Publications by authors named "Jinglong Tang"

50 Publications

Polyhexamethylene guanidine aerosol triggers pulmonary fibrosis concomitant with elevated surface tension via inhibiting pulmonary surfactant.

J Hazard Mater 2021 Jul 13;420:126642. Epub 2021 Jul 13.

Department of Environmental and Occupational Health, School of Public Health, Qingdao University, Qingdao 266071, China. Electronic address:

Environmental chemicals inhalation exposure could induce pulmonary fibrosis, which is characterized by the excessive proliferation of fibroblasts and accumulation of extracellular matrix components, in which surface tension usually plays vital roles. Polyhexamethylene guanidine (PHMG) was first recognized as a potential hazard ingredient in humidifier disinfectants, which caused an outbreak of pulmonary fibrosis in South Korea. However, the underlying mechanisms involved in PHMG-induced pulmonary fibrosis have not yet been fully elucidated. Therefore, this study mainly focuses on the effect of PHMG on surface tension to unveil the influence and involved mechanisms in PHMG-induced pulmonary fibrosis. C57BL/6J mice were exposed to sub-acute PHMG aerosol for 8 weeks. The results indicated that PHMG induced pulmonary fibrosis combined with elevated surface tension. Results from in vitro study further confirmed PHMG elevated surface tension by inhibited pulmonary surfactant. Mechanistically, PHMG suppressed the key surfactant protein SP-B and SP-C by inhibiting protein expression and block their active sites. The present study, for the first time, revealed the molecular mechanism of PHMG-induced pulmonary fibrosis based on pulmonary surfactant inhibition mediated surface tension elevated. And pulmonary surfactant may be a potential target for further intervention to prevent PHMG-induced fibrosis or alleviate the symptom of relevant patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2021.126642DOI Listing
July 2021

Blood lead levels and their associated risk factors in Chinese adults from 1980 to 2018.

Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 2021 May 10;218:112294. Epub 2021 May 10.

School of Public Health, Qingdao University, Qingdao 266000, China. Electronic address:

In China, studies on lead exposure to grownup are scarce compared to children, although relevant disease burdens for adults are much severe than that in developed countries. The present study evaluated blood lead levels (BLLs) in Chinese adults by data mining using Monte Carlo simulation. A total of 115 scientific studies published between January 1980 and March 2021 reflecting 45,514 Chinese adults were included in the study. After a continuous increase in Chinese adult BLLs from 1980-1983 (GM 74.84 μg/L) to 1994-1996 (GM 92.27 μg/L), BLLs began to decline from 2000--2002 (GM 80.32 μg/L) to 2016-2018 (GM 21.57 μg/L). This decline implied that the lead phase-out policy in gasoline was effective over the past two decades. The study indicated that North, South, and Southwest China were still relatively high compared to other regions in the past decade. Statistical analysis showed that BLLs of males (GM 68.45 μg/L) were higher than females (GM 56.51 μg/L), smokers (GM 80.96 μg/L) higher than nonsmokers (GM 58.95 μg/L), and populations over 40 (GM 40.43 μg/L) higher than younger populations (GM 40.37 μg/L). The significantly positive correlation between the concentrations of PM2.5 and topsoil lead and BLLs in Chinese adults indicated that air and soil pollution affect adult BLLs. Taken together, our results showed that strict lead control strategies and regular bio-monitoring are needed to maintain low BLLs in the population.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ecoenv.2021.112294DOI Listing
May 2021

[Effects of Heat Treatment Conditions on Shape Memory Recovery of NiTi Self-expanding Vascular Stents].

Zhongguo Yi Liao Qi Xie Za Zhi 2021 Apr;45(2):119-124

Shanghai MicroPort Medical(Group) Co. Ltd., Shanghai, 201203.

Effects of heat treatment conditions (including temperature and time) on the shape memory recovery and corrosion resistance of NiTi self-expanding vascular stents were studied based on working mechanism and clinical use. The temperature, dimensional recovery, crush resistance with radially applied load and point applied load of stents and corrosion resistance were characterized in diffident heat treatment conditions. The research results allow the conclusion that the stent treated at 500 ℃ for 10 min has optimum performance, and corrosion resistance meets the requirements.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3969/j.issn.1671-7104.2021.02.001DOI Listing
April 2021

Chronic exposure to diesel exhaust may cause small airway wall thickening without lumen narrowing: a quantitative computerized tomography study in Chinese diesel engine testers.

Part Fibre Toxicol 2021 03 25;18(1):14. Epub 2021 Mar 25.

Department of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, Qingdao Municipal Hospital, School of Medicine, Qingdao University, Qingdao, 266021, China.

Background: Diesel exhaust (DE) is a major source of ultrafine particulate matters (PM) in ambient air and contaminates many occupational settings. Airway remodeling assessed using computerized tomography (CT) correlates well with spirometry in patients with obstructive lung diseases. Structural changes of small airways caused by chronic DE exposure is unknown. Wall and lumen areas of 6th and 9th generations of four candidate airways were quantified using end-inhalation CT scans in 78 diesel engine testers (DET) and 76 non-DETs. Carbon content in airway macrophage (CCAM) in sputum was quantified to assess the dose-response relationship.

Results: Environmental monitoring and CCAM showed a much higher PM exposure in DETs, which was associated with higher wall area and wall area percent for 6th generation of airways. However, no reduction in lumen area was identified. No study subjects met spirometry diagnosis of airway obstruction. This suggested that small airway wall thickening without lumen narrowing may be an early feature of airway remodeling in DETs. The effect of DE exposure status on wall area percent did not differ by lobes or smoking status. Although the trend test was of borderline significance between categorized CCAM and wall area percent, subjects in the highest CCAM category has a 14% increase in wall area percent for the 6th generation of airways compared to subjects in the lowest category. The impact of DE exposure on FEV1 can be partially explained by the wall area percent with mediation effect size equal to 20%, P = 0.028).

Conclusions: Small airway wall thickening without lumen narrowing may be an early image feature detected by CT and underlie the pathology of lung injury in DETs. The pattern of changes in small airway dimensions, i.e., thicker airway wall without lumen narrowing caused by occupational DE exposure was different to that (i.e., thicker airway wall with lumen narrowing) seen in our previous study of workers exposed to nano-scale carbon black aerosol, suggesting constituents other than carbon cores may contribute to such differences. Our study provides some imaging indications of the understanding of the pulmonary toxicity of combustion derived airborne particulate matters in humans.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12989-021-00406-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7992811PMC
March 2021

Blood lead levels of Chinese children from 1991 to 2020: Based on Monte Carlo simulation.

Environ Pollut 2021 Jun 8;278:116823. Epub 2021 Mar 8.

School of Public Health, Qingdao University, Qingdao, China. Electronic address:

Chinese children have been exposed to high level of lead due to polluted air, dust, contaminated foods and water, etc. In this research, we investigated published blood lead levels (BLLs) reflecting 1,057,832 Chinese children aged at 0-12 and teenagers aged at 13-18 in the past 30 years (1991-2020). The data mining and estimation were performed innovatively by Monte Carlo simulation to remedy the skewed distribution-induced bias. The temporal trend of Chinese children's BLLs showed an obvious decrease in the past decades from 88.74 μg/L (Geometric SD = 4.09) during 1991-1995 to 27.32 μg/L (Geometric SD = 4.18) during 2016-2020. This study also indicated that children's BLLs of Yunnan, Guizhou, Shanxi were at relatively high levels and most provinces showed a downward trend. Chinese boys aged at 1-18 years old had higher BLLs (GM: 44.03 μg/L) compared to girls (GM: 41.32 μg/L) (p < 0.001). At different age groups, Chinese children's BLLs were 42.04 μg/L (1-3 years old), 52.88 μg/L (4-6 years old), 50.49 μg/L (7 and above years old), respectively. Although the BLLs of Chinese children exhibited a continuous declined trend in the past 30 years, it was still higher than that in developed countries, which indicated that more efforts are needed in children's BLLs control.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2021.116823DOI Listing
June 2021

Time-course effect of ultrasmall superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles on intracellular iron metabolism and ferroptosis activation.

Nanotoxicology 2021 04 16;15(3):366-379. Epub 2021 Jan 16.

School of Public Health, Qingdao University, Qingdao, China.

Ferroptosis is an iron-dependent cell death caused by excessive peroxidation of polyunsaturated fatty acids. It can be activated by iron-based nanoparticles as a potential cancer therapeutic target. However, the intracellular transformation of iron-based nanoparticles is still ambiguous and the subsequent ferroptosis mechanism is also obscure. Here, we identified the time-course metabolism of ultrasmall superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (USPIO) in cells by using X-ray absorption near edge structure spectroscopy. Also, the integrated quantitative transcriptome and proteome data obtained from the cells exposed to USPIO exhibited hallmark features of ferroptosis. With the chemical species of iron oxide transforming to ferritin, the intracellular GPX4 down-regulated, and lipid peroxide began to accumulate. These results provide evidence that the intracellular metabolism of USPIO induced ferroptosis in a time-dependent manner, and iron over-loaded in cytoplasm along with lipid peroxidation of the membrane are involved in the detailed mechanism of ferroptosis signaling activation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/17435390.2021.1872112DOI Listing
April 2021

Ambient air pollutants and hospital visits for pneumonia: a case-crossover study in Qingdao, China.

BMC Public Health 2021 01 7;21(1):66. Epub 2021 Jan 7.

Department of Occupational and Environmental Health, School of Public Health, Qingdao University, Qingdao, 266021, Shandong, China.

Background: Pneumonia is one of the principal reasons for incidence and death in the world. The former research mainly concentrated on specific sources of patients. Besides, due to the heterogeneity among regions, there are inconsistencies in the outcome of these surveys. To explore the relationship between atmospheric pollution and hospital visits for pneumonia under the climate and pollution conditions in Qingdao, we carried out this study.

Methods: The medical records of pneumonia patients were gathered from the affiliated hospital of Qingdao University during Jan 1st, 2014, and Dec 31st,2018. Daily concentrations of PM, PM, SO, NO, as well as CO, were collected from the national air quality monitoring stations in Qingdao. Case-crossover study design and conditional logistic regression model were used to estimate the associations. Daily temperature, relative humidity, and atmospheric pressure were adjusted as the covariates in all models. A principal component analysis was used to solve the multicollinearity between atmospheric pollutants and investigate the relationship between various air pollutants and pneumonia occurs.

Results: In the single pollutant model, with interquartile range increment of the density of PM, PM, NO and SO at the lag2 days, the odds ratio of hospital visits for pneumonia patients increased by 6.4% (95%CI, 2.3-10.7%), 7.7% (95%CI, 3.2-12.4%), 6.7% (95%CI, 1.0-12.7%), and 7.2% (95%CI, 1.1-13.5%). Stratified analysis showed that pollutants were more significant in the cold period. Besides, the impact of atmospheric particulates on different ages mainly occurs in the young child (0 to 3-year-old). The odds ratio was 1.042 (95%CI, 1.012-1.072) when the principal components of atmospheric pollutants were included in the conditional logistic model.

Conclusions: Our study found a significant relationship between short-term uncovering to PM, PM, NO, SO, and hospital visits for pneumonia in Qingdao. The effect of atmospheric pollutants mainly arose in a cold period. The particulate matter might be the principal reason in inducing hospital visits for pneumonia.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12889-020-10065-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7791776PMC
January 2021

TGFβ/Smad mediated the polyhexamethyleneguanide areosol-induced irreversible pulmonary fibrosis in subchronic inhalation exposure.

Inhal Toxicol 2020 Sep - Oct;32(11-12):419-430. Epub 2020 Nov 4.

Department of Occupational and Environmental Health, School of Public Health, Qingdao University, Qingdao, China.

Aim: Polyhexamethylene guanidine (PHMG) is widely used as a disinfectant with broad spectra of bactericidal activity and low oral toxicity. However, inhalation of PHMG can cause pulmonary injury and severe pulmonary fibrosis. The mechanism underlying PHMG aerosol induced pulmonary fibrosis remains unclear. In this study, we aimed to examine the subchronic lung injury and determine potential cytokines involved in PHMG aerosol induced fibrosis.

Methods: C57BL/6N mice were exposed to 1.03 mg/m PHMG through aerosol inhalation for 3 weeks, or 3 weeks followed by other 3 weeks recovery.

Results: The results indicated that the expression of transforming growth factor-beta1 (TGF-β1) and extracellular matrix remodeling markers were up-regulated in the PHMG-treated mice and these parameters were aggravated after 3 weeks recovery. Bronchoalveolar lavage fluids (BALFs) analysis showed that the number of total cells was significantly decreased in exposure group. The percentage of macrophages in BALFs decreased significantly whereas the percentage of neutrophils and lymphocytes increased. Extensive collagen deposition was observed in the peribronchiolar and interstitial areas in the PHMG exposed lungs.

Conclusion: In conclusion, even low-does PHMG aerosol exposure could induce mice pulmonary local inflammation and irreversible fibrosis. In addition, TGF-β/Smad signaling pathway mediated the extracellular matrix remodeling involved in the development of pulmonary fibrosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/08958378.2020.1836091DOI Listing
March 2021

Occupational exposure to carbon black nanoparticles increases inflammatory vascular disease risk: an implication of an ex vivo biosensor assay.

Part Fibre Toxicol 2020 09 29;17(1):47. Epub 2020 Sep 29.

Department of Occupational and Environmental Health, School of Public Health, Qingdao University, Qingdao, 266021, China.

Background: Among manufactured or engineered nanoparticles, carbon black (CB) has largest production worldwide and is also an occupational respiratory hazard commonly seen in rubber industry. Few studies have assessed the risk for cardiovascular disease in carbon black exposed populations. An endothelial biosensor assay was used to quantify the capacity of sera from 82 carbon black packers (CBP) and 106 non-CBPs to induce endothelial cell activation ex vivo. The mediation effect of circulatory proinflammatory factors on the association between carbon black exposure and endothelial cell activation was assessed and further validated using in vitro intervention experiments.

Results: The average elemental carbon level inside carbon black bagging facilities was 657.0 μg/m, which was 164-fold higher than that seen in reference areas (4.0 μg/m). A global index was extracted from mRNA expression of seven candidate biosensor genes using principal component analysis and used to quantify the magnitude of endothelial cell activation. This global index was found to be significantly altered in CBPs compared to non-CBPs (P < 0.0001), however this difference did not vary by smoking status (P = 0.74). Individual gene analyses identified that de novo expression of key adhesion molecules (e.g., ICAM and VCAM) and chemotactic factors (e.g., CCL2, CCL5, and CXCL8) responsible for the recruitment of leukocytes was dramatically induced in CBPs with CXCL8 showing the highest fold of induction (relative quantification = 9.1, P < 0.0001). The combination of mediation analyses and in vitro functional validation confirmed TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6 as important circulatory factors mediating the effects of carbon black exposure on endothelial cell activation responses.

Conclusions: Inflammatory mediators in sera from CBPs may bridge carbon black exposure and endothelial cell activation response assessed ex vivo. CBPs may have elevated risk for cardiovascular diseases when comorbidity exists. Our study may serve as a benchmark for understanding health effects of engineered carbon based nanoparticles with environmental and occupational health relevance.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12989-020-00378-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7523398PMC
September 2020

Small Airway Wall Thickening Assessed by Computerized Tomography Is Associated With Low Lung Function in Chinese Carbon Black Packers.

Toxicol Sci 2020 11;178(1):26-35

Department of Occupational and Environmental Health, School of Public Health.

Nanoscale carbon black as virtually pure elemental carbon can deposit deep in the lungs and cause pulmonary injury. Airway remodeling assessed using computed tomography (CT) correlates well with spirometry in patients with obstructive lung diseases. Structural airway changes caused by carbon black exposure remain unknown. Wall and lumen areas of sixth and ninth generations of airways in 4 lobes were quantified using end-inhalation CT scans in 58 current carbon black packers (CBPs) and 95 non-CBPs. Carbon content in airway macrophage (CCAM) in sputum was quantified to assess the dose-response. Environmental monitoring and CCAM showed a much higher level of elemental carbon exposure in CBPs, which was associated with higher wall area and lower lumen area with no change in total airway area for either airway generation. This suggested small airway wall thickening is a major feature of airway remodeling in CBPs. When compared with wall or lumen areas, wall area percent (WA%) was not affected by subject characteristics or lobar location and had greater measurement reproducibility. The effect of carbon black exposure status on WA% did not differ by lobes. CCAM was associated with WA% in a dose-dependent manner. CBPs had lower FEV1 (forced expiratory volume in 1 s) than non-CBPs and mediation analysis identified that a large portion (41-72%) of the FEV1 reduction associated with carbon black exposure could be explained by WA%. Small airway wall thickening as a major imaging change detected by CT may underlie the pathology of lung function impairment caused by carbon black exposure.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/toxsci/kfaa134DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7825005PMC
November 2020

Real-Ambient Particulate Matter Exposure-Induced Cardiotoxicity in C57/B6 Mice.

Front Pharmacol 2020 31;11:199. Epub 2020 Mar 31.

Department of Toxicology, School of Public Health, Qingdao University, Qingdao, China.

It is generally accepted that exposure to particulate matter (PM) increases the risk of cardiovascular-related morbidity and mortality, though the exact mechanism behind this has yet to be elucidated. Oxidative stress plays a potentially important role in the mechanism of toxicity, with Nrf2 serving as a major antioxidant gene. In the current study, a Nrf2 knockout mouse model was used in combination with an individual ventilated cage (IVC)-based real-ambient PM exposure system to assess the potential cardiotoxicity induced by real-ambient PM exposure and the potential role of Nrf2 and related signaling in this endpoint. After 6- or 11-weeks exposure to PM, ICP-mass spectrometry was used to assess the metal depositions in the heart tissue following PM exposure. Functional and morphological changes in the hearts were investigated with echocardiography and histopathology, and oxidative stress levels were assessed with a serum malondialdehyde content assay. In the further mechanistic study, an RNA-seq technique was utilized to assess the gene transcription status in the hearts of C57/B6 mice exposed to PM with or without Nrf2 knockout. The expression levels of genes of interest were then further investigated with quantitative real-time PCR and western blotting. The results indicated that PM exposure resulted in significant elevation of sodium, potassium, selenium, and ferrum levels in mouse heart tissue. Meanwhile, significantly altered heart function and morphology were observed. Interestingly, Nrf2 knockout led to abolishment of PM-induced effects in several functional parameters but not the morphological changes. Meanwhile, elevated malondialdehyde content was observed in Nrf2 knockout animals. RNA-seq results revealed thousands of genes altered by PM exposure and/or Nrf2 knockout, and this affected several pathways, such as MAPK, phagosome, calcium signaling, and JAK-STAT. In subsequent molecular studies, enhanced nuclear translocation of Nrf2 was also observed following PM exposure, while the MAPK signaling pathway along with related JAK-STAT and TGF-β1 pathway genes, such as p38MAPK, AKT, TAK1, JAK1, STAT3, GRB2, TGFb1, and SMAD2, were confirmed to be affected by PM exposure and/or Nrf2 knockout. The data suggested that PM may induce cardiotoxicity in C57/B6 mice in which Nrf2 plays both protective and detrimental roles involving cardiac-related pathways, such as MAPK, JAK-STAT, and TGF-β1.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fphar.2020.00199DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7136766PMC
March 2020

Carbon content in airway macrophages and genomic instability in Chinese carbon black packers.

Arch Toxicol 2020 03 19;94(3):761-771. Epub 2020 Feb 19.

School of Public Health, Qingdao University, Qingdao, 266021, Shandong, China.

Carbon black (CB) particulates as virtually pure elemental carbon can deposit deep in the lungs of humans. International Agency for Research on Cancer classified CB as a Group 2B carcinogen due to inconclusive human evidence. A molecular epidemiological study was conducted in an established cohort of CB packers (CBP) to assess associations between CB exposure and genomic instability in peripheral lymphocytes using cytokinesis-block micronucleus assay (CBMN). Carbon content in airway macrophages (CCAM) was quantified as a bio-effective dosimeter for chronic CB exposure. Dose-response observed in CBPs was compared to that seen in workers exposed to diesel exhaust. The association between CB exposure status and CBMN endpoints was identified in 85 CBPs and 106 non-CBPs from a 2012 visit and replicated in 127 CBPs and 105 non-CBPs from a 2018 visit. The proportion of cytoplasm area occupied by carbon particles in airway macrophages was over fivefold higher in current CBPs compared to non-CBPs and was associated with CBMN endpoints in a dose-dependent manner. CB aerosol and diesel exhaust shared the same potency of inducing genomic instability in workers. Circulatory pro-inflammatory factors especially TNF-α was found to mediate associations between CB exposure and CBMN endpoints. In vitro functional validation supported the role of TNF-α in inducing genomic instability. An estimated range of lower limits of benchmark dose of 4.19-7.28% of CCAM was recommended for risk assessment. Chronic CB exposure increased genomic instability in human circulation and this provided novel evidence supporting its reclassification as a human carcinogen.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00204-020-02678-6DOI Listing
March 2020

Gd-metallofullerenol drug delivery system mediated macrophage polarization enhances the efficiency of chemotherapy.

J Control Release 2020 04 28;320:293-303. Epub 2020 Jan 28.

CAS Key Laboratory for Biomedical Effects of Nanomaterials and Nanosafety, CAS Center for Excellence in Nanoscience, National Center for Nanoscience and Technology of China, Beijing 100190, China. Electronic address:

Treatment of solid tumors by chemotherapy is usually failed in clinical because of its low effectiveness and side effects. Stimulation of immune system in vivo to fight cancer has been proved to be a pleasant complementary to systemic chemotherapy. Herein, we have developed a combination cancer therapy strategy by using polymer nanoparticles to deliver Gd-metallofullerenol and doxorubicin simultaneously. The Gd-metallofullerenol provoked the Th1 immune response by regulating the M1 macrophage polarization and the doxorubicin realized direct tumor cells killing by its cytotoxic effect. Also, the Gd-metallofullerenol as part of component in delivery system enhances the encapsulation efficiency of doxorubicin in polymer cargo for potential passive tumor target. The biocompatible and reliable method by combining nanoparticle-induced immune modulation and chemotherapy triggers systemic antitumor immune responses for the synergistic inhibition of tumor growth in vivo. The integration of Gd-metallofullerenol and doxorubicin with potentially complementary functions in one nanoplatform may provide new opportunities to improve cancer treatments.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jconrel.2020.01.053DOI Listing
April 2020

High-content analysis of particulate matters-induced oxidative stress and organelle dysfunction in vitro.

Toxicol In Vitro 2019 Sep 25;59:263-274. Epub 2019 Apr 25.

School of Public Health, Qingdao University, 38 Dengzhou Road, Qingdao 266021, China; National Institute for Occupational Health and Poison Control, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, 29 Nanwei Road, Beijing 100050, China. Electronic address:

Oxidative stress is usually considered to be a common mechanism by which particulate matter (PM) exposure induces adverse effects. However, the further biological events such as organelle dysfunction following oxidative stress remain to be explored. In this study, we applied high-content screening (HCS) technique to investigate the toxicological effects of carbon black (CB), diesel exhaust particle (DEP) and PM2.5 on oxidative stress and organelle function in human bronchial epithelial cell (16HBE), human embryo lung fibroblast cell (HELF) and human umbilical vein endothelial cell (HUVEC) which were used to represent distinct regions of the lung, and compared the toxicity impacts of different PMs and the sensitiveness of cell lines. We found three types of PMs induced mitochondrial dysfunction in three cell lines and lysosomal alkalinization in HUVEC while only CB triggered endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress in 16HBE and HUVEC, and oxidative stress might mediate these processes. Moreover, CB basically exhibited more potent toxicity compared with DEP and PM2.5, which might be attributed to its less oxygen content. Finally, the finding that PMs-induced toxicity impacts exhibited a cell-type dependent manner might provide some information to help to understand the sensitivity of different tissue in the lung.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tiv.2019.04.026DOI Listing
September 2019

Gd-Metallofullerenol nanoparticles cause intracellular accumulation of PDGFR-α and morphology alteration of fibroblasts.

Nanoscale 2019 Mar;11(11):4743-4750

CAS Key Laboratory for Biomedical Effects of Nanomaterials and Nanosafety & CAS Center for Excellence in Nanoscience, National Center for Nanoscience and Technology of China, Beijing 100190, China.

Gadolinium-metallofullerenols ([email protected](OH)22) are a promising agent for cancer therapy and have shown beneficial effects in regulating the tumor microenvironment with low toxicity. However, the underlying mechanism by which [email protected](OH)22 interacts with fibroblasts remains unclear. In order to explore the critical role that activated fibroblasts play in tumorigenesis and fibrosis, we investigated the regulatory effect of [email protected](OH)22 in fibroblast activation and oncogenic transformation, and found that the PDGFR-α is an essential molecule in modulating the morphology and functional changes in fibroblasts after [email protected](OH)22 treatment. Apart from increasing the PDGFR-α protein level, [email protected](OH)22 nanoparticles also significantly increased the protein level of Rab5, which is required for regulating PDGFR-α endosomal recycling. The Rab5-mediated recycling of PDGFR-α maybe attributed to the [email protected](OH)22 regulated inhibition of fibroblast activation. Overall, our work demonstrated that [email protected](OH)22 nanoparticles can attenuate the PDGF-stimulated phosphorylation of PDGFR-α in fibroblasts and suppress the fibroblast activation by interrupting endosomal recycling. These findings may be contributed to the collagen accumulation for encaging cancer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/c8nr08667bDOI Listing
March 2019

[Study on the 3,4-Dihydroxyphenylalanine Redox State Characterization Method of Mussel Adhesive Protein].

Zhongguo Yi Liao Qi Xie Za Zhi 2018 Sep;42(5):365-367

National Institutes for Food and Drug Control(Center for Medical Device Standardization Administration, CFDA), Beijing, 102629.

Objective: To investigate the feasibility of using liquid chromatography (HPLC) to characterize the 3, 4-Dihydroxyphenylalanine (DOPA) redox state of mussel adhesive protein (MAP).

Methods: The DOPA and protein contents of MAP were determined by HPLC, Arnow and Bradford methods respectively.

Results: With extended oxidation time, the protein contents of MAP samples remained unchanged whereas the DOPA contents declined. The retention times of main peaks in HPLC for both the accelerated oxidation and retained samples shifted as the storage time extended, which could be related to the changes of sample redox state.

Conclusions: The redox state of MAP can be characterized by the change of HPLC peak retention time. HPLC can be used in the research on the MAP redox state, which is beneficial to the product development and quality control.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3969/j.issn.1671-7104.2018.05.015DOI Listing
September 2018

Analysis of PD-L1 expression in trophoblastic tissues and tumors.

Hum Pathol 2019 02 17;84:202-212. Epub 2018 Oct 17.

Center for Uterine Cancer Diagnosis and Therapy of Zhejiang Province, Women's Hospital, School of Medicine, Zhejiang University, Zhejiang Province 310006, China; The Institute of Translational Medicine, School of Medicine, Zhejiang University, Zhejiang Province 310006, China. Electronic address:

The immune checkpoint proteins, programmed death receptor 1 (PD-1) and programmed death ligand 1 (PD-L1), are crucial for maintaining fetomaternal immune tolerance and immune escape in cancers. In this study, we performed a comprehensive immunohistochemical study of PD-L1 expression in a large cohort of trophoblastic tissues and tumors. We found that normal villi and hydatidiform moles showed a heterogeneous PD-L1 staining among trophoblast (strong in syncytiotrophoblast, moderate in intermediate trophoblast, and weak/negative in cytotrophoblast). Eleven exaggerated placental sites (100%) showed variable PD-L1 staining, whereas 7 (36.8%) of 19 placental site nodules/plaques were weakly positive for PD-L1 (P < .001). All gestational choriocarcinomas (CCs; n = 63), epithelioid trophoblastic tumors (n = 12), and placental site trophoblastic tumors (n = 41) were PD-L1 positive, with most showing strong staining. However, PD-L1 expression was lower in epithelioid trophoblastic tumors compared with placental site trophoblastic tumors and CCs (P = .004). Three presumably germ cell-derived pure CCs, the CC elements in 13 mixed germ cell tumors, and 4 gastric/rectal CCs were also positive for PD-L1, with widespread staining. The background nontrophoblastic tissues, such as endometrial glands, squamous cells, and adenocarcinomas, were PD-L1 negative. Western blot analysis showed that PD-L1 was expressed in all 3 trophoblastic cell lines. We conclude that PD-L1 is a sensitive but nonspecific marker for trophoblast and related tumors. The frequent strong PD-L1 expression suggests that immune checkpoint blockade could be a promising approach in treating trophoblastic tumors that merits further investigation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.humpath.2018.10.001DOI Listing
February 2019

LIN28B/let-7 axis mediates pulmonary inflammatory response induced by diesel exhaust particle exposure in mice.

Toxicol Lett 2018 Dec 29;299:1-10. Epub 2018 Aug 29.

School of Public Health, Qingdao University, 38 Dengzhou Road, Qingdao 266021, China. Electronic address:

Exposure to diesel exhaust particle (DEP) is closely related to inflammatory response in respiratory system. To understand the underlying molecular mechanism by which DEP induces pulmonary inflammatory response, we conducted DEP exposure experiments in vivo and in vitro. In vivo, each mouse was exposed to DEP suspension (100 μg of DEP) or vehicle only once in single intra-tracheal instillation (IT) section, or was exposed to DEP suspension (12.5 μg or 50 μg of DEP) or vehicle 12 times in repeated IT section. DEP exposure induced significant pathological injuries with substantial neutrophils infiltration and the increased level of pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-6 in mouse lungs. Consistently, elevated IL6 mRNA level was also observed in DEP treatment group (100 μg/ml) in vitro. In addition, DEP exposure exerted the similar influence on the expression of let-7d and let-7g microRNAs in vivo and in vitro. To verify the possible role of LIN28B/let-7 axis in the regulation of IL6 expression following DEP exposure, we applied RNAi technology in vitro, and found increased IL6 mRNA expression was alleviated or neutralized in DEP exposure groups after LIN28B silencing or after let-7d or let-7g over-expression. Taken together, we conclude that LIN28B/let-7 axis might be involved in inflammatory response induced by DEP exposure.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.toxlet.2018.08.019DOI Listing
December 2018

[Analysis of Common Problems in Classifcation of Medical Devices].

Zhongguo Yi Liao Qi Xie Za Zhi 2017 Sep;41(5):362-364

National Institutes for Food and Drug Control, Beijing, 100050.

Objectives: The present study was designed to analysis some misunderstanding on "medical devices classification rules" of CFDA, in order to correct understand and use the regulation.

Methods: The contents of "medical devices classification rules" by CFDA have been analysis and generalized.

Results: Through analyzing, we can conclude as followed:the priority principle of classification catalogue; the comprehensive judgment principle based on the classification decision table and special classification principles; medical devices' management class could be changed by CFDA according to risk analysis results.

Conclusions: It is helpful to reach an agreement on the classification of a medical device among the regulatory authorities, production enterprises and other aspects, and establish a solid foundation for CFDA's regulatory science.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3969/j.issn.1671-7104.2017.05.013DOI Listing
September 2017

Radiosensitizing effects of different size bovine serum albumin-templated gold nanoparticles on H22 hepatoma-bearing mice.

Nanomedicine (Lond) 2018 06 11;13(11):1371-1383. Epub 2018 May 11.

Department of Toxicology, School of Public Health, Qingdao University, Qingdao 266021, Shandong, PR China.

Aim: To evaluate intravenously injected bovine serum albumin-templated gold nanoparticles (BSA-GNPs) for radiosensitization effects on H22 hepatoma-bearing mice.

Materials & Methods: BSA-GNPs in different size were injected intravenously with a dose of 4 mg Au/kg. After 30 min injection, the tumor-bearing mice were irradiated with 5 Gy x-ray.

Results: BSA-GNPs in 8, 50 and 187 nm were synthesized and have no obvious cytotoxicity to HeLa, HepG2 and HeCat cells when the concentration was up to 32 μM. And no obvious physiological injury of mice occurred when the intravenous injection dose was 4 mg Au/kg. In vivo study indicates 8 and 50 nm BSA-GNPs can inhibit tumor growth through inducing apoptosis in radiotherapy, with enhancement factors 1.93 and 2.02, respectively.

Conclusion: BSA-GNPs in 8 and 50 nm are promising radiosensitizers in radiotherapy of subcutaneously transplanted hepatocarcinoma.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2217/nnm-2018-0059DOI Listing
June 2018

Nucleosome-inspired nanocarrier obtains encapsulation efficiency enhancement and side effects reduction in chemotherapy by using fullerenol assembled with doxorubicin.

Biomaterials 2018 06 12;167:205-215. Epub 2018 Mar 12.

CAS Key Laboratory for Biomedical Effects of Nanomaterials and Nanosafety & CAS Center for Excellence in Nanoscience, National Center for Nanoscience and Technology of China, Beijing 100190, China. Electronic address:

Chemodrugs have been widely used to treat cancer; however, the chemotherapy usually leads to serious side effects and failure. Various nanomaterials and strategies have been explored for drug delivery to improve the efficacy of chemodrugs. One key to loading chemodrugs onto a nano-delivery system is enhancement of the encapsulation efficiency, especially for polymeric nanoparticles being loaded with hydrophilic drugs. Inspired by the ability of eukaryote to package millions of genes in the nucleus wrapping and condensing DNA around histones to form chromosomes, here we developed a karyon-like hybrid nanoparticle to achieve ultra-high encapsulation of doxorubicin (Dox) with reduced side effects. We utilized fullerenol as a "histone", packaged a great number of Dox, and used PEG-PLGA as the "karyotheca" coating the "nucleosome" (fullerenol and Dox complex) to stabilize the complex. It is noteworthy that the encapsulation efficiency of Dox in the polymeric micelles was increased from ∼5% to ∼79%. What's more, the biomimetic-inspired delivery system significantly reduced the chemodrug side effects by utilizing the radical scavenging ability of fullerenol. This novel drug-delivery design approach provides useful insights for improving the applicability of fullerenol in drug delivery systems for cancer therapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biomaterials.2018.03.015DOI Listing
June 2018

Mussel Inspired Polynorepinephrine Functionalized Electrospun Polycaprolactone Microfibers for Muscle Regeneration.

Sci Rep 2017 08 15;7(1):8197. Epub 2017 Aug 15.

CAS Key Laboratory for Biomedical Effects of Nanomaterials and Nanosafety and CAS Center for Excellence in Nanoscience, National Center for Nanoscience and Technology of China (NCNST), Beijing, 100190, China.

Electrospun scaffolds with excellent mechanical properties, high specific surface area and a commendable porous network are widely used in tissue engineering. Improving the hydrophilicity and cell adhesion of hydrophobic substrates is the key point to enhance the effectiveness of electrospun scaffolds. In this study, polycaprolactone (PCL) fibrous membranes with appropriate diameter were selected and coated by mussel-inspired poly norepinephrine (pNE). And norepinephrine is a catecholamine functioning as a hormone and neurotransmitter in the human brain. The membrane with smaller diameter fibers, a relative larger specific surface area and the suitable pNE functionalization provided more suitable microenvironment for cell adhesion and proliferation both in vitro and in vivo. The regenerated muscle layer can be integrated well with fibrous membranes and surrounding tissues at the impaired site and thus the mechanical strength reached the value of native tissue. The underlying molecular mechanism is mediated via inhibiting myostatin expression by PI3K/AKT/mTOR hypertrophy pathway. The properly functionalized fibrous membranes hold the potential for repairing muscle injuries. Our current work also provides an insight for rational design and development of better tissue engineering materials for skeletal muscle regeneration.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-017-08572-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5557809PMC
August 2017

Dual-Mode Imaging-Guided Synergistic Chemo- and Magnetohyperthermia Therapy in a Versatile Nanoplatform To Eliminate Cancer Stem Cells.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2017 Jul 10;9(28):23497-23507. Epub 2017 Jul 10.

CAS Key Laboratory for Biomedical Effects of Nanomaterials and Nanosafety & CAS Center for Excellence in Nanoscience, National Center for Nanoscience and Technology of China , Beijing 100190, China.

Cancer stem cells (CSCs) have been identified as a new target for therapy in diverse cancers. Traditional therapies usually kill the bulk of cancer cells, but are often unable to effectively eliminate CSCs, which may lead to drug resistance and cancer relapse. Herein, we propose a novel strategy: fabricating multifunctional magnetic [email protected]@HA hybrid nanoparticles and loading it with the Notch signaling pathway inhibitor N-[N-(3,5-difluorophenacetyl-l-alanyl)]-S-phenylglycinet-butylester (DAPT) to eliminate CSCs. Hyaluronic acid ligands greatly enhance the accumulation of the hybrid nanoparticles in the tumor site and in the CSCs. Both hyaluronase in the tumor microenvironment and the magnetic hyperthermia effect of the inner magnetic core can accelerate the release of DAPT. This controlled release of DAPT in the tumor site further enhances the ability of the combination of chemo- and magnetohyperthermia therapy to eliminate cancer stem cells. With the help of polypyrrole-mediated photoacoustic and FeO-mediated magnetic resonance imaging, the drug release can be precisely monitored in vivo. This versatile nanoplatform enables effective elimination of the cancer stem cells and monitoring of the drugs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsami.7b06393DOI Listing
July 2017

Fullerenol inhibits the cross-talk between bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells and tumor cells by regulating MAPK signaling.

Nanomedicine 2017 Aug 30;13(6):1879-1890. Epub 2017 Mar 30.

CAS Key Laboratory for Biomedical Effects of Nanomaterials and Nanosafety & CAS Center for Excellence in Nanoscience, National Center for Nanoscience and Technology of China, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China. Electronic address:

The interaction between bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BDMSCs) and tumor cells promotes tumor proliferation and metastasis. We found that 4T1 breast cancer cells induced malignant differentiation of BDMSCs and that BDMSCs also affected the growth and metastasis of 4T1 cells. However, when the interaction between BDMSCs and 4T1 cells was attenuated or blocked by C(OH) nanoparticles, tumor growth and metastasis were significantly suppressed. The suppression of metastasis depended on the activation of MAPK signals in the BDMSCs, whereas the underlying pathways were related to a broad range of extracellular responses and were modulated by the secretion of multiple cytokines. Interestingly, C(OH) regulated the malignantly differentiated BDMSCs via the Erk- and p38-MAPK and its downstream NF-κB signal pathway, but in normal BDMSCs regulation occurred only through Erk- and p38-MAPK and not by NF-κB activation. This study may provide a novel mechanism for C(OH) nanoparticles as an anti-tumor drug.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.nano.2017.03.013DOI Listing
August 2017

Gd-Dots with Strong Ligand-Water Interaction for Ultrasensitive Magnetic Resonance Renography.

ACS Nano 2017 04 30;11(4):3642-3650. Epub 2017 Mar 30.

Beijing National Laboratory for Molecular Sciences, State Key Laboratory of Rare Earth Materials Chemistry and Applications, PKU-HKU Joint Laboratory in Rare Earth Materials and Bioinorganic Chemistry, College of Chemistry and Molecular Engineering, Peking University , Beijing 100871, China.

Magnetic resonance imaging contrast agents with both significantly enhanced relaxivity and minimal safety risk are of great importance for sensitive clinical diagnosis, but have rarely been reported. Herein, we present a simple strategy to improve relaxivity by introducing surface ligands with strong interaction to water molecules. As a proof of concept, NaGdF nanoparticles (NPs) capped by poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) show superior relaxivity to those capped by polyethylenimine and polyethylene glycol, which is attributed to the strong hydrogen-bond capacity of PAA to water molecules as revealed by theoretical calculation. Furthermore, benefiting from PAA and ultrasmall particle size, Gd-dots, namely PAA-capped GdOF NPs (2.1 ± 0.2 nm), are developed as a high-performance contrast agent, with a remarkable ionic relaxivity of ∼75 mM s in albumin solution at 0.5 T. These Gd-dots also exhibit efficient renal clearance with <3% of injected amount left 12 h post-injection. Ultrasensitive MR renography achieved with Gd-dots strongly suggests their great potential for practical applications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsnano.6b07959DOI Listing
April 2017

In vivo aggregation-induced transition between T and T relaxations of magnetic ultra-small iron oxide nanoparticles in tumor microenvironment.

Nanoscale 2017 Mar;9(9):3040-3050

CAS Key Laboratory for Biomedical Effects of Nanomaterials and Nanosafety & CAS Center for Excellence in Nanosciences, National Center for Nanoscience and Technology of China, No. 11 Beiyitiao, Zhongguancun, Beijing 100190, P.R. China.

Surface ligands and their densities may significantly influence the optic, electric, and stable properties of inorganic nanoparticles as well as their magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) characters. In this study, ultra-small iron oxide nanoparticles with hyaluronic acid as surface ligand ([email protected]) were designed to target tumor cells and tune the T- and T-weighted MRI by aggregating in the tumor microenvironment via the degradation of HA upon exposure to hyaluronidase (HAase) with decreasing pH. To realize this purpose, four kinds of [email protected] nanoparticles with increasing HA density were synthesized and characterized. [email protected], with higher r value than others, was chosen for the signal modulation test in vitro; the T signal was enhanced by 36%, and the T signal decreased by 22% in the presence of HAase and acidic environment during the measurement. However, the chitosan-coated FeO nanoparticles did not show a similar tendency. The overlapping sections in the signal change graph of MDA-MB-231 cells and tumor-bearing mice also validate the self-assembling ability of [email protected] Meanwhile, the tumor mapping graphs indicate the excellent tumor penetration of [email protected], which facilitates this self-assembly process and enhances the interior section contrast of the tumor. This fundamental technique for tuning magnetic properties by the tumor microenvironment may provide a useful strategy for the rational synthesis of other inorganic nanoparticles in the field of tumor diagnostics and therapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/c7nr00089hDOI Listing
March 2017

Interference of Steroidogenesis by Gold Nanorod Core/Silver Shell Nanostructures: Implications for Reproductive Toxicity of Silver Nanomaterials.

Small 2017 03 23;13(10). Epub 2016 Dec 23.

Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition, US Food and Drug Administration, College Park, MD, 20740, USA.

As a widely used nanomaterial in daily life, silver nanomaterials may cause great concern to female reproductive system as they are found to penetrate the blood-placental barrier and gain access to the ovary. However, it is largely unknown about how silver nanomaterials influence ovarian physiology and functions such as hormone production. This study performs in vitro toxicology study of silver nanomaterials, focusing especially on cytotoxicity and steroidogenesis and explores their underlying mechanisms. This study exposes primary rat granulosa cells to gold nanorod core/silver shell nanostructures ([email protected] NRs), and compares outcomes with cells exposed to gold nanorods. The [email protected] NRs generate more reactive oxygen species and reduce mitochondrial membrane potential and less production of adenosine triphosphate. [email protected] NRs promote steroidogenesis, including progesterone and estradiol, in a time- and dose-dependent manner. Chemical reactivity and transformation of [email protected] NRs are then studied by electron spin resonance spectroscopy and X-ray absorption near edge structure, which analyze the generation of free radical and intracellular silver species. Results suggest that both particle-specific activity and intracellular silver ion release of [email protected] NR contribute to the toxic response of granulosa cells.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/smll.201602855DOI Listing
March 2017

Gold Nanomaterials in Consumer Cosmetics Nanoproducts: Analyses, Characterization, and Dermal Safety Assessment.

Small 2016 Oct 26;12(39):5488-5496. Epub 2016 Aug 26.

CAS Key Laboratory for Biomedical Effects of Nanomaterials and Nanosafety and CAS Center for Excellence in Nanoscience, National Center for Nanoscience and Technology of China, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, No. 11, Beiyitiao, Zhongguancun, Beijing, 100190, P. R. China.

Establishment of analytical methods of engineered nanomaterials in consumer products for their human and environmental risk assessment becomes urgent for both academic and industrial needs. Owing to the difficulties and challenges around nanomaterials in complex media, proper chemical separation and biological assays of nanomaterials from nanoproducts needs to be firstly developed. Herein, a facile and rapid method to separate and analyze gold nanomaterials in cosmetics is reported. Gold nanomaterials are successfully separated from different facial or eye creams and their physiochemical properties are analyzed by quantitative and qualitative state-of-the art techniques with high sensitivity or high spatial resolution. In turn, a protocol including quantification of gold by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry and thorough characterization of morphology, size distribution, and surface property by electron microscopes, atomic force microscope, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscope is developed. Subsequently, the preliminary toxicity assessment indicates that gold nanomaterials in cosmetic creams have no observable toxicity to human keratinocytes even after 24 h exposure up to a concentration of 200 μg mL . The environmental scanning electron microscope reveals that gold nanomaterials are mostly attached on the cell membrane. Thus, the present study provides a full analysis protocol for toxicity assessment of gold nanomaterials in consumer products (cosmetic creams).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/smll.201601574DOI Listing
October 2016

Rapid Degradation and High Renal Clearance of Cu3BiS3 Nanodots for Efficient Cancer Diagnosis and Photothermal Therapy in Vivo.

ACS Nano 2016 04 29;10(4):4587-98. Epub 2016 Mar 29.

CAS Key Laboratory for Biomedical Effects of Nanomaterials and Nanosafety & CAS Center for Excellent in Nanoscience, Beijing Key Laboratory of Ambient Particles Health Effects and Prevention Techniques, National Center for Nanoscience and Technology of China and Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences , Beijing 100190, China.

A key challenge for the use of inorganic nanomedicines in clinical applications is their long-term accumulation in internal organs, which raises the common concern of the risk of adverse effects and inflammatory responses. It is thus necessary to rationally design inorganic nanomaterials with proper accumulation and clearance mechanism in vivo. Herein, we prepared ultrasmall Cu3BiS3 nanodots (NDs) as a single-phased ternary bimetal sulfide for photothermal cancer therapy guided by multispectral optoacoustic tomography (MSOT) and X-ray computed tomography (CT) due to bismuth's excellent X-ray attenuation coefficient. We then monitored and investigated their absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion. We also used CT imaging to demonstrate that Cu3BiS3 NDs can be quickly removed through renal clearance, which may be related to their small size, rapid chemical transformation, and degradation in an acidic lysosomal environment as characterized by synchrotron radiation-based X-ray absorption near-edge structure spectroscopy. These results reveal that Cu3BiS3 NDs act as a simple but powerful "theranostic" nanoplatform for MSOT/CT imaging-guided tumor ablation with excellent metabolism and rapid clearance that will improve safety for clinical applications in the future.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsnano.6b00745DOI Listing
April 2016

Superstable Magnetic Nanoparticles in Conjugation with Near-Infrared Dye as a Multimodal Theranostic Platform.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2016 Feb 10;8(7):4424-33. Epub 2016 Feb 10.

CAS Key Laboratory for Biomedical Effects of Nanomaterials and Nanosafety, National Center for Nanoscience and Technology of China , Beijing 100190, P.R. China.

Near-infrared (NIR) dyes functionalized magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) have been widely applied in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), NIR fluorescence imaging, drug delivery, and magnetic hyperthermia. However, the stability of MNPs and NIR dyes in water is a key problem to be solved for long-term application. In this study, a kind of superstable iron oxide nanoparticles was synthesized by a facile way, which can be used as T1 and T2 weighted MRI contrast agent. IR820 was grafted onto the surface of nanoparticles by 6-amino hexanoic acid to form IR820-CSQ-Fe conjugates. Attached IR820 showed increased stability in water at least for three months and an enhanced ability of singlet oxygen production of almost double that of free dyes, which will improve its efficiency for photodynamic therapy. Meanwhile, the multispectral optoacoustic tomography (MSOT) and NIR imaging ability of IR820-CSQ-Fe will greatly increase the accuracy of disease detection. All of these features will broaden the application of this material as a multimodal theranostic platform.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsami.5b11308DOI Listing
February 2016
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