Publications by authors named "Jinhyun Kim"

163 Publications

Minimal One-Third Incision and Four-Step (MOTIF) Excision Method for Lipoma.

Biomed Res Int 2021 26;2021:4331250. Epub 2021 Aug 26.

Department of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Republic of Korea.

Excision is the gold standard for lipomas. Patients desire minimal scars, but minimal incisions can increase complications and produce hypertrophic scars. We propose an algorithmic method named the minimal one-third incision and four-step extraction method (MOTIF) for lipoma excision. This retrospective study analyzed lipomas surgically excised using the MOTIF method at our institution between January 2016 and December 2018. A total of 112 lipomas were included. The complication rates and Vancouver Scar Scale (VSS) for three different size groups (<3 cm, 3 ~ 6 cm, >6 cm) were compared. Complete excision of all palpable lipomas was achieved with this approach. There were two seromas, two hematomas, and one postoperative nerve injury. There was no difference in complication rates and VSS between the three size groups. The MOTIF method is a cost-effective, reliable, and cosmetically pleasing method that can be applied to all lipomas regardless of size and location.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2021/4331250DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8416388PMC
August 2021

Patient Perspectives and Preferences Regarding Gout and Gout Management: Impact on Adherence.

J Korean Med Sci 2021 Aug 16;36(32):e208. Epub 2021 Aug 16.

Division of Rheumatology, Department of Internal Medicine, Ewha Womans University College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea.

Background: Patient-centered management is becoming increasingly important in gout, but there are limited studies exploring patients' perspectives and preferences. We aimed to investigate patients' perspectives and preferences regarding gout and gout management, and their impacts on adherence to urate lowering therapy (ULT).

Methods: A paper-based survey was performed in patients with gout seen at the rheumatology outpatient clinics of 16 tertiary hospitals. The survey included questions regarding demographics, comorbidities, gout attacks, current treatment and adherence, and patients' perspectives and preferences regarding gout and gout management. Multivariate regression analysis was performed to determine the factors associated with ULT adherence.

Results: Of 809 surveyed patients with gout, 755 (94.5%) were using ULT. Among those using ULT, 89.1% had ≥ 80% adherence to ULT. Majority of the patients knew management strategies to some extent (94.8%), perceived gout as a life-long disease (91.2%), and were making efforts toward practicing at least one lifestyle modification (89.2%). Most patients (71.9%) obtained information about gout management during their clinic visits. Approximately half of the patients (53.6%) preferred managing their disease with both ULT and lifestyle modification, 28.4% preferred ULT only, and 17.4% preferred lifestyle modification only. Adherence was better in patients with older age (odds ratio [OR], 1.03), those with better knowledge of gout management strategies (OR, 3.56), and those who had preference for ULT (OR, 2.07).

Conclusion: Patients' perspectives and management preferences had high impacts on adherence to ULT in gout. Consideration of patients' perspectives and preferences is important for achieving the desired clinical outcome in gout.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3346/jkms.2021.36.e208DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8369315PMC
August 2021

Solar-Powered Whole-Cell P450 Catalytic Platform for C-Hydroxylation Reactions.

ChemSusChem 2021 Aug 16;14(15):3030. Epub 2021 Jul 16.

School of Biological Sciences and Technology, Chonnam National University, Gwangju, 61186, Republic of Korea.

Invited for this month's cover is the joint research group of Prof. Chan Beum Park at the Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology (KAIST) and Prof. Chul-Ho Yun at the Chonnam National University (CNU). The image shows how the use of a natural photosensitizer, flavin mononucleotide, and visible light can lead to a cost-effective, green, and sustainable process for P450-catalyzed reactions in a whole-cell system. The Communication itself is available at 10.1002/cssc.202100944.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cssc.202101373DOI Listing
August 2021

Convergence Circuit Mapping: Genetic Approaches From Structure to Function.

Front Syst Neurosci 2021 21;15:688673. Epub 2021 Jun 21.

Center for Functional Connectomics, Korea Institute of Science and Technology (KIST), Seoul, South Korea.

Understanding the complex neural circuits that underpin brain function and behavior has been a long-standing goal of neuroscience. Yet this is no small feat considering the interconnectedness of neurons and other cell types, both within and across brain regions. In this review, we describe recent advances in mouse molecular genetic engineering that can be used to integrate information on brain activity and structure at regional, cellular, and subcellular levels. The convergence of structural inputs can be mapped throughout the brain in a cell type-specific manner by antero- and retrograde viral systems expressing various fluorescent proteins and genetic switches. Furthermore, neural activity can be manipulated using opto- and chemo-genetic tools to interrogate the functional significance of this input convergence. Monitoring neuronal activity is obtained with precise spatiotemporal resolution using genetically encoded sensors for calcium changes and specific neurotransmitters. Combining these genetically engineered mapping tools is a compelling approach for unraveling the structural and functional brain architecture of complex behaviors and malfunctioned states of neurological disorders.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fnsys.2021.688673DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8255632PMC
June 2021

Contrasting early successional dynamics of bacterial and fungal communities in recently deglaciated soils of the maritime Antarctic.

Mol Ecol 2021 09 16;30(17):4231-4244. Epub 2021 Jul 16.

Korea Polar Research Institute (KOPRI), Incheon, Korea.

Although microorganisms are the very first colonizers of recently deglaciated soils even prior to plant colonization, the drivers and patterns of microbial community succession at early-successional stages remain poorly understood. The successional dynamics and assembly processes of bacterial and fungal communities were compared on a glacier foreland in the maritime Antarctic across the ~10-year soil-age gradient from bare soil to sparsely vegetated area. Bacterial communities shifted more rapidly than fungal communities in response to glacial retreat; species turnover (primarily the transition from glacier- to soil-favouring taxa) contributed greatly to bacterial beta diversity, but this pattern was less clear in fungi. Bacterial communities underwent more predictable (more deterministic) changes along the soil-age gradient, with compositional changes paralleling the direction of changes in soil physicochemical properties following deglaciation. In contrast, the compositional shift in fungal communities was less associated with changes in deglaciation-induced changes in soil geochemistry and most fungal taxa displayed mosaic abundance distribution across the landscape, suggesting that the successional dynamics of fungal communities are largely governed by stochastic processes. A co-occurrence network analysis revealed that biotic interactions between bacteria and fungi are very weak in early succession. Taken together, these results collectively suggest that bacterial and fungal communities in recently deglaciated soils are largely decoupled from each other during succession and exert very divergent trajectories of succession and assembly under different selective forces.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/mec.16054DOI Listing
September 2021

Solar-Powered Whole-Cell P450 Catalytic Platform for C-Hydroxylation Reactions.

ChemSusChem 2021 Aug 18;14(15):3054-3058. Epub 2021 Jun 18.

School of Biological Sciences and Technology, Chonnam National University, Gwangju, 61186, Republic of Korea.

Photobiocatalysis is a green platform for driving redox enzymatic reactions using solar energy, not needing high-cost cofactors and redox partners. Here, a visible light-driven whole-cell platform for human cytochrome P450 (CYP) photobiocatalysis was developed using natural flavins as a photosensitizer. Photoexcited flavins mediate NADPH/reductase-free, light-driven biocatalysis by human CYP2E1 both in vitro and in the whole-cell systems. In vitro tests demonstrated that the photobiocatalytic activity of CYP2E1 is dependent on the substrate type, the presence of catalase, and the acid type used as a sacificial electron donor. A protective effect of catalase was found against the inactivation of CYP2E1 heme by H O and the direct transfer of photo-induced electrons to the heme iron not by peroxide shunt. Furthermore, the P450 photobiocatalysis in whole cells containing human CYPs 1A1, 1A2, 1B1, and 3A4 demonstrated the general applicability of the solar-powered, flavin-mediated P450 photobiocatalytic system.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cssc.202100944DOI Listing
August 2021

Changes in Archaeal Community and Activity by the Invasion of Spartina anglica Along Soil Depth Profiles of a Coastal Wetland.

Microb Ecol 2021 May 18. Epub 2021 May 18.

School of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Yonsei University, Seoul, 03722, Republic of Korea.

Invasion of Spartina spp. in tidal salt marshes may affect the function and characteristics of the ecosystem. Previous studies reported that the invasion alters biogeochemical and microbial processes in marsh ecosystems, yet our knowledge of changing archaeal community due to the invasion is still limited, whereas archaeal communities play a pivotal role in biogeochemical cycles within highly reduced marsh soils. In this study, we aimed to illustrate the influences of the Spartina anglica invasion on soil archaeal community and the depth profile of the influences. The relative abundance of archaeal phyla demonstrated that the invasion substantially shifted the characteristics of tidal salt marsh from marine to terrestrial soil only in surface layer, while the influences indirectly propagated to the deeper soil layer. In particular, two archaeal phyla, Asgardaeota and Diapherotrites, were strongly influenced by the invasion, indicating a shift from marine to terrestrial archaeal communities. The shifts in soil characteristics spread to the deeper soil layer that results in indirect propagation of the influences of the invasion down to the deeper soil, which was underestimated in previous studies. The changes in the concentration of dissolved organic carbon and salinity were the substantial regulating factors for that. Therefore, changes in biogeochemical and microbial characteristics in the deep soil layer, which is below the root zone of the invasive plant, should be accounted for a more accurate illustration of the consequences of the invasion.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00248-021-01770-3DOI Listing
May 2021

Peripheral Blood from Rheumatoid Arthritis Patients Shows Decreased T CD25 Expression and Reduced Frequency of Effector T Subpopulation.

Cells 2021 04 3;10(4). Epub 2021 Apr 3.

Department of Medical Science, College of Medicine, Chungnam National University, Daejeon 35015, Korea.

Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a common autoimmune disease characterized by immune cell infiltration of the synovium, leading to the loss of cartilage, bone, and joint function. Although regulatory T (T) cells are thought to modulate the initiation and progression of RA, a consensus has yet to be reached regarding the function and composition of T cells in RA patients. To address these discrepancies, we analyzed not only the total T frequency but also that of T subpopulations in the peripheral blood of RA patients and healthy controls by flow cytometry. We found that the total T population was not significantly different between RA and control subjects. However, the effector T cell subgroup, defined as CD45RACD25, showed markedly decreased frequency in RA patients. In addition, the total T population from RA patients showed a significant decline in the expression of CD25. Both the naïve and effector T subgroups also showed marked reduction of CD25 expression in RA patients compared to controls. These data suggest that the decreased frequency of effector T cells and overall reduction of CD25 expression in T cells in the peripheral blood may be evidence of altered T homeostasis associated with RA pathogenesis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/cells10040801DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8067140PMC
April 2021

Comparison of the 2017 EULAR/ACR Criteria with Clinicoserologic Criteria for the Classification of Idiopathic Inflammatory Myopathies in Korean Patients.

Yonsei Med J 2021 May;62(5):424-430

Division of Rheumatology, Department of Internal Medicine, Kyung Hee University Medical Center, Seoul, Korea.

Purpose: To investigate correlations between myositis-specific autoantibodies (MSA) or myositis-associated antibodies (MAA) and clinical features, thereby demonstrating the utility of clinicoserologic classification in idiopathic inflammatory myopathies (IIM) patients.

Materials And Methods: We conducted a multicenter study of 108 adult patients (age ≥18 years) who were diagnosed with IIM by Peter and Bohan criteria or 2004 European Neuromuscular Centre (ENMC) criteria. Clinical data were obtained by medical record review. Immunoblot assay with Euroline strip (EUROIMMUN, Germany) was performed using the sera of dermatomyositis (DM, n=56), polymyositis (PM, n=45), amyopathic DM (n=5), DM sine dermatitis (n=1), and immune mediated necrotizing myopathy (n=1) patients. Patients were classified based on two classifications: 2017 EULAR/ACR and novel clinicoserologic classification.

Results: According to 2017 EULAR/ACR criteria, DM and PM were the most and the second most frequent entities. Overlap myositis was the major entity of IIM, and the frequency of PM was significantly lower when applying clinicoserologic classification criteria. Sixty-nine (63.9%) patients had one or more MSA, and 61 (56.5%) patients had one or more MAA. Interstitial lung disease was closely associated with anti-MDA5 and anti-ARS, and DM-specific skin lesions were frequently observed in patients with anti-TIF1γ, anti-SRP, and anti-MDA5.

Conclusion: The clinicoserologic criteria based on MSA/MAA positivity could reflect more precise clinical features of IIM. Establishment of a laboratory system routinely available to screen for MSA/MAA status will be beneficial to provide precise diagnosis and proper management of IIM patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3349/ymj.2021.62.5.424DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8084694PMC
May 2021

The effect of the reformed nurse staffing policy on employment of nurses in Korea.

Nurs Open 2021 Sep 10;8(5):2850-2856. Epub 2021 Apr 10.

Department of Nursing, Andong National University, Andong, Korea.

Aim: This study aims to analyse the employment effect of reformed nurse staffing policy which is the "Integrated Nursing and Care Service" scheme that was introduced by the Korean government.

Design: Economic evaluation study focusing on employment effect.

Method: An input-output model was used to estimate the employment-inducing effect of the new staffing policy. The analysed data of 26,381 beds, of 400 hospitals that are participated in the Integrated Nursing and Care Service scheme were retrieved from the Korean National Health Insurance claims database.

Results: The job-creation effect of the new staffing policy was estimated to be 48.5 persons per USD 1 million expenditure, which means 28,154 persons were employed when USD 580.15 million expenditures was paid to the hospitals by the National Health Insurance Service. In addition, the policy had an employment-inducing effect which is as high as 3.09~6.07 times higher than that of similar industries and all industries.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/nop2.869DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8363375PMC
September 2021

The Effect of a Non-Invasive Positive Pressure Ventilation Simulation Program on General Ward Nurses' Knowledge and Self-Efficacy.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2021 03 11;18(6). Epub 2021 Mar 11.

College of Nursing, Seoul National University, Seoul 03080, Korea.

The purpose of this study is to develop a simulation-based ventilator training program for general ward nurses and identify its effects. Quantitative data were collected from 29 nurses (intervention group: 15, control group: 14), of which seven were interviewed with focus groups to collect qualitative data. The quantitative results revealed significant differences in ventilator-related knowledge ( = 0.029) and self-efficacy ( = 0.026) between the intervention and control groups. Moreover, three themes were derived from meaningful statements in the qualitative data: understanding psychophysical discomfort of the patient while applying the ventilator; helping in ventilator care; and establishing a future ventilator training strategy. The findings confirmed that the non-invasive positive pressure ventilation (NPPV) simulation program is an effective method for improving the knowledge of ventilator nursing and self-efficacy and will be helpful in developing educational methods and strategies related to ventilator nursing for general ward nurses.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18062877DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8001743PMC
March 2021

A selective small-molecule inhibitor of c-Met suppresses keloid fibroblast growth in vitro and in a mouse model.

Sci Rep 2021 Mar 9;11(1):5468. Epub 2021 Mar 9.

Department of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Seoul National University Boramae Hospital, Seoul National University College of Medicine, 5 Gil 20, Boramae-Road, Dongjak-Gu, Seoul, 07061, Republic of Korea.

Keloids, tumor-like lesions that result from excessive scar formation, have no definitive treatment modality. Activation of c-mesenchymal-epithelial transition factor (c-Met) promotes cell proliferation and survival. Selective c-Met inhibitors, such as PHA-665752, may attenuate the activity of keloid fibroblasts and reduce keloid formation. Here, we aimed to evaluate the effect of PHA-665752, a second-generation selective small-molecule inhibitor of c-Met, on human keloid fibroblasts in vitro and in a mouse model. We performed in vitro cytotoxicity assays, scratch tests, western blotting, and immunofluorescence on human keloid fibroblasts. We also injected human fibroblasts into severe combined immunodeficient mice and measured the degree of nodule formation and skin histologic characteristics. We found that keloid fibroblast migration was inhibited by PHA-665752. Inhibitor treatment was also associated with lower expression of members of the hepatocyte growth factor/c-Met pathway, and lower fibroblast activity and collagen synthesis. In the in vivo experiments, PHA-665752-treated mice had lower nodule volumes and weights, accompanied by less inflammatory cell infiltration and collagen deposition, than those in control mice. These findings showed that although an in vivo model may not accurately represent the pathophysiology of human keloid development, PHA-665752 suppressed keloid fibroblast activity by inhibiting the c-Met-related tyrosine kinase pathway.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-84982-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7943593PMC
March 2021

AI-based localization and classification of skin disease with erythema.

Sci Rep 2021 Mar 5;11(1):5350. Epub 2021 Mar 5.

Department of Computer Science and Engineering, Sungkyunkwan University College of Computing, Sungkyunkwan University, 2044 Seobu-ro, Jangan-gu, Suwon, 16419, Republic of Korea.

Although computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) is used to improve the quality of diagnosis in various medical fields such as mammography and colonography, it is not used in dermatology, where noninvasive screening tests are performed only with the naked eye, and avoidable inaccuracies may exist. This study shows that CAD may also be a viable option in dermatology by presenting a novel method to sequentially combine accurate segmentation and classification models. Given an image of the skin, we decompose the image to normalize and extract high-level features. Using a neural network-based segmentation model to create a segmented map of the image, we then cluster sections of abnormal skin and pass this information to a classification model. We classify each cluster into different common skin diseases using another neural network model. Our segmentation model achieves better performance compared to previous studies, and also achieves a near-perfect sensitivity score in unfavorable conditions. Our classification model is more accurate than a baseline model trained without segmentation, while also being able to classify multiple diseases within a single image. This improved performance may be sufficient to use CAD in the field of dermatology.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-84593-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7935891PMC
March 2021

Risk Factors for Fall-Related Serious Injury among Korean Adults: A Cross-Sectional Retrospective Analysis.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2021 01 30;18(3). Epub 2021 Jan 30.

College of Nursing, Seoul National University, Seoul 03080, Korea.

The purpose of this study was to identify the risk factors of serious fall-related injuries by analyzing the differences between two fall groups: one with serious fall-related injuries and one without such injuries. Applying a retrospective, descriptive investigation study design, we analyzed the degree of fall-related injury and the risk factors related to serious falls by conducting a complete survey of the medical records of fall patients reported throughout one full year, 2017, at a tertiary hospital in Seoul, Korea. Among the patients with reported falls, 188 sustained no injury (63.1%), 72 sustained minor injury (24.2%), and 38 patients sustained serious injury (12.8%). The serious fall-related injuries included eight lacerations requiring suture (2.7%), 23 fractures (7.7%), five brain injuries (1.7%), and two deaths (0.7%). Analysis results indicated that taking anticoagulants/antiplatelet drugs ( = 0.016) and having a fall history ( = 0.038) were statistically significant in the differences between the group with serious injury related to falls and the group without serious injury. Logistic regression revealed that taking anticoagulant/antiplatelet drugs was the factor most significantly correlated with serious injuries related to falls (OR = 2.299, = 0.022). Results show that it is necessary to develop a patient-tailored fall prevention activity program.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18031239DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7908365PMC
January 2021

Clinical outcomes of management of posterior capsule rupture with air bubble techniques.

Int J Ophthalmol 2020 18;13(12):2007-2011. Epub 2020 Dec 18.

Department of Ophthalmology, Asan Medical Center, Songpa-gu, Seoul 05505, Republic of Korea.

Aim: To introduce a new surgical technique, air-bubble technique for the management of posterior capsule rupture (PCR) and to evaluate the safety and efficacy of the technique.

Methods: A retrospective case series analysis of 24 eyes of 24 patients, in which the air bubble technique was used for the management of PCR, was performed. Once PCR occurred, a dispersive ophthalmic viscosurgical device (OVD) was injected into the tear. And small volumes (0.2-0.3 mL) of air bubbles were injected beneath the OVD. The air bubble served as a physical barrier and supported the posterior capsule.

Results: After surgery, none of the patients had serious complications during the follow-up period of 1y. Extension of the PCR size occurred in only 2 cases, and additional OVD injection was required only in 3 cases. Air bubbles imparted great stability to the nuclear pieces and the posterior capsule.

Conclusion: The air-bubble technique may be considered a safe and effective procedure for managing a PCR. It may be of value to the inexperienced cataract surgeon.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.18240/ijo.2020.12.24DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7708370PMC
December 2020

Assessing Variability of Control Within a Single Day in Intermittent Exotropia.

J Pediatr Ophthalmol Strabismus 2020 Nov;57(6):378-383

Purpose: To assess intra-individual hour-to-hour variability of control in intermittent exotropia using a simple office scale: Look And Cover, then Ten seconds of Observation Scale for Exotropia (LACTOSE).

Methods: In this prospective cross-sectional study, the degree of control for distance and near was measured using the LACTOSE, a 5-point scale ranging from 0 to 4. A single investigator performed multiple measurements of the control of each patient with at least an hour interval between measurements.

Results: Of the 95 patients with intermittent exotropia enrolled, 66 (69.5%) were assessed two times and 29 (30.5%) were assessed three times for their control. Most patients had consistent control scores across multiple assessments for distance (n = 63, 66.3%) and near (n = 70, 73.7%). Forty-five (47.4%) patients demonstrated variable control for either distance or near, mostly (n = 27, 60.0%) showing a one-step difference. None presented with more than a two-step difference in the control score on repeated measurements. An initial LACTOSE score of 4 (very poor control) or 1 (very good control) remained unchanged in subsequent assessments for both distance (P = .049) and near (P < .001).

Conclusions: One-third of patients with intermittent exotropia showed variable control scores even during a single day across multiple measurements using the LACTOSE scale. Those who showed consistent control had very good or very poor control, whereas those with variable control had not had very good or very poor control on their initial LACTOSE measurements. [J Pediatr Ophthalmol Strabismus. 2020;57(6):378-383.].
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3928/01913913-20200825-02DOI Listing
November 2020

Self-detachable UV-curable polymers for open-access microfluidic platforms.

Lab Chip 2020 11;20(22):4215-4224

Brain Science Institute, Korea Institute of Science and Technology (KIST), Seoul 02792, Republic of Korea. and Division of Bio-Medical Science & Technology, KIST School, Korea University of Science and Technology, Seoul 02792, Republic of Korea.

This study presents an ultraviolet (UV)-curable polymer which is applicable to open-access microfluidic platforms. The UV-curable polymer was prepared by mixing trimethylolpropane triacrylate (TMPTA), 1,6-hexanediol diacrylate (HDDA), polyethylene glycol-diacrylate (PEG-DA), and Irgacure 184. The polymer resin is optically transparent before and after UV-assisted curing and showed good biocompatibility when culturing multiple types of cells on the nanopatterned polymer substrate. The polymer has good adhesion with poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) even under large deformation and showed a low swelling ratio when exposed to water, suggesting a possibility to be used as a substrate for an organ on a chip. Furthermore, because the polymers have controllable hydrolysis ability depending on the composition, long-term 3D cell culture and subsequent biological analysis with harvested cells are possible. The self-detachable synthesized UV-curable polymer may help the advancement of biomedical studies using in vitro cell culture.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d0lc00604aDOI Listing
November 2020

Clinical analysis and review of literature on pilomatrixoma in pediatric patients.

Arch Craniofac Surg 2020 Oct 20;21(5):288-293. Epub 2020 Oct 20.

Department of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea.

Background: Pilomatrixoma is a benign tumor that originates from the hair follicle matrix. It usually presents as a hard, slow growing, solitary mass that can be easily misdiagnosed as other skin masses. The aim of this study was to clinically analyze a case series of pilomatrixoma in pediatric patients from Korea.

Methods: A total of 165 pediatric patients from 2011 to 2018 with a histological diagnosis of pilomatrixoma were included. A retrospective review was performed using the electronic medical records, including patient demographics, number and location of the mass, clinical and imaging presentation, and postoperative outcomes.

Results: There were 61 male and 104 female patients with 152 solitary and 13 multiple pilomatrixomas. Among solitary pilomatrixomas, the lesion commonly occurred in the head and neck (84.2%), followed by upper limbs (11.2%), lower limbs (3.3%), and trunk (1.3%). The pilomatrixoma lesion presented as the following types based on our clinical classification: mass (56.02%), pigmentation (25.31%), mixed (12.65%), ulceration (4.82%), and keloid-like (1.2%). Ultrasonography showed a high positive predictive value (95.56%). There were no specific complications observed except for two cases of recurrence.

Conclusion: Pilomatrixoma has various clinical feature presentations and commonly occurs in the head and neck. Ultrasonography is a helpful diagnostic tool. Surgical removal of the lesion is the main treatment method with a low recurrence rate.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7181/acfs.2020.00528DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7644346PMC
October 2020

Microbial decomposition of soil organic matter determined by edaphic characteristics of mangrove forests in East Asia.

Sci Total Environ 2021 Apr 16;763:142972. Epub 2020 Oct 16.

School of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Yonsei University, Seoul 03722, Republic of Korea. Electronic address:

Mangrove forests cover only 0.1% of the world's continental area; however, these are a substantial carbon sink owing to the high primary production and low rate of decomposition of soil organic matter (SOM). The extremely low decomposition rate of SOM in mangrove forests is believed to be caused by low oxygen and nutrient availability as well as recalcitrant biomass from mangrove. However, only a few studies have addressed the microbial mechanism that plays a key role in the decomposition of SOM. In this study, the decomposition of SOM were determined by conducting a field survey and an lab incubation experiment using soil samples from mangrove forests in three regions; Okinawa, Shenzhen, and Hong Kong. In particular, we examined the occurrence of the enzymic latch mechanism, which involves phenolic inhibition of enzymic decomposition, in mangrove forest soils that highlights the importance of phenol oxidase as a key controlling factor. The results clearly showed that enzymic latch involved in the accumulation of SOM in the mangroves of Shenzhen and Hong Kong, whereas the accumulation of SOM in Okinawa was controlled by other mechanisms, such as the iron gate mechanism, which involves stabilization of soil carbon in iron-SOM complexes. The characteristics of mangrove forests, such as iron concentration, were shown as substantial determination factors in the dynamics of SOM. We concluded that the decomposition of SOM were strongly affected by the characteristics of mangrove forests, and the occurrence of enzymic latch in mangrove forests has a potential application in geoengineering technology to enhance the carbon sequestration capacity of mangrove forests.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2020.142972DOI Listing
April 2021

Application of the Health Technology Assessment in Korean Traditional Medicines.

J Altern Complement Med 2021 Jan 2;27(1):58-65. Epub 2020 Nov 2.

College of Nursing, Seoul National University, Seoul, Korea.

South Korea is the first Asian country to adopt health technology assessment (HTA) as a tool to support decision-making concerning pricing and reimbursement of drugs in 2007. Korean traditional medicines have been continuously marginalized in the modern paradigm of evidence-based medicine. To nurture Korean medicines, clinical practice guidelines for Korean medicines have been developed through government-led initiatives, and HTAs have been applied for the National Health Insurance coverage of Korean medicines. In this study, 27 diseases were selected for analyzing the evidence development of both clinical and economic values of Korean medicines. To investigate the in application of HTA in Korean medicines, reports on the cost-effectiveness analysis project comprising 27 Korean medical interventions were reviewed. All the selected studies were trial-based economic appraisals and their effectiveness was estimated with a subjective judgment tool, such as the quality of life measurement or visual analog scale. This study reconfirmed the limitations of Korean medicines, which included a short observation period, nonrandomized controlled trials, small sample size, subjective assessment for efficacy, selection bias, large uncertainty, and lack of evidence. Priorities should be placed on establishing the clinical evidence of Korean medicines, which will serve as the base for expanding the health coverage of Korean medicines and improving satisfaction and reliability of oriental medicines in Korea's health care system. Furthermore, the need to nurture the institutional environment in which both oriental and Western medicines can collaborate in Korea should be emphasized.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/acm.2020.0359DOI Listing
January 2021

Incorporation of Lithium Fluoride Restraining Thermal Degradation and Photodegradation of Organometal Halide Perovskite Solar Cells.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2020 Nov 29;12(45):50418-50425. Epub 2020 Oct 29.

Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Research Institute of Advanced Materials, Seoul National University, Seoul 08826, Korea.

Because of the facile formation of defects in organometal halide perovskites, the defect passivation has become an important prerequisite for the stable and efficient perovskite solar cell (PSC). Regarding that ionic defects of the perovskites play a significant role on the performance and stability of PSCs, we introduce lithium fluorides as effective passivators based on their strong ionic characteristics and small ionic radii. Both Li and F are observed to successfully incorporate within the perovskite layer, improving the device performances with the best efficiency over 20%, while the hysteresis effects are significantly reduced, confirming the passivation of perovskite defects. Moreover, LiF restrains both thermal degradation and photodegradation of PSCs, where over 90% of the initial efficiencies have been retained by LiF-incorporated devices for more than 1000 h under either 1 sun illumination or 85 °C thermal condition. As the trap density of states is analyzed before and after the thermal stress, not only the mitigation of electronic traps as fabricated but also the dramatic relaxation of traps during the postannealing step is observed with the LiF incorporation. From this work, LiF has shown its potential as a promising ionic passivator, and the phenomenal achievement of device stability by LiF provides a clear insight to overcome the stability issues of PSCs, a key to the commercialization of next-generation photovoltaics.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsami.0c14218DOI Listing
November 2020

TAP2, a peptide antagonist of Toll-like receptor 4, attenuates pain and cartilage degradation in a monoiodoacetate-induced arthritis rat model.

Sci Rep 2020 10 15;10(1):17451. Epub 2020 Oct 15.

Department of Internal Medicine, Chungnam National University College of Medicine, Daejeon, 35015, Republic of Korea.

Because inflammation in osteoarthritis (OA) is related to the Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) signaling cascades, TLR4 is a reasonable target for developing therapeutics for OA. Thus, we investigated whether TAP2, a peptide antagonist of TLR4, reduces the monoiodoacetate (MIA)-induced arthritic pain and cartilage degradation in rats. TLR4 expression of human OA chondrocytes and synoviocytes and the knee joint tissue of MIA-induced arthritis were evaluated. MIA-induced arthritic model using Sprague-Dawley rats (6 week-old-male) were treated with TAP2, a TLR4 antagonist, and evaluated with behavioral test, immunohistochemistry, and quantitative PCR. TLR4 was highly expressed in the knee joints of patients with OA and the MIA-induced rat model. Further, a single intraarticular injection of TAP2 (25 nmol/rat) molecules targeting TLR4 on day 7 after MIA injection dramatically attenuated pain behavior for about 3 weeks and reduced cartilage loss in the knee joints and microglial activation in the spinal dorsal horns. Likewise, the mRNA levels of TNFα and IL-1β, reactive oxygen species, and the expression of MMP13 in the knee joints of TAP2-treated rats was significantly decreased by TAP2 treatment compared with the control. Moreover, interestingly, the duration of OA pain relief by TAP2 was much longer than that of chemical TLR4 antagonists, such as C34 and M62812. In conclusion, TAP2 could effectively attenuate MIA-induced arthritis in rats by blocking TLR4 and its successive inflammatory cytokines and MMP13. Therefore, TAP2 could be a prospective therapeutic to treat patients with OA.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-74544-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7567100PMC
October 2020

Phenotype-based single cell sequencing identifies diverse genetic subclones in CD133 positive cancer stem cells.

Biochem Biophys Res Commun 2021 06 19;558:209-215. Epub 2020 Sep 19.

Department of Molecular Medicine & Biopharmaceutical Sciences, Graduate School of Convergence Science and Technology, Seoul National University, Seoul, South Korea; Cancer Research Institute, Seoul National University, Seoul, South Korea; Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul, South Korea. Electronic address:

Tumor heterogeneity is one of the ongoing huddles in the field of colon cancer therapy. It is evident that there are countless clones which exhibit different phenotypes and therefore, single cell analysis is inevitable. Cancer stem cells (CSCs) are rare cell population within tumor which is known to function in cancer metastasis and recurrence. Although there have been trials to prove intra-tumoral heterogeneity using single cell sequencing, that of CSCs has not been clearly elucidated. Here, we articulate the presence of heterogeneous subclones within CD133 positive cancer stem cells through single cell sequencing. As a proof of principle, we performed phenotype-based high-throughput laser isolation and single cell sequencing (PHLI-seq) of CD133 positive cells in a frozen tumor tissue obtained from a patient with colorectal cancer. The result proved that CD133 positive cells were shown to be heterogeneous both in copy number and mutational profiles. Single cancer stem cell specific mutations such as RNF144A, PAK2, PARP4, ADAM21, HYDIN, KRT38 and CELSR1 could be also detected in liver metastatic tumor of the same patient. Collectively, these data suggest that single cell analysis used to spot subclones with genetic variation within rare population, will lead to new strategies to tackle colon cancer metastasis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbrc.2020.09.005DOI Listing
June 2021

Agreement of Postoperative Pain Assessment by Parents and Clinicians in Children Undergoing Orthopedic Surgery.

J Trauma Nurs 2020 Sep/Oct;27(5):302-309

Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Asan Medical Center Children's Hospital, Seoul, South Korea (Dr Kang); and College of Nursing, Seoul National University, Seoul, South Korea (Ms Park and Dr Kim).

Background: Postoperative pain assessment in children is crucial for proper nursing care. However, research on the agreement of these assessments with a patient's self-reported pain level is lacking. The aim was to investigate the agreement between patients' subjective postoperative pain and corresponding observers' pain assessments.

Methods: In children who underwent orthopedic limb surgery, we investigated the agreement between their reported pain levels and observers' pain assessments using the Numeric Pain Rating Scale (NPRS) and the Faces Pain Scale-Revised (FPS-R) on postoperative day 1. The parents (specifically the mother) and clinicians (a doctor and a nurse in the field of pediatric orthopedics) participated as observers. Reliabilities using intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) and correlations using Spearman's coefficients (rs) were calculated.

Results: The patients' pain intensities (2.1± 2.1 [NPRS] and 2.0 ± 1.9 [FPS-R]) were overestimated by parents (2.5 ± 2.0 [NPRS], p = .022), but underestimated by clinicians (1.5 ± 1.2 [NPRS], p < .001, and 1.5 ± 1.2 [FPS-R], p = .006). The overall reliabilities between parents and patients were good (ICCs > 0.75 for both NPRS and FPS-R), and the correlations between them were even strong in some circumstances, such as when the patient was a girl, the diagnostic type was a disease, or the lower extremity was operated (rss > 0.7). However, the agreements between clinicians and patients were only moderate.

Conclusions: The subjective pediatric postoperative pain intensities had different agreements according to the observers. The parents' assessments should be considered for the accurate assessments, but their tendency to overestimate their children's pain should also be taken into account.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/JTN.0000000000000533DOI Listing
September 2021

CuCrO Nanoparticles Incorporated into PTAA as a Hole Transport Layer for 85 °C and Light Stabilities in Perovskite Solar Cells.

Nanomaterials (Basel) 2020 Aug 26;10(9). Epub 2020 Aug 26.

Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Research Institute of Advanced Materials, Seoul National University, Seoul 08826, Korea.

High-mobility inorganic CuCrO nanoparticles are co-utilized with conventional poly(bis(4-phenyl)(2,5,6-trimethylphenyl)amine) (PTAA) as a hole transport layer (HTL) for perovskite solar cells to improve device performance and long-term stability. Even though CuCrO nanoparticles can be readily synthesized by hydrothermal reaction, it is difficult to form a uniform HTL with CuCrO alone due to the severe agglomeration of nanoparticles. Herein, both CuCrO nanoparticles and PTAA are sequentially deposited on perovskite by a simple spin-coating process, forming uniform HTL with excellent coverage. Due to the presence of high-mobility CuCrO nanoparticles, CuCrO/PTAA HTL demonstrates better carrier extraction and transport. A reduction in trap density is also observed by trap-filled limited voltages and capacitance analyses. Incorporation of stable CuCrO also contributes to the improved device stability under heat and light. Encapsulated perovskite solar cells with CuCrO/PTAA HTL retain their efficiency over 90% after ~900-h storage in 85 °C/85% relative humidity and under continuous 1-sun illumination at maximum-power point.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/nano10091669DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7558584PMC
August 2020

Extracorporeal shockwave therapy enhances peripheral nerve remyelination and gait function in a crush model.

Adv Clin Exp Med 2020 07;29(7):819-824

Department of Rehabilitation Medicine, Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Seongnam, South Korea.

Background: Conservative treatment, such as electrical stimulation and steroid injection, have been employed in an attempt to improve symptoms after peripheral nerve injury, without significant success. Although non-invasive and safe extracorporeal shockwave therapy (ESWT) can be a practical alternative, the therapeutic effects of ESWT on peripheral nerve remyelination has not been established.

Objectives: To investigate the effects of ESWT on peripheral nerve remyelination and gait function for 5 weeks in a sciatic nerve crush model.

Material And Methods: In total, we divided 97 rats into 5 groups: group 1 - a healthy negative control group; group 2 - 3 weeks after sciatic nerve crush and 3 sessions of ESWT; group 3 - 5 weeks after crush injury with 3 sessions of ESWT; group 4 - 3 weeks after crush injury with no ESWT; and group 5 - 5 weeks after crush injury with no ESWT. The focused ESWT was applied to the unilateral sciatic nerve injury site. One session consisted of 1,500 stimuli, and the session were performed at intervals of 1 week.

Results: The degree of myelination and expression of myelin basic protein at the distal part of the injured sciatic nerve tended to increase in the ESWT groups compared with the no-ESWT groups 3 and 5 weeks after crush injury. Regarding the functional gait recovery, the print width and area of the injured leg in the ESWT groups was significantly larger than that in the no-ESWT groups 3 and 5 weeks after crush injury.

Conclusions: The ESWT may enhance peripheral nerve remyelination and gait function in a nerve crush model. Long-term follow-up after ESWT and investigation of molecular mechanisms will be needed to confirm these therapeutic effects.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.17219/acem/122177DOI Listing
July 2020

Consistency of new drug pricing in Korea: Bridging variations among personnel in price negotiations.

Health Policy 2020 09 5;124(9):965-970. Epub 2020 Jun 5.

College of Nursing, Seoul National University, Seoul, Republic of Korea. Electronic address:

Objectives: This study aims to explore the performance of price negotiations, over a period of 10 years, and identify individual variations in pricing that directly affect the consistency of pricing decisions.

Methods: Existing literature and relative regulations were reviewed, and data provided by the National Health Insurance Service (NHIS) was analysed to evaluate the performance of price negotiations. To examine individual variations in pricing, hypothetical scenarios of four types of drugs were developed. These were subsequently given to the reviewers who have been actually conducting price negotiations at the NHIS.

Results: Over the last decade, negotiations succeeded at a rate of 85.5 %, with a higher agreement rate in the more recent years. The reduction rate, via price negotiations, from the price approved for reimbursement by the Health Insurance Review and Assessment Service (HIRA), was 12.2 %. The survey results confirmed a significant individual variation in pricing. Especially, in the case of Drug N1, the higher-grade personnel and non-pharmacists tended to give higher prices with a significant difference.

Conclusions: The individual variations that would greatly affect the financial results were confirmed when making decisions on price of new drugs.For the consistency of drug pricing, some measures to minimise the variation of reviewers' judgement are needed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.healthpol.2020.06.003DOI Listing
September 2020

Baseline Serum Interleukin-6 Levels Predict the Response of Patients with Advanced Non-small Cell Lung Cancer to PD-1/PD-L1 Inhibitors.

Immune Netw 2020 Jun 20;20(3):e27. Epub 2020 May 20.

Department of Internal Medicine, College of Medicine, Chungnam National University, Daejeon, Korea.

Although various studies on predictive markers in the use of PD-1/PD-L1 inhibitors are in progress, only PD-L1 expression levels in tumor tissues are currently used. In the present study, we investigated whether baseline serum levels of IL-6 can predict the treatment response of patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) treated with PD-1/PD-L1 inhibitors. In our cohort of 125 NSCLC patients, the objective response rate (ORR) and disease control rate (DCR) were significantly higher in those with low IL-6 (<13.1 pg/ml) than those with high IL-6 (ORR 33.9% vs. 11.1%, p=0.003; DCR 80.6% vs. 34.9%, p<0.001). The median progression-free survival was 6.3 months (95% confidence interval [CI], 3.9-8.7) in the low IL-6 group, significantly longer than in the high IL-6 group (1.9 months, 95% CI, 1.6-2.2, p<0.001). The median overall survival in the low IL-6 group was significantly longer than in the high IL-6 group (not reached vs. 7.4 months, 95% CI, 4.8-10.0). Thus, baseline serum IL-6 levels could be a potential biomarker for predicting the efficacy and survival benefit of PD-1/PD-L1 inhibitors in NSCLC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4110/in.2020.20.e27DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7327149PMC
June 2020

Solar-Assisted eBiorefinery: Photoelectrochemical Pairing of Oxyfunctionalization and Hydrogenation Reactions.

Angew Chem Int Ed Engl 2020 09 2;59(37):15886-15890. Epub 2020 Jul 2.

Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, 335 Science Road, Daejeon, 34141, Republic of Korea.

Inspired by natural photosynthesis, biocatalytic photoelectrochemical (PEC) platforms are gaining prominence for the conversion of solar energy into useful chemicals by combining redox biocatalysis and photoelectrocatalysis. Herein, we report a dual biocatalytic PEC platform consisting of a molybdenum (Mo)-doped BiVO (Mo:BiVO ) photoanode and an inverse opal ITO (IO-ITO) cathode that gives rise to the coupling of peroxygenase and ene-reductase-mediated catalysis, respectively. In the PEC cell, the photoexcited electrons generated from the Mo:BiVO are transferred to the IO-ITO and regenerate reduced flavin mononucleotides to drive ene-reductase-catalyzed trans-hydrogenation of ketoisophrone to (R)-levodione. Meanwhile, the photoactivated Mo:BiVO evolves H O in situ via a two-electron water-oxidation process with the aid of an applied bias, which simultaneously supplies peroxygenases to drive selective hydroxylation of ethylbenzene into enantiopure (R)-1-phenyl-1-hydroxyethane. Thus, the deliberate integration of PEC systems with redox biocatalytic reactions can simultaneously produce valuable chemicals on both electrodes using solar-powered electrons and water.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/anie.202006893DOI Listing
September 2020

Photonic Carbon Dots as an Emerging Nanoagent for Biomedical and Healthcare Applications.

ACS Nano 2020 06 29;14(6):6470-6497. Epub 2020 May 29.

Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology (KAIST), 335 Science Road, Daejeon 34141, Republic of Korea.

As a class of carbon-based nanomaterials, carbon dots (CDs) have attracted enormous attention because of their tunable optical and physicochemical properties, such as absorptivity and photoluminescence from ultraviolet to near-infrared, high photostability, biocompatibility, and aqueous dispersity. These characteristics make CDs a promising alternative photonic nanoagent to conventional fluorophores in disease diagnosis, treatment, and healthcare managements. This review describes the fundamental photophysical properties of CDs and highlights their recent applications to bioimaging, photomedicine (.., photodynamic/photothermal therapies), biosensors, and healthcare devices. We discuss current challenges and future prospects of photonic CDs to give an insight into developing vibrant fields of CD-based biomedicine and healthcare.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsnano.0c02114DOI Listing
June 2020
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