Publications by authors named "Jinxin Wang"

117 Publications

Aeroacoustic characteristics of owl-inspired blade designs in a mixed flow fan: effects of leading- and trailing-edge serrations.

Bioinspir Biomim 2021 Jul 9. Epub 2021 Jul 9.

Graduate School of Engineering, Chiba University, Inage-ku, Chiba 263-8522, chiba, 263-8522, JAPAN.

Noise reduction in fans has an increasing need in industry. Inspired by owls' silent flight, we propose four owl-inspired blade designs for a mixed flow fan to examine whether leading-edge (LE) and/or trailing-edge (TE) serrations can resolve the tradeoff between sound suppression and aerodynamic performance. We investigate the blades' aeroacoustic characteristics through various experimental methods and LES-based numerical analyses. Experimental results suggest that the 'slotted' while simply-fabricated LE serrations can achieve lowering noise level while sustaining aerodynamic performance of the fan, whereas TE serrations fail. Additionally, inclination angle can improve LE serrations' performance in aeroacoustic and aerodynamic performance with a reduction of the specific noise level by around 1.4 dB. LES results and noise spectral analysis indicate that the LE serrations can suppress flow separation, reducing the broadband noise at low-to-middle frequencies (40-4k Hz). This passive-flow-control mechanism is likely owing to local higher incidence angles associated with LE serrations, which is capable of alleviating intensive pressure gradient while suppressing wall pressure fluctuations over LE region, hence weakening the Kelvin-Helmholtz instability. The tonal noise also shows a remarked reduction at the highest peak frequency associated with fan-vane interaction. Moreover, we find that the high-frequency noise by-product radiates mainly from the LE serrations and the surroundings, due to the small eddies broken up when the vortical flows pass through the LE serrations. Our results demonstrate that the biomimetic design of the LE serrations can facilitate the break-up of LE vortices passively and effectively without harming aerodynamic performance, which can be utilized as an effective device to improve the aeroacoustic performance in fan blades.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/1748-3190/ac1309DOI Listing
July 2021

A novel MYH9 mutation related to non-syndromic delayed post-lingual sensorineural hearing loss.

Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol 2021 Jul 6. Epub 2021 Jul 6.

Department of Otolaryngology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Soochow University, Suzhou, China.

Objective: Hearing loss (HL) is the most common sensory organ dysfunction disease. The cause is often complex, though genetics are the main factor.

Methods: In this study, we investigated a Chinese family with non-syndromic delayed post-lingual deafness. Comprehensive data collection was performed on this family's members, including basic information, audiological examinations, blood system examinations and imaging examinations. A pedigree diagram was drawn and the genetic patterns were analyzed.

Results: A new gene mutation, c.314A>T:p.Y105F in the MYH9 exon, was confirmed by next generation sequencing and Sanger sequencing. This mutation co-segregated with the phenotype in the pedigree. Patients in this family present bilateral symmetry and gradual and delayed high-frequency sensorineural hearing loss. The age of onset was approximately 30 years old. Except for hearing loss, no lesions were seen in other organs, especially the blood system.

Conclusion: The identification and detection of a novel MYH9 mutation may be of great significance to provide the basis for gene function research and genetic consultation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00405-021-06976-2DOI Listing
July 2021

Additions of optimum water, spent mushroom compost and wood biochar to improve the growth performance of Althaea rosea in drought-prone coal-mined spoils.

J Environ Manage 2021 Jun 19;295:113076. Epub 2021 Jun 19.

Institute of Soil and Water Conservation, Northwest A&F University, Yangling, Shaanxi, 712100, People's Republic of China. Electronic address:

Ecosystem degradation as a result of coal mining is a common phenomenon in various regions of the world, especially in arid and semi-arid zones. The implementation of appropriate revegetation techniques can be considered crucial to restore these degraded areas. In this regard, the additions of spent mushroom compost (SMC) and wood biochar (WB) to infertile and degraded soils have been reported to enhance soil fertility and plant growth under water (W) deficit conditions. However, the combined application of W, SMC and WB to coal mine degraded soils, to promote Althaea rosea growth and facilitate subsequent restoration, has not been explored yet. Hence, in the current study a pot experiment was carried out by growing A. rosea on coal mine spoils to assess the influence of different doses of W, SMC and WB on its morpho-physiological and biochemical growth responses. The results indicated that several plant growth traits like plant height, root length and dry biomass significantly improved with moderate W-SMC-WB doses. In addition, the simultaneous application of W-SMC-WB caused a significant decrease in hydrogen peroxide (HO) (by 7-56%), superoxide anion (O) (by 14-51%), malondialdehyde (MDA) (by 23-46%) and proline (Pro) contents (by 23-66%), as well as an increase in relative water content (by 10-27%), membrane stability index (by 2-24%), net photosynthesis rate (by 40-99%), total chlorophylls (by 43-113%) and carotenoids (by 31-115%), as compared to the control treatment. The addition of SMC and WB under low-W regime enhanced leaf water use efficiency, and soluble sugar content, also boosting the activity of superoxide dismutase, catalase, peroxidase and ascorbate peroxidase in leaf tissues, thus reducing the oxidative stress, as proved by low levels of HO, O, MDA and Pro contents. Finest growth performance under optimum doses of W (60% field capacity), SMC (1.4%) and WB (0.8%) suggest that revegetation of A. rosea with the recommended W-SMC-WB doses would be a suitable and eco-friendly approach for ecological restoration in arid degraded areas.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvman.2021.113076DOI Listing
June 2021

Unravelling Phytotoxicity and Mode of Action of Tripyrasulfone, a Novel Herbicide.

J Agric Food Chem 2021 Jun 21;69(25):7168-7177. Epub 2021 Jun 21.

Key Laboratory of Pesticide Toxicology and Application Technique, College of Plant Protection, Shandong Agricultural University, Tai'an 271018, Shandong, PR China.

Tripyrasulfone is a novel herbicide post-emergence applied in paddy fields. In this study, tripyrasulfone phytotoxicity and its mode of action were investigated. Within 3-7 days after treatment (DAT), tripyrasulfone caused strong bleaching symptoms on newly developed leaves of followed by necrosis prior to death within 14 DAT. By investigating pigment composition, photosynthetic activity and energy dissipation of treated with tripyrasulfone, the accumulation of phytoene and significant decreases in total carotenoids were observed; the photosystem II complex (PSII) reaction center and PSII-PSI electron transport chain were damaged; and the non-photochemical energy quenching and reactive oxygen species were significantly increased. Based on the reversion of bleaching symptoms in treated by the addition of homogentisic acid, it was hypothesized that tripyrasulfone blocks the biosynthesis of HGA, possibly by the inhibition of 4-hydroxyphenylpyruvate dioxygenase (HPPD). However, based on its chemical structure, tripyrasulfone may tend to be hydrolyzed in plants. Indeed, the hydrolyzed tripyrasulfone (HDT) inhibited the activity of HPPD from produced by , which was approximately 6 times less effective than mesotrione. Molecular docking showed that the HDT formed a stable bidentate interaction with the active center Fe chelation of HPPD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.jafc.1c01294DOI Listing
June 2021

Saponins from Panax japonicus alleviate HFD-induced impaired behaviors through inhibiting NLRP3 inflammasome to upregulate AMPA receptors.

Neurochem Int 2021 Sep 12;148:105098. Epub 2021 Jun 12.

Hubei Province Key Laboratory of Occupational Hazard Identification and Control, Wuhan University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, 430065, China; New Medicine Innovation and Development Institute, Department of Pharmacy, College of Medicine, Wuhan University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, 430065, China. Electronic address:

Obesity is characterized by a condition of low-grade chronic inflammation that facilitates development of numerous comorbidities and dysregulation of brain homeostasis. It is reported that obesity can lead to behavioral alterations such as cognitive decline and depression-like behaviors both in humans and rodents. Saponins from panax japonicus (SPJ) have been reported to exhibit anti-inflammatory action in mouse model of diet-induced obesity. We evaluated the neuroprotection of SPJ on high fat diet (HFD) induced impaired behaviors such as memory deficit and depressive-like behaviors, and explored the underlying mechanisms. 6-week male Balb/c mice were divided into normal control group (NC, 17% total calories from fat), HFD group (60% total calories from fat), and HFD treated with SPJ groups (orally gavaged with dosages of 15 mg/kg and 45 mg/kg), respectively. After treatment for 16 weeks, behavioral tests were performed to evaluate the cognition and depression-like behaviors of the mice. The underling mechanisms of SPJ on HFD-induced impaired behaviors were investigated through histopathological observation, Western blot analysis and immunofluorescence. Our results showed that HFD-fed mice caused behavioral disorders, neuronal degeneration as well as elevated neuroinflammation, which was partly involved in NLRP3 inflammasome that finally resulted in decreased protein levels of AMPA receptors and down-regulated phosphorylated levels of CaMKII and CREB in cortex and hippocampus. All the above changes in cortex and hippocampus induced by HFD were mitigated by SPJ treatment. SPJ treatment alleviated HFD-induced recognitive impairment and depression-like behaviors of mice, which could be partly due to the capacity of SPJ to mitigate neuroinflammation through inhibition of NLRP3 inflammasome and upregulation of AMPA receptors signaling pathway.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neuint.2021.105098DOI Listing
September 2021

Rapid and sensitive detection of Vibrio alginolyticus pathogenic strains by real-time recombinase polymerase amplification.

Acta Biochim Biophys Sin (Shanghai) 2021 Jul;53(7):950-954

Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Marine Biological Resources and Environment, Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Marine Pharmaceutical Compound Screening, Co-Innovation Center of Jiangsu Marine Bio-industry Technology, School of Pharmacy, Jiangsu Ocean University, Lianyungang 222005, China.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/abbs/gmab051DOI Listing
July 2021

Investigating the Mechanism of Metabolic Resistance to Tribenuron-Methyl in (L.) Medik. by Full-Length Transcriptome Assembly Combined with RNA-Seq.

J Agric Food Chem 2021 Mar 17;69(12):3692-3701. Epub 2021 Mar 17.

College of Plant Protection, Shandong Agricultural University, Tai'an 271018 Shandong, China.

(L.) Medik. has evolved resistance to ALS-inhibiting herbicides on a large scale. Previous studies primarily focused on the target-site resistance (TSR), and the non-TSR (NTSR) is not well characterized. In this study, pre-treatment with the cytochrome P450 monooxygenase (P450) inhibitor malathion clearly reduced the tribenuron-methyl resistance in the resistant (R) population. After tribenuron-methyl treatment, the glutathione -transferase (GST) activity of R plants was significantly higher than that of susceptible (S) plants. The higher tribenuron-methyl metabolism in R plants was also confirmed by using LC-MS/MS analysis. Isoform sequencing (Iso-Seq) combined with RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq) was used to identify candidate genes involved in non-target metabolic resistance in this population. A total of 37 differentially expressed genes were identified, 11 of them constitutively upregulated in R plants, including three P450s, one GST, two glycosyltransferases, two ATP-binding cassette transporters, one oxidase, and two peroxidases. This study confirmed the metabolic tribenuron-methyl resistance in , and the transcriptome data obtained by Iso-Seq combined with RNA-Seq provide gene resources for understanding the molecular mechanism of NTSR in .
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.jafc.0c07512DOI Listing
March 2021

Immune Protective Evaluation Elicited by DNA Vaccination With Dense Granules Proteins in Mice.

Front Vet Sci 2021 26;8:638067. Epub 2021 Feb 26.

Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Marine Biological Resources and Environment, Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Marine Pharmaceutical Compound Screening, Co-Innovation Center of Jiangsu Marine Bio-industry Technology, Jiangsu Ocean University, Lianyungang, China.

, an obligate intracellular protozoan, is the major cause for neosporosis and brings serious economic losses to cattle breeding industries worldwide. After invasion, dense granules proteins are abundantly secreted and being important components of parasitophorous vacuole and intravacuolar network where survives and replicates. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the protective immunity induced by DNA vaccines with genes encoding dense granules proteins 1 (GRA1), GRA4, GRA9, GRA14, GRA17, and GRA23 against tachyzoites in BALB/C mice. Eukaryotic expressing plasmids of pcNcGRAs were constructed and the mice were intramuscularly immunized with pcNcGRAs followed by challenging infection with lethal doses of . Immune responses were evaluated through monitoring the levels of serum antibodies, measurement of lymphocyte proliferation, and secretion of cytokines. Immune protection assays were carried out through monitoring survival time, body weight, and parasite burden in the brains. Results showed that all the pcNcGRA DNA vaccines could trigger remarkably specific humoral and cellular responses, with higher levels of IgG and IgG2a antibodies as well as obviously increased secretion of Th1-type IFN- cytokines. The immune protective efficacy revealed that pcNcGRA4, pcNcGRA14, and pcNcGRA17 DNA vaccines could individually increase the survival rate to 50, 37.5, and 25% in comparison with 0% in the control group; prolong the survival time more than 20.88 ± 11.12, 18.88 ± 10.83, and 16.63 ± 10.66 days compared with the control group of 4 ± 1.31 days; and decrease parasite burden in the brains to 297.63 ± 83.77, 471.5 ± 110.74, and 592.13 ± 102.2 parasites/100 ng comparing with 1221.36 ± 269.59 parasites/100 ng in the control group. These findings indicated that NcGRA4, NcGRA14, and NcGRA17 are potential vaccine candidates; NcGRA4 displayed better performance in immune protective efficacy and could be further combined with other advantageous antigens applied to the development of safe and effective DNA vaccines against .
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fvets.2021.638067DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7953147PMC
February 2021

Improvement of a computer-aided alignment algorithm for the nonsymmetric off-axis reflective telescope.

Appl Opt 2021 Mar;60(8):2127-2140

Due to complications of the off-axis three-mirror anastigmat (TMA) telescope, each optical element in the off-axis TMA telescope is introduced with theoretical eccentricity and tilt. Moreover, the introduction of freeform surfaces and other optical elements with complex surface features generally causes the initial alignment accuracy of the optical path to be low. A large initial alignment error amplifies the sensitivity of the misalignment calculation accuracy to the measurement error of the Zernike coefficient, resulting in difficulty obtaining convergence results for a computer-aided alignment algorithm. Considering the above issues, the alignment sensitivity of each component in the optical path is analyzed in this. The large conditional number of the sensitivity matrix results in poor algorithm robustness. Thus, an adaptive damping factor least-squares algorithm model is proposed and derived to improve the efficiency of the classical least-squares algorithm. A method for piecewise optimization of the damping factor is also deduced. Experiments based on a 0.6 m off-axis TMA telescope verify the effectiveness of the algorithm. Simulation and integration experiments show that the proposed method can reduce the accuracy requirements of the initial alignment and improve the adaptability of Zernike coefficient measurement noise. The alignment procedure is carried out for three iterations, and the average of the five field-of-view wave aberration values is enhanced from 2.1 (RMS; =632.8) to 0.09 (average). The improved algorithm can solve the large initial alignment error of a nonsymmetrical off-axis reflective optical system with a freeform surface as well as the problem of the low success rate of the misalignment value due to low Zernike coefficient measurement accuracy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/AO.413533DOI Listing
March 2021

Evaluating the adsorption of Shanghai silty clay to Cd(II), Pb(II), As(V), and Cr(VI): kinetic, equilibrium, and thermodynamic studies.

Environ Monit Assess 2021 Feb 15;193(3):131. Epub 2021 Feb 15.

Department of Civil Engineering, Shanghai University, Shanghai, 200444, China.

The adsorption properties of Shanghai silty clay (SSC) towards heavy metal ions Cd(II), Pb(II), As(V), and Cr(VI) were investigated by batch experiments. The effects of solid-solution ratio, pH, temperature, reaction time, and metal concentration on sorption were analyzed. In order to better understand the adsorption mechanisms, X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and X-ray fluorescence (XRF) were used to analyze the soil specimen before and after sorption. Three adsorption kinetic models and three adsorption isotherm models were used to analyze the adsorption characteristics. Thermodynamic parameters including changes in the Gibbs free energy (ΔG), enthalpy (ΔH), and entropy (ΔS) were also calculated. Sorption capacity of SSC was compared with other clay minerals reported in the literatures. The results show that the selectivity sequence is Pb(II) > Cd(II) > As(V) > Cr(VI), with equilibrium sorption capacities of 26.46, 8.90, 2.80, and 1.85 mg g, respectively. Adsorption is largely effective on the clay surface rather than on the crystals. The clay surface turns to be flat and slippery after adsorption. The Langmuir model shows the best fit for Cd(II) and Pb(II) data, while Freundlich model is more suitable for As(V) and Cr(VI). The optimum solid-solution ratios for sorption of Cd(II), Pb(II), As(V), and Cr(VI) are 15, 6, 40, and 40 g L, respectively. The optimum pHs for Cd(II), Pb(II), As(V), and Cr(VI) adsorption are 9.0, 6.0, 7.0, and 2.0, respectively. The pseudo-second-order kinetic is found to be the dominant sorption mechanism of these four ions on SSC. For Cd(II) and Pb(II), both particle diffusion and film diffusion are rate-limiting factors, whereas for As(V) and Cr(VI), intraparticle diffusion is the rate-controlling factor. The thermodynamic analysis reveals that the adsorption of Cd(II) and Pb(II) is spontaneous and endothermic and the system disorder increases, while adsorption of As(V) and Cr(VI) is exothermic and the system disorder decreases. Compared with most clay minerals, natural SSC exhibits comparable adsorption capacity and thus can potentially be used as a landfill liner material to retard the migration of heavy metals.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10661-021-08904-7DOI Listing
February 2021

The Effects of Leaf Extracts of Four Tree Species on Seedlings Growth.

Front Plant Sci 2020 13;11:587579. Epub 2021 Jan 13.

College of Natural Resources and Environment, Northwest A&F University, Yangling, China.

Vegetation reconstruction is an urgent problem in fragile environment like coal mine subsidence areas. is an important eco-economic shrub species that promotes wind prevention, sand fixation as well as soil and water conservation. The natural regeneration of pure forests is difficult to achieve because of its low seed germination rate and weak seedling growth. A stereo-complex ecosystem could potentially promote the germination and seedling growth of and establish a steady mixed plantation consisting of trees and shrubs. Here, laboratory and pot experiments were conducted to assess the effect of four tree species on morphological and physiological indexes of . The laboratory experiment showed that seed germination and seedling growth from Yuyang County (YC-1) and Shenmu County (SC-6) were higher when plants were treated with the aqueous leaf extracts of , , and compared with at concentrations of 2.5% (E2.5) and 5% (E5). Furthermore, the donor leaf extract was more sensitive to YC-1 than to SC-6. The pot experiment showed that the E2.5 and E5 treatments with the aqueous leaf extracts on the three tree species had strong promoting effects of seedling length, root length, seedling fresh weight, root fresh weight, and ground diameter for YC-1. The activity of catalase of seedlings first increased and then decreased, while the activity of peroxidase, superoxide dismutase, roots, and the contents of soluble protein and chlorophyll decreased; the opposite patterns were observed for malondialdehyde, soluble sugar, cell membrane permeability, and proline were the opposite. Synthetical allelopathic effect index values of the leaf extracts of the three species on YC-1 were as follows: > > (E2.5 to E20). Therefore, and could be used to promote the growth of seedlings as well as for the construction of mixed plantations in coal mine degradation areas. Generally, this study provides new insight into the creation of stereo-complex ecosystems ( + and + ) in arid fragile environment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpls.2020.587579DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7873849PMC
January 2021

Icariin improves brain function decline in aging rats by enhancing neuronal autophagy through the AMPK/mTOR/ULK1 pathway.

Pharm Biol 2021 Dec;59(1):183-191

Medical College of China Three Gorges University, Yichang, P. R. Chinas.

Context: Icariin (ICA) is the main active ingredient of Maxim (Berberidaceae), which is used in the immune, reproductive, neuroendocrine systems, and anti-aging.

Objective: To evaluate the effect of ICA on natural aging rat.

Materials And Methods: 16-month-old Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were randomly divided into aging, low and high-dose ICA groups ( = 8); 6-month-old rats were taken as the adult control ( = 8). Rats were fed regular feed (aging and adult control) or feed containing ICA (ICA 2 and 6 mg/kg group) for 4 months. HE and Nissl staining were used to assess pathological changes. Western blot was used to test the expression of autophagy (LC3B, p62, Atg5, Beclin1) and p-AMPK, p-mTOR and p-ULK1 (ser 757). Immunofluorescence was used to detect the co-localization of LC3 and neurons.

Results: ICA improved neuronal degeneration associated with aging and increased the staining of Nissl bodies. Western blot showed that ICA up-regulated autophagy-related proteins LC3B (595%), Beclin1 (73.5%), p-AMPK (464%) protein ( < 0.05 vs. 20 M) in the cortex and hippocampus of aging rats, down-regulated the expression of p62 (56.9%), p-mTOR (53%) and p-ULK1 (ser 757) (65.4%) protein ( < 0.05 vs. 20 M). Immunofluorescence showed that the fluorescence intensity of LC3 decreased in the aging rat brain, but increased and mainly co-localized with neurons after ICA intervention.

Conclusions: Further research needs to verify the expression changes of AMPK/mTOR/ULK1 and the improvement effect of ICA in elderly. These results will further accelerate the applications of ICA and the treatment for senescence.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/13880209.2021.1878238DOI Listing
December 2021

Kir6.1 improves cardiac dysfunction in diabetic cardiomyopathy via the AKT-FoxO1 signalling pathway.

J Cell Mol Med 2021 Apr 6;25(8):3935-3949. Epub 2021 Feb 6.

Department of Cardiology, Chinese PLA General Hospital, Beijing, China.

Previous studies have shown that the expression of inwardly rectifying potassium channel 6.1 (Kir6.1) in heart mitochondria is significantly reduced in type 1 diabetes. However, whether its expression and function are changed and what role it plays in type 2 diabetic cardiomyopathy (DCM) have not been reported. This study investigated the role and mechanism of Kir6.1 in DCM. We found that the cardiac function and the Kir6.1 expression in DCM mice were decreased. We generated mice overexpressing or lacking Kir6.1 gene specifically in the heart. Kir6.1 overexpression improved cardiac dysfunction in DCM. Cardiac-specific Kir6.1 knockout aggravated cardiac dysfunction. Kir6.1 regulated the phosphorylation of AKT and Foxo1 in DCM. We further found that Kir6.1 overexpression also improved cardiomyocyte dysfunction and up-regulated the phosphorylation of AKT and FoxO1 in neonatal rat ventricular cardiomyocytes with insulin resistance. Furthermore, FoxO1 activation down-regulated the expression of Kir6.1 and decreased the mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm) in cardiomyocytes. FoxO1 inactivation up-regulated the expression of Kir6.1 and increased the ΔΨm in cardiomyocytes. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assay demonstrated that the Kir6.1 promoter region contains a functional FoxO1-binding site. In conclusion, Kir6.1 improves cardiac dysfunction in DCM, probably through the AKT-FoxO1 signalling pathway.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jcmm.16346DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8051713PMC
April 2021

Florasulam resistance status of flixweed (Descurainia sophia L.) and alternative herbicides for its chemical control in the North China plain.

Pestic Biochem Physiol 2021 Feb 14;172:104748. Epub 2020 Nov 14.

College of Plant Protection, Shandong Agricultural University, Tai'an 271018, Shandong, PR China; Key Laboratory of Pesticide Toxicology and Application Technique, Shandong Agricultural University, Tai'an 271018, Shandong, PR China. Electronic address:

Flixweed (Descurainia sophia L.) is widely distributed in winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) fields in the North China Plain and has evolved resistance to herbicides, including the acetolactate synthase (ALS) inhibitor florasulam. However, the florasulam resistance status of flixweed in the North China Plain is poorly understood, which hinders the integrated management of this weed in winter wheat production systems. Thus, 45 flixweed populations were collected in wheat fields in these areas, and their sensitivity to florasulam and ALS-inhibitor-resistant mutation diversity were assessed. Meanwhile, alternative herbicides/herbicide mixtures for the control of florasulam-resistant flixweed were screened and evaluated under greenhouse and field conditions. Of the populations, 30 showed florasulam resistance (RRR and RR), 9 had a high risk of evolving florasulam resistance (R?) and 6 were susceptible. These populations had 5.3 to 345.1-fold resistance to florasulam, and 4 ALS resistance mutations (P197H, P197S, P197T and W574L) were observed. The subsequent herbicide sensitivity assay showed that the SD-06 population (with ALS1 P197T and ALS2 W574L mutations) exhibited cross-resistance to all ALS inhibitors tested, but was sensitive to MCPA-Na, fluroxypyr, carfentrazone-ethyl and bipyrazone. Meanwhile, the other HN-07 population with non-target-site resistance (NTSR) also showed resistance to all tested ALS inhibitors, and it was "R?" to MCPA-Na while sensitive to fluroxypyr, carfentrazone-ethyl and bipyrazone. The field experiments were conducted at the research farm where the SD-06 population was collected, and the results suggested that florasulam at 3.75-4.5 g ai ha had little efficacy (0.6-12.1%), whereas MCPA-Na + carfentrazone-ethyl (87.1-91.2%) and bipyrazone+fluroxypyr (90.1-97.8%) controlled the resistant flixweed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.pestbp.2020.104748DOI Listing
February 2021

Design, synthesis, and biological evaluation of 1,3,6,7-tetrahydroxyxanthone derivatives as phosphoglycerate mutase 1 inhibitors.

Bioorg Med Chem Lett 2021 03 26;36:127820. Epub 2021 Jan 26.

Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Drug Design and Optimization, Department of Medicinal Chemistry, School of Pharmacy, China Pharmaceutical University, Nanjing 210009, China. Electronic address:

Phosphoglycerate mutase 1 (PGAM1) is a promising target for cancer treatment. Herein, we found that α-mangostin and γ-mangostin exhibited moderate PGAM1 inhibitory activities, with IC of 7.2 μM and 1.2 µM, respectively. Based on α-mangostin, a series of 1,3,6,7-tetrahydroxyxanthone derivatives were designed, synthesized and evaluated in vitro for PGAM1 inhibition. The significant structure-activity relationships (SAR) and a fresh binding mode of this kind of new compounds were also clearly described. This study provides valuable information for further optimization of PGAM1 inhibitors with 1,3,6,7-tetrahydroxyxanthone backbone or de novo design of novel inhibitor.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bmcl.2021.127820DOI Listing
March 2021

1% Isoflurane and 1.2 μg/ml of Propofol: A Combination of Anesthetics That Causes the Least Damage to Hypoxic Neurons.

Front Aging Neurosci 2020 16;12:591938. Epub 2020 Nov 16.

Department of Anesthesiology, The Third Central Clinical College of Tianjin Medical University, Tianjin, China.

: Aging-related impairment of cerebral blood flow regulation leads to the disruption of neuronal micro-environmental homeostasis. Anesthetics should be carefully selected for aging patients since they have less cognition capacity. Effects and mechanisms of propofol or isoflurane have been widely investigated. However, how different combinations of propofol and isoflurane affect neurons and the mechanism still needs to be demonstrated. : We cultured rat hippocampal neurons and established a hypoxic injury model to imitate the micro-environment of aging brains. Three different combinations of propofol and isoflurane were applied to find out an optimum group Cell Counting Kit-8 (CCK8) assay, lactic acid dehydrogenase (LDH) assay, real-time qPCR, and immunofluorescence of key proteins. Then BiP was silenced by small interfering RNA (siRNA) to explore the mechanism of how isoflurane and propofol affect neurons. Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress was measured by Western blot and immunofluorescence. To detect GABAR α1 subunit proteostasis and its function, real-time qPCR, immunoprecipitation, and Western blot were carried out. : Hypoxic neurons showed no different changes on cell viability, LDH leakage, and ER stress after treatment with 1% isoflurane and 1.2 μg/ml of propofol. Hypoxic neurons showed a sharp increase of LDH leakage and ER stress and a decrease of cell viability after treatment with 1.4% isoflurane and 0.6 μg/ml of propofol or 0.5% isoflurane and 1.8 μg/ml of propofol. After knockdown of BiP, the application of 1% isoflurane and 1.2 μg/ml of propofol led to the decrease of GABAR α1 subunit protein content and viability of cell, as well as aggravation of ER stress. : A combination of 1% isoflurane and 1.2 μg/ml of propofol causes the least damage than do other dosages of both two drugs, and endogenous BiP plays an important role in this process.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fnagi.2020.591938DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7701289PMC
November 2020

Effects of the novel HPPD-inhibitor herbicide QYM201 on enzyme activity and microorganisms, and its degradation in soil.

Ecotoxicology 2021 Jan 22;30(1):80-90. Epub 2020 Nov 22.

College of Plant Protection, Shandong Agricultural University, 271018, Tai'an, PR China.

QYM201 is a 4-hydroxyphenylpyruvate dioxygenase (HPPD) inhibiting herbicide recently registered in China for controlling grass and broadleaf weeds in wheat. It is a novel herbicide, and its potential harm to soil ecosystems has not yet been reported. This study investigates the influence of QYM201 on soil enzyme activity and microorganism quantities in two different soils at concentrations of 0.1, 1, and 5 mg kg soil. Results indicate that QYM201 initially inhibited soil protease, urease, and sucrase activity and this effect increased with concentration. During the later stages of incubation, inhibitory effects gradually weakened and by the end of the experiment (45 days), enzyme activity was restored to control levels. Catalase activity was stimulated by QYM201, with significant differences observed between the QYM201-treated groups and the control at the onset of exposure. This stimulation effect decreased during the later stages of the experiment. However, catalase activity was still significantly higher at the end of the experiment compared to the control. The effects of QYM201 on soil microorganisms differed. Initially, bacteria and actinomycetes quantities were decreased by QYM201 (10 days). As the incubation progressed, microorganism quantities in the lower concentration groups (0.1 and 1 mg kg soil) were restored to control levels, while those of the high concentration group (5 mg kg soil) did not fully recover. QYM201 did not significantly impact the quantity of fungi. The half-life and degradation rate constant (k) of QYM201 for the two studied soil types were 23.1 days and 16.1 days, and 0.030 and 0.043 day, respectively.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10646-020-02302-4DOI Listing
January 2021

Combination of Isoflurane and Propofol as General Anesthesia During Orthopedic Surgery of Perioperative Cerebral Hypoperfusion Rats to Avoid Cognitive Impairment.

Front Med (Lausanne) 2020 20;7:549081. Epub 2020 Oct 20.

Tianjin Research Institute of Anesthesiology, Tianjin, China.

Perioperative cerebral hypoperfusion (CH) is common, although the underlying mechanism of cognitive impairment that results due to perioperative cerebral hypoperfusion remains to be determined. Isoflurane anesthesia induces neuronal injury via endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, whereas a sub-anesthetic dose of propofol improves postoperative cognitive function. However, the effects of the combination of isoflurane plus propofol, which is a common aesthetic combination administered to patients, on ER stress and cognition remain unknown. We sought to determine the effects of isoflurane plus propofol on ER stress and cognitive function in rats insulted by cerebral hypoperfusion. Ligation of the bilateral common carotid arteries (CCA) was adopted to develop the cerebral hypoperfusion rat model. A second surgery, open reduction and internal fixation (ORIF), requiring general anesthesia, was performed 30 days later so that the effects of anesthetics on the cognitive function of CH rats could be assessed. Rats received isoflurane alone (1.9%), propofol alone (40 mg·kg·h) or a combination of isoflurane and propofol (1% and 20 mg·kg·h or 1.4% and 10 mg·kg·h). Behavioral studies (contextual fear conditioning [FC] test), histological analyses (Nissl staining) and biochemical analyses (western blotting of the harvested rat brain tissues) were employed. Hippocampus-dependent memory of rats in group IP (1% isoflurane plus 20 mg·kg·h propofol) was not impaired, and expression level of γ-aminobutyric acid A type receptor α1 subunit, a key cognition-related protein, remained normal. ER stress alleviator, binding immunoglobulin protein, increased extremely while ER stress transcription factor, C/EBP homologous protein, showed no statistical difference compared with the control group. Numbers of surviving neurons confirmed the substantial neuronal damage caused by propofol or isoflurane alone. These data suggest that ER stress contributes to the underlying mechanism of cognitive impairment and that the combination of isoflurane and propofol did not aggravate cognitive impairment and ER stress in aging rats with CH that were further subjected to ORIF surgery.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fmed.2020.549081DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7646644PMC
October 2020

Plasmonic Enhanced Reactive Oxygen Species Activation on Low-Work-Function Tungsten Nitride for Direct Near-Infrared Driven Photocatalysis.

Small 2020 Nov 12;16(45):e2004557. Epub 2020 Oct 12.

School of Instrumentation Science and Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin, 150080, P. R. China.

Realizing near-infrared (NIR) driven photocatalytic reaction is one of the promising strategies to promote the solar energy utilization and photocatalytic efficiencies. However, effective reactive oxygen species (ROS) activation under NIR irradiation remains to be great challenge for nearly all previously reported photocatalysts. Herein, the cubic-phase tungsten nitride (WN) with strong plasmonic NIR absorption and low-work function (≈3.59 eV) is proved to be able to mediate direct ROS activation by both of experimental observation and theoretical simulation. The cubic WN nanocubes (NCs) are synthesized via the hydrothermal-ammonia nitridation process and its NIR-driven photocatalytic properties, including photocatalytic degradation, hydroxylation, and de-esterification, are reported for the first time in this work. The 3D finite element simulation results demonstrate the size dependent and wavelength tuned plasmonic NIR absorption of the WN NCs. The NIR-driven photocatalytic mechanism of WN NCs is proposed based on density functional theory (DFT) calculated electronic structure and facet dependent O (or H O) molecular activation, radicals scavenging test, spin trapped electron paramagnetic resonance measurements, and ultraviolet photoelectronic spectrum (UPS). Overall, the results in this work pave a way for the application of low-work-function materials as highly reactive NIR photocatalyst.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/smll.202004557DOI Listing
November 2020

A practical method to remove perfluorooctanoic acid from aqueous media using layer double hydride system: a prospect for environmental remediation.

Environ Technol 2020 Sep 24:1-12. Epub 2020 Sep 24.

Institute of Groundwater and Earth Science, Jinan University, Guangzhou, China.

Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) is an organic compound that is persistent and very toxic to living organisms and the environment. In this study, two kinds of Mg-Al-layered double hydroxides (namely LDH-1 and 2) were synthesized using hydrothermal and dry grinding methods and used to adsorb PFOA from aqueous solution. The kinetic study revealed that a pseudo-2nd order model was the best method for describing the kinetics of sorption, which could emphasize the chemical interaction between PFOAs and LDHs. Among the models tested, the Freundlich model was the best fit for the sorption isotherms. The removal rates of PFOA adsorption by LDH-1 and LDH-2 were 90% and 98.9%, respectively, in the lowest time compared with similar past studies using different adsorbents. The currently synthesized LDHs showed the least equilibrium time, without thermal treatment and the need for activation. The research bears prospects for removing PFOA from aqueous media, thereby demonstrating the potential of employing synthesized LDHs in a fixed-bed filter for the environmental remediation of PFOA-contaminated wastewater bodies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09593330.2020.1812733DOI Listing
September 2020

Enriched environment improves sevoflurane-induced cognitive impairment during late-pregnancy via hippocampal histone acetylation.

Braz J Med Biol Res 2020 17;53(10):e9861. Epub 2020 Aug 17.

Department of Anesthesiology, The Third Central Clinical College of Tianjin Medical University, Tianjin Third Central Hospital, Nankai University Affinity the Third Central Hospital, Tianjin Institute of Hepatobiliary Disease, Tianjin Key Laboratory of Extracorporeal Life Support for Critical Diseases, Tianjin, China.

Fetal exposure to sevoflurane induces long-term cognitive impairment. Histone acetylation regulates the transcription of genes involved in memory formation. We investigated whether sevoflurane exposure during late-pregnancy induces neurocognitive impairment in offspring, and if this is related to histone acetylation dysfunction. We determined whether the effects could be reversed by an enriched environment (EE). Pregnant rats were exposed to 2.5% sevoflurane or control for 1, 3, or 6 h on gestational day 18 (G18). Sevoflurane reduced brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), acetyl histone H3 (Ac-H3), and Ac-H4 levels and increased histone deacetylases-2 (HDAC2) and HDAC3 levels in the hippocampus of the offspring on postnatal day 1 (P1) and P35. Long-term potentiation was inhibited, and spatial learning and memory were impaired in the 6-h sevoflurane group at P35. EE alleviated sevoflurane-induced cognitive dysfunction and increased hippocampal BDNF, Ac-H3, and Ac-H4. Exposure to 2.5% sevoflurane for 3 h during late-pregnancy decreased hippocampal BDNF, Ac-H3, and Ac-H4 in the offspring but had no effect on cognitive function. However, when the exposure time was 6 h, impaired spatial learning and memory were linked to reduced BDNF, Ac-H3, and Ac-H4, which could be reversed by EE.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/1414-431x20209861DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7433840PMC
September 2020

Enhancing peroxymonosulfate activation of Fe-Al layered double hydroxide by dissolved organic matter: Performance and mechanism.

Water Res 2020 Oct 27;185:116246. Epub 2020 Jul 27.

School of Environment and Energy, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou Higher Education Mega Centre, Guangzhou 510006, PR China; The Key Lab of Pollution Control and Ecosystem Restoration in Industry Clusters, Ministry of Education, Guangzhou 510006, PR China.

In this study, peroxymonosulfate (PMS) activation of FeAl layered double hydroxide (FeAl-LDH) was enhanced by compounding dissolved organic matter (DOM). The characterization and catalytic performance of FeAl-LDH and DOM-LDH were investigated. The results revealed that the physicochemical properties of DOM-LDH were superior to FeAl-LDH: (i) The higher proportion of Fe(II) was found in DOM-LDH, mainly existed in the form of trans-coordinated octahedral Fe(II); (ii) DOM-LDH showed a flower-like morphology with larger specific surface area, pore width and pore volume; (iii) More functional groups and surface oxygen vacancies were found in DOM-LDH. Moreover, DOM promoted the process of PMS activation by accelerating Fe(III) reduction with humic acid-like compounds. The results of electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) and quenching experiments indicated that more reactive oxygen species (ROS) were generated in DOM-LDH/PMS system, •OH was considered as the dominant ROS for Bisphenol A (BPA) degradation. As a result, the degradation efficiency for BPA (20 mg L) in FeAl-LDH/PMS system was increased from 60% to 93% within 60 min after the introduction of DOM. This work is expected to facilitate the design and application of Fe(II)/PMS system for environmental protection.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.watres.2020.116246DOI Listing
October 2020

Effect of different doses of aspirin on the prognosis of Kawasaki disease.

Pediatr Rheumatol Online J 2020 Jun 11;18(1):48. Epub 2020 Jun 11.

Children's Heart Center, The Second Affiliated Hospital and Yuying Children's Hospital, Institute of Cardiovascular Development and Translational Medicine, Wenzhou Medical University, Wenzhou, 325027, Zhejiang, China.

Background: Kawasaki disease (KD) is the leading cause of acquired heart disease in children, and is steadily increasing in prevalence in East Asia. KD is often complicated by coronary artery damage, including dilatation and/or aneurysms. Aspirin is used with intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) to prevent coronary artery abnormalities in KD. However, the role and optimal dose of aspirin remain controversial. Identifying the dose of aspirin in the acute phase will facilitate development of a more appropriate treatment strategy in improving the outcome of KD.

Methods: A total of 2369 patients with KD were retrospectively analyzed and divided into three groups according to the aspirin dose: 510 in group 1 (20-29 mg/kg/day), 1487 in group 2 (30-39 mg/kg/day), and 372 in group 3 (40-50 mg/kg/day). The differences in laboratory data, rate of IVIG resistance and coronary artery damage were compared among the groups.

Results: There was no difference in the incidence of coronary artery aneurysms (CAAs) in group 1 compared with groups 2 and 3 (2 weeks of illness: 2.94% vs. 1.90% vs. 3.36%; 3-4 weeks of illness: 1.94% vs. 2.32% vs. 2.65%). The risk for developing CAA was not reduced at 2 weeks of illness onset in groups 2 and 3 compared with group 1 (adjusted OR = 1.05, 95% confidence interval: 0.34-3.18; aOR = 1.81, 95% CI: 0.42-7.83). Furthermore, the risk for developing CAA was not reduced at 3-4 weeks of illness onset in groups 2 and 3 (aOR = 2.63, 95% CI: 0.61-11.28; aOR = 0.52, 95% CI: 0.03-9.54). There was no significant difference in the rate of IVIG resistance among the groups. Platelet levels after IVIG treatment in group 1 were significantly lower than those in groups 2 and 3 (522.29 × 10/L, 544.69 × 10/L, and 557.77 × 10/L, p = 0.013). C reactive protein of the 30-40 mg/kg*day group was slightly higher than the other two groups. (7.76, 8.00, and 7.01 mg/L, p = 0.028).

Conclusions: Aspirin at the dose of 20-29 mg/kg/day dose not increase the risk of coronary artery damage and IVIG resistance compared with the dose of 30-50 mg/kg/day. This low dose may have a lower risk for a potential effect on liver function.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12969-020-00432-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7291457PMC
June 2020

Optimal water and fertilizer applications improve growth of Tamarix chinensis in a coal mine degraded area under arid conditions.

Physiol Plant 2021 Jun 2;172(2):371-390. Epub 2020 Jul 2.

Agri-Food & Biosciences Institute, Newforge Lane, BT9 5PX, Belfast, UK.

Coal-mined areas are often associated with hostile environmental conditions where the scarcity of water and key nutrient resources negatively affect plant growth and development. In this study we specifically addressed how different combinations of water (W), nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) might affect morpho-physiological and biochemical attributes of a native shrub species, Tamarix chinensis, grown on coal mine spoils. Our results show that under greenhouse conditions the application of moderate-to-high doses of W, N and P considerably improved growth-associated parameters (i.e. plant height, stem diameter, dry weight), as well as gas-exchange parameters, photosynthetic pigment contents and leaf water status of T. chinensis. Under field conditions high W and low N, P doses led to significant increases in plant growth-associated traits, gas-exchange parameters and leaf water status. Plant growth was generally higher under greenhouse conditions mainly because seedlings faced multiple stress when growing under field conditions. Low W-regime, regardless of N-P additions, improved osmotic adjustments in leaf tissues and also boosted the activity of several antioxidant enzymes to reduce the oxidative stress associated with W scarcity under greenhouse conditions. Importantly, our study shows how maximum growth performance of T. chinensis under field conditions was achieved at W, N and P doses of 150 mm year , 80 kg ha and 40 kg ha , respectively. Our findings suggest that achieving optimal rates of W, N and P application is crucial for promoting the ecological restoration of coal-mined areas with T. chinensis under arid environmental conditions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/ppl.13147DOI Listing
June 2021

An innovative method for screening and evaluating the degree of diabetic retinopathy and drug treatment based on artificial intelligence algorithms.

Pharmacol Res 2020 09 2;159:104986. Epub 2020 Jun 2.

Cardiovascular Disease Centre, Xiyuan Hospital of China Academy of Chinese Medical Sciences, Beijing, 100091, China. Electronic address:

Current methods of evaluating the degree of diabetic retinopathy are highly subjective and have no quantitative standard. To objectively evaluate the slight changes in tissue structure during the early stage of retinal diseases, a subjective interpretation and qualitative analysis of the pathological sections of retinal HE in diabetic animals is required for screening and evaluating the degree of diabetic retinopathy and drug efficacy. To develop an innovative method for screening and evaluating the degree of diabetic retinopathy and drug treatment based on artificial intelligence algorithms. Based on the change law of the early nerve fiber layer and the ganglion cells, we get disparate characteristics of the microscopic image of diabetes animal retina HE slices. Using image recognition and deep learning methods on these HE slices, we can identify the changes in the ganglion cells and nerve fiber layer for diagnosing early retinopathy and evaluated the therapeutic effect of the potential drugs. We conduct quantitative calculation per unit length of the nerve fiber layer and total area of the nerve fiber layer to identify biology significance of edema. Additionally, we also perform quantitative calculation with the number of unit area ganglion cells to identify the section in biology cell hyperplasia. Finally, we get the significance of quantitative calculation on the unit cell area to identify ganglion cell shriveling in biology. In addition to the evaluation of the disease degree and changes, we also obtained retinal HE sections after different drug interventions and evaluated the therapeutic effect of the drugs. This study presents a novel quantitative method for screening and evaluating of diabetic retinopathy and drug efficacy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.phrs.2020.104986DOI Listing
September 2020

Fine-tuning of soil water and nutrient fertilizer levels for the ecological restoration of coal-mined spoils using Elaeagnus angustifolia.

J Environ Manage 2020 Sep 5;270:110855. Epub 2020 Jun 5.

Key Laboratory of Southern Vegetable Crop Genetic Improvement in Ministry of Agriculture, College of Horticulture, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing, 210095, People's Republic of China; Department of Horticulture, Faculty of Agriculture, Sher-e-Bangla Agricultural University, Dhaka, 1207, Bangladesh. Electronic address:

Coal mining activities remain of great environmental concern because of several negative impacts on soil ecosystems. Appropriate revegetation interventions of coal-spoiled lands can provide environmental management solutions to restore soil degraded ecosystems. The present study addressed the potential of the pioneer woody species, Elaeagnus angustifolia, in the restoration of coal-mined spoils under a range of different water (W) levels and nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) applications. Our results show how moderate applications of N (N = 60 mg N kg soil) and P (P = 90 mg P kg soil) fertilizers led either to maximum or minimum growth performance of E. angustifolia depending on whether W was applied at very high (W = 80% field capacity) or very low (W = 40% field capacity) levels suggesting that W was the main limiting factor for plant growth. Very low-W regime (WNP) also caused significant reduction of photosynthetic parameters, including net photosynthetic rate, transpiration rate and water use efficiency. The combination of high W-N doses with low P doses (WNP) positively influenced gas-exchange parameters, chlorophyll and carotenoid contents. Seedlings treated with low-W and -N doses (WNP) showed highest increases in malondialdehyde content and lowest levels of relative water content (RWC). Decreases in malondialdehyde content and increases in RWC were observed following a gradual increment of W and N doses, indicating that high W and N doses contributed to drought tolerance of E. angustifolia by protecting cell membranes and increasing water status. Low-W and -N applications considerably increased the activities of antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase, catalase, and peroxidase) and the contents of proline and soluble sugars, suggesting that E. angustifolia developed defensive strategies to avoid damage induced by water scarcity. Results from heatmap and principal component analyses confirmed that W and N were the main clustering factors, and both N and P performed well at high-W dose. The optimum growth performance of E. angustifolia was found under a combination of W level at 66.0% of field capacity, N dose of 74.0 mg kg soil, and P dose of 36.0 mg kg soil. Our findings demonstrate how optimum growth performance of E. angustifolia can be achieved by fine-tuning doses of W, N, and P resources, and how this in turn could greatly support the ecological restoration of coal-mined degraded environments.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvman.2020.110855DOI Listing
September 2020

Rapidly sequence-controlled electrosynthesis of organometallic polymers.

Nat Commun 2020 05 21;11(1):2530. Epub 2020 May 21.

State Key Laboratory of Polymer Physics and Chemistry, Changchun Institute of Applied Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changchun, 130022, China.

Single rich-stimuli-responsive organometallic polymers are considered to be the candidate for ultrahigh information storage and anti-counterfeiting security. However, their controllable synthesis has been an unsolved challenge. Here, we report the rapidly sequence-controlled electrosynthesis of organometallic polymers with exquisite insertion of multiple and distinct monomers. Electrosynthesis relies on the use of oxidative and reductive C-C couplings with the respective reaction time of 1 min. Single-monomer-precision propagation does not need protecting and deprotecting steps used in solid-phase synthesis, while enabling the uniform synthesis and sequence-defined possibilities monitored by both UV-vis spectra and cyclic voltammetry. Highly efficient electrosynthesis possessing potentially automated production can incorporate an amount of available metal and ligand species into a single organometallic polymer with complex architectures and functional versatility, which is proposed to have ultrahigh information storage and anti-counterfeiting security with low-cost coding and decoding processes at the single organometallic polymer level.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-020-16255-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7242481PMC
May 2020

Discovery of Aryl Formyl Piperidine Derivatives as Potent, Reversible, and Selective Monoacylglycerol Lipase Inhibitors.

J Med Chem 2020 06 29;63(11):5783-5796. Epub 2020 May 29.

Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Drug Design and Optimization, Department of Medicinal Chemistry, School of Pharmacy, China Pharmaceutical University, Nanjing 211198, China.

Most of the current monoacylglycerol lipase (MAGL) inhibitors function by an irreversible mechanism of action, causing a series of side effects. Herein, starting from irreversible inhibitors, 25 compounds were synthesized and evaluated for MAGL inhibition, among which, compound showed the most potent inhibitory activity (IC = 15 nM). Crucially, docking studies demonstrated that the -chlorine-substituted aniline fragment occupied a hydrophobic subpocket enclosed by side chains of Val191, Tyr194, Val270, and Lys273, which creatively identify a new key anchoring point for the development of new MAGL inhibitors. Furthermore, evaluation innovatively revealed that this reversible inhibitor significantly ameliorated depressive-like behaviors induced by reserpine. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time that reversible inhibitors of MAGL were developed to support MAGL as a potential therapeutic target for depression.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.jmedchem.9b02137DOI Listing
June 2020

A New Rat Model of Chronic Cerebral Hypoperfusion Resulting in Early-Stage Vascular Cognitive Impairment.

Front Aging Neurosci 2020 15;12:86. Epub 2020 Apr 15.

Medical College of Nankai University, Nankai University, Tianjin, China.

Objective: Currently, most models of vascular cognitive impairment are established by occluding the carotid arteries uni- or bilaterally to reduce the cerebral blood flow mimicking chronic cerebral hypoxia. Due to the sudden blood flow interruption, a gradual narrowing of the carotid artery cannot be completely imitated. This paper aims to establish a bilateral carotid stenosis model with mild cognitive dysfunction and mild white matter changes to simulate patients with vascular predementia.

Methods: Aged Wistar rats (18 months old) underwent either bilateral common carotid artery stenosis (BCAS) or occlusion (BCAO) surgery or a sham operation (control group). The cerebral blood flow in the frontal cortex was measured using Doppler flowmetry. Thirty days after surgery, cognitive function impairments were determined with the Morris water maze; cerebral magnetic resonance imaging was performed to detect changes in fractional anisotropy to assess white matter injuries, and histological studies were performed.

Results: The aged rats in the BCAS group showed a more gradual cerebral blood flow reduction and a lower mortality rate (11%) compared to rats in the BCAO group. The water maze test revealed a more marginal impairment affecting spatial learning and memory in rats with BCAS than in rats with BCAO. Diffusion tensor imaging detected white matter injuries in the hippocampus and cerebral cortex of BCAS rats. Particularly, a small portion of nerve fibers of the lateral somatosensory cortex was significantly different between rats of the BCAO and BCAS groups. In the BCAS group, the microscopic structure of the hippocampal CA1 region changed slightly after 30 days and sustained a slight mitochondrial crista crack. Fluorescence staining indicated that the number of GFAP-positive cells was increased in rat brains of the BCAS group, and this phenomenon was even more pronounced in the BCAO group. The hnRNPA2/B1 and GABAR-α1 expression levels were significantly decreased in the hippocampus of rats with BCAS compared to those of controls.

Conclusion: Severe bilateral carotid stenosis induced mild cognitive dysfunction and slight structural changes in the brains of aged rats. Thus, a chronic cerebral hypoperfusion model was successfully established.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fnagi.2020.00086DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7174718PMC
April 2020

Early-Life Stress Induced Epigenetic Changes of Corticotropin-Releasing Factor Gene in Anorexic Low Body Weight-Selected Chicks.

Life (Basel) 2020 Apr 27;10(5). Epub 2020 Apr 27.

Department of Animal and Poultry Sciences, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, VA 24061, USA.

The expression of neuropeptide Y () in the arcuate nucleus (ARC) and corticotropin-releasing factor () in the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) were increased when low body weight-selected (LWS) line chicks, which are predisposed to anorexia, were subjected to a combination of nutritional and thermal stressors at hatch. We hypothesized that such changes resulted from epigenetic modifications. We determined global DNA methylation, DNA methyltransferase (DNMT) activity, and methylation near the promoter regions of and , in the hypothalamus of LWS chicks on day 5 post-hatch. Stress exposure at hatch induced global hypermethylation and increased DNMT activity in the ARC but not PVN. In the PVN of stressed LWS chicks, there was decreased methylation of a CpG site located at the core binding domain of methyl cytosine binding domain protein 2 (MBD2), near the gene promoter. We then demonstrated that this was associated with disrupted binding of MBD2. There was also reduced utilization of yolk reserves and lean and fat masses in chicks that were stress-exposed. These findings provide novel insights on molecular mechanisms through which stressful events induce or intensify anorexia in predisposed individuals and a novel molecular target for further studies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/life10050051DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7281629PMC
April 2020
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