Publications by authors named "Jinny Lu"

4 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

A comparison of administrative data and quality improvement registries for abdominal aortic aneurysm repair.

J Vasc Surg 2021 Mar 16;73(3):874-888. Epub 2020 Jul 16.

Division of Vascular and Endovascular Surgery, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Boston, Mass. Electronic address:

Objective: Databases are essential in evaluating surgical outcomes and gauging the implementation of new techniques. However, there are important differences in how data from administrative databases and surgical quality improvement (QI) registries are collected and interpreted. Therefore, we aimed to compare trends, demographics, and outcomes of open and endovascular abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) repair in an administrative database and two QI registries.

Methods: We identified patients undergoing open and endovascular repair of intact and ruptured AAAs between 2012 and 2015 within the National Inpatient Sample (NIS), the National Surgical Quality Improvement Program (NSQIP), and the Vascular Quality Initiative (VQI). We described the differences and trends in overall AAA repairs for each data set. Moreover, patient demographics, comorbidities, mortality, and complications were compared between the data sets using Pearson χ test.

Results: A total of 140,240 NIS patients, 10,898 NSQIP patients, and 26,794 VQI patients were included. Ruptured repairs composed 8.7% of NIS, 11% of NSQIP, and 7.9% of VQI. Endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR) rates for intact repair (range, 83%-84%) and ruptured repair (range, 51%-59%) were similar in the three databases. In general, rates of comorbidities were lower in NIS than in the QI registries. After intact EVAR, in-hospital mortality rates were similar in all three databases (NIS 0.8%, NSQIP 1.0%, and VQI 0.8%; P = .06). However, after intact open repair and ruptured repair, in-hospital mortality was highest in NIS and lowest in VQI (intact open: NIS 5.4%, NSQIP 4.7%, and VQI 3.5% [P < .001]; ruptured EVAR: NIS 24%, NSQIP 20%, and VQI 16% [P < .001]; ruptured open: NIS 36%, NSQIP 31%, and VQI 26% [P < .001]). After stratification by intact and ruptured presentation and repair strategy, several discrepancies in morbidity rates remained between the databases. Overall, the number of cases in NSQIP represents 7% to 8% of the repairs in NIS, and the number of cases in VQI grew from 12% in 2012 to represent 23% of the national sample in 2015.

Conclusions: NIS had the largest number of patients as it represents the nationwide experience and is an essential tool to evaluate trends over time. The lower in-hospital mortality seen in NSQIP and VQI questions the generalizability of the studies that use these QI registries. However, with a growing number of hospitals engaging in granular QI initiatives, these QI registries provide a valuable resource to potentially improve the quality of care provided to all patients.
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March 2021

Protamine use in transfemoral carotid artery stenting is not associated with an increased risk of thromboembolic events.

J Vasc Surg 2021 Jan 12;73(1):142-150.e4. Epub 2020 Jun 12.

Division of Vascular and Endovascular Surgery, Department of Surgery, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Mass. Electronic address:

Background: Protamine use in carotid endarterectomy has been shown to be associated with fewer perioperative bleeding complications without higher rates of thromboembolic events. However, the effect of protamine use on complications after transfemoral carotid artery stenting (CAS) is unclear, and concerns remain about thromboembolic events.

Methods: A retrospective review was performed for patients undergoing transfemoral CAS in the Vascular Quality Initiative from March 2005 to December 2018. We assessed in-hospital outcomes using propensity score-matched cohorts of patients who did and did not receive protamine. The primary outcome was in-hospital stroke or death. Secondary outcomes included bleeding complications, stroke, death, transient ischemic attack, myocardial infarction, and congestive heart failure exacerbation. Bleeding complications were categorized as bleeding resulting in intervention or blood transfusions.

Results: Of the 17,429 patients undergoing transfemoral CAS, 2697 (15%) patients received protamine. We created 2300 propensity score-matched pairs of patients who did and did not receive protamine. There were no statistically significant differences in stroke or death between the two cohorts (protamine, 2.5%; no protamine, 2.9%; relative risk [RR], 0.85; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.60-1.21; P = .37). Protamine use was not associated with statistically significant differences in perioperative bleeding complications resulting in interventional treatment (0.9% vs 0.5%; RR, 2.10; 95% CI, 0.99-4.46; P = .05) or blood transfusion (1.2% vs 1.2%; RR, 0.92; 95% CI, 0.53-1.61; P = .78). There were also no statistically significant differences for the individual outcomes of stroke (1.8% vs 2.3%; RR, 0.78; 95% CI, 0.52-1.16; P = .22), death (0.9% vs 0.8%; RR, 1.17; 95% CI, 0.62-2.19; P = .63), transient ischemic attack (1.4% vs 1.3%; RR, 1.10; 95% CI, 0.67-1.82; P = .70), myocardial infarction (0.5% vs 0.4%; RR, 1.20; 95% CI, 0.52-2.78; P = .67), or heart failure exacerbation (1.0% vs 0.9%; RR, 1.05; 95% CI, 0.58-1.90; P = .88). Protamine use in patients presenting with symptomatic carotid stenosis was associated with lower risk of stroke or death (3.0% vs 4.3%; RR, 0.69; 95% CI, 0.47-0.998; P = .048), whereas there were no statistically significant differences in stroke or death with protamine use in asymptomatic patients (1.6% vs 1.0%; RR, 1.63; 95% CI, 0.67-3.92; P = .28).

Conclusions: Heparin reversal with protamine after transfemoral CAS is not associated with an increased risk of thromboembolic events, and its use in symptomatic carotid disease is associated with a lower risk of stroke or death.
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January 2021

Preservation of pelvic perfusion with iliac branch devices does not decrease ischemic colitis compared with hypogastric embolization in endovascular abdominal aortic aneurysm repair.

J Vasc Surg 2020 03 27;71(3):815-823. Epub 2019 Aug 27.

Department of Surgery, George Washington University, Washington, D.C.

Objective: Ischemic colitis is a rare but devastating complication of endovascular repair of infrarenal abdominal aortic aneurysms. Although it is rare (0.9%) in standard endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR), the incidence increases to 2% to 3% in EVAR with hypogastric artery embolization (HAE). This study investigated whether preservation of pelvic perfusion with iliac branch devices (IBDs) decreases the incidence of ischemic colitis.

Methods: We used the targeted EVAR module in the American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program database to identify patients undergoing EVAR of infrarenal abdominal aortic aneurysm from 2012 to 2017. The cohort was further stratified into average-risk and high-risk groups. Average-risk patients were those who underwent elective repair for sizes of the aneurysms, whereas high-risk patients were repaired emergently for indications other than asymptomatic aneurysms. Within these groups, we examined the 30-day outcomes of standard EVARs, EVAR with HAE, and EVAR with IBDs. The primary outcome was the incidence of ischemic colitis. Secondary outcomes included mortality, major organ dysfunction, thromboembolism, length of stay, and return to the operating room. The χ test, Fisher exact test, Kruskal-Wallis test, and multivariate regression models were used for data analysis.

Results: There were 11,137 patients who had infrarenal EVAR identified. We designated this the all-risk cohort, which included 9263 EVAR, 531 EVAR-HAE, and 1343 EVAR-IBD procedures. These were further stratified into 9016 cases with average-risk patients and 2121 cases with high-risk patients. In the average-risk group, 7482 had EVAR, 411 had EVAR-HAE, and 1123 had EVAR-IBD. In the high-risk group, 1781 had EVAR, 120 had EVAR-HAE, and 220 had EVAR-IBD. There was no significant difference in 30-day outcomes (including ischemic colitis) between EVAR, EVAR-HAE, and EVAR-IBD in the all-risk and high-risk groups. In the average-risk cohort, EVAR-HAE was associated with a higher mortality rate than EVAR (2.2% vs 1.0%; adjusted odds ratio, 2.58; P = .01). Although EVAR-IBD was not superior to EVAR-HAE in 30-day mortality, major organ dysfunction, or ischemic colitis in this average-risk cohort, EVAR-IBD exhibited a trend toward lower mortality compared with EVAR-HAE in this cohort, but it was not statistically significant (1.0% vs 2.2%; adjusted odds ratio, 0.42; P = .07).

Conclusions: Ischemic colitis is a rare complication of EVAR. HAE does not appear to increase the risk of ischemic colitis, and preservation of pelvic perfusion with IBDs does not decrease its incidence. Although HAE is associated with significantly higher mortality than standard EVAR in average-risk patients, the preservation of pelvic perfusion with IBDs does not appear to improve mortality over HAE.
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March 2020

Inferior mesenteric artery replantation does not decrease the risk of ischemic colitis after open infrarenal abdominal aortic aneurysm repair.

J Vasc Surg 2019 Jun 24;69(6):1825-1830. Epub 2018 Dec 24.

Department of Surgery, The George Washington University Hospital, Washington, DC.

Background: Ischemic colitis after an open abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) repair remains a serious complication with a nationally reported rate of 1% to 6% in elective cases and up to 60% after an aneurysmal rupture. To prevent this serious complication, inferior mesenteric artery (IMA) replantation is performed at the discretion of the surgeon based on his or her intraoperative findings, despite the lack of clear evidence to support this practice. The purpose of this study was to determine whether replantation of the IMA reduces the risk of ischemic colitis and improves the overall outcome of AAA repair.

Methods: Patients who underwent open infrarenal AAA repair were identified in the multicenter American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program Targeted AAA Database from 2012 to 2015. Emergency cases, patients with chronically occluded IMAs, ruptured aneurysms with evidence of hypotension, and patients requiring visceral revascularization were excluded. The remaining elective cases were divided into two groups: those with IMA replantation (IMA-R) and those with IMA ligation. We measured the 30-day outcomes including mortality, morbidity, and perioperative outcomes. A multivariable logistic regression model was used for data analysis, adjusting for clinically relevant covariates.

Results: We identified 2397 patients who underwent AAA repair between 2012 and 2015, of which 135 patients (5.6%) had ischemic colitis. After applying the appropriate exclusion criteria, there were 672 patients who were included in our study. This cohort was divided into two groups: 35 patients with IMA-R and 637 patients with IMA ligation. There were no major differences in preoperative comorbidities between the two groups. IMA-R was associated with increased mean operative time (319.7 ± 117.8 minutes vs 242.4 ± 109.3 minutes; P < .001). Examination of 30-day outcomes revealed patients with IMA-R had a higher rate of return to the operating room (20.0% vs 7.2%; P = .006), a higher rate of wound complications (17.1% vs 3.0%; P = .001), and a higher incidence of ischemic colitis (8.6% vs 2.4%; P = .027). There were no significant differences in mortality, pulmonary complications, or renal complications between the two groups. In multivariable analysis, IMA-R was a significant predictor of ischemic colitis and wound complications.

Conclusions: These data suggest that IMA-R is not associated with protection from ischemic colitis after open AAA repair. The role of IMA-R remains to be identified.
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June 2019