Publications by authors named "Jinsong Liang"

31 Publications

Review on strategies of close-to-natural wetland restoration and a brief case plan for a typical wetland in northern China.

Chemosphere 2021 Jul 13;285:131534. Epub 2021 Jul 13.

Beijing Engineering Research Center of Process Pollution Control, Institute of Process Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 100190, China; University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 100049, China.

Wetlands play an important role in sustaining ecosystems on the earth, which regulate water resources, adjust local climate and produce food for human beings, etc. However, wetlands are facing huge challenges due to human activities and other natural evolution, such as area shrinkage, function weakening and biodiversity decrease, and so on, therefore, some wetlands need to be urgently restored. In this study, the main technology components of close-to-natural restoration of wetlands were summarized. The ecological water requirement and water resource allocation can be optimized for the water balance between social, economy and ecology, which is a key prerequisite for maintaining wetland ecosystem. The pollution of wetland sediments and soils can be assessed by various indicators to provide the scientific basis for natural restoration of wetland base, and suitable strategies should be taken according to the actual conditions of wetland bases. The hydrological connectivity in wetlands and with related water system can be numerically simulated to make the optimal plan for improvement of hydrological connectivity. The ecological restoration of wetlands with the synergetic function of plants, animals and microorganisms was summarized, to improve the quality of wetland water environment and maintain the ecosystem stability. Based on the wetland close-to-natural restoration strategies, a brief ecological restoration plan for a typical wetland, Zaozhadian Wetland, near Xiong'an New Area in the north China was proposed from water resource guarantee, base pollution management, hydrological connectivity improvement and biological restoration. The close-to-natural restoration shows more effective, sustainable and long-lasting and thus a practical prospect.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2021.131534DOI Listing
July 2021

Characteristics of TCM Constitution and Related Biomarkers for Mild Cognitive Impairment.

Neuropsychiatr Dis Treat 2021 20;17:1115-1124. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Department of Acupuncture and Moxibustion, The First Affiliated Hospital of Guangxi University of Chinese Medicine, Nanning, 530023, People's Republic of China.

Introduction: The incidence of Alzheimer's disease is on the rise, early detection of cognitive impairment of the elderly is very important. In traditional Chinese medicine, constitution is related to the susceptibility of the human body to diseases. Based on the theory of constitution of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), the human population can be classified into 9 constitutions. However, little is known about the characteristics of medical constitution and related biomarkers in subjects with mild cognitive impairment (MCI).

Methods: We measured the TCM Constitution of 214 subjects by using the Constitution in Chinese Medicine Questionnaire (CCMQ). MMSE and MoCA were used to assess cognitive function. The subjects were divided into mild cognitive impairment group (MCI, n = 152) and normal control group (NC, n = 62). The levels of serum Hcy and serum/urine 8-iso-PGF 2α were determined.

Results: 1) It was found that there was a significant difference in constitution types between MCI and NC. There were significant differences in MMSE and MoCA score, serum Hcy and serum/urine 8-iso-PGF 2a levels between the two groups. 2) In logistic regression analysis, the variables with statistical significance were TCM Constitution of Yang-Deficient, Phlegm-Dampness, Blood-Stasis and abnormal increase of Hcy (OR>1). 3) The MoCA scores had a positive correlation with the MMSE. A statistically significant inverse association was found between serum Hcy, blood and urine 8-iso-PGF 2a and scores of cognitive assessment in MCI.

Conclusion: Constitution types (Yang-Deficient, Phlegm-Dampness and Blood-Stasis) and abnormal serum Hcy elevation can be used as risk factors for MCI. MoCA scores can serve to detect MCI at early stage. Serum/urine 8-iso-PGF 2α has a certain relationship with MCI. Higher levels of serum/urine 8-iso-PGF 2α are more likely to be associated with MCI risk.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/NDT.S290692DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8068505PMC
April 2021

Effect of substrate load on anaerobic fermentation of rice straw with rumen liquid as inoculum: Hydrolysis and acidogenesis efficiency, enzymatic activities and rumen bacterial community structure.

Waste Manag 2021 Apr 23;124:235-243. Epub 2021 Feb 23.

College of Environmental Science & Engineering, Beijing Forestry University, Beijing 100083, China.

Rumen liquid is excellent to effectively degrade lignocellulose. In this study, the suitable rice straw load during anaerobic fermentation of rice straw with rumen liquid as inoculum was explored to improve volatile fatty acid (VFA) production. At 10.0% rice straw load, the highest VFA concentration reached 10821.4 mg/L, and acetic acid and propionic acid were the main components. In 10.0% rice straw load system, high concentration of soluble chemical oxygen demand (SCOD) was also observed, and the enzymatic activities at 48 h were higher than those at other rice straw loads. At 10.0% rice straw load, lower diversity and richness of rumen bacteria were found than those at other rice straw loads. Bacteroides, Prevotella, and Ruminococcus were the main rumen bacteria during rice straw degradation, and the rumen bacteria might secret effective lignocellulolytic enzymes to enhance the hydrolysis and acidogenesis of rice straw. The determination of suitable rice straw load will be beneficial to the application of rumen liquid as inoculum in actual production.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.wasman.2021.02.017DOI Listing
April 2021

Epilithic biofilm as a reservoir for functional virulence factors in wastewater-dominant rivers after WWTP upgrade.

J Environ Sci (China) 2021 Mar 21;101:27-35. Epub 2020 Aug 21.

Key Laboratory of Drinking Water Science and Technology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100085, China; Center for Water and Ecology, State Key Joint Laboratory of Environment Simulation and Pollution Control, School of Environment, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, China.

Virulence factors (VFs) confer upon pathogens the ability to cause various types of damage or diseases. Wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) are important point sources for the emission of pathogens and VFs into receiving rivers. Conventional WWTP upgrades are often implemented to improve the water quality of receiving ecosystems. However, knowledge on the pathogens, VFs, and health risks to receiving aquatic ecosystems after upgrade remains limited. In this study, we investigated detailed pathogenic information, including taxa, pathogenicity, and health risk, in two wastewater-dominant rivers after WWTP upgrade. Using 16S rRNA gene sequencing, we screened 14 potential pathogens in water and epilithic biofilm samples, though they were significantly more enriched in the biofilms. Combining 16S rRNA and metagenomic sequencing data, we identified Pseudomonas and Aeromonas as the dominant pathogenic taxa carrying functional VFs (e.g., mobility and offensive) in the epilithic biofilm. Moreover, strong pathogen-specific VF-host co-occurrence events were observed in the epilithic biofilm samples, indicating the importance of biofilms as reservoirs and vehicles for VFs. Further, we demonstrated that mobility VF is crucial for biofilm formation and pathogens in biofilm carrying offensive VF may be highly invasive. Quantification and health risk assessment suggested that the skin contact risk of P. aeruginosa carrying VFs was higher than the acceptable probability of 10 in both water and epilithic biofilm samples, which may threaten ecological and human health.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jes.2020.05.014DOI Listing
March 2021

Transformation of bacterial community structure in rumen liquid anaerobic digestion of rice straw.

Environ Pollut 2021 Jan 21;269:116130. Epub 2020 Nov 21.

College of Environmental Science & Engineering, Beijing Forestry University, Beijing, 100083, China.

Rumen liquid can effectively degrade lignocellulosic biomass, in which rumen microorganisms play an important role. In this study, transformation of bacterial community structure in rumen liquid anaerobic digestion of rice straw was explored. Results showed that rice straw was efficiently hydrolyzed and acidified, and the degradation efficiency of cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin reached 46.2%, 60.4%, and 12.9%, respectively. The concentration of soluble chemical oxygen demand (SCOD) and total volatile fatty acid (VFA) reached 12.9 and 8.04 g L. The high-throughput sequencing results showed that structure of rumen bacterial community significantly changed in anaerobic digestion. The Shannon diversity index showed that rumen bacterial diversity decreased by 32.8% on the 5th day of anaerobic digestion. The relative abundance of Prevotella and Fibrobacter significantly increased, while Ruminococcus significantly decreased at the genus level. The Spearman correlation heatmap showed that pH and VFA were the critical factors affecting the rumen bacterial community structure. The function prediction found that rumen bacteria mainly functioned in carbohydrate transport and metabolism, which might contain a large number of lignocellulose degrading enzyme genes. These studies are conducive to the better application of rumen microorganisms in the degradation of lignocellulosic biomass.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2020.116130DOI Listing
January 2021

Thermal effects.

Water Environ Res 2020 Oct 1;92(10):1406-1411. Epub 2020 May 1.

College of Environmental Science & Engineering, Beijing Forestry University, Beijing, China.

This review paper focuses on the researches published in 2019 in the field of thermal effects in wastewater and solid waste treatment. The content of this review paper includes five parts: wastewater and sludge treatment, nutrient removal and recovery, membrane technology, heavy metal removal and immobilization, and organic waste utilization. © 2020 Water Environment Federation PRACTITIONER POINTS: Thermal effect plays an important role in treatment of wastewater and sewage sludge. Recovery of nitrogen and phosphorus from wastewater and sewage sludge reduces environmental pollution and offers new products. Temperature improves removal and recovery of heavy metals and organic wastes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/wer.1337DOI Listing
October 2020

Wastewater treatment plant upgrade induces the receiving river retaining bioavailable nitrogen sources.

Environ Pollut 2020 Aug 5;263(Pt A):114478. Epub 2020 Apr 5.

Key Laboratory of Drinking Water Science and Technology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 100085, China; Center for Water and Ecology, State Key Joint Laboratory of Environment Simulation and Pollution Control, School of Environment, Tsinghua University, Beijing, 100084, China.

Currently, wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) upgrades have been implemented in various countries to improve the water quality of the receiving ecosystems and protect aquatic species from potential deleterious effects. The impact of WWTP upgrades on biological communities and functions in receiving waters is a fundamental issue that remains largely unaddressed, especially for microbial communities. Here, we selected two wastewater-dominant rivers in Beijing (China) as study sites, i.e., one river receiving water from an upgraded WWTP to explore the impacts of upgrade on aquatic ecosystems and another river receiving water from a previously upgraded WWTP as a reference. After a five-year investigation, we found that WWTP upgrade significantly decreased total organic nitrogen (N) in the receiving river. As a biological response, N-metabolism-related bacterioplankton are accordingly altered in composition and tend to intensively interact according to the network analysis. Metagenomic analysis based on the N-cycling genes and metagenomic-assembled genomes revealed that WWTP upgrade decreased the abundance of nitrifying bacteria but increased that of denitrifying and dissimilatory nitrate reduction to ammonium (DNRA) bacteria in the receiving river, according to their marker gene abundances. After calculation of the ratios between DNRA and denitrifying bacteria and quantification of genes/bacteria related to ammonium cycling, we deduced the changes in N-metabolism-related bacteria are likely an attempt to provide enough bioavailable N for plankton growth as conservation of ammonium was enhanced in receiving river after WWTP upgrade.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2020.114478DOI Listing
August 2020

Metagenomics Unravels Differential Microbiome Composition and Metabolic Potential in Rapid Sand Filters Purifying Surface Water Versus Groundwater.

Environ Sci Technol 2020 04 2;54(8):5197-5206. Epub 2020 Apr 2.

Key Laboratory of Drinking Water Science and Technology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100085, China.

Designed for retaining suspended particles, rapid sand filters (RSFs) are widely used in drinking water treatment. There is increasing evidence that microbial processes within RSFs contribute to the transformation and removal of organic carbon, nitrogen, and metal pollutants. Here, we linked microbial composition and functional profiles with the treatment performance of 12 different RSFs that significantly removed influent ammonium and manganese (Mn). Metagenomic analyses showed that chemoautotrophic or methanotrophic bacteria were prevalent in the groundwater filters, and chemoheterotrophic bacteria encoding more carbohydrate- and xenobiotic-metabolizing genes were more abundant in the surface water filters. Approximately 92% of ammonium was transformed into nitrate, with a critical contribution from comammox . The composition of comammox differed between groundwater and surface water filters, with clade A dominating groundwater filters (78.0 ± 12.0%) and clade B dominating surface water filters (91.9 ± 8.9%). Further, we identified six bacterial genera encoding known Mn(II)-oxidizing genes in the RSFs, with accounting for 71.1%. These Mn(II)-oxidizing bacteria might promote Mn(II) oxidation and thus increase the removal of influent Mn. Overall, our study gave a comprehensive investigation of microbiome in RSFs and highlighted the roles of comammox and Mn(II)-oxidizing bacteria in water purification.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.est.9b07143DOI Listing
April 2020

Chain elongation performances with anaerobic fermentation liquid from sewage sludge with high total solid as electron acceptor.

Bioresour Technol 2020 Mar 14;306:123188. Epub 2020 Mar 14.

College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Beijing Forestry University, Beijing 100083, China.

This work studied the effect of total solid (TS) of sewage sludge on VFA production and composition in anaerobic fermentation. Results revealed that VFA concentration reached the highest of 10.16 g/L and the ratio of acetic acid, propionic acid and n-butyric acid was 5:2:2 with the 8% TS sewage sludge. In subsequent chain elongation with sludge fermentation liquid, n-caproic acid concentration reached 43.45 mmol/L. The microbial community analysis indicated that relative abundance of Clostridium_sensu_stricto_12 for n-caproic acid production was high (52.41%). The chain elongation with sludge fermentation liquid had more pathways to produce n-caproic acid, and the chain elongation reactions were thermodynamically possible. The mixed VFAs and high concentration of n-butyric acid benefitted n-caproic acid production. Carbon balance revealed that the VFA composition of sludge fermentation liquid was beneficial to the chain elongation. This study will contribute to wasted sludge minimization and high-value material production.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2020.123188DOI Listing
March 2020

Biological nutrient removal and recovery from solid and liquid livestock manure: Recent advance and perspective.

Bioresour Technol 2020 Apr 21;301:122823. Epub 2020 Jan 21.

Beijing Key Lab for Source Control Technology of Water Pollution, Beijing Forestry University, Beijing 100083, China.

Rapid development of livestock industry produces large amount of livestock manure rich in nutrients, organic matters, antibiotics, and heavy metals, thus imposes great harms to human and environment, if the manure is not suitably treated. Biological removal and recovery of nutrients from manure as agriculture fertilizer is attractive due to low cost and simple operation. This review offers an overview of recent development in biological nutrient removal and recovery from livestock manure. Livestock manure is divided into solid manure and liquid manure. Composting and anaerobic digestion of solid manure are fully discussed and important parameters are investigated. Then various processes of nutrient removal and recovery from liquid manure are summarized. Brief economic sustainability and eco-environmental effects are carried out. Finally, current challenges and future prospects in this field are analyzed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2020.122823DOI Listing
April 2020

Identification and quantification of bacterial genomes carrying antibiotic resistance genes and virulence factor genes for aquatic microbiological risk assessment.

Water Res 2020 Jan 7;168:115160. Epub 2019 Oct 7.

Key Laboratory of Drinking Water Science and Technology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.

Aquatic ecosystems have been increasingly threatened by anthropogenic activities, e.g., wastewater discharge and farm operation. Several methods are adopted to evaluate the effects of anthropogenic activities on biological risk in the environment, such as qPCR and amplicon next-generation sequencing. However, these methods fall short of providing genomic information of target species, which is vital for risk assessment from genomic aspect. Here, we developed a novel approach integrating metagenomic analysis and flow cytometry to identify and quantify potential pathogenic antibiotic resistant bacteria (PARB; carrying both antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) and virulence factor genes (VFGs)) in the environment, which are of particular concern due to their infection ability and antibiotic resistance. Based on the abundance/density of PARB, we evaluated microbiological risk in a river impacted by both municipal drainage and agriculture runoff. We collected samples upstream (mountainous area) as the control. Results showed that 81.8% of dominant PARB (33) recovered using our approach were related to known pathogenic taxa. In addition, intragenomic ARGs-VFGs coexistence patterns in the dominant Pseudomonas genomes (20 out of 71 PARB) showed high similarity with the most closely related Pseudomonas genomes from the NCBI RefSeq database. These results reflect acceptable reliability of the approach for (potential) pathogen identification in environmental samples. According to the PARB density, microbiological risk in samples from the agricultural area was significantly higher than in samples from the urban area. We speculated that this was due to the higher antibiotic usage in agriculture as well as intragenomic ARGs-VFGs co-evolution under antibiotic selective pressure. This study provides an alternative approach for the identification and quantification of PARB in aquatic environments, which can be applied for microbiological risk assessment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.watres.2019.115160DOI Listing
January 2020

Adsorption of lead (Ⅱ) from aqueous solution by modified Auricularia matrix waste: A fixed-bed column study.

Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 2019 Mar 28;169:722-729. Epub 2018 Nov 28.

College of Resources and Environmental Science, Northeast Agricultural University, Harbin 150030, China. Electronic address:

In this study, Auricularia Matrix Waste (AMW) was modified by sodium hydroxide and immobilized into granular adsorbent with sodium alginate to remove lead ions from aqueous solution through a fixed-bed column. The results of Scanning Electron Microscope-Energy Dispersive X-ray (SEM-EDX) and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) illuminated that immobilization greatly changed the structure, elements, polarity and functional groups of the adsorbent. Amino, hydroxyl, carboxyl groups on the adsorbent actively participated lead(II) adsorption and cation exchange also played an important role in adsorption process. The effects of bed length, flow rate and lead ions concentration determined the breakthrough characteristics and remarkably impacted lead(II) adsorption. The maximum adsorption capacity of lead(II) was 151.7 mg/g, when the influent bed, bed height and initial concentration were 15 mL/min, 25 mL/min and 150 mg/L, respectively. Thomas model was more suitable than the Bohart-Adams model to describe the performance of lead(II) adsorption onto IMAMW.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ecoenv.2018.11.085DOI Listing
March 2019

Removal of micropollutants and cyanobacteria from drinking water using KMnO pre-oxidation coupled with bioaugmentation.

Chemosphere 2019 Jan 4;215:1-7. Epub 2018 Oct 4.

Key Laboratory of Drinking Water Science and Technology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 100085, China.

Increasing micropollutant and cyanobacterial contamination of drinking water threatens human health worldwide. However, these contaminates are not efficiently removed by common drinking water treatment processes, and thus additional treatments are frequently required. Recent investigations have demonstrated that KMnO pre-oxidation can efficiently remove some micropollutants and cyanobacteria but the release of cyanobacterial toxins and Mn limit its use. To overcome these problems, we proposed a KMnO pre-oxidation coupled with bioaugmentation (e.g., sand filtration) method to treat micropollutant- and cyanobacteria-laden water. We used 2-hydroxy-4-methoxybenzophenone-5-sulfonic acid (BP-4, a common micropollutant in drinking water sources) and Microcystis aeruginosa (a widely distributed cyanobacterial species) as model pollutants to verify the feasibility of the proposed method. Results revealed that KMnO pre-oxidation efficiently removed existing natural organic matter and Microcystis aeruginosa but failed to remove BP-4 and released Mn and microcystin-LR (MC-LR) during treatment. Following the addition of a manganese-oxidizing bacterial strain (Pseudomonas sp. QJX-1) to the KMnO-treated solution, we found that the bacteria could transform Mn to Mn(III&IV) oxides, with the formed Mn oxides then able to remove BP-4 and MC-LR. Overall, the proposed method exhibited advantages in the removal of natural organic matter (i.e., decreasing disinfection byproduct formation), micropollutants, and cyanobacteria as well as preventing the release of Mn, and thus may be considered a good alternative for treating polluted drinking water.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2018.10.013DOI Listing
January 2019

Effect of coexisting ions on Cr(VI) adsorption onto surfactant modified Auricularia auricula spent substrate in aqueous solution.

Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 2018 Dec 1;166:390-400. Epub 2018 Oct 1.

College of Resources and Environment, Northeast Agricultural University, Harbin 150030, China. Electronic address:

In this paper, the effect of coexisting cations and anions on Cr(VI)(in the form of CrO) adsorption onto Auricularia auricula spent substrate (AASS) modified by cetyl trimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB) was investigated in batch adsorption experiment. The Cr(VI) adsorption capacity of 9.327 mg/g, obtained at pH 3.0, 303 K, adsorbent dosage of 2 g/L, initial Cr(VI) concentration of 20 mg/L, rotational speed of 150 r/min for 120 min, was decreased in the presence of coexisting cations and anions, among which Pb and PO affected most by 21.79% and 12.43%, respectively. XRD, XPS and FTIR detection found that coexisting Pb and PO would not only interfere Cr(VI) to form crystals and reduce to Cr(III), but also compete with Cr(VI) for oxygen-containing and amino groups to form Pb-O and P-NH, respectively. In addition, the single Cr(VI) adsorption fitted with Langmuir isotherm model, while the competitive adsorption was well described by Freundlich isotherm model. Both single adsorption and competitive adsorption were in line with the pseudo-second-order kinetic model.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ecoenv.2018.09.097DOI Listing
December 2018

Inoculation of plant growth-promoting bacteria Bacillus sp. YM-1 alleviates the toxicity of Pb to pakchoi.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2018 Oct 3;25(28):28216-28225. Epub 2018 Aug 3.

College of Resources and Environmental Science, Northeast Agricultural University, Harbin, 150030, People's Republic of China.

Heavy metal accumulation in plants may imperil human health. Inoculation of plant growth-promoting bacteria can alleviate the toxicity of heavy metal and promote plant growth. In this study, Bacillus sp. YM-1, a heavy metal resistant and plant growth-promoting bacterium, was immobilized with spent substrate of mushroom and applied to alleviate the toxicity of Pb to pakchoi. The results indicated that the biomass of pakchoi in inoculation group was increased by 17.45 to 27.05% compared with that in non-inoculated group (p < 0.05). The root and shoot were lengthened by 13.45% to 39.17% and 20.23% to 42.36%, respectively. The content of Pb in root and shoot obviously reduced and that in edible part (shoot) was less than 0.2 mg kg in the low concentration of Pb. Other indicators such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD), chlorophyll, and protein all testified that YM-1 inoculation was conducive to the alleviation of Pb toxicity to pakchoi.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-018-2802-8DOI Listing
October 2018

Batch and fixed-bed biosorption of Cd(II) from aqueous solution using immobilized Pleurotus ostreatus spent substrate.

Chemosphere 2018 Jan 27;191:799-808. Epub 2017 Sep 27.

College of Resources and Environment, Northeast Agricultural University, Harbin 150030, China. Electronic address:

To prevent the blockage in a continuous fix-bed system, Pleurotus Ostreatus spent substrate (POSS), a composite agricultural waste, was immobilized into granular adsorbents (IPOSS) with polymeric matrix, and used to remove Cd(II) from synthetic wastewater in batch experiment as well as in continuous fixed-bed column system. In batch experiment, higher pH, temperature and Cd(II) initial concentration were conducive to a higher biosorption capacity, and the maximum biosorption capacity reached up to 87.2 mg/g at Cd(II) initial concentration of 200 mg/L, pH 6 and 25 °C. The biosorption of Cd(II) onto IPOSS followed the Langmuir isotherm model with the maximum adsorption capacity(q) of 100 mg/g. The biosorption was an endothermic reaction and a spontaneous process based on positive value of ΔH and negative value of ΔG. In fixed-bed column system, higher bed depth, lower flow rate and influent Cd(II) concentration led to a longer breakthrough and exhaustion time, and the best performance (equilibrium uptake (q) of 14.4 mg, breakthrough time at 31 h and exhaustion time at 78 h) was achieved at a bed depth of 110 cm, a flow rate of 1.2 L/h and an influent concentration of 100 mg/L. Furthermore, regeneration experiment revealed a good reusability of IPOSS with 0.1 M HNO as eluting agent during three cycles of adsorption and desorption. Cd(II) biosorption onto IPOSS mainly relied on a chemical process including ion exchange and complexation or coordination revealed by SEM-EDX, FTIR and XRD analysis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2017.08.154DOI Listing
January 2018

Characterization of siderophore produced by Pseudomonas syringae BAF.1 and its inhibitory effects on spore germination and mycelium morphology of Fusarium oxysporum.

J Microbiol 2017 Nov 27;55(11):877-884. Epub 2017 Oct 27.

College of Resources and Environmental Science, Northeast Agricultural University, Harbin, 150030, P. R. China.

In this study, an antagonistic bacterium against Fusarium oxysporum was identified and designated as Pseudomonas syringae strain BAF.1 on the basis of 16S rDNA sequence analysis and physiological-biochemical characteristics. It produced catechol-species siderophore at a molecular weight of 488.59 Da and a maximum amount of 55.27 μg/ml with glucose as a carbon source and asparagine as a nitrogen source at a C/N ratio of 10:1, 30°C and pH 7. The siderophore exhibited prominent antagonistic activity against Fusarium oxysporum with a maximum inhibition rate of 95.24% and had also suppressive effects on other kinds of 11 phytopathogenic fungi in the absence of FeCl·6HO. Spore germination was completely inhibited by 50 μl of the siderophorecontaining solution, and the ultrastructures of mycelia and spores were also considerably suppressed by siderophore treatment as established by electron microscopy observation. These results indicate that the siderophore produced by Pseudomonas syringae BAF.1 could be potentially used for biocontrol of pathogenic Fusarium oxysporum.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12275-017-7191-zDOI Listing
November 2017

Optimization of Siderophore Production by sp. PZ-1 and Its Potential Enhancement of Phytoextration of Pb from Soil.

J Microbiol Biotechnol 2017 Aug;27(8):1500-1512

College of Resources and Environmental Science, Northeast Agricultural University, Harbin 150030, P.R. China.

In this study, the siderophore-producing characteristics and conditions of sp. PZ-1 were investigated and the enhancement of siderophores on Pb uptake and translocation in were determined. Results of single factor experiment showed that glucose, pH, and Pb(NO) could stimulate PZ-1 growth and siderophore production. The maximum siderophore production of 90.52% siderophore units was obtained by response surface methodology optimization at the glucose concentration of 21.84 g/l, pH 6.18, and Pb(NO) concentration of 245.04 μmol/l. The type of siderophore was hydroxamate and its concentration in the fermentation broth amounted to 32.24 μg/ml. Results of pot experiments indicated that the siderophores enhanced to assimilate more Pb from soil with the uptake ratio from 1.04 to 2.74, and to translocate more Pb from underground to overground with the TF values from 1.21 to 1.48. The results revealed that sp. PZ-1 could produce abundant siderophores and might be potentially used to augment the phytoextraction of Pb from soil.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4014/jmb.1705.05021DOI Listing
August 2017

Microbial Interspecies Interactions Affect Arsenic Fate in the Presence of Mn.

Microb Ecol 2017 11 16;74(4):788-794. Epub 2017 Jun 16.

Key Laboratory of Drinking Water Science and Technology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 18 Shuangqing Road, Haidian District, Beijing, 100085, China.

Biotransformation of arsenic (As) plays an important role in its environmental fate. However, the impact of direct microbial interspecies interactions on valence state and migration of As is rarely reported and cognized. Here, by co-cultivating two aerobic As-reducing bacteria (Arthrobacter sp. QXT-31 and Sphingopyxis sp. QXT-31) in a culture medium containing initial As (10 μM) and bivalent manganese (Mn, 175 μM), we demonstrated how the interactions between strains affect valence state and partition of As. The results showed that both the strains first reduced As to As via a detoxification mechanism during aerobic growth, with participation of As-reducing gene arsC; the expression of a Mn-oxidizing gene of Arthrobacter sp. QXT-31 was then triggered in the presence of Sphingopyxis sp. QXT-31, and emerging Mn-oxidizing activity oxidized 90% of Mn to Mn oxides; the formed Mn oxides oxidized As to As and adsorbed As; Mn-oxidizing activity decreased significantly in the later stage, resulting to desorption of As from Mn oxides and subsequent bioreduction in aqueous phase. Considering the universality of the two bacterial genera and the interspecies interactions, our study hints at the pervasive impact of direct microbial interspecies interactions on the environmental fate of As in an aquatic ecosystem containing Mn.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00248-017-1008-9DOI Listing
November 2017

Removal of Cr(VI) by surfactant modified Auricularia auricula spent substrate: biosorption condition and mechanism.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2017 Jul 9;24(21):17626-17641. Epub 2017 Jun 9.

College of Resources and Environment, Northeast Agricultural University, Harbin, 150030, China.

Auricularia auricula spent substrate (AASS) modified by didodecyldimethylammonium bromide(DDAB) was used as adsorbent to remove Cr(VI) from aqueous solution. Based on a single-factor experiment and response surface methodology, the optimal conditions were adsorbent dosage of 1.5 g/L, pH value of 4.0, initial Cr(VI) concentration of 19 mg/L, temperature of 25 °C, biosorption time of 120 min, rotational speed of 150 r/min, respectively, under which biosorption capacity could reach 12.16 mg/g compared with unmodified AASS (6.058 mg/g). DDAB modification could enlarge the specific surface area and porous diameter of the adsorbents, and supply hydrophilic and hydrophobic groups capable of adsorbing at the interfaces. In addition, DDAB increased ionic exchange and complex formation demonstrated by variations of elemental contents, shifts of carboxyl, amine groups, hydroxyl, alkyl chains, and phosphate groups as well as the crystal structure of the Cr-O compounds. Variations of peaks and energy in XPS analysis also testified the reduction of Cr(VI) to Cr(III).The biosorption behavior of modified AASS was in line with Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm equation. The final regeneration efficiency was 62.33% after three biosorption-desorption cycles. Apparently, DDBA is a eximious modifier and DDBA-modified AASS was very efficient for Cr(VI) removal.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-017-9326-5DOI Listing
July 2017

Biosorption characteristic of Alcaligenes sp. BAPb.1 for removal of lead(II) from aqueous solution.

3 Biotech 2017 Jun 31;7(2):123. Epub 2017 May 31.

College of Resource and Environment, Northeast Agricultural University, Harbin, 150030, China.

In this study, strain BAPb.1 was isolated from lead mining area and used as an adsorbent to remove lead(II) ions from aqueous solution. The physicochemical characteristics, heavy metal resistance and antibiotic sensitivity of strain BAPb.1 were investigated. Biosorption capacity was evaluated by batch biosorption experiments, and isothermal characteristics were discussed. Atomic force microscopy (AFM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) and Fourier transform infrared spectrometry (FTIR) were conducted to explore the mechanism for lead(II) adsorption. Based on morphological and physiological characteristics as well as the phylogenetic analysis of 16S rDNA sequences, strain BAPb.1 was identified as a member of the genus Alcaligenes. It exhibited high resistances to multiple heavy metals such as lead(II), copper(II), zinc(II), nickel(II) and chromium(VI), and to antibiotics such as kanamycin, ampicillin, streptomycin, chloramphenicol, and tetracycline. The optimum conditions for maximum biosorption rate of 85.2% and maximum capacity of 56.8 mg g were found at pH of 5, adsorbent dosage of 1.5 g L (dry weight), initial lead(II) concentration of 100 mg L, and contact time of 30 min at 30 °C. Biosorption isotherms were well fitted with Langmuir isotherm model. Mechanism analysis reveals that the lead(II) ions may exchange with sodium and potassium ions, and the hydroxyl, carbonyl and phosphate groups on the cell surface can chelate the lead(II) ions, therefore, surface adsorption play significant role in the biosorption process.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13205-017-0721-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5451355PMC
June 2017

Antimony oxidation and adsorption by in-situ formed biogenic Mn oxide and Fe-Mn oxides.

J Environ Sci (China) 2017 Apr 4;54:126-134. Epub 2016 Jul 4.

Key Laboratory of Drinking Water Science and Technology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100085, China.

Antimony (Sb), which can be toxic at relatively low concentrations, may co-exist with Mn(II) and/or Fe(II) in some groundwater and surface water bodies. Here we investigated the potential oxidation and adsorption pathways of Sb (III and V) species in the presence of Mn(II) and Mn-oxidizing bacteria, with or without Fe(II). Batch experiments were conducted to determine the oxidation and adsorption characteristics of Sb species in the presence of biogenic Mn oxides (BMOs), which were formed in-situ via the oxidation of Mn(II) by a Mn-oxidizing bacterium (Pseudomonas sp. QJX-1). Results indicated that Sb(III) ions could be oxidized to Sb(V) ions by BMO, but only Sb(V) originating from Sb(III) oxidation was adsorbed effectively by BMO. Introduced Fe(II) was chemically oxidized to FeOOH, the precipitates of which mixed with BMO to form a new compound, biogenic Fe-Mn oxides (BFMO). The BMO part of the BFMO mainly oxidized and the FeOOH of the BFMO mainly adsorbed the Sb species. In aquatic solutions containing both As(III) and Sb(III), the BFMO that formed in-situ preferentially oxidized Sb over As but adsorbed As more efficiently. Chemical analysis and reverse transcription real-time polymerase chain reaction revealed that the presence of Fe(II), As(III) and Sb(III) accelerated the oxidation of Mn(II) but inhibited the activity of Mn-oxidizing bacteria. These results provide significant insights into the biogeochemical pathways of Sb, Mn(II) in aquatic ecosystems, with or without Fe(II).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jes.2016.05.026DOI Listing
April 2017

Inonotus obliquus polysaccharide regulates gut microbiota of chronic pancreatitis in mice.

AMB Express 2017 Dec 14;7(1):39. Epub 2017 Feb 14.

College of Resources and Environmental Science, Northeast Agricultural University, Harbin, 150030, People's Republic of China.

Polysaccharide is efficient in attenuation of metabolic ailments and modulation of gut microbiota as prebiotics. The therapeutic effect of Inonotus obliquus polysaccharide (IOP) on chronic pancreatitis (CP) in mice has been validated in our previous study. However, it is not clear whether IOP is conducive to maintaining the homeostasis between gut microbiota and host. The aim of this study is to testify the potential effects of IOP on gut microbiota composition and diversity in mice with CP. The changes in glutathione peroxidase (GSH-P), total antioxidant capacity (TAOC), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β), lipase and trypsin levels were measured by commercial assay kits, meanwhile the gut microbiota composition and diversity were analyzed by high throughput sequencing. The IOP treatment increased GSH-P and TAOC levels, and decreased TNF-α, TGF-β, lipase and trypsin levels in CP mice. It was also observed that gut microbiota in IOP treated groups were less diverse than others in terms of lower Shannon diversity index and Chao 1 estimator. IOP increased the proportion of Bacteroidetes and decreased that of Firmicutes at phylum level. Bacteroidetes was found positively correlated with GSH-P and TAOC, and Firmicutes correlated with TNF-α, TGF-β, and lipase. In conclusion, administration of IOP could regulate gut microbiota composition and diversity to a healthy profile in mice with CP, and some bacterial phylum significantly correlated with characteristic parameters.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13568-017-0341-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5309192PMC
December 2017

Treatment of groundwater containing Mn(II), Fe(II), As(III) and Sb(III) by bioaugmented quartz-sand filters.

Water Res 2016 Dec 21;106:126-134. Epub 2016 Sep 21.

Key Laboratory of Drinking Water Science and Technology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100085, China. Electronic address:

High concentrations of iron (Fe(II)) and manganese (Mn(II)) often occur simultaneously in groundwater. Previously, we demonstrated that Fe(II) and Mn(II) could be oxidized to biogenic Fe-Mn oxides (BFMO) via aeration and microbial oxidation, and the formed BFMO could further oxidize and adsorb other pollutants (e.g., arsenic (As(III)) and antimony (Sb(III))). To apply this finding to groundwater remediation, we established four quartz-sand columns for treating groundwater containing Fe(II), Mn(II), As(III), and Sb(III). A Mn-oxidizing bacterium (Pseudomonas sp. QJX-1) was inoculated into two parallel bioaugmented columns. Long-term treatment (120 d) showed that bioaugmentation accelerated the formation of Fe-Mn oxides, resulting in an increase in As and Sb removal. The bioaugmented columns also exhibited higher overall treatment effect and anti-shock load capacity than that of the non-bioaugmented columns. To clarify the causal relationship between the microbial community and treatment effect, we compared the biomass of active bacteria (reverse-transcribed real-time PCR), bacterial community composition (Miseq 16S rRNA sequencing) and community function (metagenomic sequencing) between the bioaugmented and non-bioaugmented columns. Results indicated that the QJX1 strain grew steadily and attached onto the filter material surface in the bioaugmented columns. In general, the inoculated strain did not significantly alter the composition of the indigenous bacterial community, but did improve the relative abundances of xenobiotic metabolism genes and Mn oxidation gene. Thus, bioaugmentation intensified microbial degradation/utilization for the direct removal of pollutants and increased the formation of Fe-Mn oxides for the indirect removal of pollutants. Our study provides an alternative method for the treatment of groundwater containing high Fe(II), Mn(II) and As/Sb.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.watres.2016.09.040DOI Listing
December 2016

Microbe-microbe interactions trigger Mn(II)-oxidizing gene expression.

ISME J 2017 01 12;11(1):67-77. Epub 2016 Aug 12.

Key Laboratory of Drinking Water Science and Technology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.

Manganese (Mn) is an important metal in geochemical cycles. Some microorganisms can oxidize Mn(II) to Mn oxides, which can, in turn, affect the global cycles of other elements by strong sorption and oxidation effects. Microbe-microbe interactions have important roles in a number of biological processes. However, how microbial interactions affect Mn(II) oxidation still remains unknown. Here, we investigated the interactions between two bacteria (Arthrobacter sp. and Sphingopyxis sp.) in a co-culture, which exhibited Mn(II)-oxidizing activity, although neither were able to oxidize Mn(II) in isolation. We demonstrated that the Mn(II)-oxidizing activity in co-culture was most likely induced via contact-dependent interactions. The expressed Mn(II)-oxidizing protein in the co-culture was purified and identified as a bilirubin oxidase belonging to strain Arthrobacter. Full sequencing of the bilirubin oxidase-encoding gene (boxA) was performed. The Mn(II)-oxidizing protein and the transcripts of boxA were detected in the co-culture, but not in either of the isolated cultures. This indicate that boxA was silent in Arthrobacter monoculture, and was activated in response to presence of Sphingopyxis in the co-culture. Further, transcriptomic analysis by RNA-Seq, extracellular superoxide detection and cell density quantification by flow cytometry indicate induction of boxA gene expression in Arthrobacter was co-incident with a stress response triggered by co-cultivation with Sphingopyxis. Our findings suggest the potential roles of microbial physiological responses to stress induced by other microbes in Mn(II) oxidation and extracellular superoxide production.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/ismej.2016.106DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5315471PMC
January 2017

The role of biogenic Fe-Mn oxides formed in situ for arsenic oxidation and adsorption in aquatic ecosystems.

Water Res 2016 07 1;98:119-27. Epub 2016 Apr 1.

Key Laboratory of Drinking Water Science and Technology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100085, China. Electronic address:

As(III&V), Mn(II), and Fe(II) may occur simultaneously in some groundwater and surface water. Studying their redox reactions and interactions is essential to unravel the biogeochemical cycles of these metal ions in aquatic ecosystems and to find effective methods to remove them simultaneously in drinking water treatment. Here, the formation of biogenic Fe-Mn oxides (BFMO, defined as a mixture of biogenic Mn oxide (BMO) and Fe oxide) as well as its oxidation and adsorption of As in a Fe(II)-Mn(II)-As(III&V)-Mn-oxidizing microbe (Pseudomonas sp. QJX-1) system were investigated. Batch experiments and structure characterization revealed that the BFMO was formed via a sequential precipitation of Fe oxide and BMO. The first formed Fe oxide was identified as FeOOH (lepidocrocite) and the latter formed BMO was identified as MnO2 (similar to hexagonal birnessite). In the BFMO mixture, the BMO part was mainly responsible for As(III) oxidation, and the Fe oxide part dominated As adsorption. Remarkably, the BMO could oxidize Fe(II) to form FeOOH, which may improve As adsorption. The optimum Mn(II)/Fe(II) ratio for As removal was approximately 1:3 (mol/mol). Taken together, in Fe(II)-Mn(II)-As(III&V)-Mn-oxidizing microbe ecosystems, the in situ formation of BFMO could eliminate or decrease Fe(II), Mn(II), and As(III&V) species simultaneously. Therefore, based on this study, new approaches may be developed for As removal from water containing high concentrations of Fe(II) and Mn(II).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.watres.2016.03.068DOI Listing
July 2016

Cooperative Mn(II) oxidation between two bacterial strains in an aquatic environment.

Water Res 2016 Feb 2;89:252-60. Epub 2015 Dec 2.

Key Laboratory of Drinking Water Science and Technology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100085, China. Electronic address:

In natural or engineered environments, diverse interspecific interactions among two or more microbial taxa may profoundly affect the transformation of organic compounds in the media. Little is known, however, about how these organisms and interactions affect the transformation of heavy metals. Recently, we found an interaction between two non-Mn(II)-oxidizing (when in monoculture) strains, Arthrobacter sp. QXT-31 and Sphingopyxis sp. QXT-31, which, when cultured in combination, resulted in Mn(II)-oxidizing activity in synthetic media. In order to study the occurrence likelihood of cooperative Mn(II) oxidation in natural water and discharged effluent, we initially identified an optimal ratio of the two strains in a combined culture, as well as the impacts of external factors on the cooperative oxidation. Once preferred initial conditions were established, we assessed the degree and rate of Mn(II) oxidation mediated by the combined QXT-31 strains (henceforth referred to as simply 'QXT-31') in three different water types: groundwater, domestic sewage and coking wastewater. Results showed that Mn(II) oxidation only occurred when the two strains were within a specific ratios range. When introduced to the test waters at the preferred ratio, QXT-31 demonstrated high Mn(II)-oxidizing activities, even when relative abundance of QXT-31 was very low (roughly 1.6%, calculated by 454 pyrosequencing events on 16S rcDNA). Interestingly, even under low relative abundance of QXT-31, removal of total organic carbon and total nitrogen in the test waters was significantly higher than the control treatments that were not inoculated with QXT-31. Data from our study indicate that cooperative Mn(II) oxidation is most likely to occur in natural aquatic ecosystems, and also suggests an alternative method to treat wastewater containing high concentrations of Mn(II).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.watres.2015.11.062DOI Listing
February 2016

Metagenomic approach reveals variation of microbes with arsenic and antimony metabolism genes from highly contaminated soil.

PLoS One 2014 9;9(10):e108185. Epub 2014 Oct 9.

Key Laboratory of Drinking Water Science and Technology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, People's Republic of China.

Microbes have great potential for arsenic (As) and antimony (Sb) bioremediation in heavily contaminated soil because they have the ability to biotransform As and Sb to species that have less toxicity or are more easily removed. In this study, we integrated a metagenomic method with physicochemical characterization to elucidate the composition of microbial community and functional genes (related to As and Sb) in a high As (range from 34.11 to 821.23 mg kg-1) and Sb (range from 226.67 to 3923.07 mg kg-1) contaminated mine field. Metagenomic analysis revealed that microbes from 18 phyla were present in the 5 samples of soil contaminated with high As and Sb. Moreover, redundancy analysis (RDA) of the relationship between the 18 phyla and the concentration of As and Sb demonstrated that 5 phyla of microbes, i.e. Actinobacteria, Firmicutes, Nitrospirae, Tenericutes and Gemmatimonadetes were positively correlated with As and Sb concentration. The distribution, diversity and abundance of functional genes (including arsC, arrA, aioA, arsB and ACR3) were much higher for the samples containing higher As and Sb concentrations. Based on correlation analysis, the results showed a positive relationship between arsC-like (R2 = 0.871) and aioA-like (R2 = 0.675) gene abundance and As concentration, and indicated that intracellular As(V) reduction and As(III) oxidation could be the dominant As detoxification mechanism enabling the microbes to survive in the environment. This study provides a direct and reliable reference on the diversity of microbial community and functional genes in an extremely high concentration As- and Sb-contaminated environment.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0108185PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4191978PMC
June 2015

Metagenomic analysis reveals microbial diversity and function in the rhizosphere soil of a constructed wetland.

Environ Technol 2014 Sep-Oct;35(17-20):2521-7

Microbial communities play a critical role in the degradation of effluent contaminants in constructed wetlands. Many questions remain, however, regarding the role ofmicrobial communities in rhizospheric soil. In this study, we used metagenomic analysis to assess microbial community composition and function in a constructed wetland receiving surface water. The diversity of the microbial community of rhizosphere soil was found to be significantly greater than that of the wetland influent water. This enhancement is likely due to the availability of diverse habitats and nutrients provided by the wetland plants. From function annotation of metagenomic data, a number of biodegradation pathways associated with 14 xenobiotic compounds were identified in soil. Nitrogen fixation, nitrification and denitrification genes were semi-quantitatively analysed. By screening of manganese transformation genes, we found that the biological oxidation of Mn2+ (mainly catalysed by multicopper oxidase) in the influent water yielded insoluble Mn4+, which subsequently precipitated and were incorporated into the wetland soil. These data show that the use of metagenomic analysis can provide important new insights for the study of wetland ecosystems and, in particular, how biologically mediated transformation or degradation can be used to reduce contamination of point and non-point source wastewater.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09593330.2014.911361DOI Listing
September 2014

Using high-throughput sequencing to assess the impacts of treated and untreated wastewater discharge on prokaryotic communities in an urban river.

Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 2014 Feb 3;98(4):1841-51. Epub 2013 Aug 3.

State Key Laboratory of Environmental Aquatic Chemistry, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 100085, People's Republic of China.

In many megacities wastewater is an important source of surface water, particularly during drought periods. While changes in surface water chemistry associated with effluent inflow have generally been well-studied, few data have been collected on the effects to prokaryotic communities. The objective of this study was to explore the impacts of treated and untreated wastewater discharges on prokaryotic community in an urban river. High-throughput sequencing was conducted for analyzing the prokaryotic community composition and function in river water, treated wastewater and untreated wastewater. Results revealed that the prokaryotic community compositions in the upstream river reach were dominated by treated wastewater discharge. In the middle- and downstream river reaches, untreated effluent volumes are higher, thus affecting the structure of the prokaryotic community, promoting a rise in Cyanobacteria and Thaumarchaeota. Function annotation revealed a number of genes associated with xenobiotic metabolism and human diseases were observed in river and wastewater samples, suggesting wastewater discharge to river may pose a risk to human health. Quantitative real-time PCR results revealed that the treated and untreated wastewater discharges also affected the abundance of ammonia oxidation bacteria (AOB) and ammonia oxidation archaea (AOA) in river.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00253-013-5116-2DOI Listing
February 2014
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