Publications by authors named "Jinxing Wang"

42 Publications

Identification and validation of miRNA reference genes in poplar under pathogen stress.

Mol Biol Rep 2021 Apr 4;48(4):3357-3366. Epub 2021 May 4.

Beijing Advanced Innovation Center for Tree Breeding By Molecular Design, College of Biological Sciences and Biotechnology, National Engineering Laboratory for Tree Breeding, Beijing Forestry University, Beijing, 100083, China.

Quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) is a common method to analyze gene expression. Due to differences in RNA quantity, quality, and reverse transcription efficiency between qRT-PCR samples, reference genes are used as internal standards to normalize gene expression. However, few universal genes, especially miRNAs, have been identified as reference so far. Therefore, it is essential to identify reference genes that can be used across various experimental conditions, stress treatments, or tissues. In this study, 14 microRNAs (miRNAs) and 5.8S rRNA were assessed for expression stability in poplar trees infected with canker pathogen. Using geNorm, NormFinder and Bestkeeper reference gene analysis programs, we found that miR156g and miR156a exhibited stable expression throughout the infection process. miR156g, miR156a and 5.8S rRNA were then tested as internal standards to measure the expression of miR1447 and miR171c, and the results were compared to small RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) data. We found that when miR156a and 5.8S rRNA were used as the reference gene, the expression of miR1447 and miR171c were consistent with the small RNA-seq expression profiles. Therefore, miR156a was the most stable miRNAs examined in this study, and could be used as a reference gene in poplar under canker pathogen stress, which should enable comprehensive comparisons of miRNAs expression and avoid the bias caused by different length between detected miRNAs and traditional reference genes. The present study has expanded the miRNA reference genes available for gene expression studies in trees under biotic stress.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11033-021-06369-yDOI Listing
April 2021

Corrigendum to "Achieving reliable partial nitrification and anammox process using polyvinyl alcohol gel beads to treat low-strength ammonia wastewater" [Bioresour. Technol. 324 (2021) 124669].

Bioresour Technol 2021 Aug 30;334:125193. Epub 2021 Apr 30.

Department of Energy and Mineral Engineering and EMS Energy Institute, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802, USA. Electronic address:

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2021.125193DOI Listing
August 2021

Prediction Model of Dry Fertilizer Crushing Force Based on P-DE-SVM.

ACS Omega 2021 Feb 29;6(5):3612-3624. Epub 2021 Jan 29.

College of Mechanical and Electronic Engineering, Shandong Agricultural University, Taian 271018, China.

The accurate prediction of fertilizer crushing force could reduce the crushing rate in the process of transportation and utilization and ensure the efficient utilization of the fertilizer so as to realize the sustainable and clean production of crops. To achieve this goal, a fertilizer crushing force prediction model based on the shape characteristics was proposed in this paper using the Pearson correlation coefficient, differential evolution algorithm, and the support vector machine (P-DE-SVM). First, the shape characteristics and crushing force of fertilizers were measured by an independently developed agricultural material shape analyzer and digital pressure gauge, and the shape characteristics related to the fertilizer crushing force were proposed based on the Pearson correlation coefficient. Second, a fertilizer crushing force prediction model based on a support vector machine was constructed, in which the optimal kernel function was the radial basis function. Finally, a differential evolution algorithm was proposed to optimize the internal parameters of the fertilizer-crushing force prediction model, and at the same time, a fertilizer granularity inspection range was calculated. The experimental results showed that the maximum error rate of the fertilizer crushing force prediction model was between -10.4 and 10.9%, and the fertilizer granularity inspection range was reasonable. The proposed prediction model in this paper could lay a solid foundation for fertilizer production and quality inspection, which would help reduce fertilizer crushing and improve fertilizer utilization to realize the sustainable and clean production of crops.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsomega.0c05120DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7906496PMC
February 2021

Enhancing anammox resistance to low operating temperatures with the use of PVA gel beads.

Sci Total Environ 2021 Jun 3;774:144826. Epub 2021 Feb 3.

Department of Energy, Environmental and Chemical Engineering, Washington University in St. Louis, St. Louis, MO 63130, USA. Electronic address:

Low temperatures, or a sudden decrease in operating temperature, can seriously inhibit anammox activity, it is, therefore, important to maintain anammox activities at a low temperature. In this study, the use of gel beads to enhance the resistance of anammox biomass to a low temperature was investigated. The performance of three reactors: R1 without gel beads; R2 with polyvinyl alcohol/chitosan (PVA/CS); R3 with PVA/CS/Fe, was studied and compared in a temperature transition from 35 to 8 °C. When the operating temperature was ≥25 °C, there was little difference in nitrogen removal among the three reactors. Decreasing the temperature to < 25 °C created obvious difference between R1 and R2/R3. R1 had a nitrogen removal efficiency (NRE) of 33.1 ± 25.3% at 10 °C, significantly lower than that of R2 (90.5 ± 2.5%) or R3 (87.7 ± 11.1%). Unclassified Candidatus Brocadiaceae was the dominant genus at 10 °C, with an abundance of 44.4, 56.5 and 58.7% in R1, R2 and R3, respectively. These differences were attributed to the use of gel beads, which promoted the granulation of both the non-immobilized sludge and the immobilized biomass, resulting in higher anammox activities in R2/R3. The non-immobilized sludge of R1 was dominated by small particles (<300 μm) at 10 °C, while in R2 and R3 large particles (1000-2000 μm) were the main components. Furthermore, the immobilized biomass on gel beads exhibited much higher anammox activity and maintained a relatively high level of nitrate reductase and nitrite reductase in response to the temperature decrease. The Fe/Fe in the PVA/CS/Fe gel beads further promoted microbial aggregation and led to an improved performance in R3 compared to R2. The results of this study demonstrate an effective approach to increase anammox resistance at low operating temperatures.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2020.144826DOI Listing
June 2021

Insight: High intensity and activity carrier granular sludge cultured using polyvinyl alcohol/chitosan and polyvinyl alcohol/chitosan/iron gel beads.

Bioresour Technol 2021 Apr 29;326:124778. Epub 2021 Jan 29.

Department of Environmental Engineering, Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an 710049, China. Electronic address:

The newly developed carrier granular sludge (CGS) with polyvinyl alcohol/chitosan (PVA/CS) and PVA/CS/Fe gel beads assistance showed higher intensity and anammox activity than the natural granular sludge (NGS). Through comprehensive investigation, it was found: (1) the gel beads provided a stable framework of cells entangle with extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) to enhance the sludge intensity. In this framework, β-polysaccharides are distributed at the edge of CGS as a protection layer, α-polysaccharides and proteins are spread in the whole cross-section as backbones, and Fe/Fe in CGS-PVA/CS/Fe act as bridges to link with the negatively charged groups on bacterial surfaces and proteins. (2) The porous gel beads satisfied a relatively unimpeded mass transfer. Thus, the sludge activity, microbe's metabolism, membrane transportation and environmental adaption in CGS were apparently improved. The results improved the understanding about the advantages of the CGS and indicated their possible application in full-scale anammox processes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2021.124778DOI Listing
April 2021

Achieving reliable partial nitrification and anammox process using polyvinyl alcohol gel beads to treat low-strength ammonia wastewater.

Bioresour Technol 2021 Mar 7;324:124669. Epub 2021 Jan 7.

Department of Energy and Mineral Engineering and EMS Energy Institute, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802, USA. Electronic address:

In this study, polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) gel beads were used to aid the partial nitrification and anammox process (PN/A) for treating low-strength ammonia wastewater. When treating synthetic and municipal wastewater, the reactor amended with PVA gel beads achieved a total nitrogen removal efficiency of 75.1 ± 8.4% and 66.6 ± 7.0% respectively, while the control reactor without PVA gel beads achieved 63.2 ± 7.8% and 28.2 ± 11.5% respectively. Dissolved oxygen (<0.5 mg O L) and substrate diffusion in porous PVA gel beads facilitated the formation of microbial stratification in the gel beads. Unclassified Candidatus Brocadiaceae (major anammox bacteria) and Ignavibacterium (major ammonia oxidizing bacteria) enriched in the inside and outside layers of PVA gel beads, which benefited the synergetic cooperation of these bacteria and protecting them from environmental fluctuations. This study provides a promising solution for achieving a reliable PN/A process in mainstream wastewater treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2021.124669DOI Listing
March 2021

Granule-based immobilization and activity enhancement of anammox biomass via PVA/CS and PVA/CS/Fe gel beads.

Bioresour Technol 2020 Aug 27;309:123448. Epub 2020 Apr 27.

Department of Environmental Technology, Wageningen University and Research, Wageningen 6700AA, the Netherlands.

Granule-based immobilization of anammox biomass assisted by polyvinyl alcohol/chitosan (PVA/CS) and PVA/CS/Fe gel beads was studied, via the operation of three identical up-flow reactors (R1 without gel beads, R2 with PVA/CS, R3 with PVA/CS/Fe) for 203 days. In the end, the nitrogen removal rates (NRR) were 5.3 ± 0.4, 10.0 ± 0.3 and 13.9 ± 0.5 kg-N m d for R1, R2 and R3, respectively. The porous PVA/CS and PVA/CS/Fe created a suitable eco-niche for anammox bacteria to grow and attach, thus being retained in the reactor. The EPS entangles newly grown cells within the gel beads, resulting in compact aggregation. The interaction between Fe ions added to PVA/CS/Fe gel beads and negatively charged EPS groups strongly promoted granule strength and compactness. The immobilization method proposed by this study was found to effectively improve biomass retention in the reactors, which is promising for advanced anammox process applications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2020.123448DOI Listing
August 2020

[Comparison of different transforaminal endoscope approaches in treatment of serious lumbar disc herniation].

Zhongguo Xiu Fu Chong Jian Wai Ke Za Zhi 2020 Mar;34(3):300-307

Department of Orthopaedics, Harrison International Peace Hospital, Hebei Medical University, Hengshui Hebei, 053000, P.R.China.

Objective: To investigate the difference between four transforaminal endoscopic approaches in the treatment of serious lumbar disc herniation.

Methods: Between October 2010 and February 2015, a total of 122 patients with serious lumbar disc herniation were enrolled and treated with discectomy under transforaminal endoscope. The patients were divided into 4 groups according to the different approaches. The transforaminal endoscopic spine system (TESSYS) technology was used in group A (31 cases), Yeung endoscopic spine system (YESS) technology was used in group B (30 cases), improved transforaminal endoscopic access (ITEA) technology was used in group C (31 cases), and interlaminar dorsal access (IDA) technology was used in group D (30 cases). There was no significant difference in gender, age, disease duration, lesion segment, and preoperative visual analogue scale (VAS) score of low back pain, VAS score of bilateral lower extremities pain, Oswestry disability index (ODI), intervertebral height, lumbar curvature index (LCI), and disc degeneration grading between groups ( >0.05). The removal volume of nucleus pulposus was compared; after operation, VAS score, ODI score, LCI, intervertebral height, and disc degeneration grading were used to evaluate the effectiveness.

Results: The removal volumes of nucleus pulposus in groups A, B, C, and D were (3.6±0.9), (3.5±0.7), (4.6±1.0), (3.1±1.1) cm , respectively. There were significant differences between groups ( <0.05). All incisions healed by first intention, and no early postoperative complications was found. All cases were followed up 12-35 months, with an average of 24 months. During follow-up, there was no recurrence of nucleus pulposus herniation, infection of intervertebral space, cerebrospinal fluid leakage, epidural hematoma, or other complications. At last follow-up, the VAS scores of low back pain and bilateral lower extremities pain, and ODI scores in each group significantly improved when compared with those before operation ( <0.05); there was no significant difference in the scores and improvements between groups after operation ( >0.05). At last follow-up, the disc degeneration grading in group B significantly improved when compared with that before operation ( <0.05); there was no significant difference between groups ( >0.05). At last follow-up, there was no significant difference in LCI of each group when compared with that before operation ( >0.05); and there was no significant difference in LCI and loss value between groups ( >0.05). There was no significant difference in the intervertebral height of the 4 groups at immediate after operation and last follow-up when compared with preoperative value ( >0.05), and there was no significant difference between groups at immediate after operation and last follow-up ( >0.05).

Conclusion: Application of transforaminal endoscope in the treatment of serious lumbar disc herniation has great clinical outcomes. The ITEA technology can obtain a wider field of view and be more convenient to find and remove the degenerative nucleus pulposus. However, the appropriate approach should be selected according to the symptoms and characteristics of lumbar disc herniation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7507/1002-1892.201811005DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8171653PMC
March 2020

Endotoxin Producers Overgrowing in Human Gut Microbiota as the Causative Agents for Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease.

mBio 2020 02 4;11(1). Epub 2020 Feb 4.

State Key Laboratory of Microbial Metabolism, School of Life Sciences and Biotechnology, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai, People's Republic of China

Gut microbiota-derived endotoxin has been linked to human nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), but the specific causative agents and their molecular mechanisms remain elusive. In this study, we investigated whether bacterial strains of endotoxin-producing pathogenic species overgrowing in obese human gut can work as causative agents for NAFLD. We further assessed the role of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) cross talk in this pathogenicity. Nonvirulent strains of Gram-negative pathobionts were isolated from obese human gut and monoassociated with C57BL/6J germfree (GF) mice fed a high-fat diet (HFD). Deletion of in the bacterial endotoxin synthetic pathway and knockout of TLR4 in GF mice were used to further study the underlying mechanism for a causal relationship between these strains and the development of NAFLD. Three endotoxin-producing strains, B29, PY102, and A7, overgrowing in the gut of morbidly obese volunteers with severe fatty liver, induced NAFLD when monoassociated with GF mice on HFD, while HFD alone did not induce the disease in GF mice. The commensal (ATCC 29148), whose endotoxin activity was markedly lower than that of strains, did not induce NAFLD in GF mice. B29 lost its proinflammatory properties and NAFLD-inducing capacity upon deletion of the gene. Moreover, B29 did not induce NAFLD in TLR4-deficient GF mice. These nonvirulent endotoxin-producing strains in pathobiont species overgrowing in human gut may work as causative agents, with LPS-TLR4 cross talk as the most upstream and essential molecular event for NAFLD. Recent studies have reported a link between gut microbiota and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), showing that germfree (GF) mice do not develop metabolic syndromes, including NAFLD. However, the specific bacterial species causing NAFLD, as well as their molecular cross talk with the host for driving liver disease, remain elusive. Here, we found that nonvirulent endotoxin-producing strains of pathogenic species overgrowing in obese human gut can act as causative agents for induction of NAFLD and related metabolic disorders. The cross talk between endotoxin from these specific producers and the host's TLR4 receptor is the most upstream and essential molecular event for inducing all phenotypes in NAFLD and related metabolic disorders. These nonvirulent endotoxin-producing strains of gut pathogenic species overgrowing in human gut may collectively become a predictive biomarker or serve as a novel therapeutic target for NAFLD and related metabolic disorders.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/mBio.03263-19DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7002352PMC
February 2020

Chemotactic responses of the root-knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita to Streptomyces plicatus.

FEMS Microbiol Lett 2019 10;366(19)

State Laboratory for Conservation and Utilization of Bio-resources, Yunnan University, Kunming 650091, China.

Rhizosphere microorganisms play an important role in the interactions of many species in the rhizosphere, including soil nematodes. One hundred strains of rhizosphere actinomycetes were screened in vitro for their effects on the chemotactic behavior of the root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne incognita. Volatile compounds produced by the strain Streptomyces plicatus G demonstrated both strong attractant and repellent activities towards M. incognita. The compound dibenzofuran attracted M. incognita nematodes strongly, while compound benzothiazole repelled them. The chemotaxis of M. incognita was also tested under controlled conditions in pot experiments. Cultures of S. plicatus G and volatile dibenzofuran attracted M. incognita while volatile benzothiazole repelled them. The results showed that volatile compounds produced by rhizosphere actinomycetes could influence the chemotaxis of nematodes to a host. This study provides new information about the interrelationship between rhizosphere actinomycetes and nematodes that may be useful in preventing nematode parasitism of agricultural crops.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/femsle/fnz234DOI Listing
October 2019

Perfluoropolyether carboxylic acids (novel alternatives to PFOA) impair zebrafish posterior swim bladder development via thyroid hormone disruption.

Environ Int 2020 01 13;134:105317. Epub 2019 Nov 13.

Key Laboratory of Animal Ecology and Conservation Biology, Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101, China. Electronic address:

Perfluoropolyether carboxylic acids (PFECAs, CF(OCF)COO, n = 2-5) are novel alternatives to perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and are widely used in industrial production. However, although they have been detected in surface water and human blood, their toxicities on aquatic organisms remain unknown. We used zebrafish embryos to compare the developmental toxicities of various PFECAs (e.g., perfluoro (3,5,7-trioxaoctanoic) acid (PFO3OA), perfluoro (3,5,7,9-tetraoxadecanoic) acid (PFO4DA), and perfluoro (3,5,7,9,11-pentaoxadodecanoic) acid (PFO5DoDA)) with that of PFOA and to further reveal the key events related to toxicity caused by these chemicals. Results showed that, based on half maximal effective concentrations (EC), toxicity increased in the order: PFO5DoDA > PFO4DA > PFOA > PFO3OA, with uninflated posterior swim bladders the most frequently observed malformation. Similar to PFOA, PFECA exposure significantly lowered thyroid hormone (TH) levels (e.g., T3 (3,5,3'-L-triiodothyronine) and T4 (L-thyroxine)) in the whole body of larvae at 5 d post-fertilization following disrupted TH metabolism. In addition, the transcription of UDP glucuronosyltransferase 1 family a, b (ugt1ab), a gene related to TH metabolism, increased dose-dependently. Exogeneous T3 or T4 supplementation partly rescued PFECA-induced posterior swim bladder malformation. Our results further suggested that PFECAs primarily damaged the swim bladder mesothelium during early development. This study is the first to report on novel emerging PFECAs as thyroid disruptors causing swim bladder malformation. Furthermore, given that PFECA toxicity increased with backbone OCF moieties, they may not be safer alternatives to PFOA.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envint.2019.105317DOI Listing
January 2020

Antitumour Activity of Muricatacin Isomers and its Derivatives in Human Colorectal Carcinoma Cell HCT116.

Anticancer Agents Med Chem 2020 ;20(2):254-263

Department of Basic Veterinary Medicine, College of Veterinary Medicine, China Agricultural University, Beijing, 100193, China.

Background And Purpose: Colorectal cancer is one of the leading causes of cancer-related death in elderly people. The natural product muricatacin is an important member of the γ-lactone family, and it has exhibited antitumour activity in multiple cancer cell lines; however, the antitumour activities of muricatacin stereoisomers and their derivatives in colorectal cancer cells have not yet been systematically explored.

Methods: The colorectal carcinoma cell line HCT116 was investigated in this study. Cell proliferation was assessed by MTT assay or crystal violet staining. Cell cycle arrest and cell apoptosis were evaluated by flow cytometry assay. The expression levels of p53, p21, cyclin E, cyclin D1, caspase-3, cleaved caspase-3, caspase-9, cleaved caspase-9 and LC3B were measured using western blot analysis. Autophagy induced by M2 was monitored by immunofluorescence assay with an antibody against LC3B.

Results: Cell proliferation assays showed that both naturally occurring muricatacin (M4) and its synthetic stereoisomer (M2) are potent cell growth inhibitors in HCT116 cells, with IC50 values of 79.43 and 83.17μM, respectively; these values are much lower than those of the other two isomers, M1 and M3, and those of the sixmembered lactone analogues. The flow cytometry analysis revealed that M2 and M4 induced significant cell cycle arrest during G0/G1 phase and caused relatively low apoptosis rates in HCT116 cells. Further analysis indicated that M2 caused p53-independent p21 induction and cyclin E/cyclin D1 downregulation. In addition, M2 also markedly induced autophagy in the early stage of administration.

Conclusion: Our results suggested that muricatacins possess potent antitumour activity against the colorectal carcinoma cell line HCT116 through inducing G0/G1 phase cell cycle arrest and autophagy in the early stage of administration.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/1871520619666191115111032DOI Listing
January 2021

Efficacy of radiation exposure in laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma is mediated by the LAMP3/LAMC2/tenascin-C pathway.

Exp Biol Med (Maywood) 2019 10 7;244(13):1070-1080. Epub 2019 Aug 7.

Department of Otorhinolaryngology - Head and Neck Surgery, Nantong University Affiliated Hospital, Nantong, Jiangsu 226001, P.R. China.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1535370219867643DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6775573PMC
October 2019

Chronic exposure to 6:2 chlorinated polyfluorinated ether sulfonate acid (F-53B) induced hepatotoxic effects in adult zebrafish and disrupted the PPAR signaling pathway in their offspring.

Environ Pollut 2019 Jun 21;249:550-559. Epub 2019 Mar 21.

Key Laboratory of Animal Ecology and Conservation Biology, Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 100101, China. Electronic address:

As a Chinese-specific alternative to perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), 6:2 chlorinated polyfluorinated ether sulfonate (commercial name: F-53B) has been used in the metal plating industry for over 40 years. This prevalence of use has resulted in its subsequent detection within the environment, wildlife, and humans. Despite this, however, its hepatotoxic effects on aquatic organisms remain unclear. Here, we characterized the impacts of long-term F-53B exposure on adult zebrafish liver and their offspring. Results showed that the concentration of F-53B was greater in the F0 liver than that in the gonads and blood. Furthermore, males had significantly higher liver F-53B levels than females. Hepatomegaly and obvious cytoplasmic vacuolation indicated that F-53B exposure induced liver injury. Compared to control, liver triglyceride levels decreased by 30% and 33.5% in the 5 and 50 μg/L-exposed males and 22% in 50 μg/L-exposed females. Liver transcriptome analysis of F0 adult fish found 2175 and 1267 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in the 5 μg/L-exposed males and females, respectively. Enrichment analyses further demonstrated that the effects of F-53B on hepatic transcripts were sex-dependent. Gene Ontology showed that most DEGs were involved in multicellular organism development in male fish, whereas in female fish, most DEGs were related to metabolic processes and gene expression. qRT-PCR analysis indicated that the PPAR signaling pathway likely contributed to F-53B-induced disruption of lipid metabolism in F0 adult fish. In F1 larvae (5 days post fertilization), the transcription of pparα increased, like that in F0 adult fish, but most target genes showed the opposite expression trends as their parents. Taken together, our research demonstrated chronic F-53B exposure adversely impacts zebrafish liver, with disruption of PPAR signaling pathway dependent on sex and developmental stage.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2019.03.032DOI Listing
June 2019

Parental exposure to 6:2 chlorinated polyfluorinated ether sulfonate (F-53B) induced transgenerational thyroid hormone disruption in zebrafish.

Sci Total Environ 2019 May 13;665:855-863. Epub 2019 Feb 13.

Key Laboratory of Animal Ecology and Conservation Biology, Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101, China. Electronic address:

Although 6:2 chlorinated polyfluorinated ether sulfonate (F-53B), an alternative to perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS), has been regularly detected in different environmental matrices, information regarding its toxicity remains limited. To explore the transgenerational thyroid-disrupting capacity of F-53B, adult zebrafish (F0) were exposed to different concentrations of F-53B (0, 5, 50, or 500μg/L) for 180d, with their offspring (F1 and F2) subsequently reared in uncontaminated water. Thyroid disturbances were then examined in the three (F0, F1, and F2) generations. For F0 adult fish, thyroxine (T4) increased in both sexes after exposure to 50μg/LF-53B, whereas 3,5,3'-triiodothyronine (T3) decreased in all groups, except for 50μg/LF-53B-treated males. For F1 embryos, parental exposure resulted in F-53B transfer as well as an increase in T4 content. At 5days post-fertilization, the significant increase in T4 and decrease in T3 were accompanied by a decrease in body length, increase in mortality, and increase in uninflated posterior swim bladder occurrence in F1 larvae. Although thyroid hormone levels were not changed significantly in F1 adult fish or F2 offspring compared with the control, the transcription levels of several genes along the hypothalamus-pituitary-thyroid axis were significantly modified. Our study demonstrated that F-53B possesses transgenerational thyroid-disrupting capability in zebrafish, indicating it might not be a safer alternative to PFOS.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2019.02.198DOI Listing
May 2019

Serial testing of Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection in Chinese village doctors by QuantiFERON-TB Gold Plus, QuantiFERON-TB Gold in-Tube and T-SPOT.TB.

J Infect 2019 04 30;78(4):305-310. Epub 2019 Jan 30.

NHC Key Laboratory of Systems Biology of Pathogens, Institute of Pathogen Biology, and Center for Tuberculosis Research, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing, P.R. China. Electronic address:

Objectives: To evaluate the performance of QuantiFERON-TB Gold Plus (QFT-Plus) on Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) infection test among registered village doctors from China.

Methods: MTB infection of the registered village doctors in Zhongmu County were tested using QFT-Plus and two other interferon-gamma release assays (IGRAs) in parallel: QuantiFERON-TB Gold In-Tube (QFT) and T-SPOT.TB (T-SPOT). Retests were carried out for baseline positives at 3 and 6 months later, respectively.

Results: A total of 616 village doctors were included in the baseline examination. The positivity of QFT, QFT-Plus and T-SPOT was 27.91% (168/602), 31.22% (187/599) and 27.70% (169/610), respectively. The concordance between QFT and QFT-Plus was 94.81% (Kappa coefficient: 0.87) and between T-SPOT and QFT-Plus was 88.93% (Kappa coefficient: 0.73). Reversions were frequently observed for all three assays. With respect to QFT-Plus, the quantitative results of reversions in the serial testing were mostly distributed in an "uncertain range" zone (0.2-0.7 IU/mL). Similar patterns of distribution were observed for QFT and T-SPOT as well.

Conclusion: Village doctors should gain more attention as an at-risk group for TB infection control in rural China. Our results support, by means of serial testing, a good agreement between QFT-Plus and QFT in Chinese population.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jinf.2019.01.008DOI Listing
April 2019

Biocontrol efficacy of Pseudoxanthomonas japonensis against Meloidogyne incognita and its nematostatic metabolites.

FEMS Microbiol Lett 2019 01;366(2)

State Laboratory for Conservation and Utilization of Bio-resources, Yunnan University, Kunming 650091, PR China.

The rhizosphere bacterium ZKB-2 showed strong nematostatic activity against Meloidogyne incognita. Our study aimed to identify the nematostatic metabolites and evaluate the biocontrol efficiency in pot experiments. As the bacterial culture filtrate showed 100% nematostatic activity against M. incognita juveniles in 12 hr, we isolated and identified six compounds following activity guiding. 3-methoxycyclobutane-1, 2-dione showed 58.9% and 72.2% nematostatic activities against juveniles of M. incognita in 12 and 48 hr, with strong LC50 value at 447 μg mL-1. In pot experiments, treatments with the bacterial culture filtrate of strain ZKB-2 showed significant efficacy, especially at doses of 150 mL/pot, which were close to that of avermectin (positive control) at 0.01 g kg-1 soil. The most effective treatment inhibited 85.1% population of juveniles of M. incognita in the roots and 76.9% in the rhizosphere soil after 30 days. Furthermore, the promoting tomato growth also significantly increased in a dose-dependent manner. Our results revealed the potential of strain ZKB-2 to act as a biocontrol agent in the integrated management of root-knot nematodes on tomatoes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/femsle/fny287DOI Listing
January 2019

PVA/CS and PVA/CS/Fe gel beads' synthesis mechanism and their performance in cultivating anaerobic granular sludge.

Chemosphere 2019 Mar 3;219:130-139. Epub 2018 Dec 3.

Department of Environmental Engineering, Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an 710049, China.

Biomass washout from high-speed anaerobic suspended bed bio-reactors is still a challenge to their stable operation. Preserving active biomass to efficiently retain biomass in the reactor is one of the solutions to this problem. Herein, two carriers (polyvinyl alcohol/chitosan (PVA/CS) and PVA/CS/Fe gel beads) were prepared using the cross-linking method. The fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and C nuclear magnetic resonance (C NMR) analyses showed that PVA/CS gel beads formed mainly through hydrogen-bonds (NHOH). Furthermore, FTIR, C NMR, energy dispersive spectrum (EDS), X-ray diffractometer (XRD) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analyses showed that PVA/CS/Fe gel beads formed mainly through chelate bond (NH-FeOH). The scanning electron microscope (SEM) results affirmed that the gel beads had rough and well-developed porous structure for the attachment of microbes. Furthermore, the abilities of gel beads on the cultivation of granular sludge in an up-flow anaerobic sludge bed (UASB) reactor were effectively demonstrated while treating wastewater polluted with glucose and alkali lignin. The results showed that the gel beads-assisted reactors had a higher performance than those without the gel beads. The cultivation of granules in these reactors was accelerated, while the granules became bigger and exhibited better settling velocities. The reactor with gel beads was easier to withstand a higher organic loading rate due to dense microbial aggregates, which were caused by more humic-like substance. Particularly, the reactor with PVA/CS/Fe gel beads was able to improve the overall robustness of the system due to stronger mechanical properties of gel beads, and also prevented cells detachment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2018.12.014DOI Listing
March 2019

Two-generational reproductive toxicity assessment of 6:2 chlorinated polyfluorinated ether sulfonate (F-53B, a novel alternative to perfluorooctane sulfonate) in zebrafish.

Environ Pollut 2018 Dec 28;243(Pt B):1517-1527. Epub 2018 Sep 28.

Key Laboratory of Animal Ecology and Conservation Biology, Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 100101, China. Electronic address:

As an alternative to perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), 6:2 chlorinated polyfluorinated ether sulfonate (commercial name: F-53B) has been used in the Chinese chrome plating industry for over four decades. It has been increasingly detected in environmental matrices in recent years, causing great concern regarding its potential health risks to humans and wildlife. However, its adverse effects on biota remain largely unknown. To explore the chronic toxicity of F-53B on reproduction, a two-generational study was conducted using zebrafish (Danio rerio). Adult zebrafish (F0 generation) were chronically exposed to different concentrations of F-53B (0, 5, 50, and 500 μg/L) for 180 d using a flow-through exposure system, with F1 and F2 generations reared without exposure. The reproductive toxicity endpoints were assessed in F0 and F1 adult fish. Results showed that F-53B accumulated in the F0 gonads and transferred to the F1 generation via maternal eggs, and even remained in F1 adult fish and their eggs (F2) after 180 d depuration. In the F0 generation, F-53B exposure significantly inhibited growth and induced reproductive toxicity, including decreased gonadosomatic index and egg production/female, changes in the histological structure of the gonads, and increased serum testosterone levels. In particular, serum estradiol and vitellogenin levels were significantly increased in 5 μg/L F-53B-exposed adult males. The transcriptional levels of several genes along the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis were altered in F0 generation fish. Testis transcriptome analysis revealed that F-53B exposure disrupted spermatogenesis in F0 male zebrafish. Maternal transfer of F-53B also induced adverse effects on growth and reproduction in the F1 generation. Furthermore, the higher occurrence of malformation and lower survival in F1 and F2 embryos indicated that parental exposure to F-53B could impair the embryonic development of offspring. Taken together, this study demonstrated that F-53B could induce reproductive toxicity in zebrafish similar to that induced by legacy PFOS, and its potential adverse effects on offspring deserve further investigation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2018.09.120DOI Listing
December 2018

Identification and characterization of circRNAs in Pyrus betulifolia Bunge under drought stress.

PLoS One 2018 17;13(7):e0200692. Epub 2018 Jul 17.

Institute of Pomology, Jiangsu Academy of Agricultural Sciences/Jiangsu Key Laboratory for Horticultural Crop Genetic Improvement, Nanjing, China.

Circular RNAs (circRNAs) play important roles in miRNA function and transcriptional control. However, little is known regarding circRNAs in the pear. In this study, we identified circRNAs using deep sequencing and analyzed their expression under drought stress. We identified 899 circRNAs in total, among which 33 (23 upregulated, 10 downregulated) were shown to be dehydration-responsive. We performed GO and KEGG enrichment analysis to predict the functions of differentially expressed circRNAs. 309 circRNAs were predicted to act as sponges for 180 miRNAs. A circRNA-miRNA co-expression network was constructed based on correlation analysis between the differentially expressed circRNAs and their miRNA binding sites. Our study will provide a rich genetic resource for the discovery of genes related to drought stress, and can readily be applied to other fruit trees.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0200692PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6049930PMC
January 2019

Genome-Wide Identification and Functional Prediction of Novel Drought-Responsive lncRNAs in .

Genes (Basel) 2018 Jun 20;9(6). Epub 2018 Jun 20.

Jiangsu Key Laboratory for Horticultural Crop Genetic Improvement, Institute of Pomology, Jiangsu Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Nanjing 200014, China.

Increasing evidence shows that long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) play important roles in developmental regulation and many other biological processes in plants. However, identification of lncRNAs in is limited compared with studies of functional gene expression. Using high-throughput sequencing technology, the transcriptome of . under drought stress was analyzed to identify lncRNAs. A total of 14,478 lncRNAs were identified, of which 251 were found to be drought-responsive. The putative target genes of these differentially expressed lncRNAs were significantly enriched in metabolic processes, organic substance metabolic processes, macromolecule metabolic processes, and heterocyclic compound binding. Real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction validation suggested that the results of the RNA sequencing data analysis were reliable. This study will provide genetic resources for pear breeding and provide reference to other pomological studies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/genes9060311DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6027255PMC
June 2018

Expression of the Shrimp wap gene in Drosophila elicits defense responses and protease inhibitory activity.

Sci Rep 2018 06 8;8(1):8779. Epub 2018 Jun 8.

State Key Laboratory of Brain and Cognitive Science, Institute of Biophysics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 100101, China.

The wap gene encodes a single whey acidic protein (WAP) domain-containing peptide from Chinese white shrimp (Fenneropenaeus chinensis), which shows broad-spectrum antimicrobial activities and proteinase inhibitory activities in vitro. To explore the medical applications of the WAP peptide, a wap gene transgenic Drosophila melanogaster was constructed. In wap-expressing flies, high expression levels of wap gene (>100 times) were achieved, in contrast to those of control flies, by qRT-PCR analysis. The wap gene expression was associated with increased resistance to microbial infection and decreased bacterial numbers in the flies. In addition, the WAP protein extract from wap-expressing flies, compared with control protein extract from control flies, showed improved antimicrobial activities against broad Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, including the clinical drug resistant bacterium of methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA), improved protease inhibitor activities against crude proteinases and commercial proteinases, including elastase, subtilis proteinase A, and proteinase K in vitro, and improved growth rate and microbial resistance, as well as wound-healing in loach and mouse models. These results suggest that wap-expressing flies could be used as a food additive in aquaculture to prevent infections and a potential antibacterial for fighting drug-resistant bacteria.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-018-26466-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5993750PMC
June 2018

Bioinformatics and functional analyses of key genes and pathways in human clear cell renal cell carcinoma.

Oncol Lett 2018 Jun 12;15(6):9133-9141. Epub 2018 Apr 12.

Department of Urology, Zhongnan Hospital of Wuhan University, Wuhan, Hubei 430071, P.R. China.

Clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) is the most common type of kidney cancer. The present study was conducted to explore the mechanisms and identify the potential target genes for ccRCC using bioinformatics analysis. The microarray data of GSE15641 were screened on Gene-Cloud of Biotechnology Information (GCBI). A total of 32 ccRCC samples and 23 normal kidney samples were used to identify differentially expressed genes (DEGs) between them. Subsequently, the clustering analysis and functional enrichment analysis of these DEGs were performed, followed by protein-protein interaction (PPI) network, and pathway relation network. Additionally, the most significant module based on PPI network was selected, and the genes in the module were identified as hub genes. Furthermore, transcriptional level, translational level and survival analyses of hub genes were performed to verify the results. A total of 805 genes, 403 upregulated and 402 downregulated, were differentially expressed in ccRCC samples compared with normal controls. The subsequent bioinformatics analysis indicated that the small molecule metabolic process and the metabolic pathway were significantly enriched. A total of 7 genes, including membrane metallo-endopeptidase (), albumin (), cadherin 1 (), prominin 1 (), chemokine () ligand 12 (), protein tyrosine phosphatase receptor type C () and intercellular adhesion molecule 1 () were identified as hub genes. In brief, the present study indicated that these candidate genes and pathways may aid in deciphering the molecular mechanisms underlying the development of ccRCC, and may be used as therapeutic targets and diagnostic biomarkers of ccRCC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3892/ol.2018.8473DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5958663PMC
June 2018

Biodegradation of Lignin Monomers Vanillic, p-Coumaric, and Syringic Acid by the Bacterial Strain, Sphingobacterium sp. HY-H.

Curr Microbiol 2018 Sep 10;75(9):1156-1164. Epub 2018 May 10.

Department of Environmental Engineering, Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an, 710049, China.

Many bacterial strains have been demonstrated to biodegrade lignin for contaminant removal or resource regeneration. The goal of this study was to investigate the biodegradation amount and associated pathways of three lignin monomers, vanillic, p-coumaric, and syringic acid by strain Sphingobacterium sp. HY-H. Vanillic, p-coumaric, and syringic acid degradation with strain HY-H was estimated as 88.71, 76.67, and 72.78%, respectively, after 96 h. Correspondingly, the same three monomers were associated with a COD removal efficiency of 87.30, 55.17, and 67.23%, and a TOC removal efficiency of 82.14, 61.03, and 43.86%. The results of GC-MS, HPLC, FTIR, and enzyme activities show that guaiacol and o-dihydroxybenzene are key intermediate metabolites of the vanillic acid and syringic acid degradation. p-Hydroxybenzoic acid is an important intermediate metabolite for p-coumaric and syringic acid degradation. LiP and MnP play an important role in the degradation of lignin monomers and their intermediate metabolites. One possible pathway is that strain HY-H degrades lignin monomers into guaiacol (through decarboxylic and demethoxy reaction) or p-hydroxybenzoic acid (through side-chain oxidation); then guaiacol demethylates to o-dihydroxybenzene. The p-hydroxybenzoic acid and o-dihydroxybenzene are futher through ring cleavage reaction to form small molecule acids (butyric, valproic, oxalic acid, and propionic acid) and alcohols (ethanol and ethanediol), then these acids and alcohols are finally decomposed into CO and HO through the tricarboxylic acid cycle. If properly optimized and controlled, the strain HY-H may play a role in breaking down lignin-related compounds for biofuel and chemical production.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00284-018-1504-2DOI Listing
September 2018

Selection and validation of reference genes for quantitative gene expression analyses in black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia L.) using real-time quantitative PCR.

PLoS One 2018 12;13(3):e0193076. Epub 2018 Mar 12.

Beijing Advanced Innovation Center for Tree Breeding by Molecular Design, National Engineering Laboratory for Tree Breeding, College of Biological Sciences and Technology, Beijing Forestry University, Beijing, People's Republic of China.

Black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia L.) is an easy to raise, fast growing, medium-sized deciduous tree species highly tolerant to harsh eco-conditions, i.e., drought and harsh winters, and it is widely adaptable to sandy, loamy, and marshy soils. The basis for this adaptability remains to be investigated at the transcriptomic level using real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR). Selection of a reliable gene for the normalization of qPCR data is important for obtaining accurate results in gene expression. The goal of this study was to identify an appropriate reference gene from 12 candidate genes for gene expression analysis in black locust exposed to various stressors such as abscisic acid (ABA), NaCl, polyethylene glycol (PEG) and varying temperatures. In GeNorm and NormFinder analyses, ACT (actin) and GAPDH (glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase) gene expression were the most stable in all conditions except heat stress, but in BestKeeper analysis, GAPDH and helicase gene expression were the most stable under NaCl and heat stress. In contrast, ACT and GAPDH were highest under abscisic acid (ABA), GAPDH and βTUB (beta tubulin) under cold stress, and helicase and EF1α (elongation factor 1 alpha) under PEG stress. We found that the most stable reference gene combination for all conditions was ACT and GAPDH. Additionally, the expression pattern of NAC2 (a transcription factor) and BGL2 in different tissues and under different stress conditions was analyzed relative to ACT and GAPDH and UBQ (ubiquitin) the least stably expressed gene. NAC2 and BGL2 both had highest expression in flowers and pods under ABA stress at 48h. This study provides useful reference genes for future gene expression studies in black locust.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0193076PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5846725PMC
June 2018

Combining stable carbon isotope analysis and petroleum-fingerprinting to evaluate petroleum contamination in the Yanchang oilfield located on loess plateau in China.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2018 Jan 15;25(3):2830-2841. Epub 2017 Nov 15.

Department of Environmental Engineering, Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an, 710049, China.

This study evaluated petroleum contamination in the Yanchang (Shaanxi Yanchang Petroleum (Group) Co., Ltd.) oilfield, located in the loess plateau region of northern Shaanxi, China. Surface soil and sediment samples were collected from the wasteland, farmland, and riverbed in this area to assess the following parameters: total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH), n-alkanes, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and carbon isotope ratios (δC). The results showed that TPH and PAH levels in the study area were 907-3447 mg/kg and 103.59-563.50 μg/kg, respectively, significantly higher than the control samples (TPH 224 mg/kg, PAHs below method quantification limit, MQL). Tests using δC to detect modified TPH (2238.66 to 6639.42 mg/kg) in the wastelands adjacent to the oil wells revealed more significant contamination than tests using extraction gravimetric analysis. In addition, "chemical fingerprint" indicators, such as low to high molecular weight (LMW/HMW) hydrocarbons, carbon preference index (CPI), and pristine/phytane (Pr/Ph), further confirmed the presence of heavy petroleum contamination and weathering. This has resulted in a nutrient imbalance and unsuitable pH and moisture conditions for microbial metabolic activities. This study evaluates petroleum contamination, which can inform contamination remediation on a case by case basis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-017-0500-6DOI Listing
January 2018

Oxidative Folding of Conopeptides Modified by Conus Protein Disulfide Isomerase.

Protein J 2017 10;36(5):407-416

State Key Laboratory of Biocontrol, Guangdong Province Key Laboratory of Pharmaceutical Functional Genes, National Engineering Research Center of South China Sea Marine Biotechnology, Department of Biochemistry, College of Life Sciences, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, 510275, People's Republic of China.

Protein disulfide isomerase is a type of enzyme that catalyses the oxidation, isomerization and reduction of disulfide bonds. Conotoxins that containing disulfide bonds are likely substrates of protein disulfide isomerise. Here, we cloned 12 protein disulfide isomerise genes from 12 different cone snail species that inhabited the sea near Sanya in China. The full-length amino acid sequences of these protein disulfide isomerase genes share a high degree of homology, including the same -CGHC- active site sequence and -RDEL- endoplasmic reticulum retention signal. To obtain enough conus protein disulfide isomerase for functional studies, we constructed the expression vector pET28a-sPDI. Conus protein disulfide isomerase was successfully expressed using Escherichia coli expression system and purified using chromatography method of affinity chromatography. The recombinant conus protein disulfide isomerase showed the ability to catalyse disulfide bond formation and rearrangement in the lysozyme enzyme activity assay. The role of conus protein disulfide isomerase in the in vitro oxidative folding of conotoxins was investigated using synthetic linear conotoxin lt14a, a peptide composed of 13 amino acids. It was confirmed by high performance liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry analysis that conus protein disulfide isomerase can catalyse the disulfide bond formation of linear lt14a. Then, conus protein disulfide isomerase was acted as a fusion partner during the production of engineered peptidyl-prolyl cis-trans isomerase and lt14a derived from cone snails. It was shown that peptidyl-prolyl cis-trans isomerase and conotoxin lt14a are successfully expressed in a highly soluble form by fusion with conus protein disulfide isomerase. Thus, conus protein disulfide isomerase functions not only as an enzyme that catalyses oxidative process but also a fusion partner in recombinant conotoxin expression.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10930-017-9738-6DOI Listing
October 2017

"Turn-off" fluorescent sensor for highly sensitive and specific simultaneous recognition of 29 famous green teas based on quantum dots combined with chemometrics.

Anal Chim Acta 2017 Apr 8;963:119-128. Epub 2017 Feb 8.

State Key Laboratory Breeding Base of Green Chemistry-Synthesis Technology, College of Chemical Engineering, Zhejiang University of Technology, Hangzhou 310032, PR China. Electronic address:

Fluorescent "turn-off" sensors based on water-soluble quantum dots (QDs) have drawn increasing attention owing to their unique properties such as high fluorescence quantum yields, chemical stability and low toxicity. In this work, a novel method based on the fluorescence "turn-off" model with water-soluble CdTe QDs as the fluorescent probes for differentiation of 29 different famous green teas is established. The fluorescence of the QDs can be quenched in different degrees in light of positions and intensities of the fluorescent peaks for the green teas. Subsequently, with aid of classic partial least square discriminant analysis (PLSDA), all the green teas can be discriminated with high sensitivity, specificity and a satisfactory recognition rate of 100% for training set and 98.3% for prediction set, respectively. Especially, the "turn-off" fluorescence PLSDA model based on second-order derivatives (2nd der) with reduced least complexity (LVs = 3) was the most effective one for modeling. Most importantly, we further demonstrated the established "turn-off" fluorescent sensor mode has several significant advantages and appealing properties over the conventional fluorescent method for large-class-number classification (LCNC) of green teas. This work is, to the best of our knowledge, the first report on the rapid and effective identification of so many kinds of famous green teas based on the "turn-off" model of QDs combined with chemometrics, which also implies other potential applications on complex LCNC classification system with weak fluorescence or even without fluorescence to achieve higher detective response and specificity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.aca.2017.01.032DOI Listing
April 2017

Proteomic Profiles Reveal the Function of Different Vegetative Tissues of Moringa oleifera.

Protein J 2016 Dec;35(6):440-447

Guangdong Key Laboratory for Innovative Development and Utilization of Forest Plant Germplasm, State Key Laboratory for Conservation and Utilization of Subtropical Agro-bioresources, Guangdong Province Research Center of Woody Forage Engineering Technology, South China Agricultural University, Guangzhou, 510642, People's Republic of China.

Moringa oleifera is a rich source of bioactive compounds and is widely used in traditional medicine and food for its nutritional value; however, the protein and peptide components of different tissues are rarely discussed. Here, we describe the first investigation of M. oleifera proteomes using mass spectrometry and bioinformatics methods. We aimed to elucidate the protein profiles of M. oleifera leaves, stem, bark, and root. Totally 202 proteins were identified from four vegetative organs. We identified 101 proteins from leaves, 51 from stem, 94 from bark and 67 from root, finding that only five proteins existed in both four vegetative parts. The calculated pI of most of the proteins is distributed in 5-10 and the molecular weight distributed below 100 kDa. Functional classification analysis revealed that proteins which are involved in catalytic activities are the most abundant both in leaves, stem, bark and root. Identification of several heat shock proteins in four vegetative tissues might be adaptive for resistance to high temperature environmental stresses of tropical or subtropical areas. Some enzymes involved in antioxidant processes were also identified in M. oleifera leaves, stem, bark and root. Among the four tissues studies here, leaves protein content and molecular diversity were the highest. The identification of the flocculating protein MO2.1 and MO2.2 in the bark and root provides clue to clarify the antimicrobial molecular mechanisms of root and bark. This study provides information on the protein compositions of M. oleifera vegetative tissues that will be beneficial for potential drug and food supplement development and plant physiology research.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10930-016-9690-xDOI Listing
December 2016

Ovule positions within linear fruit are correlated with nonrandom mating in Robinia pseudoacacia.

Sci Rep 2016 11 7;6:36664. Epub 2016 Nov 7.

National Engineering Laboratory for Tree Breeding; Key Laboratory of Genetics and Breeding in Forest Trees and Ornamental Plants, Ministry of Education; College of Biological Sciences and Technology, Beijing Forestry University, Beijing, 100083, China.

Post-pollination processes can lead to nonrandom mating among compatible pollen donors. Moreover, morphological patterns of ovule development within linear fruits are reportedly nonrandom and depend on ovule position. However, little is known about the relationship between nonrandom mating and ovule position within linear fruit. Here, we combined controlled pollen competition experiments and paternity analyses on R. pseudoacacia to better understand nonrandom mating and its connection with ovule position. Molecular determination of siring success showed a significant departure from the expected ratio based on each kind of pollen mixture, suggesting a nonrandom mating. Outcrossed pollen grains, which were strongly favored, produced significantly more progeny than other pollen grains. Paternity analyses further revealed that the distribution of offspring produced by one specific pollen source was also nonrandom within linear fruit. The stylar end, which has a higher probability of maturation, produced a significantly higher number of outcrossed offspring than other offspring, suggesting a correlation between pollen source and ovule position. Our results suggested that a superior ovule position exists within the linear fruit in R. pseudoacacia, and the pollen that was strongly favored often preferentially occupies the ovules that were situated in a superior position, which ensured siring success and facilitated nonrandom mating.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/srep36664DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5098198PMC
November 2016