Publications by authors named "Jinquan Li"

152 Publications

Assessing Genetic Diversity and Estimating the Inbreeding Effect on Economic Traits of Inner Mongolia White Cashmere Goats Through Pedigree Analysis.

Front Vet Sci 2021 22;8:665872. Epub 2021 Jun 22.

College of Animal Science, Inner Mongolia Agricultural University, Hohhot, China.

The purpose of this study was to discover the population structure and genetic diversity of Inner Mongolia White Cashmere goats (IMCGs) and demonstrate the effect of inbreeding on the live body weight (LBW), cashmere yield (CY), fiber length (FL), and fiber diameter (FD) of IMCGs. All data were collected from pedigree information and production performance records of IMCGs from 1983 to 2019. The population structure and genetic diversity were analyzed by Endog 4.8 software. Inbreeding coefficients were obtained by the pedigree package in R. Then, a linear regression model was used to analyze how inbreeding influences economic traits in IMCGs. Four levels of inbreeding coefficients ( ) were classified in this study, including = 0, 0< ≤ 6.25, 6.25< ≤ 12.5 and ≥12.5. Variance analysis was performed to determine whether inbreeding levels had a significant effect on economic traits in IMCGs. The proportions of rams and dams in IMCGs for breeding were relatively small, with values of 0.8 and 20.5%, respectively. The proportion of inbred animals in the entire population was high, with values up to 68.6%; however, the average inbreeding coefficient and relatedness coefficient were 4.50 and 8.48%, respectively. To date, the population has experienced 12 generations. The average generation interval obtained in the present study was 4.11 ± 0.01 years. The ram-to-son pathway was lowest (3.97 years), and the ewe-to-daughter pathway was highest (4.24 years). It was discovered that the LBW, CY, and FL increased by 3.88 kg, 208.7 g, and 1.151 cm, respectively, with every 1% increase in the inbreeding coefficient, and the FD decreased by 0.819 μm with every 1% increase in the inbreeding coefficient. Additionally, multiple comparison analysis indicated that when the inbreeding coefficient was higher than 6.25%, the LBW showed an obvious decreasing trend. The threshold value of inbreeding depression in the CY is 12.5%. However, inbreeding depression has not been observed in the FL and FD. Pedigree completeness needs to be further strengthened. The degree of inbreeding in this flock should be properly controlled when designing breeding programs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fvets.2021.665872DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8258104PMC
June 2021

Expression Profiling and Functional Analysis of Circular RNAs in Inner Mongolian Cashmere Goat Hair Follicles.

Front Genet 2021 11;12:678825. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

College of Animal Science, Inner Mongolia Agricultural University, Hohhot, China.

Background: Inner Mongolian cashmere goats have hair of excellent quality and high economic value, and the skin hair follicle traits of cashmere goats have a direct and important effect on cashmere yield and quality. Circular RNA has been studied in a variety of tissues and cells.

Result: In this study, high-throughput sequencing was used to obtain the expression profiles of circular RNA (circRNA) in the hair follicles of Inner Mongolian cashmere goats at different embryonic stages (45, 55, 65, and 75 days). A total of 21,784 circRNAs were identified. At the same time, the differentially expressed circRNA in the six comparison groups formed in the four stages were: d75vsd45, 59 upregulated and 33 downregulated DE circRNAs; d75vsd55, 61 upregulated and 102 downregulated DE circRNAs; d75vsd65, 32 upregulated and 33 downregulated DE circRNAs; d65vsd55, 67 upregulated and 169 downregulated DE circRNAs; d65vsd45, 96 upregulated and 63 downregulated DE circRNAs; and d55vsd45, 76 upregulated and 42 downregulated DE circRNAs. Six DE circRNA were randomly selected to verify the reliability of the sequencing results by quantitative RT-PCR. Subsequently, the circRNA corresponding host genes were analyzed by the Gene Ontology (GO) and the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway. The results showed that the biological processes related to hair follicle growth and development enriched by GO mainly included hair follicle morphogenesis and cell development, and the signaling pathways related to hair follicle development included the Notch signaling pathway and NF-κB signaling pathway. We combined the DE circRNA of d75vsd45 with miRNA and mRNA databases (unpublished) to construct the regulatory network of circRNA-miRNA-mRNA, and formed a total of 102 pairs of circRNA-miRNA and 126 pairs of miRNA-mRNA interactions. The binding relationship of circRNA3236-chi-miR-27b-3p and circRNA3236-chi-miR-16b-3p was further verified by dual-luciferase reporter assays, and the results showed that circRNA3236 and chi-miR-27b-3p, and circRNA3236 and chi-miR-16b-3p have a targeted binding relationship.

Conclusion: To summarize, we established the expression profiling of circRNA in the fetal skin hair follicles of cashmere goats, and found that the host gene of circRNA may be involved in the development of hair follicles of cashmere goats. The regulatory network of circRNA-miRNA-mRNA was constructed and preliminarily verified using DE circRNAs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fgene.2021.678825DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8226234PMC
June 2021

MicroRNA-mRNA Regulatory Networking Fine-Tunes Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Synthesis and Metabolism in the Inner Mongolia Cashmere Goat.

Front Genet 2021 2;12:649015. Epub 2021 Jun 2.

College of Animal Science, Inner Mongolia Agricultural University, Hohhot, China.

Fatty acid composition is an important aspect of meat quality in ruminants. Improving the beneficial fatty acid level in cashmere goat meat is important to its economic value. To investigate microRNAs (miRNAs) and mRNAs that regulate or coregulate polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) synthesis and metabolism in the Inner Mongolia cashmere goat, we used longissimus dorsi muscle (WLM) and biceps femoris muscle (WBM) for transcript-level sequencing. RT-qPCR was used to evaluate the expression of mRNAs and miRNAs associated with PUFA synthesis and metabolism. The total PUFA content in the WBM was significantly higher than that in the WLM ( < 0.05). Our study is the first to systematically report miRNAs in cashmere goat meat. At the mRNA level, 20,375 genes were identified. , and were at the center of a gene regulatory network and contributed significantly to the accumulation and metabolic regulation of fatty acids. At the miRNA level, 426 known miRNAs and 30 novel miRNAs were identified. KEGG analysis revealed that the miRNA target genes were involved mainly in the PPAR signaling pathway. The mRNA-miRNA coregulation analysis showed that was negatively targeted by nine miRNAs: chi-miR-10a-5p, chi-miR-10b-5p, chi-miR-130b-5p, chi-miR-15a-5p_R-1, chi-miR-15b-5p, chi-miR-16a-5p, chi-miR-16b-5p, chi-miR-181c-5p_R+1, and chi-miR-26b-5p. Finally, we speculated that the simultaneous silencing of by one or more of these nine miRNAs through PPAR signaling led to low expression in the WLM and, ultimately to high PUFA content in the WBM. Our study helps elucidate the metabolic regulation of fatty acids in Inner Mongolia cashmere goats.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fgene.2021.649015DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8206643PMC
June 2021

Melatonin antagonizes ozone-exacerbated asthma by inhibiting the TRPV1 channel and stabilizing the Nrf2 pathway.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2021 Jun 19. Epub 2021 Jun 19.

Brain Science and Advanced Technology Institute, School of Medicine, Wuhan University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, 430065, China.

Over the past few years, ozone has been identified as a potential risk factor for exacerbating asthma. However, few attempts have been made to prevent the progression of ozone-exacerbated asthma. This study investigated the attenuating effects of melatonin on ozone-aggravated allergic asthma, and explored the changes to the transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1)-nuclear factor erythroid-derived 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) pathway associated with melatonin treatment. The levels of TRPV1 and calcitonin gene-related peptides (CGRP) in lung tissue were detected by immunohistochemistry, western blot, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The Nrf2 signaling involved proteins and mRNA were evaluated by western blot and RT-qPCR. The change of Immunoglobulin E (IgE) and T helper (Th) 2 and Th17 cytokines in serum and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) was determined by ELISA. Recruitment of inflammatory cells in BALF, histopathological changes, and airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) were also determined in lung tissues. Our results indicated that melatonin treatment significantly reduced oxidative stress, as indicated by levels of glutathione (GSH), malonaldehyde (MDA), and 8-hydroxy-2-deoxyguanosine (8-OH-dG). Moreover, ozone-exacerbated asthma symptoms, such as inflammatory cell infiltration, levels of serum immunoglobulin, Th2 and Th17 cytokines in BALF, obvious changes in lung histology, and AHR, were all ameliorated by melatonin treatment. Interestingly, melatonin not only markedly decreased the protein levels of TRPV1 and CGRP, but also enhanced the expression of Nrf2, quinone oxidoreductase-1 (NQO-1), and heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1). Taken together, our results demonstrate that melatonin administration could antagonize ozone-exacerbated asthma by inhibiting the TRPV1 channel and stabilizing the Nrf2 pathway.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-021-14945-9DOI Listing
June 2021

The global emergence of a novel Streptococcus suis clade associated with human infections.

EMBO Mol Med 2021 Jul 17;13(7):e13810. Epub 2021 Jun 17.

Key Laboratory of Environment Correlative Dietology, Interdisciplinary Sciences Institute, College of Food Science and Technology, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan, China.

Streptococcus suis, a ubiquitous bacterial colonizer in pigs, has recently extended host range to humans, leading to a global surge of deadly human infections and three large outbreaks since 1998. To better understand the mechanisms for the emergence of cross-species transmission and virulence in human, we have sequenced 366 S. suis human and pig isolates from 2005 to 2016 and performed a large-scale phylogenomic analysis on 1,634 isolates from 14 countries over 36 years. We show the formation of a novel human-associated clade (HAC) diversified from swine S. suis isolates. Phylogeographic analysis identified Europe as the origin of HAC, coinciding with the exportation of European swine breeds between 1960s and 1970s. HAC is composed of three sub-lineages and contains several healthy-pig isolates that display high virulence in experimental infections, suggesting healthy-pig carriers as a potential source for human infection. New HAC-specific genes are identified as promising markers for pathogen detection and surveillance. Our discovery of a human-associated S. suis clade provides insights into the evolution of this emerging human pathogen and extend our understanding of S. suis epidemics worldwide.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.15252/emmm.202013810DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8261479PMC
July 2021

In situ reduction triggers the highly sensitive detection of pesticide by classic gold nanoparticle and quantum dots nanocomposite.

Anal Chim Acta 2021 Aug 24;1172:338679. Epub 2021 May 24.

College of Food Science and Technology, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan, 430070, China; Interdisciplinary Sciences Institute, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan, 430070, China. Electronic address:

Fluorescence "turn on" method is always preferable for target detection under the urgent demand to develop point-of-care portable sensors in practical applications due to its higher selectivity and less false positives. However, there is only few reports of pesticide monitoring based on this strategy so far most probably ascribed to its poor hydrophilicity and reactivity. In this work, triggered by reductant tris (2-carboxyethyl) phosphine hydrochloride (TCEP), initially fluorescence-quenched gold nanoparticles (Au NPs)-decorated quantum dots (QDs)-embedded nanobead shows obvious fluorescence "turn on" signal response to thiram with concentration response range of 0.01-20 μM and limit of detection (LOD) of 7 nM due to the target-induced dissociation of Au NPs from the surface of probe nanobead. Moreover, paper sensor has been successfully developed by immersing commercial drainage membrane in probe solution for visual detection of thiram with the ultrahigh LOD (50 nM) by the naked eye. More importantly, this work, for the first time, reported an in situ reduction strategy to improve the interaction between target and nanoprobe and thus bring obvious signal output for pesticide detection with high sensitivity, demonstrating the potential to expand the detection scope of nanomaterials.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.aca.2021.338679DOI Listing
August 2021

Spatiotemporal variability of fire effects on soil carbon and nitrogen: A global meta-analysis.

Glob Chang Biol 2021 Jun 8. Epub 2021 Jun 8.

Ministry of Education Key Laboratory for Biodiversity Science and Ecological Engineering, National Observations and Research Station for Wetland Ecosystems of the Yangtze Estuary, Institute of Eco-Chongming, School of Life Sciences, Fudan University, Shanghai, China.

A consensus about the fire-related soil carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) impacts that determine soil health and ecosystem services at the global scale remains elusive. Here, we conducted a global meta-analysis of 3173 observations with 1444, 1334, 228, and 167 observations for soil C, N, pyrogenic C (PyC), and the percent of PyC to total organic C (PyC/TOC) from 296 field studies. Results showed that fire significantly decreased soil C (-15.2%) and N (-14.6%) but increased soil PyC (40.6%) and PyC/TOC (30.3%). Stronger negative fire impacts on soil C and N were found in tropical and temperate climates than in Mediterranean and subtropical climates; stronger effects were found in forest ecosystems than in non-forest ecosystems. Wildfire and high-severity fire led to greater soil C and N losses than prescribed and low-severity fires, respectively, while they promoted greater increases in soil PyC and PyC/TOC than prescribed and low-severity fires, respectively. However, soil C and N recovered to control levels approximately 10 years after fire, which is a shorter period than previously determined. These results suggest that fire-induced PyC production should be accounted for in the C budget under global change. These results will improve our knowledge of the spatiotemporal variability of fire effects on soil C and N storage and have implications for fire management and ecosystem recovery.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/gcb.15742DOI Listing
June 2021

A Markerless Gene Deletion System in by Using the Copper-Inducible YoeB Toxin as a Counterselectable Marker.

Microorganisms 2021 May 19;9(5). Epub 2021 May 19.

College of Food Science and Technology, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan 430070, China.

is an important zoonotic pathogen causing severe infections in swine and humans. Induction of the YoeB toxin in resulted in cell death, leading to the speculation that YoeB can be a counterselectable marker. Herein, the counterselection potential of YoeB was assessed in . The gene was placed under the copper-induced promoter P. The P- construct was cloned into the shuttle vector pSET2 and introduced into to assess the effect of YoeB expression on growth. Reverse transcription quantitative PCR showed that copper induced expression. Growth curve analyses and spot dilution assays showed that YoeB expression inhibited growth both in liquid media and on agar plates, revealing that YoeB has the potential to be a counterselectable marker for . A SCIY cassette comprising the spectinomycin-resistance gene and copper-induced was constructed. Using the SCIY cassette and peptide-induced competence, a novel two-step markerless gene deletion method was established for . Moreover, using the Δ mutant generated by this method, we demonstrated that PmtA, a ferrous iron and cobalt efflux pump in , was negatively regulated by the PerR regulator.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms9051095DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8160710PMC
May 2021

Construction and Characterization of an Multi-Gene Deletion Strain and Evaluation of Its Potential as a Live-Attenuated Vaccine in Grass Carp.

Vaccines (Basel) 2021 May 3;9(5). Epub 2021 May 3.

College of Food Science and Technology, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan 430070, China.

is an important pathogen that causes motile septicemia (MAS) in the aquaculture industry. Aerolysin, hemolysin, serine protease and enterotoxins are considered to be the major virulence factors of . In this study, we constructed a five-gene (A, , , and ) deletion mutant strain (named five-gene deletion strain, AHFGDS) to observe the biological characteristics and detect its potential as a live-attenuated vaccine candidate. AHFGDS displayed highly attenuated and showed increased susceptibility to fish blood and skin mucus killing, while the wild-type strain ZYAH72 was highly virulent. In zebrafish (), AHFGDS showed a 240-fold higher 50% lethal dose (LD50) than that of the wild-type strain. Immunization with AHFGDS by intracelomic injection or immersion routes both provided grass carp () significant protection against the challenge of the strain ZYAH72 or J-1 and protected the fish organs from serious injury. Further agglutinating antibody titer test supported that AHFGDS could elicit a host-adaptive immune response. These results suggested the potential of AHFGDS to serve as a live-attenuated vaccine to control infection in aquaculture.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/vaccines9050451DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8147641PMC
May 2021

Autophagy is a defense mechanism controlling Streptococcus suis serotype 2 infection in murine microglia cells.

Vet Microbiol 2021 Jul 9;258:109103. Epub 2021 May 9.

Brain Science and Advanced Technology Institute, Wuhan University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, China; Hubei Province Key Laboratory of Occupational Hazard Identification and Control, Wuhan University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, China. Electronic address:

Streptococcus suis (S. suis) is an important swine and human pathogen, causing severe meningitis with high morbidity and mortality worldwide. Microglial activation and inflammation are responsible for bacterial meningitis. S. suis has been identified to activate microglia, but the role of autophagy following S. suis infection in microglial cells remains elusive. In this study, using western blot, immunofluorescent staining and transmission electron microscopy (TEM), we demonstrated that S. suis serotype 2 (SS2) triggered autophagosome and enhanced autophagic flux in BV2 microglial cells. Autophagy activators, rapamycin, could further promote autophagy in S. suis-infected BV2 cells. Conversely, autophagy inhibitors including siRNA targeting ATG5, Beclin-1, ATG9a and ATG12 attenuated the autophagic process. Consistent with the in vitro results, autophagy was activated following S. suis infection in brain tissue including frontal cortex and hippocampus in a mouse model of meningitis. Further experiment showed that autophagy serves as a cellular defense mechanism to limit invaded bacteria and microglia inflammation in S. suis-infected BV2 cells. This is the first study reporting that the interaction between autophagy and microglia cells in response to S. suis infection. The possible mechanism involved could additionally suggest potential therapeutic approaches for bacterial meningitis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.vetmic.2021.109103DOI Listing
July 2021

Ecosystem type drives tea litter decomposition and associated prokaryotic microbiome communities in freshwater and coastal wetlands at a continental scale.

Sci Total Environ 2021 Aug 29;782:146819. Epub 2021 Mar 29.

Deakin University, Centre for Integrative Ecology, School of Life and Environmental Sciences, 221 Burwood Hwy, Burwood, VIC 3125, Australia.

Wetland ecosystems are critical to the regulation of the global carbon cycle, and there is a high demand for data to improve carbon sequestration and emission models and predictions. Decomposition of plant litter is an important component of ecosystem carbon cycling, yet a lack of knowledge on decay rates in wetlands is an impediment to predicting carbon preservation. Here, we aim to fill this knowledge gap by quantifying the decomposition of standardised green and rooibos tea litter over one year within freshwater and coastal wetland soils across four climates in Australia. We also captured changes in the prokaryotic members of the tea-associated microbiome during this process. Ecosystem type drove differences in tea decay rates and prokaryotic microbiome community composition. Decomposition rates were up to 2-fold higher in mangrove and seagrass soils compared to freshwater wetlands and tidal marshes, in part due to greater leaching-related mass loss. For tidal marshes and freshwater wetlands, the warmer climates had 7-16% less mass remaining compared to temperate climates after a year of decomposition. The prokaryotic microbiome community composition was significantly different between substrate types and sampling times within and across ecosystem types. Microbial indicator analyses suggested putative metabolic pathways common across ecosystems were used to breakdown the tea litter, including increased presence of putative methylotrophs and sulphur oxidisers linked to the introduction of oxygen by root in-growth over the incubation period. Structural equation modelling analyses further highlighted the importance of incubation time on tea decomposition and prokaryotic microbiome community succession, particularly for rooibos tea that experienced a greater proportion of mass loss between three and twelve months compared to green tea. These results provide insights into ecosystem-level attributes that affect both the abiotic and biotic controls of belowground wetland carbon turnover at a continental scale, while also highlighting new decay dynamics for tea litter decomposing under longer incubations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2021.146819DOI Listing
August 2021

Gut Microbiota and Its Metabolite Deoxycholic Acid Contribute to Sucralose Consumption-Induced Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease.

J Agric Food Chem 2021 Apr 23;69(13):3982-3991. Epub 2021 Mar 23.

Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS) Key Laboratory of Magnetic Resonance in Biological Systems, State Key Laboratory of Magnetic Resonance and Atomic and Molecular Physics, National Centre for Magnetic Resonance in Wuhan, Innovation Academy for Precision Measurement Science and Technology, CAS, Wuhan 430071, China.

As important signal metabolites within enterohepatic circulation, bile acids (BAs) play a pivotal role during the occurrence and development of diet-induced nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Here, we evaluated the functional effects of BAs and gut microbiota contributing to sucralose consumption-induced NAFLD of mice. The results showed that sucralose consumption significantly upregulated the abundance of intestinal genera and , which produced deoxycholic acid (DCA) accumulating in multiple biological matrixes including feces, serum, and liver of mice. Subsequently, elevated hepatic DCA, one of the endogenous antagonists of the farnesol X receptor (), inhibited hepatic gene expression including a small heterodimer partner () and leading to sucralose-induced NAFLD in mice. Dietary supplements with fructo-oligosaccharide or metformin markedly restored genera and abundance and the DCA level of sucralose-consuming mice, which eventually ameliorated NAFLD. These findings highlighted the effects of gut microbiota and its metabolite DCA on sucralose-induced NAFLD of mice.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.jafc.0c07467DOI Listing
April 2021

Chi-miR-370-3p regulates hair follicle morphogenesis of Inner Mongolian cashmere goats.

G3 (Bethesda) 2021 05;11(5)

College of Animal Science, Inner Mongolia Agricultural University, Hohhot 010018, Inner Mongolia, China.

MicroRNAs (miRNAs), a class of 22 nucleotide (nt) noncoding RNAs, negatively regulate mRNA posttranscriptional modification in various biological processes. Morphogenesis of skin hair follicles in cashmere goats is a dynamic process involving many key signaling molecules, but the associated cellular biological mechanisms induced by these key signaling molecules have not been reported. In this study, differential expression, bioinformatics, and Gene Ontology/Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes enrichment analyses were performed on miRNA expression profiles of Inner Mongolian cashmere goats at 45, 55, and 65 days during the fetal period, and chi-miR-370-3p was identified and investigated further. Real-time fluorescence quantification (qRT-PCR), dual luciferase reporting, and Western blotting results showed that transforming growth factor beta receptor 2 (TGF-βR2) and fibroblast growth factor receptor 2 (FGFR2) were the target genes of chi-miR-370-3p. Chi-miR-370-3p also regulated the expression of TGF-βR2 and FGFR2 at mRNA and protein levels in epithelial cells and dermal fibroblasts. DNA staining, Cell Counting Kit-8, and fluorescein-labelled Annexin V results showed that chi-miR-370-3p inhibited the proliferation of epithelial cells and fibroblasts but had no effect on apoptosis. Cell scratch test results showed that chi-miR-370-3p promoted the migration of epithelial cells and fibroblasts. Chi-miR-370-3p inhibits the proliferation of epithelial cells and fibroblasts by targeting TGF-βR2 and FGFR2, thereby improving cell migration ability and ultimately regulating the fate of epithelial cells and dermal fibroblasts to develop the placode and dermal condensate, inducing hair follicle morphogenesis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/g3journal/jkab091DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8104936PMC
May 2021

Chi-miR-130b-3p regulates Inner Mongolia cashmere goat skin hair follicles in fetuses by targeting Wnt family member 10A.

G3 (Bethesda) 2021 01;11(1)

Engineering Research Center for Goat Genetics and Breeding, Hohhot 010018, Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region, China.

The development of hair follicles (HFs) is dependent on interactions between epithelial cells and dermal fibroblasts, which may play an important role in maintaining the structure of HFs during their development and maturation. Wnt family member 10 (WNT10A) is a hub gene during HF development and maturation that may regulate the proliferation of dermal fibroblasts and epithelial cells through microRNAs (miRNAs) and messenger RNAs (mRNAs) to maintain the structural stability of HFs. In the present study, we confirmed that WNT10A is the target gene of chi-miR-130b-3p by real-time quantitative PCR, western blotting, and a dual-luciferase reporter gene assay. We successfully cultured fetal epithelial cells and dermal fibroblasts using the tissue block attachment method, and Cell Counting Kit-8 (CCK8) results showed that chi-miR-130b-3p regulates epithelial cell and dermal fibroblast proliferation by targeting WNT10A.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/g3journal/jkaa023DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8022718PMC
January 2021

Decontamination of Escherichia coli O157:H7 on fresh Romaine lettuce using a novel bacteriophage lysin.

Int J Food Microbiol 2021 Mar 20;341:109068. Epub 2021 Jan 20.

Laboratory of Bacterial Pathogenesis and Immunology, The Rockefeller University, 1230 York Ave, 10065 New York, NY, USA.

Raw vegetables are a key food for a healthy diet, but their increased consumption brings a higher risk for foodborne disease. Contamination of salad greens with Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) O157:H7 has caused severe disease and important economic losses almost yearly in the United States over the last 10 years. To curb the risk of infections from contaminated produce, approaches based on bacterial virus - commonly known as bacteriophage or phage - have recently started to draw interest among other antimicrobial strategies. Phages enter bacterial cells to reproduce and cause cellular lysis to release their phage progeny at the end of their infection cycle. This lytic effect is caused by lysins, phage-encoded enzymes that have evolved to degrade the bacterial cell wall resulting in hypotonic lysis. When applied externally in their purified form, such enzymes are able to kill sensitive bacteria on contact in a similar way. Their unique bactericidal properties have made lysins effective antimicrobial agents in a variety of applications, from treating multidrug-resistant infections in humans to controlling bacterial contamination in several areas, including microbiological food safety. Here we describe a novel lysin, namely PlyEc2, with potent bactericidal activity against key gram-negative pathogens including E. coli, Salmonella, Shigella, Acinetobacter and Pseudomonas. PlyEc2 displayed high bactericidal activity against STEC to a concentration of 12.5 μg/ml under different pH conditions. This lysin was also able to reduce the bacterial titer of several pathogenic strains in vitro by more than 5 logarithmic units, resulting in complete sterilization. Importantly, PlyEc2 proved to be a powerful produce decontamination agent in its ability to clear 99.7% of contaminating STEC O157:H7 in our Romaine lettuce leaf model. PlyEc2 was also able to eradicate 99.8% of the bacteria contaminating the washing solution, drastically reducing the risk of cross-contamination during the washing process. A sensory evaluation panel found that treatment with PlyEc2 did not alter the visual and tactile quality of lettuce leaves compared to the untreated leaves. Our study is the first to describe a highly effective lysin treatment to control gram-negative pathogenic contamination on fresh lettuce without the addition of membrane destabilizing agents.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijfoodmicro.2021.109068DOI Listing
March 2021

EDA and EDAR expression at different stages of hair follicle development in cashmere goats and effects on expression of related genes.

Arch Anim Breed 2020 10;63(2):461-470. Epub 2020 Dec 10.

Key Laboratory of Animal Genetics, Breeding and Reproduction in Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region, Hohhot, Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region 010018, China.

This study is focused on the detection of ectodysplasin A (EDA) and ectodysplasin A receptor (EDAR) mRNA expression levels and protein positions in seven stages of cashmere goat fetus development (45, 55, 65, 75 95, 115, and 135 d), with the main goal of investigating the effect of EDA and EDAR on genes related to hair follicle development. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) was used to measure EDA and EDAR expression levels in seven stages of cashmere goat fetus development. Immunohistochemistry (IHC) was used to locate EDA and EDAR in the critical stage of fetal hair follicle development (45-135 d). EDA and EDAR expression in fetal fibroblasts and epithelial cells was interfered with by short hairpin RNA (sh-RNA). The results indicated that EDA and EDAR were both expressed in the skin tissue in the seven cashmere goat embryo stages. Moreover, EDA and EDAR play an important role in the formation of embryonic placode (Pc). After interfering with EDA and EDAR, the expression of BMP2, BMP4, noggin, -catenin, TGF- 2, Wnt-10b, and NOTCH1 in fibroblasts and epithelial cells changed significantly. This study provides a theoretical and experimental basis for further studying the molecular regulation mechanism of hair follicle development.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5194/aab-63-461-2020DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7810227PMC
December 2020

Using WGCNA (weighted gene co-expression network analysis) to identify the hub genes of skin hair follicle development in fetus stage of Inner Mongolia cashmere goat.

PLoS One 2020 22;15(12):e0243507. Epub 2020 Dec 22.

College of Animal Science, Inner Mongolia Agricultural University, Hohhot, Inner Mongolia, China.

Objective: Mature hair follicles represent an important stage of hair follicle development, which determines the stability of hair follicle structure and its ability to enter the hair cycle. Here, we used weighted gene co-expression network analysis (WGCNA) to identify hub genes of mature skin and hair follicles in Inner Mongolian cashmere goats.

Methods: We used transcriptome sequencing data for the skin of Inner Mongolian cashmere goats from fetal days 45-135 days, and divided the co expressed genes into different modules by WGCNA. Characteristic values were used to screen out modules that were highly expressed in mature skin follicles. Module hub genes were then selected based on the correlation coefficients between the gene and module eigenvalue, gene connectivity, and Gene Ontology (GO)/Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) enrichment analysis. The results were confirmed by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR).

Results: Ten modules were successfully defined, of which one, with a total of 3166 genes, was selected as a specific module through sample and gene expression pattern analyses. A total of 584 candidate hub genes in the module were screened by the correlation coefficients between the genes and module eigenvalue and gene connectivity. Finally, GO/KEGG functional enrichment analyses detected WNT10A as a key gene in the development and maturation of skin hair follicles in fetal Inner Mongolian cashmere goats. qPCR showed that the expression trends of 13 genes from seven fetal skin samples were consistent with the sequencing results, indicating that the sequencing results were reliable.n.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0243507PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7755285PMC
January 2021

Draft Genome of the European Mouflon ().

Front Genet 2020 19;11:533611. Epub 2020 Nov 19.

College of Animal Science, Inner Mongolia Agricultural University, Hohhot, China.

Mouflon () with its huge and beautiful horns is considered as one of the ancestors of domesticated sheep. The European mouflon () is in the Asiatic mouflon () clade. In order to provide novel genome information for mouflon, moreover promote genetic analysis of genus both domestic and wild, we propose to sequence the mouflon genome. We assembled the highly heterozygous mouflon genome based on Illumina HiSeq platform using the next-generation sequencing technology. Finally, the draft genome we accessed approximately 2.69 Gb (42.15% GC), while N50 sizes of contig and scaffold are 110.1 kb and 10.4 Mb, respectively. The contiguity of this assembly is obviously better than earlier versions. Further analyses predicted 20,814 protein-coding genes in the mouflon genome and 12,390 shared gene families among bovine species. It is estimated that the divergence time between and was 7.6 million years ago. The draft mouflon genome assembly will provide data support and theoretical basis for various investigations of the genus species in future.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fgene.2020.533611DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7710762PMC
November 2020

Temperature adaptation of soil microbial respiration in alpine, boreal and tropical soils: An application of the square root (Ratkowsky) model.

Glob Chang Biol 2021 Mar 18;27(6):1281-1292. Epub 2020 Dec 18.

National Observation and Research Station for Yangtze Estuarine Wetland Ecosystems, and Ministry of Education Key Laboratory for Biodiversity Science and Ecological Engineering, Institute of Biodiversity Science, School of Life Sciences, Fudan University, Shanghai, China.

Warming is expected to stimulate soil microbial respiration triggering a positive soil carbon-climate feedback loop while a consensus remains elusive regarding the magnitude of this feedback. This is partly due to our limited understanding of the temperature-adaptive response of soil microbial respiration, especially over broad climatic scales. We used the square root (Ratkowsky) model to calculate the minimum temperature for soil microbial respiration (T , which describes the temperature adaptation of soil microbial respiration) of 298 soil samples from alpine grasslands on the Tibetan Plateau and forest ecosystems across China with a mean annual temperature (MAT) range from -6°C to +25°C. The instantaneous soil microbial respiration was determined between 4°C and 28°C. The square root model could well fit the temperature effect on soil microbial respiration for each individual soil, with R higher than 0.98 for all soils. T ranged from -8.1°C to -0.1°C and increased linearly with increasing MAT (R  = 0.68). MAT dominantly regulated T variation when accounting simultaneously for multiple other drivers (mean annual precipitation, soil pH and carbon quality); an independent experiment showed that carbon availability had no significant effect on T . Using the relationship between T and MAT, soil microbial respiration after an increased MAT could be estimated, resulting in a relative increase in respiration with decreasing MAT. Thus, soil microbial respiration responses are adapted to long-term temperature differences in MAT. We suggest that T  = -5 + 0.2 × MAT, that is, every 1°C rise in MAT is estimated to increase T of respiration by approximately 0.2°C, could be used as a first approximation to incorporate temperature adaptation of soil microbial respiration in model predictions. Our results can be used to predict future changes in the response of soil microbial respiration to temperature over different levels of warming and across broad geographic scales with different MAT.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/gcb.15476DOI Listing
March 2021

Rising Temperature May Trigger Deep Soil Carbon Loss Across Forest Ecosystems.

Adv Sci (Weinh) 2020 Oct 6;7(19):2001242. Epub 2020 Aug 6.

Ministry of Education Key Laboratory for Biodiversity Science and Ecological Engineering Coastal Ecosystems Research Station of the Yangtze River Estuary School of Life Sciences Fudan University Shanghai 200438 P. R. China.

Significantly more carbon (C) is stored in deep soil than in shallow horizons, yet how the decomposition of deep soil organic C (SOC) will respond to rising temperature remains unexplored on large scales, leading to considerable uncertainties to predictions of the magnitude and direction of C-cycle feedbacks to climate change. Herein, short-term temperature sensitivity of SOC decomposition (expressed as ) from six depths within the top 1 m soil from 90 upland forest sites (540 soil samples) across China is reported. Results show that significantly increases with soil depth, suggesting that deep SOC is more vulnerable to loss with rising temperature in comparison to shallow SOC. Climate is the primary regulator of shallow soil but its relative influence declines with depth; in contrast, soil C quality has a minor influence on in shallow soil but increases its influence with depth. When considering the depth-dependent variations, results further show that using the thermal response of shallow soil layer for the whole soil profile, as is usually done in model predictions, would significantly underestimate soil C-climate feedbacks. The results highlight that Earth system models need to consider multilayer soil C dynamics and their controls to improve prediction accuracy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/advs.202001242DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7539220PMC
October 2020

Polyadenylation of Histone H3.1 mRNA Promotes Cell Transformation by Displacing H3.3 from Gene Regulatory Elements.

iScience 2020 Sep 1;23(9):101518. Epub 2020 Sep 1.

Department of Environmental Medicine, New York University School of Medicine, New York, NY 10010, USA; Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Pharmacology, New York University School of Medicine, New York, NY 10016, USA; Perlmutter Cancer Center, NYU Langone Health, New York, NY 10016, USA. Electronic address:

Replication-dependent canonical histone messenger RNAs (mRNAs) do not terminate with a poly(A) tail at the 3' end. We previously demonstrated that exposure to arsenic, an environmental carcinogen, induces polyadenylation of canonical histone H3.1 mRNA, causing transformation of human cells in vitro. Here we report that polyadenylation of H3.1 mRNA increases H3.1 protein, resulting in displacement of histone variant H3.3 at active promoters, enhancers, and insulator regions, leading to transcriptional deregulation, G2/M cell-cycle arrest, chromosome aneuploidy, and aberrations. In support of these observations, knocking down the expression of H3.3 induced cell transformation, whereas ectopic expression of H3.3 attenuated arsenic-induced cell transformation. Notably, arsenic exposure also resulted in displacement of H3.3 from active promoters, enhancers, and insulator regions. These data suggest that H3.3 displacement might be central to carcinogenesis caused by polyadenylation of H3.1 mRNA upon arsenic exposure. Our findings illustrate the importance of proper histone stoichiometry in maintaining genome integrity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.isci.2020.101518DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7492993PMC
September 2020

Characterization of Phage LPST153 That Effectively Targets Most Prevalent Serovars.

Microorganisms 2020 Jul 21;8(7). Epub 2020 Jul 21.

State Key Laboratory of Agricultural Microbiology, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan 430070, China.

Foodborne diseases represent a major risk to public health worldwide. In this study, LPST153, a novel lytic phage with halo (indicative of potential depolymerase activity) was isolated by employing serovar Typhimurium ATCC 13311 as the host and had excellent lytic potential against . LPST153 is effectively able to lyse most prevalent tested serotypes of , including Typhimurium, Enteritidis, Pullorum and Gallinarum. Morphological analysis revealed that phage LPST153 belongs to family and order and could completely prevent host bacterial growth within 9 h at multiplicity of infection (MOI) of 0.1, 1, 10 and 100. LPST153 had a latent period of 10 min and a burst size of 113 ± 8 PFU/cell. Characterization of the phage LPST153 revealed that it would be active and stable in some harsh environments or in different conditions of food processing and storage. After genome sequencing and phylogenetic analysis, it is confirmed that LPST153 is a new member of the genus of subfamily. Further application experiments showed that this phage has potential in controlling in milk and sausage. LPST153 was also able to inhibit the formation of biofilms and it had the ability to reduce and kill bacteria from inside, including existing biofilms. Therefore, the phage LPST153 could be used as a potential antibacterial agent for control in the food industry.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms8071089DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7409278PMC
July 2020

Erratum for Wang et al., "Integrin α5β1, as a Receptor of Fibronectin, Binds the FbaA Protein of Group A To Initiate Autophagy during Infection".

mBio 2020 07 21;11(4). Epub 2020 Jul 21.

Department of Immunology, Key Laboratory of Immune Mechanism and Intervention on Serious Disease in Hebei Province, Hebei Medical University, Shijiazhuang, China

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/mBio.01729-20DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7374063PMC
July 2020

Integrin α5β1, as a Receptor of Fibronectin, Binds the FbaA Protein of Group A To Initiate Autophagy during Infection.

mBio 2020 06 9;11(3). Epub 2020 Jun 9.

Department of Immunology, Key Laboratory of Immune Mechanism and Intervention on Serious Disease in Hebei Province, Hebei Medical University, Shijiazhuang, China

Group A (GAS), one of the most common extracellular pathogens, has been reported to invade epithelial and endothelial cells. Our results reveal that M1 GAS strain SF370 can be effectively eliminated by respiratory epithelial cells. Emerging evidence indicates that autophagy is an important strategy for nonphagocytes to eliminate intracellular bacteria. Upon pathogen recognition, cell surface receptors can directly trigger autophagy, which is a critical step in controlling infection. However, the mechanisms of how cells sense invading bacteria and use this information specifically to trigger autophagy remain unclear. In this study, we stimulated cells and infected mice with M and FbaA mutants of M1 GAS strain SF370 or with purified M and FbaA proteins (two critical surface structural proteins of GAS), and found that only FbaA protein was involved in autophagy induction. Furthermore, the FbaA protein induced autophagy independent of common pattern recognition receptors (such as Toll-like receptors); rather, it relies on binding to integrin α5β1 expressed on the cell surface, which is mediated by extracellular matrix protein fibronectin (Fn). The FbaA-Fn-integrin α5β1 complex activates Beclin-1 through the mTOR-ULK1-Beclin-1 pathway, which enables the Beclin-1/Vps34 complex to recruit Rab7 and, ultimately, to promote the formation of autophagosomes. By knocking down integrin α5β1, Fn, Atg5, Beclin-1, and ULK1 in Hep2 cells and deleting Atg5 or integrin α5β1 in mice, we reveal a novel role for integrin α5β1 in inducing autophagy. Our study demonstrates that integrin α5β1, through interacting with pathogen components, initiates effective host innate immunity against invading intracellular pathogens. Autophagy is generally considered a strategy used by the innate immune system to eliminate invasive pathogens through capturing and transferring them to lysosomes. Currently, researchers pay more attention to how virulence factors secreted by GAS regulate the autophagic process. Here, we provide the first evidence that the structural protein FbaA of M1 GAS strain SF370 is a potent inducer of autophagy in epithelial cells. Furthermore, we demonstrate that integrin α5β1 in epithelial cells and acts as a receptor to initiate the signaling for inducing autophagy by binding to FbaA of M1 GAS strain SF370 via Fn. Our study reveals the underlying mechanisms by which pathogens induce Fn-integrin α5β1 to trigger autophagy in a conserved pattern in epithelial cells.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/mBio.00771-20DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7371361PMC
June 2020

Skin transcriptome reveals the periodic changes in genes underlying cashmere (ground hair) follicle transition in cashmere goats.

BMC Genomics 2020 Jun 5;21(1):392. Epub 2020 Jun 5.

College of Animal Science, Inner Mongolia Agricultural University, Hohhot, 010018, China.

Background: Cashmere goats make an outstanding contribution to the livestock textile industry and their cashmere is famous for its slenderness and softness and has been extensively studied. However, there are few reports on the molecular regulatory mechanisms of the secondary hair follicle growth cycle in cashmere goats. In order to explore the regular transition through the follicle cycle and the role of key genes in this cycle, we used a transcriptome sequencing technique to sequence the skin of Inner Mongolian cashmere goats during different months. We analyzed the variation and difference in genes throughout the whole hair follicle cycle. We then verified the regulatory mechanism of the cashmere goat secondary hair follicle growth cycle using fluorescence quantitative PCR.

Results: The growth cycle of cashmere hair could be divided into three distinct periods: a growth period (March-September), a regression period (September-December), and a resting period (December-March). The results of differential gene analyses showed that March was the most significant month. Cluster analysis of gene expression throughout the whole growth cycle further supported the key nodes of the three periods of cashmere growth, and the differential gene expression of keratin corresponding to the ground haircashmere growth cycle further supported the results from tissue slices. Quantitative fluorescence analysis showed that KAP3-1, KRTAP 8-1, and KRTAP 24-1 genes had close positive correlation with the cashmere growth cycle, and their regulation was consistent with the growth cycle of cashmere.

Conclusion: The growth cycle of cashmere cashmere could be divided into three distinct periods: a growth period (March-September), a regression period (September-December) and a resting period (December-March). March was considered to be the beginning of the cycle. KAP and KRTAP showed close positive correlation with the growth cycle of secondary hair follicle cashmere growth, and their regulation was consistent with the cashmere growth cycle. But hair follicle development-related genes are expressed earlier than cashmere growth, indicating that cycle regulation could alter the temporal growth of cashmere. This study laid a theoretical foundation for the study of the cashmere development cycle and provided evidence for key genes during transition through the cashmere cycle. Our study provides a theoretical basis for cashmere goat breeding.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12864-020-06779-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7275469PMC
June 2020

Screening the key genes of hair follicle growth cycle in Inner Mongolian Cashmere goat based on RNA sequencing.

Arch Anim Breed 2020 26;63(1):155-164. Epub 2020 May 26.

College of Animal Science, Inner Mongolia Agricultural University, Hohhot, Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region, 010018, China.

Inner Mongolian Cashmere goat is an excellent local breed selected for the dual-purpose of cashmere and meat. There are three lines of Inner Mongolian Cashmere goat: Erlangshan, Alashan and Aerbasi. Cashmere is a kind of precious textile raw material with a high price. Cashmere is derived from secondary hair follicle (SHF), while hair is derived from primary hair follicle (PHF). The growth cycle of SHF of cashmere goat is 1 year, and it can be divided into three different stages: anagen, catagen and telogen. In this study, we tried to find some important influence factors of SHF growth cycle in skin tissue from Inner Mongolian Cashmere goats by RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq). Three female Aerbasi Inner Mongolian Cashmere goats (2 years old) were used as experimental samples in this study. Skin samples were collected in September (anagen), December (catagen) and March (telogen) at dorsal side from cashmere goats. Results showed that over 511 396 044 raw reads and 487 729 890 clean reads were obtained from sequence data. In total, 51 different expression genes (DEGs) including 29 downregulated genes and 22 upregulated genes were enriched in anagen-catagen comparing group. The 443 DEGs contained 117 downregulated genes and 326 upregulated genes that were enriched in catagen-telogen comparing group. In telogen-anagen comparing group, 779 DEGs were enriched including 582 downregulated genes and 197 upregulated genes. The result of gene ontology (GO) annotation showed that DEGs are in different growth cycle periods, and enriched GO items are mostly related to the transformation of cell and protein. The Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) enrichment result indicated that metabolic process has a great impact on SHF growth cycle. Based on the results of a comprehensive analysis of differentially expressed genes, GO enrichment and KEGG enrichment, we found that , and had an effect on the hair follicle growth cycle. The results of this study may provide a theoretical basis for further research on the growth and development of SHF in Inner Mongolian Cashmere goats.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5194/aab-63-155-2020DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7256851PMC
May 2020

Dibutyl phthalate aggravated asthma-like symptoms through oxidative stress and increasing calcitonin gene-related peptide release.

Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 2020 Aug 20;199:110740. Epub 2020 May 20.

Brain Science and Advanced Technology Institute, School of Medicine, Wuhan University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, 430081, China; Hubei Province Key Laboratory of Occupational Hazard Identification and Control, School of Medicine, Wuhan University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, 430065, China. Electronic address:

Dibutyl phthalate (DBP) is one of the most ubiquitous phthalate esters found in everyday products, and is receiving increased attention as an immunologic adjuvant. However, information regarding DBP-aggravated allergic asthma is still limited. This study used a mouse model sensitized with ovalbumin (OVA) to determine any adverse effects of DBP on allergic asthma. Our results reveal that allergic asthmatic mice exposed to DBP for an extended period had a significant increase in inflammatory cell infiltration; a significant increase in levels of serum immunoglobulin and T helper 2 cell (Th2) and T helper 17 cell (Th17) cytokines in lung tissue; and significant changes in lung histology and AHR, all of which are typical asthmatic symptoms. The levels of oxidative stress and levels of the neuropeptide, calcitonin gene related peptide (CGRP), were also elevated after DBP exposure. Interestingly, blocking oxidative stress by administering melatonin (MT) not only reduced oxidative stress and CGRP levels, but also ameliorated the asthmatic symptoms. Collectively, these results show that DBP exacerbates asthma-like pathologies by increasing the expression of CGRP mediated by oxidative stress.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ecoenv.2020.110740DOI Listing
August 2020

Coevolution of Eukaryote-like Vps4 and ESCRT-III Subunits in the Asgard Archaea.

mBio 2020 05 19;11(3). Epub 2020 May 19.

Shenzhen Key Laboratory of Marine Microbiome Engineering, Institute for Advanced Study, Shenzhen University, Shenzhen, China

The emergence of the endomembrane system is a key step in the evolution of cellular complexity during eukaryogenesis. The endosomal sorting complex required for transport (ESCRT) machinery is essential and required for the endomembrane system functions in eukaryotic cells. Recently, genes encoding eukaryote-like ESCRT protein components have been identified in the genomes of Asgard archaea, a newly proposed archaeal superphylum that is thought to include the closest extant prokaryotic relatives of eukaryotes. However, structural and functional features of Asgard ESCRT remain uncharacterized. Here, we show that Vps4, Vps2/24/46, and Vps20/32/60, the core functional components of the Asgard ESCRT, coevolved eukaryote-like structural and functional features. Phylogenetic analysis shows that Asgard Vps4, Vps2/24/46, and Vps20/32/60 are closely related to their eukaryotic counterparts. Molecular dynamics simulation and biochemical assays indicate that Asgard Vps4 contains a eukaryote-like microtubule-interacting and transport (MIT) domain that binds the distinct type 1 MIT-interacting motif and type 2 MIT-interacting motif in Vps2/24/46 and Vps20/32/60, respectively. The Asgard Vps4 partly, but much more efficiently than homologs from other archaea, complements the null mutant of , further supporting the functional similarity between the membrane remodeling machineries of Asgard archaea and eukaryotes. Thus, this work provides evidence that the ESCRT complexes from Asgard archaea and eukaryotes are evolutionarily related and functionally similar. Thus, despite the apparent absence of endomembranes in Asgard archaea, the eukaryotic ESCRT seems to have been directly inherited from an Asgard ancestor, to become a key component of the emerging endomembrane system. The discovery of Asgard archaea has changed the existing ideas on the origins of eukaryotes. Researchers propose that eukaryotic cells evolved from Asgard archaea. This hypothesis partly stems from the presence of multiple eukaryotic signature proteins in Asgard archaea, including homologs of ESCRT proteins that are essential components of the endomembrane system in eukaryotes. However, structural and functional features of Asgard ESCRT remain unknown. Our study provides evidence that Asgard ESCRT is functionally comparable to the eukaryotic counterparts, suggesting that despite the apparent absence of endomembranes in archaea, eukaryotic ESCRT was inherited from an Asgard archaeal ancestor, alongside the emergence of endomembrane system during eukaryogenesis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/mBio.00417-20DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7240154PMC
May 2020

Does root respiration in Australian rainforest tree seedlings acclimate to experimental warming?

Tree Physiol 2020 08;40(9):1192-1204

Hawkesbury Institute for the Environment, Western Sydney University, Locked Bag 1797, Penrith, NSW 2751, Australia.

Plant respiration can acclimate to changing environmental conditions and vary between species as well as biome types, although belowground respiration responses to ongoing climate warming are not well understood. Understanding the thermal acclimation capacity of root respiration (Rroot) in relation to increasing temperatures is therefore critical in elucidating a key uncertainty in plant function in response to warming. However, the degree of temperature acclimation of Rroot in rainforest trees and how root chemical and morphological traits are related to acclimation is unknown. Here we investigated the extent to which respiration of fine roots (≤2 mm) of four tropical and four warm-temperate rainforest tree seedlings differed in response to warmer growth temperatures (control and +6 °C), including temperature sensitivity (Q10) and the degree of acclimation of Rroot. Regardless of biome type, we found no consistent pattern in the short-term temperature responses of Rroot to elevated growth temperature: a significant reduction in the temperature response of Rroot to +6 °C treatment was only observed for a tropical species, Cryptocarya mackinnoniana, whereas the other seven species had either some stimulation or no alteration. Across species, Rroot was positively correlated with root tissue nitrogen concentration (mg g-1), while Q10 was positively correlated with root tissue density (g cm-3). Warming increased root tissue density by 20.8% but did not alter root nitrogen across species. We conclude that thermal acclimation capacity of Rroot to warming is species-specific and suggest that root tissue density is a useful predictor of Rroot and its thermal responses in rainforest tree seedlings.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/treephys/tpaa056DOI Listing
August 2020

Exploring differentially expressed genes between anagen and telogen secondary hair follicle stem cells from the Cashmere goat (Capra hircus) by RNA-Seq.

PLoS One 2020 16;15(4):e0231376. Epub 2020 Apr 16.

College of Animal Science, Inner Mongolia Agricultural University, Hohhot, Inner Mongolia, China.

Hair follicle stem cells (HFSCs) have been shown to be essential in the development and regeneration of hair follicles (HFs). The Inner Mongolia Cashmere goat (Capra hircus) has two types of HFs, primary and secondary, with cashmere being produced from the secondary hair follicle. To identify the genes associated with cashmere growth, transcriptome profiling of anagen and telogen secondary HFSCs was performed by RNA-Seq. The RNA-Seq analysis generated over 58 million clean reads from each group, with 2717 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) detected between anagen and telogen, including 1500 upregulated and 1217 downregulated DEGs. A large number of DEGs were predominantly associated with cell part, cellular process, binding, biological regulation and organelle. In addition, the PI3K-Akt, MAPK, Ras and Rap1 signaling pathways may be involved in the growth of HFSCs cultured in vitro. The RNA-Seq results showed that the well-defined HFSC signature genes and cell cycle-associated genes showed no significant differences between anagen and telogen HFSCs, indicating a relatively quiescent cellular state of the HFSCs cultured in vitro. These results are useful for future studies of complex molecular mechanisms of hair follicle cycling in cashmere goats.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0231376PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7162518PMC
July 2020