Publications by authors named "Jingyi Zhang"

180 Publications

Mechanism of Electroacupuncture Regulating IRS-1 Phosphorylation in Skeletal Muscle to Improve Insulin Sensitivity.

Evid Based Complement Alternat Med 2021 22;2021:8631475. Epub 2021 Mar 22.

Beijing University of Chinese Medicine, Beijing 100029, China.

Objective: To explore the possible mechanism of electroacupuncture to improve insulin sensitivity in type 2 diabetes rats.

Methods: Fourteen Zucker Diabetic Fatty (ZDF) rats were randomly divided into two groups: a model group and an electroacupuncture group, with 7 rats in each group. Seven Zucker Lean (ZL) rats served as a control group. All rats were fed with Purina #5008 for 4 weeks, and the electroacupuncture group received 4-week electroacupuncture intervention, while the control group and model group received no intervention. We measured fasting blood glucose (FBG) on the fourth weekend. After 4 weeks of intervention, the expression levels of insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS-1) tyrosine phosphorylation, IRS-1 serine/threonine phosphorylation, and GLUT4 in quadriceps femoris muscles were detected by western Blot.

Results: Compared with the model group, the electroacupuncture group had a lower level of fasting blood glucose, serum insulin level, and insulin resistance index ( < 0.05). The electroacupuncture group had lower IRS-1 serine/threonine phosphorylation than the model group, with the difference showing statistical significance ( < 0.05). Furthermore, the mean score (MS) of the control group showed the lowest phosphorylation expression, followed by the electroacupuncture group, while the model group had the highest level of phosphorylated protein expression. The level of IRS-1 tyrosine phosphorylation at Tyr895 sites was compared, and the result showed that there was no significant difference between the electroacupuncture group and the control group ( > 0.05), and the electroacupuncture group had higher phosphorylation expression than the model group ( < 0.05). Compared with the control group and the model group, the expression level of GLUT4 protein in the electroacupuncture group was significantly increased ( < 0.05).

Conclusion: Electroacupuncture has the effect to improve the insulin sensitivity of type 2 diabetic ZDF rats by reducing fasting blood glucose, insulin level, and insulin resistance index, effectively up regulating the expression of GLUT4 protein in quadriceps femoris muscle. The mechanism is related to the regulation of skeletal muscle IRS-1 serine/threonine and tyrosine phosphorylation levels.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2021/8631475DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8007364PMC
March 2021

Arabidopsis Cryptochrome 1 Controls Photomorphogenesis through Regulation of H2A.Z Deposition.

Plant Cell 2021 Mar 26. Epub 2021 Mar 26.

Shanghai Key Laboratory of Plant Molecular Sciences, College of Life Sciences, Shanghai Normal University, Shanghai 200234, China.

Light is a key environmental cue that fundamentally regulates plant growth and development, which is mediated by the multiple photoreceptors including the blue light photoreceptor cryptochrome 1 (CRY1). The signaling mechanism of Arabidopsis thaliana CRY1 involves direct interactions with CONSTITUTIVE PHOTOMORPHOGENIC 1 (COP1)/SUPPRESSOR OF PHYA-105 1 (SPA1) and stabilization of COP1 substrate ELONGATED HYPOCOTYL 5 (HY5). H2A.Z is an evolutionarily conserved histone variant, which plays a critical role in transcriptional regulation through its deposition in chromatin catalyzed by SWR1 complex. Here we show that CRY1 physically interacts with SWC6 and ARP6, the SWR1 complex core subunits that are essential for mediating H2A.Z deposition, in a blue light-dependent manner, and that blue light-activated CRY1 enhances the interaction of SWC6 with ARP6. Moreover, HY5 physically interacts with SWC6 and ARP6 to direct the recruitment of SWR1 complex to HY5 target loci. Based on previous studies and our findings, we propose that CRY1 promotes H2A.Z deposition to regulate HY5 target gene expression and photomorphogenesis in blue light through the enhancement of both SWR1 complex activity and HY5 recruitment of SWR1 complex to HY5 target loci, which is likely mediated by interactions of CRY1 with SWC6 and ARP6, and CRY1 stabilization of HY5, respectively.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/plcell/koab091DOI Listing
March 2021

Mesenchymal Stem Cell-Conditioned Medium Protects Hippocampal Neurons From Radiation Damage by Suppressing Oxidative Stress and Apoptosis.

Dose Response 2021 Jan-Mar;19(1):1559325820984944. Epub 2021 Feb 27.

Department of Hematology, Affiliated Hospital of North China University of Science and Technology, Tangshan, Hebei Province, China.

Objective: To investigate the effects of mesenchymal stem cell-conditioned medium (MSC-CM) on radiation-induced oxidative stress, survival and apoptosis in hippocampal neurons.

Methods: The following groups were defined: Control, radiation treatment (RT), RT+MSC-CM, MSC-CM, RT + N-Acetylcysteine (RT+NAC), and RT + MSC-CM + PI3 K inhibitor (LY294002). A cell Counting Kit-8 (CCK-8) was used to measure cell proliferation. Apoptosis was examined by AnnexinV/PI flow cytometric analyses. Intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) were detected by DCFH-DA. Intracellular glutathione (GSH), malondialdehyde (MDA) content, and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity were detected by colorimetric assays. Protein levels of γ-H2AX, PI3K-AKT, P53, cleaved caspase-3, Bax, and BCl-2 were analyzed by Western blotting.

Results: The proliferation of HT22 cells was significantly inhibited in the RT group, but was significantly preserved in the RT + MSC-CM group (P < 0.01). Apoptosis was significantly higher in the RT group than in the RT+ MSC-CM group (P < 0.01). MSC-CM decreased intracellular ROS and MDA content after irradiation (P < 0.01). GSH level and SOD activity were higher in the RT + MSC-CM group than in the RT group, as was MMP (P < 0.01). MSC-CM decreased expression of γ-H2AX, P53, Bax, and cleaved-caspase-3, but increased Bcl-2 expression (P < 0.01).

Conclusion: MSC-CM attenuated radiation-induced hippocampal neuron cell line damage by alleviating oxidative stress and suppressing apoptosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1559325820984944DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7923989PMC
February 2021

Bioprinted Injectable Hierarchically Porous Gelatin Methacryloyl Hydrogel Constructs with Shape-Memory Properties.

Adv Funct Mater 2020 Nov 6;30(46). Epub 2020 Sep 6.

Division of Engineering in Medicine, Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Cambridge, MA 02139, USA.

Direct injection of cell-laden hydrogels shows high potentials in tissue regeneration for translational therapy. The traditional cell-laden hydrogels are often used as bulk space fillers to tissue defects after injection, likely limiting their structural controllability. On the other hand, patterned cell-laden hydrogel constructs often necessitate invasive surgical procedures. To overcome these problems, herein, we report a unique strategy for encapsulating living human cells in a pore-forming gelatin methacryloyl (GelMA)-based bioink to ultimately produce injectable hierarchically macro-micro-nanoporous cell-laden GelMA hydrogel constructs through three-dimensional (3D) extrusion bioprinting. The hydrogel constructs can be fabricated into various shapes and sizes that are defect-specific. Due to the hierarchically macro-micro-nanoporous structures, the cell-laden hydrogel constructs can readily recover to their original shapes, and sustain high cell viability, proliferation, spreading, and differentiation after compression and injection. Besides, studies further reveal that the hydrogel constructs can integrate well with the surrounding host tissues. These findings suggest that our unique 3D-bioprinted pore-forming GelMA hydrogel constructs are promising candidates for applications in minimally invasive tissue regeneration and cell therapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/adfm.202003740DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7941201PMC
November 2020

Magnetism-Responsive Anisotropic Film with Self-Sensing and Multifunctional Shape Manipulation.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2021 Mar 10;13(11):13724-13734. Epub 2021 Mar 10.

Shanghai Institute of Applied Mathematics and Mechanics, School of Mechanics and Engineering Science, Shanghai University, Shanghai 200444, China.

At small scales, shape-programmable magnetic materials and self-sensing conductive materials have an enticing potential for realizing the functionalities that are unattainable by traditional machines. This work reports a facile preparation method of aself-sensing magnetism-responsive anisotropic films (SMAF) in which magnetic materials and conductive materials can be predesigned, oriented, and patterned without requiring an external magnetic field generator or other expensive devices. A variety of shaped magnetoactive films with complex chain-orientation structures that can achieve advanced actuation functions have been developed, such as magnetically driven flowers, windmills, and leaves. It is also verified that the as-prepared samples coated with the sensing layer can distinguish different actuation modes, such as inward bending, outward bending, twisting, and combined deformation, which would be conducive to further exploration and development of directionally responsive applications in the smart actuating system and soft robotics.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsami.1c01721DOI Listing
March 2021

HSCs transdifferentiate primarily to pneumonocytes in radiation-induced lung damage repair.

Aging (Albany NY) 2021 Mar 3;13(6):8335-8354. Epub 2021 Mar 3.

Hematology Center of Cyrus Tang Medical Institute, Soochow University School of Medicine, Suzhou 215123, China.

Accumulative radiation exposure leads to hematopoietic or tissue aging. Whether hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) are involved in lung damage repair in response to radiation remains controversial. The aim of this study is to identify if HSC can transdifferentiate to pneumonocytes for radiation-induced damage repair. To this end, HSCs from male Rosa mice were isolated by fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) and transplanted into lethally irradiated female CD45.1 mice. 4 months after transplantation, transplanted HSC was shown to repair the radiation-induced tissue damage, and donor-derived tdTomato (phycoerythrin, PE) red fluorescence cells and representing Y chromosome were detected exclusively in female recipient lung epithelial and endothelial cells. Co-localization of donor-derived cells and recipient lung tissue cells were observed by laser confocal microscopy and image flow cytometry. Furthermore, the results showed HSC transplantation replenished radiation-induced lung HSC depletion and the PE positive repaired lung epithelial cells were identified as donor HSC origin. The above data suggest that donor HSC may migrate to the injured lung of the recipient and some of them can be transdifferentiated to pneumonocytes to repair the injury caused by radiation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.18632/aging.202644DOI Listing
March 2021

Tobacco System for Studying Protein Colocalization and Interactions.

Methods Mol Biol 2021 ;2297:167-174

Department of Cell and Developmental Biology, John Innes Centre, Norwich, UK.

Transient protein expression in a heterologous system has been very useful in many research fields. As a plant expression system, tobacco has some unique advantages including big leaves, simple infiltration and transformation, high activity in expressing transgenes, and easy sampling for microscopy. Because of these advantages, tobacco system has been extensively used for many purposes, such as large-scale expression and purification of proteins of interest, protein colocalization, protein degradation, protein-protein interaction assays including co-immunoprecipitation (CoIP), fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET), and bimolecular fluorescence complementation (BiFC), transcription regulation, plant-pathogen interactions, and functional verification of small RNAs. A large number of publications have used this system and generated critical results to support their conclusions. The results obtained from tobacco system are highly reproducible and mostly consistent with those generated from traditional techniques, indicating its reliability. Here we describe a protocol for studying protein-protein interactions in tobacco system, which could be applied to multiple experimental purposes as the procedure of tobacco leaf infiltration is basically shared among them.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-1-0716-1370-2_18DOI Listing
January 2021

Co-immunoprecipitation Assay for Blue Light-Dependent Protein Interactions in Plants.

Methods Mol Biol 2021 ;2297:141-146

Department of Cell and Developmental Biology, John Innes Centre, Norwich, UK.

Co-immunoprecipitation (CoIP) assay has been used as a powerful and routine technique to detect in vivo protein-protein interactions. Not only can it probe stable interactions, but also it is applicable for semiquantitative and inducible protein associations. Here we describe the protocol for detecting blue light-dependent protein interactions, particularly for blue light receptor cryptochrome-mediated complex formation. In addition, we present some notes which may be helpful for common Co-IP study as well.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-1-0716-1370-2_14DOI Listing
January 2021

Metal-Free [3+2] Annulation of Ynamides with Anthranils to Construct 2-Aminoindoles.

Org Lett 2021 Mar 1;23(6):2029-2035. Epub 2021 Mar 1.

Collaborative Innovation Center of New Drug Research and Safety Evaluation, Henan Province, Key Laboratory of Advanced Drug Preparation Technologies, Ministry of Education, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou, Henan 450001, P. R. China.

A novel metal-free [3+2] annulation of ynamides with anthranils provides a facile, flexible, environmentally friendly, and atom-economical route to 2-aminoindoles. This synthetic process proceeds with efficiency, excellent regioselectivity, and wide functional group tolerance under mild conditions. Moreover, the obtained 2-aminoindole products represent a multifunctional platform for the construction of various 2-aminoindolyl frameworks.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.orglett.1c00158DOI Listing
March 2021

Metal-free hydroalkoxylation of ynesulfonamides with esters.

Org Biomol Chem 2021 03;19(10):2182-2185

Collaborative Innovation Center of New Drug Research and Safety Evaluation, Henan Province, Key Laboratory of Advanced Drug Preparation Technologies, Ministry of Education, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou 450001, P. R. China.

An efficient metal-free hydroalkoxylation reaction of ynesulfonamides with esters under mild conditions is described. Under the catalysis of TMSOTf, various ynesulfonamides are transformed into the corresponding alkoxy-substituted enamides in high yields with complete regioselectivity and high to excellent stereoselectivity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d0ob02575eDOI Listing
March 2021

Effects of a Caregiver Training Program on Oral Hygiene of Alzheimer's Patients in Institutional Care.

J Am Med Dir Assoc 2021 Feb 9. Epub 2021 Feb 9.

Department of Geriatric Medicine, Henan Provincial People's Hospital, Henan University, Zhengzhou, China. Electronic address:

Objectives: To investigate the effects of a caregiver training program on the oral hygiene of caregivers and patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) and to identify program components and parameters for accurate assessment of outcomes.

Design: Single-blinded prospective cohort study.

Setting And Participants: Patients with AD and caregivers in nursing homes in the Greater Zhengzhou Area, China.

Methods: Initially 168 AD patient/caregiver pairs were recruited and randomly assigned to control, limited training, and comprehensive training groups. The mini-mental state examination, global deterioration scale, and Katz activities of daily living scale were conducted for patients with AD. Information on participants' oral hygiene habits and general oral health was collected. The modified Quigley-Hein Plaque Index (PI) and Gingival Index (GI) were used to assess oral hygiene and gingival health. Intervention included (1) an educational video showing the role of dental plaque and the modified Bass technique; and (2) caregivers practicing toothbrushing on themselves and patients with AD under professional guidance. Changes in oral hygiene and correlations between patient PI/GI and caregiver PI/GI were analyzed.

Results: After 6 weeks, complete data for 146 AD patient/caregiver pairs were collected. Before enrollment, most patients with AD had very poor oral hygiene. Compared with controls and limited training, only comprehensive training was able to achieve steady reduction in PI and GI scores in patients with AD, which still fell short of desirable levels (PI: 2.46 ± 0.52, GI: 1.24 ± 0.24, week 6). PI and GI scores in caregivers saw steady improvement only through comprehensive training (PI: 1.41 ± 0.38, GI: 0.88 ± 0.19, week 6). Number of training sessions had the greatest influence on both patient PI and GI scores.

Conclusions And Implications: Comprehensive caregiver training on toothbrushing skills is effective in improving the oral hygiene of caregivers and patients with AD in nursing homes. Additional evidence is needed to establish the optimal program structure.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jamda.2020.12.042DOI Listing
February 2021

Upregulation of IL-15 in the placenta alters trophoblasts behavior contributing to gestational diabetes mellitus.

Cell Biosci 2021 Feb 8;11(1):33. Epub 2021 Feb 8.

National Clinical Research Center of Gynecology and Obstetrics, Tongji Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, 1095 Jiefang Anv, Wuhan, Hubei, 430030, China.

Background: Interleukin-15 (IL-15), a member of the 'four α-helix bundle' cytokine family, has been associated with many inflammatory and metabolic diseases. Abnormal expression of IL-15 has been linked to the occurrence and development of obesity and diabetes. However, there is a paucity of research on the involvement of IL-15 in Gestational Diabetes Mellitus (GDM). This study aims at investigating the role of IL-15 in the pathogenesis of GDM.

Results: IL-15 was consistently expressed in the placenta throughout pregnancy and dynamically changed with pregnancy progress. Trophoblasts have been identified as the major source of IL-15 in the placenta. Expression of IL-15 was significantly increased in the placenta of GDM and in the trophoblasts cultured with high glucose (HG). In our study, expression of IL-15 in the placenta was positively correlated with blood glucose concentration of 75 g Oral Glucose Tolerance Test (OGTT), and was inversely correlated with weight of newborns. Further investigations in vitro showed that exogenous addition of IL-15 promoted trophoblasts proliferation, improved invasion and tube formation ability by activating the JAK/STAT signaling pathway, which be blocked by JAK inhibitors.

Conclusion: Our results demonstrated that IL-15 expression in the placenta was dynamically changing during pregnancy, and it was upregulated in the placenta of GDM patients. Furthermore, IL-15 altered the biological behavior of trophoblasts through JAK/STAT signaling pathway in vitro, and may contributed to the placental pathology of GDM. Our findings provide a new direction for studying the pathophysiological changes of placenta in GDM.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13578-021-00533-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7869487PMC
February 2021

Reduction-oxidation series coupling degradation of chlorophenols in Pd-Catalytic Electro-Fenton system.

Chemosphere 2021 Jan 29;274:129654. Epub 2021 Jan 29.

Key Laboratory of Catalysis and Materials Science of the State Ethnic Affairs Commission & Ministry of Education, Hubei Province, PR China; College of Resource and Environmental Science, South-Central University for Nationalities, Wuhan, 430074, PR China. Electronic address:

Organochlorine pesticides are widespread in soils, sediments and even in groundwater, causing great concern to human health because of its toxicity and carcinogenic effects. The remarkable mineralization and lowered toxicity are particularly important during the removal of organochlorine pesticides. In this study, Pd/CeO was prepared and employed as a bifunctional catalyst, to construct the reduction-oxidation series coupling Electro-Fenton (EF) system. The removal of chlorophenols (CPs) reached over 95% within 10 min at pH 3.0 and a current density of 25 mA/cm in Pd/CeO-EF system. The second-order rate constant of CPs degradation was 10.28 L mmolmin in Pd/CeO-EF system, which was 29 times as fast as the sum of electrolysis with Pd/CeO (0.24 L mmolmin) and EF (0.11 L mmolmin). Dehydrochlorination by Pd [H] contributed to the removal of CPs in Pd/CeO-EF system. The generated reactive oxygen species, mainly OH was also confirmed by ESR to contribute to the removal of CPs. The reduction-oxidation series coupling degradation of CPs in Pd/CeO-EF system increased the TOC removal to 70% in 360 min. The analysis of intermediate products further revealed the reductive and oxidative products in Pd/CeO-EF. Moreover, the system of Pd/CeO-EF exhibited an excellent performance treatment for CPs in actual groundwater. This study provides a new stratagem to eliminate organochlorine pesticides in groundwater environments rapidly and thoroughly.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2021.129654DOI Listing
January 2021

More stories to tell: NONEXPRESSOR OF PATHOGENESIS-RELATED GENES1, a salicylic acid receptor.

Plant Cell Environ 2021 Jan 25. Epub 2021 Jan 25.

Institute of Plant Protection, Jiangsu Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Jiangsu Key Laboratory for Food Quality and Safety-State Key Laboratory Cultivation Base of Ministry of Science and Technology, Nanjing, China.

Salicylic acid (SA) plays pivotal role in plant defense against biotrophic and hemibiotrophic pathogens. Tremendous progress has been made in the field of SA biosynthesis and SA signaling pathways over the past three decades. Among the key immune players in SA signaling pathway, NONEXPRESSOR OF PATHOGENESIS-RELATED GENES1 (NPR1) functions as a master regulator of SA-mediated plant defense. The function of NPR1 as an SA receptor has been controversial; however, after years of arguments among several laboratories, NPR1 has finally been proven as one of the SA receptors. The function of NPR1 is strictly regulated via post-translational modifications and transcriptional regulation that were recently found. More recent advances in NPR1 biology, including novel functions of NPR1 and the structure of SA receptor proteins, have brought this field forward immensely. Therefore, based on these recent discoveries, this review acts to provide a full picture of how NPR1 functions in plant immunity and how NPR1 gene and NPR1 protein are regulated at multiple levels. Finally, we also discuss potential challenges in future studies of SA signaling pathway.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/pce.14003DOI Listing
January 2021

Calcium-Dependent Translocation of S100B Is Facilitated by Neurocalcin Delta.

Molecules 2021 Jan 5;26(1). Epub 2021 Jan 5.

Department of Cell Biology and Neuroscience, Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, School of Osteopathic Medicine, Rowan University, Stratford, NJ 08084, USA.

S100B is a calcium-binding protein that governs calcium-mediated responses in a variety of cells-especially neuronal and glial cells. It is also extensively investigated as a potential biomarker for several disease conditions, especially neurodegenerative ones. In order to establish S100B as a viable pharmaceutical target, it is critical to understand its mechanistic role in signaling pathways and its interacting partners. In this report, we provide evidence to support a calcium-regulated interaction between S100B and the neuronal calcium sensor protein, neurocalcin delta both in vitro and in living cells. Membrane overlay assays were used to test the interaction between purified proteins in vitro and bimolecular fluorescence complementation assays, for interactions in living cells. Added calcium is essential for interaction in vitro; however, in living cells, calcium elevation causes translocation of the NCALD-S100B complex to the membrane-rich, perinuclear trans-Golgi network in COS7 cells, suggesting that the response is independent of specialized structures/molecules found in neuronal/glial cells. Similar results are also observed with hippocalcin, a closely related paralog; however, the interaction appears less robust in vitro. The N-terminal region of NCALD and HPCA appear to be critical for interaction with S100B based on in vitro experiments. The possible physiological significance of this interaction is discussed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/molecules26010227DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7794955PMC
January 2021

γ-Secretase inhibitors for breast cancer and hepatocellular carcinoma: From mechanism to treatment.

Life Sci 2021 Mar 8;268:119007. Epub 2021 Jan 8.

Center for Clinical Laboratory, The Fifth Medical Center, General Hospital of Chinese PLA, Beijing 100039, PR China. Electronic address:

The γ-secretase complex is a key hydrolase for many type 1 transmembrane proteins. It is very important for activation of the Notch receptor and regulation of target-gene transcription. Abnormal activation and expression of the Notch pathway are closely related to the occurrence and development of many tumor types, including breast cancer and liver cancer. In this review, we elaborated on the basic situation of γ-secretase complex and the biological function and role of γ-secretase in APP and Notch signal pathway are described in detail. Subsequently, all currently known γ-secretase inhibitors and γ-secretase modulators are listed and their mechanism of action, value of IC, chemical structure and current research stage are summarized. Next, the selection presented the treatment progress of γ-secretase inhibitors in breast cancer and hepatocellular carcinoma in the past five years. Finally, the mechanism of action of γ-secretase-mediated breast cancer and hepatocellular carcinoma and the advantages and disadvantages of γ-secretase inhibitors are discussed, and the concept of further research is proposed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.lfs.2020.119007DOI Listing
March 2021

Survival Outcome and Impact of Chemotherapy in T1 Node-Negative Triple-Negative Breast Cancer: A SEER Database Analysis.

J Oncol 2020 10;2020:8880727. Epub 2020 Dec 10.

Department of Medical Oncology, National Cancer Center/National Clinical Research Center for Cancer/Cancer Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing 100021, China.

Objective: Although triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) has been considered to be an aggressive disease, the outcome of small-tumor (T1abcN0M0) TNBC and the effect of adjuvant chemotherapy on TNBC survival remain controversial.

Methods: We identified 4565 T1abcN0M0 TNBC patients in the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) database from January 1, 2010, to December 31, 2015. After propensity score matching (PSM), 3214 patients were finally analyzed. Survival rates were compared among T1a, T1b, and T1c patients and between patients with and without adjuvant chemotherapy.

Results: We classified 424, 1040, and 3101 cases as T1a, T1b, and T1c TNBC, respectively. A total of 2760 (60.5%) patients received adjuvant chemotherapy, accounting for 25.5%, 56.0%, and 66.8% of T1a, T1b, and T1c patients, respectively. Rates of 5-year breast cancer-specific survival (BCSS) for T1a, T1b, and T1c patients receiving chemotherapy were 97.8%, 94.1%, and 94.5%, respectively, compared with 97.2%, 94.0%, and 89.9% in patients without chemotherapy. Patients receiving adjuvant chemotherapy had higher 5-year BCSS (94.5% vs. 89.9%,  = 0.004) in the T1c subgroup, but no significant difference was detected in T1a or T1b patients due to adjuvant chemotherapy.

Conclusion: Small-tumor TNBC showed very good prognosis. Adjuvant chemotherapy improved prognosis in T1c TNBC cases to a greater extent than in T1a and T1b patients. More large-scale clinical trials are needed, and further study should be conducted to determine appropriate adjuvant chemotherapy for T1c TNBC patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2020/8880727DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7748898PMC
December 2020

Uncertainty of EIN2 Inactivation by CTR1-Mediated Phosphorylation Reveals the Complexity of Ethylene Signaling.

Plant Commun 2020 May 18;1(3):100046. Epub 2020 Apr 18.

National Key Laboratory of Plant Molecular Genetics, CAS Center for Excellence in Molecular Plant Sciences, Institute of Plant Physiology and Ecology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200032, China.

ETHYLENE INSENSITIVE2 (EIN2) is a key component of ethylene signaling whose activity is inhibited upon phosphorylation of Ser and Ser by the Raf-like CONSTITUTIVE TRIPLE-RESPONSE 1 (CTR1) in the absence of ethylene. Ethylene prevents CTR1 activity and thus EIN2 phosphorylation, and subcellular trafficking of a proteolytically cleaved EIN2 C terminus (EIN2-C) from the endoplasmic reticulum to the nucleus and processing bodies triggers ethylene signaling. Here, we report an unexpected complexity of EIN2-activated ethylene signaling. EIN2 activation in part requires ethylene in the absence of CTR1-mediated negative regulation. The mutant was complemented by the transgenes encoding EIN2, EIN2 variants with mutations that either prevent or mimic Ser/Ser phosphorylation, or EIN2-C; and all the transgenic lines carrying these EIN2-derived transgenes responded to ethylene. Furthermore, we found that the fluorescence protein-tagged EIN2 and its variants were affected little by ethylene and exhibited similar subcellular distribution patterns: in the cytosolic particles and nuclear speckles. Of note, the subcellular localization patterns of EIN2 proteins fused with a fluorescence protein either at the N or C terminus were similar, whereas EIN2-C-YFP was primarily observed in the cytosol but not in the nucleus. Western blots and mass spectrum analyses suggested a high complexity of EIN2, which is likely proteolytically processed into multiple fragments. Our results suggested a nuclear localization of the full-length EIN2, weak association of the EIN2 phosphorylation status and ethylene signaling, and the complexity of ethylene signaling caused by EIN2 and its proteolytic products in different subcellular compartments. We propose an alternative model to explain EIN2-activated ethylene signaling.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.xplc.2020.100046DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7747984PMC
May 2020

Oxidative degradation of phenol by sulfidated zero valent iron under aerobic conditions: The effect of oxalate and tripolyphosphate ligands.

J Environ Sci (China) 2021 Feb 24;100:82-89. Epub 2020 Jul 24.

Key Laboratory of Groundwater Resources and Environment, Ministry of Education, Jilin University, Changchun 130021, China; Jilin Provincial Key Laboratory of Water Resources and Environment, Jilin University, Changchun 130021, China; National and Local Joint Engineering Laboratory for Petrochemical Contaminated Site Control and Remediation Technology, Jilin University, Changchun 130021, China. Electronic address:

After adding either organic or inorganic ligands, sulfidated nano-zero-valent iron (SnZVI) was used for aerobic degradation of phenol, and the effect of the ligand species on oxidation performance was investigated. We found that SnZVI hardly degraded phenol in the absence of ligand addition. Ligands initiated and promoted the degradation of pollutants by SnZVI. The data herein show that a characteristic inorganic ligand, tripolyphosphate (TPP), is more effective in enhancing oxidation than a characteristic organic ligand oxalate. In addition to the scavenging of reactive oxidants by the organic ligand, more ferrous ion (Fe(II)) dissolution from SnZVI in the TPP system is another cause for the superior enhancement by the inorganic ligand. In the oxalate system, as the sulfur content of SnZVI increased, the oxidation efficiency increased because FeS shell promoted the transfer of electrons to produce more reactive oxygen species (ROS). In TPP system, the effect of sulfur content on oxidation performance is more complex. The SnZVI with low sulfur content showed poor oxidation performance compared with that of nZVI. Further experiments proved that sulfidation might weaken the complexation of TPP with surface bound Fe, which would slow down the ionic Fe(II) dissolution rate. Therefore, sulfidation has the dual effects of enhancing electron transfer and inhibiting the complexation of inorganic ligands. In addition, the mechanisms of ROS generation in different ligand systems were investigated herein. Results showed that the critical ROS in both the oxalate and TPP systems are hydroxyl radicals, and that they are produced via one-electron activation of O.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jes.2020.07.018DOI Listing
February 2021

The critical role of endothelial function in fine particulate matter-induced atherosclerosis.

Part Fibre Toxicol 2020 12 4;17(1):61. Epub 2020 Dec 4.

Department of Toxicology and Sanitary Chemistry, School of Public Health, Capital Medical University, Beijing, 100069, People's Republic of China.

Ambient and indoor air pollution contributes annually to approximately seven million premature deaths. Air pollution is a complex mixture of gaseous and particulate materials. In particular, fine particulate matter (PM) plays a major mortality risk factor particularly on cardiovascular diseases through mechanisms of atherosclerosis, thrombosis and inflammation. A review on the PM-induced atherosclerosis is needed to better understand the involved mechanisms. In this review, we summarized epidemiology and animal studies of PM-induced atherosclerosis. Vascular endothelial injury is a critical early predictor of atherosclerosis. The evidence of mechanisms of PM-induced atherosclerosis supports effects on vascular function. Thus, we summarized the main mechanisms of PM-triggered vascular endothelial injury, which mainly involved three aspects, including vascular endothelial permeability, vasomotor function and vascular reparative capacity. Then we reviewed the relationship between PM-induced endothelial injury and atherosclerosis. PM-induced endothelial injury associated with inflammation, pro-coagulation and lipid deposition. Although the evidence of PM-induced atherosclerosis is undergoing continual refinement, the mechanisms of PM-triggered atherosclerosis are still limited, especially indoor PM. Subsequent efforts of researchers are needed to improve the understanding of PM and atherosclerosis. Preventing or avoiding PM-induced endothelial damage may greatly reduce the occurrence and development of atherosclerosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12989-020-00391-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7716453PMC
December 2020

The Genetic Structure of Chinese Hui Ethnic Group Revealed by Complete Mitochondrial Genome Analyses Using Massively Parallel Sequencing.

Genes (Basel) 2020 Nov 14;11(11). Epub 2020 Nov 14.

Key Laboratory of Shaanxi Province for Craniofacial Precision Medicine Research, College of Stomatology, Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an 710004, China.

Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), coupled with maternal inheritance and relatively high mutation rates, provides a pivotal way for us to investigate the formation histories of populations. The Hui minority with Islamic faith is one of the most widely distributed ethnic groups in China. However, the exploration of Hui's genetic architecture from the complete mitochondrial genome perspective has not been detected yet. Therefore, in this study, we employed the complete mitochondrial genomes of 98 healthy and unrelated individuals from Northwest China, as well as 99 previously published populations containing 7274 individuals from all over the world as reference data, to comprehensively dissect the matrilineal landscape of Hui group. Our results demonstrated that Hui group exhibited closer genetic relationships with Chinese Han populations from different regions, which was largely attributable to the widespread of haplogroups D4, D5, M7, B4, and F1 in these populations. The demographic expansion of Hui group might occur during the Late Pleistocene. Finally, we also found that Hui group might have gene exchanges with Uygur, Tibetan, and Tajik groups in different degrees and retained minor genetic imprint of European-specific lineages, therefore, hinting the existence of multi-ethnic integration events in shaping the genetic landscape of Chinese Hui group.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/genes11111352DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7698084PMC
November 2020

Security-enhanced OFDM-PON with two-level coordinated encryption strategy at the bit-level and symbol-level.

Opt Express 2020 Nov;28(23):35061-35073

A novel security-enhanced scheme combining improved deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) encoding encryption at the bit-level with matrix scrambling at the symbol-level is proposed in OFDM-PON for the first time in this paper. In our proposed scheme, firstly each subcarrier is encrypted by improved DNA encoding encryption, which includes the functioning of key base series and the cross interchange. And the selected encoding rules, decoding rules, key base series, operating principles and the positions of cross interchange are dynamically changing, which enhances the robustness against malicious attacks by illegal attackers. Then during the matrix scrambling process, the non-equal-length quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM) matrix is divided into several squares of equal length according to an optimum method. At the same time, the times of matrix scrambling can be determined randomly. With the multi-fold encryption of the proposed scheme, the achieved key space can reach up to 10, which can sufficiently ensure the physical layer security. Experimental verification of the proposed security-enhanced strategy was demonstrated in an 8 Gb/s 16QAM orthogonal frequency division multiplexing passive optical network (OFDM-PON) system over 25-km standard single-mode fiber (SSMF). The experimental results prove that the two-level coordinated encryption at the bit-level and symbol-level using chaos and encryption can effectively protect data from violent attacks, differential attacks, etc.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.403756DOI Listing
November 2020

Automatic segmentation of prostate magnetic resonance imaging using generative adversarial networks.

Clin Imaging 2021 Feb 17;70:1-9. Epub 2020 Oct 17.

Department of Radiology, Tongji Hospital of Tongji University School of Medicine, Shanghai, China. Electronic address:

Background: Automatic and detailed segmentation of the prostate using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) plays an essential role in prostate imaging diagnosis. Traditionally, prostate gland was manually delineated by the clinician in a time-consuming process that requires professional experience of the observer. Thus, we proposed an automatic prostate segmentation method, called SegDGAN, which is based on a classic generative adversarial network model.

Material And Methods: The proposed method comprises a fully convolutional generation network of densely con- nected blocks and a critic network with multi-scale feature extraction. In these computations, the objective function is optimized using mean absolute error and the Dice coefficient, leading to improved accuracy of segmentation results and correspondence with the ground truth. The common and similar medical image segmentation networks U-Net, FCN, and SegAN were selected for qualitative and quantitative comparisons with SegDGAN using a 220-patient dataset and the public datasets. The commonly used segmentation evaluation metrics DSC, VOE, ASD, and HD were used to compare the accuracy of segmentation between these methods.

Results: SegDGAN achieved the highest DSC value of 91.66%, the lowest VOE value of 15.28%, the lowest ASD values of 0.51 mm and the lowest HD value of 11.58 mm with the clinical dataset. In addition, the highest DSC value, and the lowest VOE, ASD and HD values obtained with the public data set PROMISE12 were 86.24%, 23.60%, 1.02 mm and 7.57 mm, respectively.

Conclusions: Our experimental results show that the SegDGAN model have the potential to improve the accuracy of MRI-based prostate gland segmentation. Code has been made available at: https://github.com/w3user/SegDGAN.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.clinimag.2020.10.014DOI Listing
February 2021

Bioinspired cell-in-shell systems in biomedical engineering and beyond: Comparative overview and prospects.

Biomaterials 2021 Jan 19;266:120473. Epub 2020 Oct 19.

School of Chemical and Biomedical Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, 70 Nanyang Drive, 637457, Singapore. Electronic address:

With the development in tissue engineering, cell transplantation, and genetic technologies, living cells have become an important therapeutic tool in clinical medical care. For various cell-based technologies including cell therapy and cell-based sensors in addition to fundamental studies on single-cell biology, the cytoprotection of individual living cells is a prerequisite to extend cell storage life or deliver cells from one place to another, resisting various external stresses. Nature has evolved a biological defense mechanism to preserve their species under unfavorable conditions by forming a hard and protective armor. Particularly, plant seeds covered with seed coat turn into a dormant state against stressful environments, due to mechanical and water/gas constraints imposed by hard seed coat. However, when the environmental conditions become hospitable to seeds, seed coat is ruptured, initiating seed germination. This seed dormancy and germination mechanism has inspired various approaches that artificially induce cell sporulation via chemically encapsulating individual living cells within a thin but tough shell forming a 3D "cell-in-shell" structure. Herein, the recent advance of cell encapsulation strategies along with the potential advantages of the 3D "cell-in-shell" system is reviewed. Diverse coating materials including polymeric shells and hybrid shells on different types of cells ranging from microbes to mammalian cells will be discussed in terms of enhanced cytoprotective ability, control of division, chemical functionalization, and on-demand shell degradation. Finally, current and potential applications of "cell-in-shell" systems for cell-based technologies with remaining challenges will be explored.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biomaterials.2020.120473DOI Listing
January 2021

Metabolomic characteristics of hepatotoxicity in rats induced by silica nanoparticles.

Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 2021 Jan 21;208:111496. Epub 2020 Oct 21.

Department of Toxicology and Sanitary Chemistry, School of Public Health, Capital Medical University, Beijing 100069, PR China; Beijing Key Laboratory of Environmental Toxicology, Capital Medical University, Beijing 100069, PR China. Electronic address:

Silica nanoparticles (SiNPs) have become one of the most widely studied nanoparticles in nanotechnology for environmental health and safety. Although many studies have devoted to evaluating the hepatotoxicity of SiNPs, it is currently impossible to predict the extent of liver lipid metabolism disorder by identifying changes in metabolites. In the present study, 40 male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were randomly divided into control group and 3 groups with different doses (1.8 mg/kg body weight (bw), 5.4 mg/kg bw, 16.2 mg/kg bw), receiving intratracheal instillation of SiNPs. Liver tissue was taken for lipid level analysis, and serum was used for blood biochemical analysis. Then, the metabolites changes of liver tissue in rats were systematically analyzed using H nuclear magnetic resonance (H NMR) techniques in combination with multivariate statistical analysis. SiNPs induced serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and triglyceride (TG) elevation in treated groups; TG and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) were significantly higher in SiNPs-treated groups of high-dose, however high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) showed a declining trend in liver tissue. The orthogonal partial least squares discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA) scores plots revealed different metabolic profiles between control and high-dose group (Q =0.495, RY=0.802, p = 0.037), and a total of 11 differential metabolites. Pathway analysis indicated that SiNPs treatment mainly affected 10 metabolic pathways including purine metabolism, glucose-alanine cycle and metabolism of various amino acids such as glutamate, cysteine and aspartate (impact value>0.1, false discovery rate (FDR)< 0.05). The result indicated that exposure to SiNPs caused liver lipid metabolism disorder in rats, the biochemical criterions related to lipid metabolism changed significantly. The obviously changed metabolomics in SiNPs-treated rats mostly occurred in amino acids, organic acids and nucleosides.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ecoenv.2020.111496DOI Listing
January 2021

miR-322/-503 rescues myoblast defects in myotonic dystrophy type 1 cell model by targeting CUG repeats.

Cell Death Dis 2020 10 22;11(10):891. Epub 2020 Oct 22.

School of Life Sciences, Anhui Normal University, Wuhu, China.

Myotonic dystrophy type 1 (DM1) is the most common type of adult muscular dystrophy caused by the expanded triple-nucleotides (CUG) repeats. Myoblast in DM1 displayed many defects, including defective myoblast differentiation, ribonuclear foci, and aberrant alternative splicing. Despite many were revealed to function in DM1, microRNAs that regulated DM1 via directly targeting the expanded CUG repeats were rarely reported. Here we discovered that miR-322/-503 rescued myoblast defects in DM1 cell model by targeting the expanded CUG repeats. First, we studied the function of miR-322/-503 in normal C2C12 myoblast cells. Downregulation of miR-322/-503 significantly hindered the myoblast differentiation, while miR-322/-503 overexpression promoted the process. Next, we examined the role of miR-322/-503 in the DM1 C2C12 cell model. miR-322/-503 was downregulated in the differentiation of DM1 C2C12 cells. When we introduced ectopic miR-322/-503 expression into DM1 C2C12 cells, myoblast defects were almost fully rescued, marked by significant improvements of myoblast differentiation and repressions of ribonuclear foci formation and aberrant alternative splicing. Then we investigated the downstream mechanism of miR-322/-503 in DM1. Agreeing with our previous work, Celf1 was proven to be miR-322/-503's target. Celf1 knockdown partially reproduced miR-322/-503's function in rescuing DM1 C2C12 differentiation but was unable to repress ribonuclear foci, suggesting other targets of miR-322/-503 existed in the DM1 C2C12 cells. As the seed regions of miR-322 and miR-503 were complementary to the CUG repeats, we hypothesized that the CUG repeats were the target of miR-322/-503. Through expression tests, reporter assays, and colocalization staining, miR-322/-503 was proved to directly and specifically target the expanded CUG repeats in the DM1 cell model rather than the shorter ones in normal cells. Those results implied a potential therapeutic function of miR-322/-503 on DM1, which needed further investigations in the future.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41419-020-03112-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7582138PMC
October 2020

Interventions for multidimensional aspects of breast cancer-related fatigue: a meta-analytic review.

Support Care Cancer 2021 Apr 21;29(4):1753-1764. Epub 2020 Oct 21.

Sidney Kimmel Comprehensive Cancer Center, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USA.

Purpose: This meta-analysis sought to determine whether exercise, psychological, or alternative forms of interventions differentially improve cognitive, physical, and general dimensions of cancer-related fatigue (CRF) in women with a history of breast cancer.

Methods: Databases (PubMed, PsychINFO, EMBASE, and Cochrane Library) were systematically reviewed from inception through March 2019, with data extracted from randomized controlled trials of fatigue interventions using multidimensional CRF outcome measures. Two authors independently assessed methodological quality using the Cochrane Collaboration's risk of bias tool. Analyses were performed with Comprehensive Meta-Analysis (v.3).

Results: A total of 471 studies were assessed, of which 11 studies with 12 sets of data involving 1067 patients were included. Across intervention types, small to moderate improvements were observed for cognitive (g = - 0.38), physical (g = - 0.46), and general (g = - 0.45) CRF (p values < 0.01). Exercise produced moderate benefit for cognitive (g = - 0.44), physical (g = - 0.48), and general (g = - 0.49) CRF (p values < 0.01) whereas psychotherapy and disparate forms of alterative interventions were not effective (p values > 0.45). However, a large effect size was observed for a single trial of acupressure across all three CRF dimensions (p < 0.05).

Conclusions: Exercise improved both cognitive and physical aspects of CRF. Further studies should determine the most effective forms, duration, intensity, and methods of supporting exercise in breast cancer patients. Further investigation of acupressure as an intervention for CRF should also be considered.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00520-020-05752-yDOI Listing
April 2021

Rods Contribute to Visual Behavior in Larval Zebrafish.

Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 2020 Oct;61(12):11

Department of Biological Sciences, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana, United States.

Purpose: Although zebrafish rods begin to develop as early as 2 days postfertilization (dpf), they are not deemed anatomically mature and functional until 15 to 21 dpf. A recent study detected a small electroretinogram (ERG) from rods in a cone mutant called no optokinetic response f (nof) at 5 dpf, suggesting that young rods are functional. Whether they can mediate behavioral responses in larvae is unknown.

Methods: We first confirmed rod function by measuring nof ERGs under photopic and scotopic illumination at 6 dpf. We evaluated the role of rods in visual behaviors using two different assays: the visual-motor response (VMR) and optokinetic response (OKR). We measured responses from wild-type (WT) larvae and nof mutants under photopic and scotopic illuminations at 6 dpf.

Results: Nof mutants lacked a photopic ERG. However, after prolonged dark adaptation, they displayed scotopic ERGs. Compared with WT larvae, the nof mutants displayed reduced VMRs. The VMR difference during light onset gradually diminished with decreased illumination and became nearly identical at lower light intensities. Additionally, light-adapted nof mutants did not display an OKR, whereas dark-adapted nof mutants displayed scotopic OKRs.

Conclusions: Because the nof mutants lacked a photopic ERG but displayed scotopic ERGs after dark adaptation, the mutants clearly had functional rods. WT larvae and the nof mutants displayed comparable scotopic light-On VMRs and scotopic OKRs after dark adaptation, suggesting that these responses were driven primarily by rods. Together, these observations indicate that rods contribute to zebrafish visual behaviors as early as 6 dpf.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1167/iovs.61.12.11DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7571310PMC
October 2020

All-Day Freshwater Harvesting through Combined Solar-Driven Interfacial Desalination and Passive Radiative Cooling.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2020 Oct 13;12(42):47612-47622. Epub 2020 Oct 13.

State Key Laboratory of Metal Matrix Composites, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240, China.

Solar-driven interfacial evaporation has received increasing research attention for clean water generation, but freshwater harvesting often occurs only during daytime. Herein, we report a strategy for all-day freshwater harvesting through combining solar-driven interfacial desalination and dew water generation. Through spray-coating carbon nanotubes onto a flexible substrate that has high-infrared emittance in the atmosphere window, a dual functional film was prepared to efficiently absorb solar energy for desalination at daytime and passively cool down the surface temperature to collect dew water at night. By integrating the dual functional film within a three-stage membrane distillation device, the home-made system achieved a drinkable freshwater collection efficiency of 71.1% when desalinating seawater under 1 sun illumination and achieved a dew water collection rate of 0.1 L m day at night. The readily available low-cost raw materials, simple fabrication process of the dual functional films, and the resultant all-day freshwater collection systems make the combined solar-thermal interfacial desalination and dew water collection a promising solution to alleviate the freshwater shortage in many underdeveloped regions, arid areas, and islands.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsami.0c14773DOI Listing
October 2020

Zika Virus Infection Leads to Variable Defects in Multiple Neurological Functions and Behaviors in Mice and Children.

Adv Sci (Weinh) 2020 Sep 2;7(18):1901996. Epub 2020 Aug 2.

State Key Laboratory of Molecular Developmental Biology CAS Center for Excellence in Brain Science and Intelligence Technology School of Future Technology Institute of Genetics and Developmental Biology Chinese Academy of Sciences Beijing 100101 China.

Zika virus (ZIKV) has evolved into a global health threat because of its causal link to congenital Zika syndrome. ZIKV infection of pregnant women may cause a spectrum of abnormalities in children. In the studies in Brazil, a large cohort of children with perinatal exposure to ZIKV is followed, and a spectrum of neurodevelopmental abnormalities is identified. In parallel, it is demonstrated that infection of the mouse neonatal brain by a contemporary ZIKV strain instead of an Asian ancestral strain can cause microcephaly and various abnormal neurological functions. These include defects in social interaction and depression, impaired learning and memory, in addition to severe motor defects, which are present in adult mice as well as in the prospective cohort of children. Importantly, although mouse brains infected later after birth do not have apparent abnormal brain structure, those mice still show significant impairments of visual cortical functions, circuit organization, and experience-dependent plasticity. Thus, the study suggests that special attention should be paid to all children born to ZIKV infected mothers for screening of abnormal behaviors and sensory function during childhood.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/advs.201901996DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7509663PMC
September 2020