Publications by authors named "Jinghai Wu"

17 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

HILPDA Regulates Lipid Metabolism, Lipid Droplet Abundance, and Response to Microenvironmental Stress in Solid Tumors.

Mol Cancer Res 2019 10 15;17(10):2089-2101. Epub 2019 Jul 15.

Department of Radiation Oncology, The Ohio State University Comprehensive Cancer Center, Columbus, Ohio.

Accumulation of lipid droplets has been observed in an increasing range of tumors. However, the molecular determinants of this phenotype and the impact of the tumor microenvironment on lipid droplet dynamics are not well defined. The hypoxia-inducible and lipid droplet associated protein HILPDA is known to regulate lipid storage and physiologic responses to feeding conditions in mice, and was recently shown to promote hypoxic lipid droplet formation through inhibition of the rate-limiting lipase adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL). Here, we identify fatty acid loading and nutrient deprivation-induced autophagy as stimuli of HILPDA-dependent lipid droplet growth. Using mouse embryonic fibroblasts and human tumor cells, we found that genetic ablation of HILPDA compromised hypoxia-fatty acid- and starvation-induced lipid droplet formation and triglyceride storage. Nutrient deprivation upregulated HILPDA protein posttranscriptionally by a mechanism requiring autophagic flux and lipid droplet turnover, independent of HIF1 transactivation. Mechanistically, loss of HILPDA led to elevated lipolysis, which could be corrected by inhibition of ATGL. Lipidomic analysis revealed not only quantitative but also qualitative differences in the glycerolipid and phospholipid profile of HILPDA wild-type and knockout cells, indicating additional HILPDA functions affecting lipid metabolism. Deletion studies of HILPDA mutants identified the N-terminal hydrophobic domain as sufficient for targeting to lipid droplets and restoration of triglyceride storage. , HILPDA-ablated cells showed decreased intratumoral triglyceride levels and impaired xenograft tumor growth associated with elevated levels of apoptosis. IMPLICATIONS: Tumor microenvironmental stresses induce changes in lipid droplet dynamics via HILPDA. Regulation of triglyceride hydrolysis is crucial for cell homeostasis and tumor growth.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/1541-7786.MCR-18-1343DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6774878PMC
October 2019

Disruption of stromal hedgehog signaling initiates RNF5-mediated proteasomal degradation of PTEN and accelerates pancreatic tumor growth.

Life Sci Alliance 2018 Oct 26;1(5):e201800190. Epub 2018 Oct 26.

Hollings Cancer Center and Department of Biochemistry & Molecular Biology, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, SC, USA.

The contribution of the tumor microenvironment to pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) development is currently unclear. We therefore examined the consequences of disrupting paracrine Hedgehog (HH) signaling in PDAC stroma. Herein, we show that ablation of the key HH signaling gene () in stromal fibroblasts led to increased proliferation of pancreatic tumor cells. Furthermore, deletion resulted in proteasomal degradation of the tumor suppressor PTEN and activation of oncogenic protein kinase B (AKT) in fibroblasts. An unbiased proteomic screen identified RNF5 as a novel E3 ubiquitin ligase responsible for degradation of phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) in -null fibroblasts. () knockdown or pharmacological inhibition of glycogen synthase kinase 3β (GSKβ), the kinase that marks PTEN for ubiquitination, rescued PTEN levels and reversed the oncogenic phenotype, identifying a new node of PTEN regulation. In PDAC patients, low stromal PTEN correlated with reduced overall survival. Mechanistically, PTEN loss decreased hydraulic permeability of the extracellular matrix, which was reversed by hyaluronidase treatment. These results define non-cell autonomous tumor-promoting mechanisms activated by disruption of the HH/PTEN axis and identifies new targets for restoring stromal tumor-suppressive functions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.26508/lsa.201800190DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6238420PMC
October 2018

Papaverine and its derivatives radiosensitize solid tumors by inhibiting mitochondrial metabolism.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2018 10 10;115(42):10756-10761. Epub 2018 Sep 10.

Department of Radiation Oncology, Wexner Medical Center, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210;

Tumor hypoxia reduces the effectiveness of radiation therapy by limiting the biologically effective dose. An acute increase in tumor oxygenation before radiation treatment should therefore significantly improve the tumor cell kill after radiation. Efforts to increase oxygen delivery to the tumor have not shown positive clinical results. Here we show that targeting mitochondrial respiration results in a significant reduction of the tumor cells' demand for oxygen, leading to increased tumor oxygenation and radiation response. We identified an activity of the FDA-approved drug papaverine as an inhibitor of mitochondrial complex I. We also provide genetic evidence that papaverine's complex I inhibition is directly responsible for increased oxygenation and enhanced radiation response. Furthermore, we describe derivatives of papaverine that have the potential to become clinical radiosensitizers with potentially fewer side effects. Importantly, this radiosensitizing strategy will not sensitize well-oxygenated normal tissue, thereby increasing the therapeutic index of radiotherapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1808945115DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6196495PMC
October 2018

Generation of a pancreatic cancer model using a Pdx1-Flp recombinase knock-in allele.

PLoS One 2017 21;12(9):e0184984. Epub 2017 Sep 21.

Hollings Cancer Center, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, South Carolina, United States of America.

The contribution of the tumor microenvironment to the development of pancreatic adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is unclear. The LSL-KrasG12D/+;LSL-p53R172H/+;Pdx-1-Cre (KPC) tumor model, which is widely utilized to faithfully recapitulate human pancreatic cancer, depends on Cre-mediated recombination in the epithelial lineage to drive tumorigenesis. Therefore, specific Cre-loxP recombination in stromal cells cannot be applied in this model, limiting the in vivo investigation of stromal genetics in tumor initiation and progression. To address this issue, we generated a new Pdx1FlpO knock-in mouse line, which represents the first mouse model to physiologically express FlpO recombinase in pancreatic epithelial cells. This mouse specifically recombines Frt loci in pancreatic epithelial cells, including acinar, ductal, and islet cells. When combined with the Frt-STOP-Frt KrasG12D and p53Frt mouse lines, simultaneous Pdx1FlpO activation of mutant Kras and deletion of p53 results in the spectrum of pathologic changes seen in PDAC, including PanIN lesions and ductal carcinoma. Combination of this KPF mouse model with any stroma-specific Cre can be used to conditionally modify target genes of interest. This will provide an excellent in vivo tool to study the roles of genes in different cell types and multiple cell compartments within the pancreatic tumor microenvironment.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0184984PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5608307PMC
October 2017

Stress-responsive HILPDA is necessary for thermoregulation during fasting.

J Endocrinol 2017 Oct 24;235(1):27-38. Epub 2017 Jul 24.

Department of Radiation OncologyThe Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio, USA

Hypoxia-inducible lipid droplet-associated protein (HILPDA) has been shown to localize to lipid droplets in nutrient-responsive cell types such as hepatocytes and adipocytes. However, its role in the control of whole-body homeostasis is not known. We sought to measure cell-intrinsic and systemic stress responses in a mouse strain harboring whole-body Hilpda deficiency. We generated a genetically engineered mouse model of whole-body HILPDA deficiency by replacing the coding exon with luciferase. We subjected the knockout animals to environmental stresses and measured whole-animal metabolic and behavioral parameters. Brown adipocyte precursors were isolated and differentiated to quantify the impact of HILPDA ablation in lipid storage and mobilization in these cells. HILPDA-knockout animals are viable and fertile, but show reduced ambulatory activity and oxygen consumption at regular housing conditions. Acclimatization at thermoneutral conditions abolished the phenotypic differences observed at 22°C. When fasted, HILPDA KO mice are unable to maintain body temperature and become hypothermic at 22°C, without apparent abnormalities in blood chemistry parameters or tissue triglyceride content. HILPDA expression was upregulated during adipocyte differentiation and activation ; however, it was not required for lipid droplet formation in brown adipocytes. We conclude that HILPDA is necessary for efficient fuel utilization suggesting a homeostatic role for Hilpda in sub-optimal environments.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1530/JOE-17-0289DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5567683PMC
October 2017

Stromal ETS2 Regulates Chemokine Production and Immune Cell Recruitment during Acinar-to-Ductal Metaplasia.

Neoplasia 2016 09;18(9):541-52

Comprehensive Cancer Center, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210, USA; Department of Cancer Biology & Genetics, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210, USA. Electronic address:

Preclinical studies have suggested that the pancreatic tumor microenvironment both inhibits and promotes tumor development and growth. Here we establish the role of stromal fibroblasts during acinar-to-ductal metaplasia (ADM), an initiating event in pancreatic cancer formation. The transcription factor V-Ets avian erythroblastosis virus E26 oncogene homolog 2 (ETS2) was elevated in smooth muscle actin-positive fibroblasts in the stroma of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) patient tissue samples relative to normal pancreatic controls. LSL-Kras(G12D/+); LSL-Trp53(R172H/+); Pdx-1-Cre (KPC) mice showed that ETS2 expression initially increased in fibroblasts during ADM and remained elevated through progression to PDAC. Conditional ablation of Ets-2 in pancreatic fibroblasts in a Kras(G12D)-driven mouse ADM model decreased the amount of ADM events. ADMs from fibroblast Ets-2-deleted animals had reduced epithelial cell proliferation and increased apoptosis. Surprisingly, fibroblast Ets-2 deletion significantly altered immune cell infiltration into the stroma, with an increased CD8+ T-cell population, and decreased presence of regulatory T cells (Tregs), myeloid-derived suppressor cells, and mature macrophages. The mechanism involved ETS2-dependent chemokine ligand production in fibroblasts. ETS2 directly bound to regulatory sequences for Ccl3, Ccl4, Cxcl4, Cxcl5, and Cxcl10, a group of chemokines that act as potent mediators of immune cell recruitment. These results suggest an unappreciated role for ETS2 in fibroblasts in establishing an immune-suppressive microenvironment in response to oncogenic Kras(G12D) signaling during the initial stages of tumor development.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neo.2016.07.006DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5031867PMC
September 2016

Genetic ablation of Smoothened in pancreatic fibroblasts increases acinar-ductal metaplasia.

Genes Dev 2016 09 15;30(17):1943-55. Epub 2016 Sep 15.

Comprehensive Cancer Center, The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio 43210, USA; Cancer Biology and Genetics Department, The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio 43210, USA;

The contribution of the microenvironment to pancreatic acinar-to-ductal metaplasia (ADM), a preneoplastic transition in oncogenic Kras-driven pancreatic cancer progression, is currently unclear. Here we show that disruption of paracrine Hedgehog signaling via genetic ablation of Smoothened (Smo) in stromal fibroblasts in a Kras(G12D) mouse model increased ADM. Smo-deleted fibroblasts had higher expression of transforming growth factor-α (Tgfa) mRNA and secreted higher levels of TGFα, leading to activation of EGFR signaling in acinar cells and increased ADM. The mechanism involved activation of AKT and noncanonical activation of the GLI family transcription factor GLI2. GLI2 was phosphorylated at Ser230 in an AKT-dependent fashion and directly regulated Tgfa expression in fibroblasts lacking Smo Additionally, Smo-deleted fibroblasts stimulated the growth of Kras(G12D)/Tp53(R172H) pancreatic tumor cells in vivo and in vitro. These results define a non-cell-autonomous mechanism modulating Kras(G12D)-driven ADM that is balanced by cross-talk between Hedgehog/SMO and AKT/GLI2 pathways in stromal fibroblasts.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1101/gad.283499.116DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5066238PMC
September 2016

Light at night activates IGF-1R/PDK1 signaling and accelerates tumor growth in human breast cancer xenografts.

Cancer Res 2011 Apr 10;71(7):2622-31. Epub 2011 Feb 10.

Bassett Research Institute and Department of Internal Medicine, Bassett Healthcare Network, Cooperstown, New York, USA.

Regulation of diurnal and circadian rhythms and cell proliferation are coupled in all mammals, including humans. However, the molecular mechanisms by which diurnal and circadian rhythms regulate cell proliferation are relatively poorly understood. In this study, we report that tumor growth in nude rats bearing human steroid receptor-negative MCF-7 breast tumors can be significantly accelerated by exposing the rats to light at night (LAN). Under normal conditions of an alternating light/dark cycle, proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) levels in tumors were maximal in the early light phase but remained at very low levels throughout the daily 24-hour cycle period monitored. Surprisingly, PCNA was expressed in tumors continually at a high level throughout the entire 24-hour period in LAN-exposed nude rats. Daily fluctuations of Akt and mitogen activated protein kinase activation in tumors were also disrupted by LAN. These fluctuations did not track with PCNA changes, but we found that activation of the Akt stimulatory kinase phosphoinositide-dependent protein kinase 1 (PDK1) directly correlated with PCNA levels. Expression of insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor (IGF-1R), an upstream signaling molecule for PDK1, also correlated with fluctuations of PDK1/PCNA in the LAN group. In addition, circulating IGF-1 concentrations were elevated in LAN-exposed tumor-bearing nude rats. Finally, RNAi-mediated knockdown of PDK1 led to a reduction in PCNA expression and cell proliferation in vitro and tumor growth in vivo, indicating that PDK1 regulates breast cancer growth in a manner correlated with PCNA expression. Taken together, our findings demonstrate that LAN exposure can accelerate tumor growth in vivo, in part through continuous activation of IGF-1R/PDK1 signaling.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-10-3837DOI Listing
April 2011

Dark-phase light contamination disrupts circadian rhythms in plasma measures of endocrine physiology and metabolism in rats.

Comp Med 2010 Oct;60(5):348-56

Department of Structural & Cellular Biology, Tulane University School of Medicine, Tulane, Louisiana, USA.

Dark-phase light contamination can significantly disrupt chronobiologic rhythms, thereby potentially altering the endocrine physiology and metabolism of experimental animals and influencing the outcome of scientific investigations. We sought to determine whether exposure to low-level light contamination during the dark phase influenced the normally entrained circadian rhythms of various substances in plasma. Male Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 6 per group) were housed in photobiologic light-exposure chambers configured to create 1) a 12:12-h light:dark cycle without dark-phase light contamination (control condition; 123 μW/cm(2), lights on at 0600), 2) experimental exposure to a low level of light during the 12-h dark phase (with 0.02, 0.05, 0.06, or 0.08 μW/cm(2) light at night), or 3) constant bright light (123 μW/cm(2)). Dietary and water intakes were recorded daily. After 2 wk, rats underwent 6 low-volume blood draws at 4-h intervals (beginning at 0400) during both the light and dark phases. Circadian rhythms in dietary and water intake and levels of plasma total fatty acids and lipid fractions remained entrained during exposure to either control conditions or low-intensity light during the dark phase. However, these patterns were disrupted in rats exposed to constant bright light. Circadian patterns of plasma melatonin, glucose, lactic acid, and corticosterone were maintained in all rats except those exposed to constant bright light or the highest level of light during the dark phase. Therefore even minimal light contamination during the dark phase can disrupt normal circadian rhythms of endocrine metabolism and physiology and may alter the outcome of scientific investigations.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2958202PMC
October 2010

MicroRNA-320 is involved in the regulation of cardiac ischemia/reperfusion injury by targeting heat-shock protein 20.

Circulation 2009 May 20;119(17):2357-2366. Epub 2009 Apr 20.

Department of Pharmacology and Cell Biophysics, University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, Cincinnati, OH 45267.

Background: Recent studies have identified critical roles for microRNAs (miRNAs) in a variety of cellular processes, including regulation of cardiomyocyte death. However, the signature of miRNA expression and possible roles of miRNA in the ischemic heart have been less well studied.

Methods And Results: We performed miRNA arrays to detect the expression pattern of miRNAs in murine hearts subjected to ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) in vivo and ex vivo. Surprisingly, we found that only miR-320 expression was significantly decreased in the hearts on I/R in vivo and ex vivo. This was further confirmed by TaqMan real-time polymerase chain reaction. Gain-of-function and loss-of-function approaches were employed in cultured adult rat cardiomyocytes to investigate the functional roles of miR-320. Overexpression of miR-320 enhanced cardiomyocyte death and apoptosis, whereas knockdown was cytoprotective, on simulated I/R. Furthermore, transgenic mice with cardiac-specific overexpression of miR-320 revealed an increased extent of apoptosis and infarction size in the hearts on I/R in vivo and ex vivo relative to the wild-type controls. Conversely, in vivo treatment with antagomir-320 reduced infarction size relative to the administration of mutant antagomir-320 and saline controls. Using TargetScan software and proteomic analysis, we identified heat-shock protein 20 (Hsp20), a known cardioprotective protein, as an important candidate target for miR-320. This was validated experimentally by utilizing a luciferase/GFP reporter activity assay and examining the expression of Hsp20 on miR-320 overexpression and knockdown in cardiomyocytes.

Conclusions: Our data demonstrate that miR-320 is involved in the regulation of I/R-induced cardiac injury and dysfunction via antithetical regulation of Hsp20. Thus, miR-320 may constitute a new therapeutic target for ischemic heart diseases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.108.814145DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2746735PMC
May 2009

KLF2 transcription factor modulates blood vessel maturation through smooth muscle cell migration.

J Biol Chem 2008 Feb 5;283(7):3942-50. Epub 2007 Dec 5.

Department of Molecular Genetics, Biochemistry and Microbiology, University of Cincinnati, College of Medicine, Cincinnati, Ohio 45267, USA.

Vasculogenesis, angiogenesis, and maturation are three major phases of the development of blood vessels. Although many receptors required for blood vessel formation have been defined, the intracellular signal transduction pathways involved in vascular maturation remain unclear. KLF2(-/-) embryos fail to develop beyond 13.5 days because of a lack of blood vessel stabilization. The molecular mechanism of KLF2 function in embryonic vascular vessels is still largely unknown. Here we show a normal development pattern of endothelial cells in KLF2(-/-) embryos but a defect of smooth muscle cells at the dorsal side of the aorta. This phenotype results from arrested vascular maturation characterized by the failure of mural cells to migrate around endothelial cells. This migration defect is also observed when platelet-derived growth factor-B (PDGF) controlled migration is studied in murine embryonic fibroblast (MEF) cells from KLF2(-/-) animals. In addition, KLF2(-/-) MEFs exhibit a significant growth defect, indicating that KLF2 is required to maintain the viability of MEF cells. The PDGF signal is mediated through the Src signaling pathway, and a downstream target of KLF2 is sphingosine 1-phosphate receptor 1. These studies demonstrate that KLF2 is required for smooth muscle cell migration and elucidate a novel mechanism involving communication between PDGF and KLF2 in vascular maturation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1074/jbc.M707882200DOI Listing
February 2008

Kruppel-like factor 2 regulates thymocyte and T-cell migration.

Nature 2006 Jul;442(7100):299-302

Center for Immunology, Department of Laboratory Medicine and Pathology, University of Minnesota Medical School, Minneapolis, Minnesota 55455, USA.

Mammalian Kruppel-like transcription factors are implicated in regulating terminal differentiation of several tissue types. Deficiency in Kruppel-like factor (KLF) 2 (also known as LKLF) leads to a massive loss of the peripheral T-cell pool, suggesting KLF2 regulates T-cell quiescence and survival. Here we show, however, that KLF2 is essential for T-cell trafficking. KLF2-deficient (Klf2-/-) thymocytes show impaired expression of several receptors required for thymocyte emigration and peripheral trafficking, including the sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) receptor S1P1, CD62L and beta7 integrin. Furthermore, KLF2 both binds and transactivates the promoter for S1P1--a receptor that is critical for thymocyte egress and recirculation through peripheral lymphoid organs. Our findings suggest that KLF2 serves to license mature T cells for trafficking from the thymus and recirculation through secondary lymphoid tissues.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/nature04882DOI Listing
July 2006

Krüppel-like factor 2, a novel immediate-early transcriptional factor, regulates IL-2 expression in T lymphocyte activation.

J Immunol 2005 Sep;175(5):3060-6

Department of Molecular Genetics, Biochemistry, and Microbiology, University of Cincinnati, College of Medicine, Cincinnati, OH 45267, USA.

Ag presentation to T lymphocytes and subsequent activation are characterized by a cascade of signaling events, some of which result in the transcriptional activation of a diverse set of genes. An important example is the induction of the IL-2 gene, which is a critical event in the escalation of T cell activation. Previous studies have found that expression of Krüppel-like factor 2 (KLF2), a zinc finger transcription factor, is extinguished after T cell activation. However, the biological role of KLF2 during T cell activation is still unknown. In this study we found that KLF2 protein degradation is delayed, and KLF2 expression is up-regulated during the early stage of T cell activation in primary T cells. Within a few hours, this process is reversed, and KLF2 expression is turned off. Next, we found that the expression of KLF2 significantly increases IL-2 production 4-fold in activated T cells, resulting from activation of the IL-2 promoter. By narrowing down the 2.0-kb IL-2 promoter region, we found that the KLF2 responsive element in the IL-2 promoter is a CACCC element, the KLF consensus binding motif. Moreover, KLF2 binds to this promoter in vivo under different conditions. Our studies show that KLF2 regulates IL-2 promoter activity in the earliest stages of T cell activation, indicating that KLF2 may act as a novel immediate-early transcriptional factor to maximally prime T cell activation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4049/jimmunol.175.5.3060DOI Listing
September 2005

The KLF2 transcription factor does not affect the formation of preadipocytes but inhibits their differentiation into adipocytes.

Biochemistry 2005 Aug;44(33):11098-105

Department of Molecular Genetics, Biochemistry, and Microbiology, University of Cincinnati Medical Center, 231 Albert Sabin Way, Cincinnati, Ohio 45267, USA.

Kruppel-like transcription factor 2 (KLF2), a critical gene for mouse embryogenesis, was recently identified as an inhibitor of adipogenesis. However, it is still unknown whether KLF2 is a natural repressor of adipocyte differentiation and if KLF2 affects the formation of preadipocytes. It may also be important for preadipocyte formation, as KLF2 is crucial for lung development and blood vessel formation. In this study, we show that differentiation of preadipocytes not only results in a concomitant decrease in the levels of KLF2 protein but also significantly reduces KLF2 promoter activity. We have generated tet-responsive lines of 3T3L1 that express physiological levels of KLF2 and show that reexpression of KLF2 prevents preadipocyte differentiation, thereby confirming the inhibition of adipogenesis by KLF2, partially via the restoration of Pref-1. In addition, we studied the contribution of KLF2-negative cells to the formation and subsequent differentiation of preadipocytes. We demonstrate that embryoid bodies derived from KLF2(-)(/)(-) ES cells can differentiate into adipocytes as evidenced by the accumulation of lipids and expression of several biochemical markers. Moreover, mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) derived from KLF2(-)(/)(-) mouse embryos differentiate efficiently into adipocytes. Interestingly, quantification of lipid accumulation in MEFs indicated that KLF2(-)(/)(-) cells are more prone to differentiate at the early stage of the process, suggesting that KLF2 is a natural repressor of differentiation in vivo. Taken together, these studies demonstrate that KLF2 does not affect the commitment of multipotent stem cells into the preadipocytic lineage but rather maintains their preadipocyte state and thereby negatively regulates their transition into adipocytes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/bi050166iDOI Listing
August 2005

Acrogeria with decreased gene expression of alpha1 (I) and alpha1 (III) collagen in cultured dermal fibroblasts.

J Dermatol 2004 Jul;31(7):535-9

Department of Molecular Genetics, College of Medicine, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH 45267, USA.

We report a case of acrogeria. A 47-year-old Japanese man presented with micrognathism, thin lips, radial wrinkles around his month, atrophy of skin and subcutaneous tissue, and mottled hyperpigmentation on his extremities. A biopsy of the lesional skin showed flat epidermis and atrophy of the dermal layer. The in vitro life span of the patient's fibroblasts (18+/-2.2 PDL) was significantly shorter than that of control fibroblasts (42+/-3.5 PDL). The early-passage fibroblasts from the patient showed abnormal morphology which was also seen in the late-passage (in vitro aging) of normal fibroblasts. In northern blotting analysis of cultured dermal fibroblasts, mRNA levels of alpha1 (I) collagen and alpha1 (III) collagen were markedly reduced. These results revealed that patient fibroblasts might be in severe senescence in vitro and contribute to the phenotypes of this premature aging syndrome.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1346-8138.2004.tb00550.xDOI Listing
July 2004

KLF2 inhibits Jurkat T leukemia cell growth via upregulation of cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p21WAF1/CIP1.

Oncogene 2004 Oct;23(49):8088-96

Department of Molecular Genetics, Biochemistry and Microbiology, University of Cincinnati, College of Medicine, 231 Albert Sabin Way, Cincinnati, OH 45267, USA.

Kruppel-like factor 2 (KLF2) is a member of the KLF family of zinc-finger transcription factors and is involved in maintaining T-cell quiescence, regulating preadipocyte differentiation, endothelial cell function and lung development. We used a tetracycline-inducible system in Jurkat T leukemia cells to study the biological role of KLF2 in cellular growth and differentiation. Our results show that expression of KLF2 inhibits cell growth in autonomously proliferating Jurkat cells. Further, 3H-thymidine uptake assays indicate that KLF2 inhibits DNA synthesis in these cells. Moreover, both activation and inhibitory domains are required for KLF2 to suppress Jurkat cell proliferation. In addition, KLF2 upregulates p21WAF1/CIP1 expression. Additionally, we found that KLF2 upregulates p21WAF1/CIP1 promoter activity in Jurkat, HepG2 and SW480 cells. Our analysis shows that the potential KLF2 responsive elements are located between -124 and -60 of the p21WAF1/CIP1 promoter. The sole CACCC site, a sequence recognized by KLF2, in this region is not the element responsive to KLF2. Finally, we determined that the Sp1-3-binding site is the functional responsive element of KLF2 in the p21WAF1/CIP1 promoter, and we conclude that KLF2 directly regulates p21WAF1/CIP1 expression.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/sj.onc.1207996DOI Listing
October 2004

Targeted disruption of dermatopontin causes abnormal collagen fibrillogenesis.

J Invest Dermatol 2002 Sep;119(3):678-83

Department of Clinical Biology of Extracellular Matrix, Graduate School of Medicine, Chiba University, Chiba, Japan.

Gene targeting of a member of small leucine-rich repeat proteoglycans demonstrates that collagen fibrillogenesis is mediated by a set of extracellular matrix components, which interact with collagen. Collagen-associated protein dermatopontin knockout mice were generated in order to analyze the biologic involvement of dermatopontin in the formation of collagen fibrils. Although dermatopontin-null mice did not exhibit any obvious anatomical abnormality, skin elasticity was increased. Skin tensile tests revealed that the initial elastic modulus was 57% lower in dermatopontin-null mice than in wild-type mice, and that maximum tensile strength was similar. Remarkably, light microscopy study showed a significant decrease in the relative thickness of the dermis in dermatopontin-null mice compared with wild-type mice (45.2 +/- 3.09% and 57.8 +/- 4.25%, respectively). The skin collagen content was 40% lower in dermatopontin-null than in wild-type mice. Collagen fibrils in dermatopontin-null mice showed a great variety in diameter and irregular contours under the electron microscope. These data indicate that dermatopontin plays a critical role in elasticity of skin and collagen accumulation attributed to collagen fibrillogenesis in vivo.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1046/j.1523-1747.2002.01863.xDOI Listing
September 2002