw image thus effectively improving the image quality of the reconstructed APTw image. We evaluate the proposed method on two real datasets consisting of brain data from rats and humans. Extensive experiments demonstrate that the proposed RFS-Rec approach can outperform the state-of-the-art methods.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-59713-9_1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7577831PMC
October 2020

Lesion Mask-Based Simultaneous Synthesis of Anatomic and Molecular MR Images Using a GAN.

Med Image Comput Comput Assist Interv 2020 Oct 29;12262:104-113. Epub 2020 Sep 29.

Department of Radiology, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD, USA.

Data-driven automatic approaches have demonstrated their great potential in resolving various clinical diagnostic dilemmas for patients with malignant gliomas in neuro-oncology with the help of conventional and advanced molecular MR images. However, the lack of sufficient annotated MRI data has vastly impeded the development of such automatic methods. Conventional data augmentation approaches, including flipping, scaling, rotation, and distortion are not capable of generating data with diverse image content. In this paper, we propose a method, called synthesis of anatomic and molecular MR images network (SAMR), which can simultaneously synthesize data from arbitrary manipulated lesion information on multiple anatomic and molecular MRI sequences, including T1-weighted (w), gadolinium enhanced w (Gd-w), T2-weighted (w), fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (), and amide proton transfer-weighted (w). The proposed framework consists of a stretch-out up-sampling module, a brain atlas encoder, a segmentation consistency module, and multi-scale label-wise discriminators. Extensive experiments on real clinical data demonstrate that the proposed model can perform significantly better than the state-of-the-art synthesis methods.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-59713-9_11DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7556330PMC
October 2020

Differentiation of recurrent diffuse glioma from treatment-induced change using amide proton transfer imaging: incremental value to diffusion and perfusion parameters.

Neuroradiology 2021 Mar 2;63(3):363-372. Epub 2020 Sep 2.

Department of Radiology and Research Institute of Radiological Science and Center for Clinical Imaging Data Science, Yonsei University College of Medicine, 50-1 Yonsei-ro, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul, 120-752, Korea.

Purpose: To evaluate the incremental value of amide proton transfer (APT) imaging to diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), dynamic susceptibility contrast (DSC) imaging, and dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE) imaging in differentiating recurrent diffuse gliomas (World Health Organization grade II-IV) from treatment-induced change after concurrent chemoradiotherapy or radiotherapy.

Methods: This study included 36 patients (25 patients with recurrent gliomas and 11 with treatment-induced changes) with post-treatment gliomas. The mean values of apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC), fractional anisotropy (FA), normalized cerebral blood volume (nCBV), normalized cerebral blood flow, volume transfer constant, rate transfer coefficient, extravascular extracellular volume fraction, plasma volume fraction, and APT asymmetry index were assessed. Independent quantitative parameters were investigated to predict recurrent glioma using multivariable logistic regression. The incremental value of APT signal to other parameters was assessed by the increase of the area under the curve, net reclassification index, and integrated discrimination improvement.

Results: Univariable analysis showed that lower ADC (p = 0.018), higher FA (p = 0.031), higher nCBV (p = 0.021), and higher APT signal (p = 0.009) were associated with recurrent gliomas. In multivariable logistic regression, the diagnostic performance of the model with ADC, FA, and nCBV significantly increased when APT signal was added, with areas under the curve of 0.87 and 0.92, respectively (net reclassification index of 0.77 and integrated discrimination improvement of 0.13).

Conclusion: APT imaging may be a useful imaging biomarker that adds value to DTI, DCE, and DSC parameters for distinguishing between recurrent gliomas and treatment-induced changes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00234-020-02542-5DOI Listing
March 2021

FeO Nanoparticles Anchored on the TiCT MXene Paper for Flexible Supercapacitors with Ultrahigh Volumetric Capacitance.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2020 Sep 2;12(37):41410-41418. Epub 2020 Sep 2.

Key Laboratory of Special Function Materials and Structure Design, Ministry of Education, School of Physical Science and Technology, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000, People's Republic of China.

TiCT MXene, with high conductivity and flexibility, has drawn great attention in the wearable energy storage devices. However, the easy nanoflake-restacking phenomenon greatly restricts the achievable electrochemical performance of TiCT-based supercapacitors, in particular volumetric capacitance. Herein, we report a flexible hybrid paper consisting of FeO nanoparticles (NPs) anchored on TiCT (FeO [email protected]) electrostatic self-assembly and annealing treatments. The interlayer spacing of TiCT nanoflakes is effectively enlarged through the incorporation of FeO NPs, allowing more electrochemical active sites to store charge. Meanwhile, TiCT nanoflakes form a continuous metallic skeleton and inhibit the volume expansion of FeO NPs during the charging/discharging process, enhancing the cycling stability. The flexible, ultrathin (4.1 μm) FeO [email protected] hybrid paper shows considerably improved electrochemical performances compared to those of pure TiCT and FeO, including a wide potential window of 1 V, an ultrahigh volumetric capacitance of ∼2607 F cm (584 F g), and excellent capacitance retention after 13,000 cycles. Besides, the as-assembled symmetric solid-state supercapacitor exhibits an energy density of 29.7 Wh L and excellent mechanical flexibility. We believe that the present nanostructure design, decorating NPs within a two-dimensional metallic network, has general applicability and could be used to fabricate highly efficient composites for advanced energy storage devices.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsami.0c11034DOI Listing
September 2020

Amide Proton Transfer-Weighted (APTw) Imaging of Intracranial Infection in Children: Initial Experience and Comparison with Gadolinium-Enhanced T1-Weighted Imaging.

Biomed Res Int 2020 16;2020:6418343. Epub 2020 May 16.

Department of Radiology, Beijing Children's Hospital, Capital Medical University, National Center for Children's Health, Beijing, China.

Purpose: To evaluate the performance of amide proton transfer-weighted (APTw) imaging against the reference standard of gadolinium-enhanced T1-weighted imaging (Gd-T1w) in children with intracranial infection.

Materials And Methods: Twenty-eight pediatric patients (15 males and 13 females; age range 1-163 months) with intracranial infection were recruited in this study. 2D APTw imaging and conventional MR sequences were conducted using a 3 T MRI scanner. Kappa () statistics and the McNemar test were performed to determine whether the hyperintensity on APTw was related to the enhancement on Gd-T1w. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), and negative predictive value (NPV) of APTw imaging to predict lesion enhancement were calculated.

Result: In twelve patients with brain abscesses, the enhancing rim of the abscesses on the Gd-T1w images was consistently hyperintense on the APTw images. In eight patients with viral encephalitis, three showed slight spotted gadolinium enhancement, while the APTw image also showed a slight spotted high signal. Five of these patients showed no enhancement on Gd-T1w and isointensity on the APTw image. In eleven patients with meningitis, increased APTw signal intensities were clearly visible in gadolinium-enhancing meninges. Sixty infectious lesions (71%) showed enhancement on Gd-T1w images. The sensitivity and specificity of APTw were 93.3% (56/60) and 91.7% (22/24). APTw demonstrated excellent agreement ( = 0.83) with Gd-T1w, with no significant difference ( = 0.69) in detection of infectious lesions.

Conclusions: These initial data show that APTw MRI is a noninvasive technique for the detection and characterization of intracranial infectious lesions. APTw MRI enabled similar detection of infectious lesions to Gd-T1w and may provide an injection-free means of evaluation of intracranial infection.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2020/6418343DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7251435PMC
March 2021

Microstructure Design of Carbonaceous Fibers: A Promising Strategy toward High-Performance Weaveable/Wearable Supercapacitors.

Small 2020 Jun 20;16(25):e2000653. Epub 2020 May 20.

Institute of Advanced Materials (IAM), Nanjing Tech University (NanjingTech), Nanjing, 211816, P. R. China.

Fiber-based supercapacitors (FSCs) possess great potential as an ideal type of power source for future weaveable/wearable electronics and electronic-textiles. The performance of FSCs is, without doubt, primarily determined by the properties of fibrous electrodes. Carbonaceous fibers, e.g., commercial carbon fibers, newly developed graphene fibers, and carbon nanotube fibers, are deemed as promising materials for weaveable/wearable supercapacitors owing to their exotic properties including high tensile strength and robustness, excellent electrical conductivity, good flexibility, and environmental stability. Nevertheless, bare carbonaceous fiber normally exhibits low capacitance originating from electric double-layer capacitance, which remains unsatisfactory for efficiently powering wearable and portable devices. Numerous efforts have been devoted to tailoring fiber properties by hybridizing pseudocapacitive materials, and impressive progress has been achieved thus far. Herein, the microstructures of pristine carbonaceous fibers are introduced in detail, and the recent advances in rational nano/microstructure design of their hybrids, which provides the feasibility to achieve the synergistic interaction between conductive agents and pseudocapacitive nanomaterials but are normally overlooked, are comprehensively reviewed. Besides, the challenges in developing high-performance fibrous electrodes are also elaborately discussed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/smll.202000653DOI Listing
June 2020

Mechanistic insight in site-selective and anisotropic etching of prussian blue analogues toward designable complex architectures for efficient energy storage.

Nanoscale 2020 May;12(20):11112-11118

Institute of Advanced Materials (IAM), Nanjing Tech University (NanjingTech), Nanjing 211816, P. R. China and Institute of Flexible Electronics (IFE), Northwestern Polytechnical University (NPU), Xi'an 710072, P. R. China.

Engineering coordination compounds, e.g., prussian blue (PB) and its analogues (PBAs), with designable complex nanostructures via chemical etching holds great opportunities for improving energy storage performances by adjusting topological geometry, selectively exposing active sites, tuning electronic properties and enhancing accessible surface area. Unfortunately, it remains ambiguous particularly on site-selective and anisotropic etching behaviors. Herein, for the first time, we propose that two distinct regions are formed inside NiCo PBA (NCP) cubes due to the competition between classical ion-by-ion crystallization and non-classical crystallization based on aggregation. Such a unique structure ultimately determines not only the etching position but also the anisotropic pathway by selectively exposing unprotected Ni sites. According to this principle, complex PBA architectures, including nanocages, open nanocubes (constructed by six cones sharing the same apex), nanocones, and chamfer nanocubes can be intentionally obtained. After thermal annealing, NCP nanocones are converted to morning glory-like porous architectures composed of NiO/NiCo2O4 heterostructures with a mean particle size of 5 nm, which show improved rate performance and cycling stability.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d0nr02241aDOI Listing
May 2020

Amide proton transfer-weighted magnetic resonance imaging of human brain aging at 3 Tesla.

Quant Imaging Med Surg 2020 Mar;10(3):727-742

Department of MR, Shandong Medical Imaging Research Institute, Shandong University, Jinan 250021, China.

Background: Amide proton transfer-weighted (APTw) imaging has been revealed to hold great potential in the diagnosis of several brain diseases. The purpose of this proof-of-concept study was to evaluate the feasibility and value of APTw magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in characterizing normal brain aging.

Methods: A total of 106 healthy subjects were recruited and scanned at 3.0 Tesla, with APTw and conventional magnetization transfer (MT) sequences. Quantitative image analyses were performed in 12 regions of interest (ROIs) for each subject. The APTw or MT ratio (MTR) signal differences among five age groups (young, mature, middle-aged, young-old, and middle-old) were assessed using the one-way analysis of variance, with the Benjamini-Hochberg correction for multiple comparisons. The relationship between APTw and MTR signals and the age dependencies of APTw and MTR signals were assessed using the Pearson correlation and non-linear regression.

Results: There were no significant differences between the APTw or MTR values for males and females in any of the 12 ROIs analyzed. Among the five age groups, there were significant differences in the three white matter regions in the temporal, occipital, and frontal lobes. Overall, the mean APTw values in the older group were higher than those in the younger group. Positive correlations were observed in relation to age in most brain regions, including four with significant positive correlations (r=0.2065-0.4182) and five with increasing trends. As a comparison, the mean MTR values did not appear to be significantly different among the five age groups. In addition, the mean APTw and MTR values revealed significant positive correlations in 10 ROIs (r=0.2214-0.7269) and a significant negative correlation in one ROI (entorhinal cortex, r=-0.2141).

Conclusions: Our early results show that the APTw signal can be used as a promising and complementary imaging biomarker with which normal brain aging can be evaluated at the molecular level.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.21037/qims.2020.02.22DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7136735PMC
March 2020

Solution-Processed Sensing Textiles with Adjustable Sensitivity and Linear Detection Range Enabled by Twisting Structure.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2020 Mar 25;12(10):12155-12164. Epub 2020 Feb 25.

Institute of Advanced Materials (IAM), Nanjing Tech University (NanjingTech), Nanjing 211816, P. R. China.

Wearable strain sensors are emerging rapidly for their promising applications in human motion detection for diagnosis, healthcare, training instruction, and rehabilitation exercise assessment. However, it remains a bottleneck in gaining comfortable and breathable devices with the features of high sensitivity, linear response, and tunable detection range. Textiles possess fascinating advantages of good breathability, aesthetic property, tailorability, and excellent mechanical compliance to conformably attach to human body. As the meandering loops in a textile can be extended in different directions, it provides plenty of room for exploring ideal sensors by tuning a twisting structure with rationally selected yarn materials. Herein, textile sensors with twisting architecture are designed via a solution-based process by using a stable water-based conductive ink that is composed of polypyrrole/polyvinyl alcohol nanoparticles with a mean diameter of 50 nm. Depending on the predesigned twisting models, the thus-fabricated textile sensors show adjustable performances, exhibiting a high sensitivity of 38.9 with good linearity and a broad detection range of 200%. Such sensors can be integrated into fabrics and conformably attached to skin for monitoring subtle (facial expressions, breathing, and speaking) and large (stretching, jumping, running and jogging, and sign language) human motions. As a proof-of-concept application, by integrating with a wireless transmitter, the signals detected by our sensors during exercise (e.g., running) can be remotely received and displayed on a smartphone. It is believed that the integration of our textile sensors with selected twisting models into a cloth promises full-range motion detection for wearable electronics and human-machine interfaces.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsami.0c00564DOI Listing
March 2020

Erratum to: Improved chemical exchange saturation transfer imaging with real-time frequency drift correction (Magn Reson Med. 2019; 81: 2915-2923).

Magn Reson Med 2020 May 3;83(5):1884. Epub 2020 Jan 3.

Key Laboratory for Biomedical Engineering of Ministry of Education, Department of Biomedical Engineering, College of Biomedical Engineering & Instrument Science, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, Zhejiang, China.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/mrm.28133DOI Listing
May 2020

Amide Proton Transfer Weighted Imaging Shows Differences in Multiple Sclerosis Lesions and White Matter Hyperintensities of Presumed Vascular Origin.

Front Neurol 2019 10;10:1307. Epub 2019 Dec 10.

Department of Medicine, University of Fribourg, Fribourg, Switzerland.

To assess the ability of 3D amide proton transfer weighted (APTw) imaging based on magnetization transfer analysis to discriminate between multiple sclerosis lesions (MSL) and white matter hyperintensities of presumed vascular origin (WMH) and to compare APTw signal intensity of healthy white matter (healthy WM) with APTw signal intensity of MSL and WHM. A total of 27 patients (16 female, 11 males, mean age 39.6 years) with multiple sclerosis, 35 patients (17 females, 18 males, mean age 66.6 years) with small vessel disease (SVD) and 20 healthy young volunteers (9 females, 11 males, mean age 29 years) were included in the MSL, the WMH, and the healthy WM group. MSL and WMH were segmented on fluid attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) images underlaid onto APTw images. Histogram parameters (mean, median, 10th, 25th, 75th, 90th percentile) were calculated. Mean APTw signal intensity values in healthy WM were defined by "Region of interest" (ROI) measurements. Wilcoxon rank sum tests and receiver operating characteristics (ROC) curve analyses of clustered data were applied. All histogram parameters except the 75 and 90th percentile were significantly different between MSL and WMH ( = 0.018- = 0.034). MSL presented with higher median values in all parameters. The histogram parameters offered only low diagnostic performance in discriminating between MSL and WMH. The 10th percentile yielded the highest diagnostic performance with an AUC of 0.6245 (95% CI: [0.532, 0.717]). Mean APTw signal intensity values of MSL were significantly higher than mean values of healthy WM ( = 0.005). The mean values of WMH did not differ significantly from the values of healthy WM ( = 0.345). We found significant differences in APTw signal intensity, based on straightforward magnetization transfer analysis, between MSL and WMH and between MSL and healthy WM. Low AUC values from ROC analyses, however, suggest that it may be challenging to determine type of lesion with APTw imaging. More advanced analysis of the APT CEST signal may be helpful for further differentiation of MSL and WMH.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fneur.2019.01307DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6914856PMC
December 2019

Protein-based amide proton transfer-weighted MR imaging of amnestic mild cognitive impairment.

Neuroimage Clin 2020 27;25:102153. Epub 2019 Dec 27.

Department of MR, Shandong Medical Imaging Research Institute, Shandong University, Jinan, Shandong, China. Electronic address:

Amide proton transfer-weighted (APTw) MRI is a novel molecular imaging technique that can noninvasively detect endogenous cellular proteins and peptides in tissue. Here, we demonstrate the feasibility of protein-based APTw MRI in characterizing amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI). Eighteen patients with confirmed aMCI and 18 matched normal controls were scanned at 3 Tesla. The APTw, as well as conventional magnetization transfer ratio (MTR), signal differences between aMCI and normal groups were assessed by the independent samples t-test, and the receiver-operator-characteristic analysis was used to assess the diagnostic performance of APTw. When comparing the normal control group, aMCI brains typically had relatively higher APTw signals. Quantitatively, APTw intensity values were significantly higher in nine of 12 regions of interest in aMCI patients than in normal controls. The largest areas under the receiver-operator-characteristic curves were 0.88 (gray matter in occipital lobe) and 0.82 (gray matter in temporal lobe, white matter in occipital lobe) in diagnosing aMCI patients. On the contrary, MTR intensity values were significantly higher in only three of 12 regions of interest in the aMCI group. Additionally, the age dependency analyses revealed that these cross-sectional APTw/MTR signals had an increasing trend with age in most brain regions for normal controls, but a decreasing trend with age in most brain regions for aMCI patients. Our early results show the potential of the APTw signal as a new imaging biomarker for the noninvasive molecular diagnosis of aMCI.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.nicl.2019.102153DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6948365PMC
December 2020

Correction to: Differentiation of Malignant and Benign Head and Neck Tumors with Amide Proton Transfer-Weighted MR Imaging.

Mol Imaging Biol 2020 Feb;22(1):218

Department of Radiology, National Center of Gerontology, Beijing Hospital, No. 1 Da-Hua Road, Dong Dan, Beijing, 100730, China.

This article is about head and neck tumor MR imaging and is not within the scope of two National Institutes of Health grants (R0ICA166171, ROICA228188) erroneously listed. Thus, the authors would like to remove the reference to the NIH grants R01CA166171 and R01CA228188 in this article.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11307-019-01459-7DOI Listing
February 2020

Amide proton transfer-weighted MRI for predicting histological grade of hepatocellular carcinoma: comparison with diffusion-weighted imaging.

Quant Imaging Med Surg 2019 Oct;9(10):1641-1651

Department of Radiology, Beijing Hospital, National Center of Gerontology, Beijing 100730, China.

Background: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the most common primary malignant tumor of the liver, preoperative grading of HCC is of great clinical significance. Amide proton transfer-weighted (APTw) imaging, as a novel contrast mechanism in the field of molecular imaging, provided new diagnostic ideas for the grading of HCC.

Methods: Between May 2017 and April 2018, 32 consecutive patients with pathologically confirmed HCC were enrolled, including 19 high-grade HCCs and 13 low-grade HCCs. DWI and APTw scanning was performed on a 3T MRI scanner. Two observers drew regions of interest independently by referring to the axial T-weighted imaging, and APTw and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values were obtained. Inter- and intra-observer agreements were assessed with the intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs). The independent sample t test was used to compare the APTw and ADC values between the high- and low-grade HCC tumor parenchyma. The receiver operating characteristic curve was used to analyze the diagnostic efficacy of high- from low-grade HCC tumors. Spearman correlation analysis was used to assess the relationship between APTw and ADC values and HCC histological grades.

Results: There were significant differences between the APTw or ADC values for the high- and low-grade HCCs (P=0.034 and 0.010). Both APTw and DWI had good diagnostic performance in differentiating the high- from the low-grade HCCs, with areas under the curves of 0.814 and 0.745, respectively. Moderate correlations existed between APTw values and histological grades (r=0.534; P=0.002), as well as ADC values and histological grades (r=-0.417; P=0.018).

Conclusions: The APTw imaging is a useful imaging biomarker that complements DWI for the more accurate and comprehensive HCC characterization.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.21037/qims.2019.08.07DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6828579PMC
October 2019

Electrostatically Assembling 2D Nanosheets of MXene and MOF-Derivatives into 3D Hollow Frameworks for Enhanced Lithium Storage.

Small 2019 Nov 7;15(47):e1904255. Epub 2019 Oct 7.

Institute of Advanced Materials (IAM), Nanjing Tech University (NanjingTech), Nanjing, 211816, China.

As an essential member of 2D materials, MXene (e.g., Ti C T ) is highly preferred for energy storage owing to a high surface-to-volume ratio, shortened ion diffusion pathway, superior electronic conductivity, and neglectable volume change, which are beneficial for electrochemical kinetics. However, the low theoretical capacitance and restacking issues of MXene severely limit its practical application in lithium-ion batteries (LIBs). Herein, a facile and controllable method is developed to engineer 2D nanosheets of negatively charged MXene and positively charged layered double hydroxides derived from ZIF-67 polyhedrons into 3D hollow frameworks via electrostatic self-assembling. After thermal annealing, transition metal oxides (TMOs)@MXene (CoO/Co Mo O @MXene) hollow frameworks are obtained and used as anode materials for LIBs. CoO/Co Mo O nanosheets prevent MXene from aggregation and contribute remarkable lithium storage capacity, while MXene nanosheets provide a 3D conductive network and mechanical robustness to facilitate rapid charge transfer at the interface, and accommodate the volume expansion of the internal CoO/Co Mo O . Such hollow frameworks present a high reversible capacity of 947.4 mAh g at 0.1 A g , an impressive rate behavior with 435.8 mAh g retained at 5 A g , and good stability over 1200 cycles (545 mAh g at 2 A g ).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/smll.201904255DOI Listing
November 2019

Identifying the active site of ultrathin NiCo LDH as an efficient peroxidase mimic with superior substrate affinity for sensitive detection of hydrogen peroxide.

J Mater Chem B 2019 10;7(40):6232-6237

Institute of Advanced Materials (IAM), Nanjing Tech University (NanjingTech), Nanjing 211816, P. R. China.

Nanozymes have been extensively investigated to imitate protein enzymes in biomimetic chemistry and the identification of the active site is believed to be the pre-requisite before one can effectively regulate their activity. Herein, ultrathin NiCo LDH nanosheets are synthesized via a fast co-precipitation at room temperature and can be stably dispersed in water without any additives of surfactants or organic solvents. By tuning the ratio between Ni and Co in LDH nanosheets, the activity is tuned and their peroxidase-like activity is determined by Co sites that show higher affinity to both 3,3',5,5'-tetramethylbenzidine (TMB) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) due to the strong Lewis acidity of Co3+ and the low redox potential of Co3+/Co2+. Together with their small crystallite size, ultra-thin thickness and tunable composition, NiCo LDH is used as a nanozyme for highly sensitive colorimetric detection of H2O2 and the limit of detection (LOD) reaches 0.48 μM.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/c9tb01652jDOI Listing
October 2019

Fast 3D chemical exchange saturation transfer imaging with variably-accelerated sensitivity encoding (vSENSE).

Magn Reson Med 2019 12 1;82(6):2046-2061. Epub 2019 Jul 1.

Division of MR Research, Department of Radiology, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland.

Purpose: To extend the variably-accelerated sensitivity encoding (vSENSE) method from 2D to 3D for fast chemical exchange saturation transfer (CEST) imaging, and prospectively implement it for clinical MRI.

Methods: The CEST scans were acquired from 7 normal volunteers and 15 brain tumor patients using a 3T clinical scanner. The 2D and 3D "artifact suppression" (AS) vSENSE algorithms were applied to generate sensitivity maps from a first scan acquired with conventional SENSE-accelerated 2D and 3D CEST data. The AS sensitivity maps were then applied to reconstruct the other CEST frames at higher acceleration factors. Both retrospective and prospective acceleration in phase-encoding and slice-encoding dimensions were implemented.

Results: Applying the 2D AS vSENSE algorithm to a 2-fold undersampled 3.5-ppm CEST frame halved the scan time of conventional SENSE, while generating essentially identical reconstruction errors (p ≈ 1.0). The 3D AS vSENSE algorithm permitted prospective acceleration by up to 8-fold, in total, from phase-encoding and slice-encoding directions for individual source CEST images, and an overall speed-up in scan time of 5-fold. The resulting vSENSE-accelerated amide proton transfer-weighted images agreed with conventional 2-fold-accelerated SENSE CEST results in brain tumor patients and healthy volunteers. Importantly, the vSENSE method eliminated unfolding artifacts in the slice-encoding direction that compromised conventional SENSE CEST scans.

Conclusion: The vSENSE method can be extended to 3D CEST imaging to provide higher acceleration factors than conventional SENSE without compromising accuracy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/mrm.27881DOI Listing
December 2019

Prospective acceleration of parallel RF transmission-based 3D chemical exchange saturation transfer imaging with compressed sensing.

Magn Reson Med 2019 11 17;82(5):1812-1821. Epub 2019 Jun 17.

Divison of MR Research, Department of Radiology, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland.

Purpose: To develop prospectively accelerated 3D CEST imaging using compressed sensing (CS), combined with a saturation scheme based on time-interleaved parallel transmission.

Methods: A variable density pseudo-random sampling pattern with a centric elliptical k-space ordering was used for CS acceleration in 3D. Retrospective CS studies were performed with CEST phantoms to test the reconstruction scheme. Prospectively CS-accelerated 3D-CEST images were acquired in 10 healthy volunteers and 6 brain tumor patients with an acceleration factor (R ) of 4 and compared with conventional SENSE reconstructed images. Amide proton transfer weighted (APTw) signals under varied RF saturation powers were compared with varied acceleration factors.

Results: The APTw signals obtained from the CS with acceleration factor of 4 were well-preserved as compared with the reference image (SENSE R = 2) both in retrospective phantom and prospective healthy volunteer studies. In the patient study, the APTw signals were significantly higher in the tumor region (gadolinium [Gd]-enhancing tumor core) than in the normal tissue (p < .001). There was no significant APTw difference between the CS-accelerated images and the reference image. The scan time of CS-accelerated 3D APTw imaging was dramatically reduced to 2:10 minutes (in-plane spatial resolution of 1.8 1.8 mm ; 15 slices with 4-mm slice thickness) as compared with SENSE (4:07 minutes).

Conclusion: Compressed sensing acceleration was successfully extended to 3D-CEST imaging without compromising CEST image quality and quantification. The CS-based CEST imaging can easily be integrated into clinical protocols and would be beneficial for a wide range of applications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/mrm.27875DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6660350PMC
November 2019