Publications by authors named "Jing-Ruey J Yeh"

18 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Genetic deletion of gpr27 alters acylcarnitine metabolism, insulin sensitivity, and glucose homeostasis in zebrafish.

FASEB J 2020 01 2;34(1):1546-1557. Epub 2019 Dec 2.

Cardiovascular Research Center, Massachusetts General Hospital, Charlestown, MA, USA.

G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) comprise the largest group of membrane receptors in eukaryotic genomes and collectively they regulate nearly all cellular processes. Despite the widely recognized importance of this class of proteins, many GPCRs remain understudied. G protein-coupled receptor 27 (Gpr27) is an orphan GPCR that displays high conservation during vertebrate evolution. Although, GPR27 is known to be expressed in tissues that regulate metabolism including the pancreas, skeletal muscle, and adipose tissue, its functions are poorly characterized. Therefore, to investigate the potential roles of Gpr27 in energy metabolism, we generated a whole body gpr27 knockout zebrafish line. Loss of gpr27 potentiated the elevation in glucose levels induced by pharmacological or nutritional perturbations. We next leveraged a mass spectrometry metabolite profiling platform to identify other potential metabolic functions of Gpr27. Notably, genetic deletion of gpr27 elevated medium-chain acylcarnitines, in particular C6-hexanoylcarnitine, C8-octanoylcarnitine, C9-nonanoylcarnitine, and C10-decanoylcarnitine, lipid species known to be associated with insulin resistance in humans. Concordantly, gpr27 deletion in zebrafish abrogated insulin-dependent Akt phosphorylation and glucose utilization. Finally, loss of gpr27 increased the expression of key enzymes in carnitine shuttle complex, in particular the homolog to the brain-specific isoform of CPT1C which functions as a hypothalamic energy senor. In summary, our findings shed light on the biochemical functions of Gpr27 by illuminating its role in lipid metabolism, insulin signaling, and glucose homeostasis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1096/fj.201901466RDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6956728PMC
January 2020

Small Molecule Inhibitors of NFkB Reverse Iron Overload and Hepcidin Deregulation in a Zebrafish Model for Hereditary Hemochromatosis Type 3.

ACS Chem Biol 2018 08 28;13(8):2143-2152. Epub 2018 Jun 28.

CSIR-Institute of Genomics and Integrative Biology , New Delhi , 110025 , India.

Hereditary hemochromatosis (HH) is one of the most common genetic disorders in Caucasian populations, with no viable therapeutic options except phlebotomy. We describe a zebrafish model of human HH (HH) created by targeted mutagenesis of the gene encoding transferrin receptor 2 ( tfr2). TFR2 mutations in humans lead to HH Type 3, a rare but severe form of the disease. The tfr2 mutant model in zebrafish recapitulates the defining features of HH3: iron overload and suppression of hepcidin, the iron regulatory hormone. Using in vivo chemical screens in zebrafish embryos, we identify a new small molecule inducer of hepcidin: SC-514, a specific chemical inhibitor of NFkB signaling. Using independent small molecule inhibitors of the NFkB pathway, we demonstrate that inhibition of NFkB signaling causes induction of hepcidin transcription and reduction of iron overload in the HH3 model. This first successful chemical intervention for hereditary hemochromatosis may also have relevance in treatment of other very prevalent iron regulatory iron overload disorders such as thalassemia.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acschembio.8b00317DOI Listing
August 2018

Dopaminergic control of anxiety in young and aged zebrafish.

Pharmacol Biochem Behav 2017 06 10;157:1-8. Epub 2017 Apr 10.

Boston University School of Medicine, Lab of Sleep and Circadian Physiology, R-911, 72 E. Concord St., Boston, MA 02118, United States. Electronic address:

Changes in the expression of the dopamine transporter (DAT), or the sensitivity of dopamine receptors, are associated with aging and substance abuse and may underlie some of the symptoms common to both conditions. In this study, we explored the role of the dopaminergic system in the anxiogenic effects of aging and acute cocaine exposure by comparing the behavioral phenotypes of wild type (WT) and DAT knockout zebrafish (DAT-KO) of different ages. To determine the involvement of specific dopamine receptors in anxiety states, antagonists to D1 (SCH23390) and D2/D3 (sulpiride) were employed. We established that DAT-KO results in a chronic anxiety-like state, seen as an increase in bottom-dwelling and thigmotaxis. Similar effects were produced by aging and acute cocaine administration, both leading to reduction in DAT mRNA abundance (qPCR). Inhibition of D1 activity counteracted the anxiety-like effects associated with DAT deficit, independent of its origin. Inhibition of D2/D3 receptors reduced anxiety in young DAT-KO, and enhanced the anxiogenic effects of cocaine in WT, but did not affect aged WT or DAT-KO fish. These findings provide new evidence that the dopaminergic system plays a critical role in anxiety-like states, and suggest that adult zebrafish provide a sensitive diurnal vertebrate model for elucidating the molecular mechanisms of anxiety and a platform for anxiolytic drug screens.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.pbb.2017.01.005DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5505502PMC
June 2017

Extreme Vulnerability of IDH1 Mutant Cancers to NAD+ Depletion.

Cancer Cell 2015 Dec;28(6):773-784

Department of Neurosurgery, Translational Neuro-Oncology Laboratory, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02114, USA. Electronic address:

Heterozygous mutation of IDH1 in cancers modifies IDH1 enzymatic activity, reprogramming metabolite flux and markedly elevating 2-hydroxyglutarate (2-HG). Here, we found that 2-HG depletion did not inhibit growth of several IDH1 mutant solid cancer types. To identify other metabolic therapeutic targets, we systematically profiled metabolites in endogenous IDH1 mutant cancer cells after mutant IDH1 inhibition and discovered a profound vulnerability to depletion of the coenzyme NAD+. Mutant IDH1 lowered NAD+ levels by downregulating the NAD+ salvage pathway enzyme nicotinate phosphoribosyltransferase (Naprt1), sensitizing to NAD+ depletion via concomitant nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase (NAMPT) inhibition. NAD+ depletion activated the intracellular energy sensor AMPK, triggered autophagy, and resulted in cytotoxicity. Thus, we identify NAD+ depletion as a metabolic susceptibility of IDH1 mutant cancers.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ccell.2015.11.006DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4684594PMC
December 2015

Identification of nonvisual photomotor response cells in the vertebrate hindbrain.

J Neurosci 2013 Feb;33(9):3834-43

Cardiovascular Research Center and Division of Cardiology, Department of Medicine, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Charlestown, Massachusetts 02129, USA.

Nonvisual photosensation enables animals to sense light without sight. However, the cellular and molecular mechanisms of nonvisual photobehaviors are poorly understood, especially in vertebrate animals. Here, we describe the photomotor response (PMR), a robust and reproducible series of motor behaviors in zebrafish that is elicited by visual wavelengths of light but does not require the eyes, pineal gland, or other canonical deep-brain photoreceptive organs. Unlike the relatively slow effects of canonical nonvisual pathways, motor circuits are strongly and quickly (seconds) recruited during the PMR behavior. We find that the hindbrain is both necessary and sufficient to drive these behaviors. Using in vivo calcium imaging, we identify a discrete set of neurons within the hindbrain whose responses to light mirror the PMR behavior. Pharmacological inhibition of the visual cycle blocks PMR behaviors, suggesting that opsin-based photoreceptors control this behavior. These data represent the first known light-sensing circuit in the vertebrate hindbrain.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1523/JNEUROSCI.3689-12.2013DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3600642PMC
February 2013

A Wnt inhibitor with a twist.

Authors:
Jing-Ruey J Yeh

Chem Biol 2011 Dec;18(12):1518-20

Cardiovascular Research Center, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Charlestown, MA 02129, USA.

Although the clinical safety of compounds targeting the core components of the Wnt signaling pathway remains to be determined, a simple in vivo chemical screen identifies small molecules that inhibit Wnt signaling in a cell type-specific manner (Ni et al., this issue of Chemistry & Biology).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chembiol.2011.12.004DOI Listing
December 2011

Selection-free zinc-finger-nuclease engineering by context-dependent assembly (CoDA).

Nat Methods 2011 Jan 12;8(1):67-9. Epub 2010 Dec 12.

Molecular Pathology Unit and Center for Cancer Research, Massachusetts General Hospital, Charlestown, Massachusetts, USA.

Engineered zinc-finger nucleases (ZFNs) enable targeted genome modification. Here we describe context-dependent assembly (CoDA), a platform for engineering ZFNs using only standard cloning techniques or custom DNA synthesis. Using CoDA-generated ZFNs, we rapidly altered 20 genes in Danio rerio, Arabidopsis thaliana and Glycine max. The simplicity and efficacy of CoDA will enable broad adoption of ZFN technology and make possible large-scale projects focused on multigene pathways or genome-wide alterations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/nmeth.1542DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3018472PMC
January 2011

Zebrafish small molecule screen in reprogramming/cell fate modulation.

Methods Mol Biol 2010 ;636:317-27

Developmental Biology Laboratory, Cardiovascular Research Center, Massachusetts General Hospital, Charlestown, MA, USA.

Embryonic zebrafish have long been used for lineage-tracing studies. In zebrafish embryos, the cell fate identities can be determined by whole-mount in situ hybridization, or by visualization of live embryos if using fluorescent reporter lines. We use embryonic zebrafish to study the effects of a leukemic oncogene AML1-ETO on modulating hematopoietic cell fate. Induced expression of AML1-ETO is able to efficiently reprogram hematopoietic progenitor cells from erythroid to myeloid cell fate. Using the zebrafish model of AML1-ETO, we performed a chemical screen to identify small molecules that suppress the cell fate switch in the presence of AML1-ETO. The methods discussed herein may be broadly applicable for identifying small molecules that modulate other cell fate decisions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-1-60761-691-7_20DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2895693PMC
June 2010

Targeted mutagenesis in zebrafish using customized zinc-finger nucleases.

Nat Protoc 2009 ;4(12):1855-67

Molecular Pathology Unit and Center for Cancer Research, Massachusetts General Hospital, Charlestown, Massachusetts, USA.

Zebrafish mutants have traditionally been obtained by using random mutagenesis or retroviral insertions, methods that cannot be targeted to a specific gene and require laborious gene mapping and sequencing. Recently, we and others have shown that customized zinc-finger nucleases (ZFNs) can introduce targeted frame-shift mutations with high efficiency, thereby enabling directed creation of zebrafish gene mutations. Here we describe a detailed protocol for constructing ZFN expression vectors, for generating and introducing ZFN-encoding RNAs into zebrafish embryos and for identifying ZFN-generated mutations in targeted genomic sites. All of our vectors and methods are compatible with previously described Zinc-Finger Consortium reagents for constructing engineered zinc-finger arrays. Using these methods, zebrafish founders carrying targeted mutations can be identified within 4 months.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/nprot.2009.209DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2814337PMC
March 2010

Rapid mutation of endogenous zebrafish genes using zinc finger nucleases made by Oligomerized Pool ENgineering (OPEN).

PLoS One 2009 9;4(2):e4348. Epub 2009 Feb 9.

Molecular Pathology Unit, Center for Cancer Research, and Center for Computational and Integrative Biology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Charlestown, Massachusetts, United States of America.

Background: Customized zinc finger nucleases (ZFNs) form the basis of a broadly applicable tool for highly efficient genome modification. ZFNs are artificial restriction endonucleases consisting of a non-specific nuclease domain fused to a zinc finger array which can be engineered to recognize specific DNA sequences of interest. Recent proof-of-principle experiments have shown that targeted knockout mutations can be efficiently generated in endogenous zebrafish genes via non-homologous end-joining-mediated repair of ZFN-induced DNA double-stranded breaks. The Zinc Finger Consortium, a group of academic laboratories committed to the development of engineered zinc finger technology, recently described the first rapid, highly effective, and publicly available method for engineering zinc finger arrays. The Consortium has previously used this new method (known as OPEN for Oligomerized Pool ENgineering) to generate high quality ZFN pairs that function in human and plant cells.

Methodology/principal Findings: Here we show that OPEN can also be used to generate ZFNs that function efficiently in zebrafish. Using OPEN, we successfully engineered ZFN pairs for five endogenous zebrafish genes: tfr2, dopamine transporter, telomerase, hif1aa, and gridlock. Each of these ZFN pairs induces targeted insertions and deletions with high efficiency at its endogenous gene target in somatic zebrafish cells. In addition, these mutations are transmitted through the germline with sufficiently high frequency such that only a small number of fish need to be screened to identify founders. Finally, in silico analysis demonstrates that one or more potential OPEN ZFN sites can be found within the first three coding exons of more than 25,000 different endogenous zebrafish gene transcripts.

Conclusions And Significance: In summary, our study nearly triples the total number of endogenous zebrafish genes successfully modified using ZFNs (from three to eight) and suggests that OPEN provides a reliable method for introducing targeted mutations in nearly any zebrafish gene of interest.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0004348PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2634973PMC
April 2009

Discovering chemical modifiers of oncogene-regulated hematopoietic differentiation.

Nat Chem Biol 2009 Apr 26;5(4):236-43. Epub 2009 Jan 26.

Developmental Biology Laboratory, Cardiovascular Research Center, Massachusetts General Hospital, Charlestown, Massachusetts 02129, USA.

It has been proposed that inhibitors of an oncogene's effects on multipotent hematopoietic progenitor cell differentiation may change the properties of the leukemic stem cells and complement the clinical use of cytotoxic drugs. Using zebrafish, we developed a robust in vivo hematopoietic differentiation assay that reflects the activity of the oncogene AML1-ETO. Screening for modifiers of AML1-ETO-mediated hematopoietic dysregulation uncovered unexpected roles of COX-2- and beta-catenin-dependent pathways in AML1-ETO function. This approach may open doors for developing therapeutics targeting oncogene function within leukemic stem cells.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/nchembio.147DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2658727PMC
April 2009

Identification of a novel retinoid by small molecule screening with zebrafish embryos.

PLoS One 2008 Apr 9;3(4):e1947. Epub 2008 Apr 9.

Cardiovascular Research Center, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Charlestown, Massachusetts, United States of America.

Small molecules have played an important role in delineating molecular pathways involved in embryonic development and disease pathology. The need for novel small molecule modulators of biological processes has driven a number of targeted screens on large diverse libraries. However, due to the specific focus of such screens, the majority of the bioactive potential of these libraries remains unharnessed. In order to identify a higher proportion of compounds with interesting biological activities, we screened a diverse synthetic library for compounds that perturb the development of any of the multiple organs in zebrafish embryos. We identified small molecules that affect the development of a variety of structures such as heart, vasculature, brain, and body-axis. We utilized the previously known role of retinoic acid in anterior-posterior (A-P) patterning to identify the target of DTAB, a compound that caused A-P axis shortening in the zebrafish embryo. We show that DTAB is a retinoid with selective activity towards retinoic acid receptors gamma and beta. Thus, conducting zebrafish developmental screens using small molecules will not only enable the identification of compounds with diverse biological activities in a large chemical library but may also facilitate the identification of the target pathways of these biologically active molecules.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0001947PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2275795PMC
April 2008

Loss of TLE1 and TLE4 from the del(9q) commonly deleted region in AML cooperates with AML1-ETO to affect myeloid cell proliferation and survival.

Blood 2008 Apr 7;111(8):4338-47. Epub 2008 Feb 7.

Department of Pediatrics, Division of Pediatric Hematology/Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02114, USA.

Deletions on chromosome 9q are seen in a subset of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) cases and are specifically associated with t(8;21) AML. We previously defined the commonly deleted region in del(9q) AML and characterized the genes in this interval. To determine the critical lost gene(s) that might cooperate with the AML1-ETO fusion gene produced by t(8;21), we developed a set of shRNAs directed against each gene in this region. Within this library, shRNAs to TLE1 and TLE4 were the only shRNAs capable of rescuing AML1-ETO expressing U937T-A/E cells from AML1-ETO-induced cell-cycle arrest and apoptosis. Knockdown of TLE1 or TLE4 levels increased the rate of cell division of the AML1-ETO-expressing Kasumi-1 cell line, whereas forced expression of either TLE1 or TLE4 caused apoptosis and cell death. Knockdown of Gro3, a TLE homolog in zebrafish, cooperated with AML1-ETO to cause an accumulation of noncirculating hematopoietic blast cells. Our data are consistent with a model in which haploinsufficiency of these TLEs overcomes the negative survival and antiproliferative effects of AML1-ETO on myeloid progenitors, allowing preleukemic stem cells to expand into AML. This study is the first to implicate the TLEs as potential tumor suppressor genes in myeloid leukemia.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/blood-2007-07-103291DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2288729PMC
April 2008

AML1-ETO reprograms hematopoietic cell fate by downregulating scl expression.

Development 2008 Jan;135(2):401-10

Developmental Biology Laboratory, Cardiovascular Research Center, Massachusetts General Hospital, Charlestown, MA 02129, USA.

AML1-ETO is one of the most common chromosomal translocation products associated with acute myelogenous leukemia (AML). Patients carrying the AML1-ETO fusion gene exhibit an accumulation of granulocyte precursors in the bone marrow and the blood. Here, we describe a transgenic zebrafish line that enables inducible expression of the human AML1-ETO oncogene. Induced AML1-ETO expression in embryonic zebrafish causes a phenotype that recapitulates some aspects of human AML. Using this highly tractable model, we show that AML1-ETO redirects myeloerythroid progenitor cells that are developmentally programmed to adopt the erythroid cell fate into the granulocytic cell fate. This fate change is characterized by a loss of gata1 expression and an increase in pu.1 expression in myeloerythroid progenitor cells. Moreover, we identify scl as an early and essential mediator of the effect of AML1-ETO on hematopoietic cell fate. AML1-ETO quickly shuts off scl expression, and restoration of scl expression rescues the effects of AML1-ETO on myeloerythroid progenitor cell fate. These results demonstrate that scl is an important mediator of the ability of AML1-ETO to reprogram hematopoietic cell fate decisions, suggesting that scl may be an important contributor to AML1-ETO-associated leukemia. In addition, treatment of AML1-ETO transgenic zebrafish embryos with a histone deacetylase inhibitor, Trichostatin A, restores scl and gata1 expression, and ameliorates the accumulation of granulocytic cells caused by AML1-ETO. Thus, this zebrafish model facilitates in vivo dissection of AML1-ETO-mediated signaling, and will enable large-scale chemical screens to identify suppressors of the in vivo effects of AML1-ETO.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1242/dev.008904DOI Listing
January 2008

Targeted gene disruption of methionine aminopeptidase 2 results in an embryonic gastrulation defect and endothelial cell growth arrest.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2006 Jul 21;103(27):10379-10384. Epub 2006 Jun 21.

Departments of *Molecular, Cell, and Developmental Biology,

The antiangiogenic agent fumagillin (Fg) and its analog TNP-470 bind to intracellular metalloprotease methionine aminopeptidase-2 (MetAP-2) and inhibit endothelial cell growth in a p53-dependent manner. To confirm the role of MetAP-2 in endothelial cell proliferation and to validate it as a physiological target for the Fg class of antiangiogenic agents, we have generated a conditional MetAP-2 knockout mouse. Ubiquitous deletion of the MetAP-2 gene (MAP2) resulted in an early gastrulation defect, which is bypassed in double MetAP-2/p53 knockout embryos. Targeted deletion of MAP2 specifically in the hemangioblast lineage resulted in abnormal vascular development, and these embryos die at the midsomite stage. In addition, knockdown of MetAP-2 using small interfering RNA or homologous recombination specifically suppresses the proliferation of cultured endothelial cells. Together, these results demonstrate an essential role for MetAP-2 in angiogenesis and indicate that MetAP-2 is responsible for the endothelial cell growth arrest induced by Fg and its derivatives.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.0511313103DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1480595PMC
July 2006

Chemical genetics: adding to the developmental biology toolbox.

Dev Cell 2003 Jul;5(1):11-9

Department of Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06520, USA.

Recent advances in cell and molecular biology have generated important tools to probe developmental questions. In addition, new genetic model systems such as Danio rerio now make large-scale vertebrate early developmental mutant screens feasible. Nonetheless, some developmental questions remain difficult to study because of the need for finer temporal, spatial, or tuneable control of gene function within a developmental system. New uses for old teratogens as well as novel chemical modulators of development have begun to fill this void.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/s1534-5807(03)00200-4DOI Listing
July 2003