Publications by authors named "Jing Yan"

897 Publications

Shock in China 2018 (SIC-study): a cross-sectional survey.

Ann Transl Med 2021 Aug;9(15):1219

Department of Cardiology, Peking Union Medical College Hospital, Peking Union Medical College & Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, Beijing, China.

Background: Shock is a critical illness that seriously threatens the lives of patients. This study explains the epidemiology of shock, mortality of shock, and identify factors that related to hospital death.

Methods: This is a multi-centre cross-sectional survey, which included 1,064 tertiary hospitals in 31 provinces, municipalities, and autonomous regions across China mainland. Totally 289,428 patients who diagnosed with shock based on the ICD-10 abstracted from the Hospital Quality Monitoring System (HQMS) in 2018, a national database administrated by National Health Commission of the PRC.

Results: Patients diagnosed with shock were screened and classified according to the type of shock. Regression analysis was used to identify factors that related to death. A total of 79,668,156 medical records were included in HQMS in 2018, from which a total of 289,428 records with shock were identified. Hypovolemic shock occurred in 128,436 cases (44.38%), septic shock occurred in 121,543 cases (41.99%), cardiogenic shock occurred in 44,597 cases (15.41), and obstructive shock occurred in 3,168 cases (1.09%). Of these, 8,147 cases (2.81%) had mixed shock, which means had two or more types of shock. For all the shock cases, the top three frequent concomitant diseases recorded were circulatory system diseases (55.22%), digestive system diseases (53.64%), and respiratory system diseases (53.31%). Of the four types of shock, cases with cardiogenic shock had the highest in-hospital mortality (31.6%), followed by those with obstructive shock (25.2%), septic shock (22.9%), and hypovolemic shock (15.5%). Interestingly, the combination of shock and malignant tumors is one of the major factors that related to hospital deaths.

Conclusions: Shock is a serious disease with a high fatality rate and huge clinical costs. According to this epidemiological survey of shock in China 2018, we should clarify the factors related to the hospital death in shock cases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.21037/atm-21-310DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8421935PMC
August 2021

ED50 for intravenous midazolam-induced amnesia and its duration in surgical patients.

Ann Ital Chir 2021 ;92:406-411

Background: Intraoperative awareness is a serious adverse event under general anesthesia. Midazolam has a good anterograde amnesia-inducing effect, can prevent and reduce the occurrence of intraoperative awareness. However, if the dosage of midazolam is improperly controlled, it may not produce forgetting effect, or bring obvious adverse side effects, such as respiratory depression, and delay of recovery. However, the half maximal effective dose (ED50 ) of midazolam for amnesia, the duration of amnesia and the factors affecting the duration of amnesia are still inconclusive. Therefore, it is of great clinical significance to observe and determine the dose, duration and influencing factors of amnesia induced by midazolam METHODS: A total of 106 patients who underwent ASA grades I-II elective operation under spinal-epidural anesthesia were intravenously injected with different doses of midazolam at 10 minutes after spinal-epidural anesthesia, every 5 minutes, the patient was presented with pictures or sounds as memory content, and heart rate (HR), systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), mean blood pressure (MBP), blood oxygen saturation (SpO2), bispectral index (BIS), OAA/S and adverse events were recorded. The patient's forgetfulness was followed up in the early morning after operation.

Results: ED50 (the dose for amnesia in half of the subjects) was 0.031 mg/kg (95% CI: 0.027-0.036 mg/kg); ED95 (the dose for amnesia in 95% of the subjects) was 0.044 mg/kg (95% CI: 0.038-0.071 mg/kg). After the patients were injected intravenously with 0.04 mg/kg of midazolam, the respiratory and circulatory systems were basically stable, no serious adverse events occurred, and the forgetting rate was 88.5%. ET50 (the time for half of the subjects in a state of forgetfulness) was 23.77 minutes (95% CI: 20.18-27.07 min), and the corresponding BIS was 83.22; ET05 (the time for 5% of the subjects in a state of forgetfulness) was 53.90 minutes (95% CI: 48.54-61.47 min) and the corresponding BIS was 91.38. The amnesia-inducing effect of midazolam was correlated to sedation grade, BIS and age, and was not correlated to visual memory or auditory memory.

Conclusion: In this study, the ED50 , ED95 and maintenance time of the forgetting effect of intravenous midazolam were preliminarily determined.

Key Words: Amnesia, Duration of amnesia, ED50, Midazolam.
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September 2021

Emerging roles of kisspeptin/galanin in age-related metabolic disease.

Mech Ageing Dev 2021 Sep 10;199:111571. Epub 2021 Sep 10.

Key Laboratory for Metabolic Diseases in Chinese Medicine, First College of Clinical Medicine, Nanjing University of Chinese Medicine, Nanjing, 210023, China. Electronic address:

Age is a major risk factor for developing metabolic diseases such as obesity and diabetes. There is an unprecedented rise in obesity and type 2 diabetes in recent decades. A convincing majority of brain-gut peptides are associated with a higher risk to develop metabolic disorders, and may contribute to the pathophysiology of age-related metabolic diseases. Accumulating basic studies revealed an intriguing role of kisspeptin and galanin involved in the amelioration of insulin resistance in different ways. In patients suffered from obesity and diabetes a significant, sex-related changes in the plasma kisspeptin and galanin levels occurred. Kisspeptin is anorexigenic to prevent obesity, its level is negatively correlative with obesity and insulin resistance. While galanin is appetitive to stimulate food intake and body weight, its level is positively correlative with obesity, HOMA-IR and glucose/triglyceride concentration. In turn, kisspeptin and galanin also distinctly increase glucose uptake and utilization as well as energy expenditure. This article reviews recent evidence dealing with the role of kisspeptin and galanin in the pathophysiology of age-related metabolic diseases. It should be therefore taken into account that the targeted modulation of those peptidergic signaling may be potentially helpful in the future treatment of age-related metabolic diseases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.mad.2021.111571DOI Listing
September 2021

The prognostic value of before treatment neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio in nasopharyngeal carcinoma.

Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol 2021 Sep 12. Epub 2021 Sep 12.

Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Affiliated Drum Tower Hospital of Nanjing University Medical School, Jiangsu Provincial Key Medical Discipline, No.321 Zhongshan Road, Nanjing, 210008, People's Republic of China.

Objective: The aim of this analysis was to evaluate the prognostic significance of inflammatory biomarkers (NLR, dNLR, PLR and LMR) in NPC patients.

Methods: This was a retrospective analysis of 111 NPC patients from January 2013 and December 2016. Receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curve was plotted to determine the cut-off values of these inflammatory biomarkers. Univariate analysis and multivariate Cox regression model were used to evaluate the association between these parameters and progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS).

Results: The optimal critical value of NLR was 2.02, by which cases were divided into high NLR group (NLR ≥ 2.02) and low NLR group (NLR < 2.02). The elevated NLR was significantly associated with decreased OS (P = 0.009) and remained significant in multivariate analysis (HR 8.48, 95% CI 1.69-42.46, P = 0.009).

Conclusions: The before treatment NLR may be an independent prognostic biomarker for OS in patients with NPC. NLR, dNLR and PLR might be a useful complement to TNM staging in the prognosis evaluation of NPC patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00405-021-07070-3DOI Listing
September 2021

Core-shell [email protected] nanoparticles coupled with rGO for strong wideband microwave absorption.

J Colloid Interface Sci 2021 Sep 1;607(Pt 1):192-202. Epub 2021 Sep 1.

NPU-NCP Joint International Research Center on Advanced Nanomaterials & Defects Engineering, State Key Laboratory of Solidification Processing, Shaanxi Engineering Laboratory for Graphene New Carbon Materials and Applications, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi'an 710072, PR China.

Strong absorption and large bandwidth are two contributors to materials' absorbing performance. In this work, a series of multi-element core-shell magnetic nano-particle composite layered graphene absorbing materials [email protected]/rGO (CCr) were prepared by adjusting carbon shell thickness. The CCr at a low thickness achieved strong microwave absorption and a wide effective absorption bandwidth. Not only the core-shell structure of the magnetic nanoparticle [email protected] ([email protected]) increases the interface loss, but both the coating carbon shell and the core CoFeO (CFO) are beneficial to improve impedance matching. Due to the synergistic effect of the dielectric and magnetic properties of graphene and ferrite, CCr possessed high absorption performance, and its minimum reflection loss reached (R) -52.5 dB when the thickness was only 2 mm. At the same time, the effective absorption bandwidth (EAB) was 5.68 GHz when the thickness was only 1.7 mm. The chemically stable core-shell dielectric nanocomposite provided a new solution for preparing materials with excellent chemical structure and high absorbing properties.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jcis.2021.08.203DOI Listing
September 2021

Chemical composition characteristics and source analysis of PM in Jiaxing, China: Insights into the effect of COVID-19 outbreak.

Environ Technol 2021 Sep 9:1-29. Epub 2021 Sep 9.

College of Chemical and Biological Engineering, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, 310000, China.

Jiaxing is a medium-sized city in the Yangtze River Delta (YRD), which showed complex local and surrounding pollution sources. To study the COVID-19 impact on the ambient PM in Jiaxing, we collected the PM samples from January 2 to April 25, 2020 and analyzed their chemical compositions (including carbon components, water-soluble ions (WSIs), and inorganic elements). The concentration of PM was 83.13 30.93 μg/m before COVID-19 pandemic, and then remarkably decreased with COVID-19 outbreak due to the suspension of mobility and industrial activities. Meanwhile, the concentrations of main chemical species (carbon components, water-soluble ions and inorganic elements) of PM all decreased from period A (January 2 to 20, 2020) to period B (January 23 to February 10, 2020). Moreover, Trajectory clustering analysis showed that close-range transport was one of the dominant factors throughout all the period, except for period D (April 1 to 25, 2020). In addition, PSCF model indicated that the COVID-19 outbreak resulted in a significant decrease of WPSCF value. This study highlighted the differences in chemical compositions and sources of PM since COVID-19 pandemic were reported and provide a better understanding of the impact of COVID-19 outbreak on PM.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09593330.2021.1979104DOI Listing
September 2021

Spatiotemporal and Functional Heterogeneity of Hematopoietic Stem Cell-Competent Hemogenic Endothelial Cells in Mouse Embryos.

Front Cell Dev Biol 2021 11;9:699263. Epub 2021 Aug 11.

Key Laboratory for Regenerative Medicine of Ministry of Education, School of Medicine, Institute of Hematology, Jinan University, Guangzhou, China.

Hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) are derived from hemogenic endothelial cells (HECs) during embryogenesis. The HSC-primed HECs increased to the peak at embryonic day (E) 10 and have been efficiently captured by the marker combination CD41CD43CD45CD31CD201KitCD44 (PK44) in the aorta-gonad-mesonephros (AGM) region of mouse embryos most recently. In the present study, we investigated the spatiotemporal and functional heterogeneity of PK44 cells around the time of emergence of HSCs. First, PK44 cells in the E10.0 AGM region could be further divided into three molecularly different populations showing endothelial- or hematopoietic-biased characteristics. Specifically, with the combination of Kit, the expression of CD93 or CD146 could divide PK44 cells into endothelial- and hematopoietic-feature biased populations, which was further functionally validated at the single-cell level. Next, the PK44 population could also be detected in the yolk sac, showing similar developmental dynamics and functional diversification with those in the AGM region. Importantly, PK44 cells in the yolk sac demonstrated an unambiguous multilineage reconstitution capacity after incubation. Regardless of the functional similarity, PK44 cells in the yolk sac displayed transcriptional features different from those in the AGM region. Taken together, our work delineates the spatiotemporal characteristics of HECs represented by PK44 and reveals a previously unknown HSC competence of HECs in the yolk sac. These findings provide a fundamental basis for in-depth study of the different origins and molecular programs of HSC generation in the future.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fcell.2021.699263DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8385538PMC
August 2021

Assessment of event-related evoked potentials and China-Wechsler intelligence scale for cognitive dysfunction in children with obstructive sleep apnea.

Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol 2021 Aug 24;150:110901. Epub 2021 Aug 24.

Department of Otorhinolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an, Shaanxi, China. Electronic address:

Objective: To explore the relationship between obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and cognitive impairment by combining event-related evoked potentials (ERPs) and China-Wechsler Younger Children Scale (C-WISC) in children with sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) with vs. without OSA.

Methods: This was a retrospective case-control study of all consecutive children (n = 148) with adenoid tonsil hypertrophy between July 2017 and March 2019 at the Hospital.

Results: The children were divided into the OSA (n = 102) and non-OSA (n = 46) groups. The apnea-hypopnea index (AHI), obstructive apnea index (OAI), and obstructive apnea-hypopnea index (OAHI) in the OSA group were elevated compared with those of the non-OSA group (all P < 0.001). The mean oxygen saturation (SaO) and SaO nadir were lower in the OSA group compared with the non-OSA group (both P < 0.001). The respiratory arousal index (RAI) values in the OSA group were larger than those of the non-OSA group (P < 0.001). The P300 and N100 latencies in the OSA group were longer than those of the non-OSA group (both P < 0.001). Pearson's correlation analysis revealed correlations of the P300 peak latency with full-scale intelligence quotient (FIQ) (P < 0.001 and r = -0.527), verbal intelligence quotient (VIQ) (P < 0.001 and r = -0.448), and performance intelligence quotient (PIQ) (P < 0.001 and r = -0.515). There was a correlation between the N100 peak latency and PIQ (P = 0.026 and r = -0.183).

Conclusion: ERPs, as an objective measurement, might help assess cognitive impairment in children with OSA.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijporl.2021.110901DOI Listing
August 2021

Rotating machinery fault diagnosis based on a novel lightweight convolutional neural network.

PLoS One 2021 26;16(8):e0256287. Epub 2021 Aug 26.

State Key Laboratory of Electrical Insulation and Power Equipment, Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an, China.

The advancement of Industry 4.0 and Industrial Internet of Things (IIoT) has laid more emphasis on reducing the parameter amount and storage space of the model in addition to the automatic and accurate fault diagnosis. In this case, this paper proposes a lightweight convolutional neural network (LCNN) method for intelligent fault diagnosis of rotating machinery, which can largely satisfy the need of less parameter amount and storage space as well as high accuracy. First, light-weight convolution blocks are constructed through basic elements such as spatial separable convolutions with the aim to effectively reduce model parameters. Secondly, the LCNN model for the intelligent fault diagnosis is constructed via lightweight convolution blocks instead of the tradi-tional convolution operation. Finally, to address the "black box" problem, the entire network is visualized through Tensorboard and t-distribution stochastic neighbor embedding. The results demonstrate that when the number of lightweight convolutional blocks reaches 6, the diagnosis accuracy of the LCNN model exceeds 99.9%. And the proposed model has become the most robust with parameters significantly decreasing. Furthermore, the proposed LCNN model has realized accurate, automatic, and robust fault diagnosis of rotating machinery, which makes it more suitable for deployment under the IIoT context.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0256287PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8389496PMC
August 2021

Predicting MCI to AD Conversation Using Integrated sMRI and rs-fMRI: Machine Learning and Graph Theory Approach.

Front Aging Neurosci 2021 30;13:688926. Epub 2021 Jul 30.

Key Laboratory for NeuroInformation of Ministry of Education, High-Field Magnetic Resonance Brain Imaging Key Laboratory of Sichuan Province, Center for Information in Medicine, School of Life Sciences and Technology, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Chengdu, China.

Background: Graph theory and machine learning have been shown to be effective ways of classifying different stages of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Most previous studies have only focused on inter-subject classification with single-mode neuroimaging data. However, whether this classification can truly reflect the changes in the structure and function of the brain region in disease progression remains unverified. In the current study, we aimed to evaluate the classification framework, which combines structural Magnetic Resonance Imaging (sMRI) and resting-state functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (rs-fMRI) metrics, to distinguish mild cognitive impairment non-converters (MCInc)/AD from MCI converters (MCIc) by using graph theory and machine learning.

Methods: With the intra-subject (MCInc vs. MCIc) and inter-subject (MCIc vs. AD) design, we employed cortical thickness features, structural brain network features, and sub-frequency (full-band, slow-4, slow-5) functional brain network features for classification. Three feature selection methods [random subset feature selection algorithm (RSFS), minimal redundancy maximal relevance (mRMR), and sparse linear regression feature selection algorithm based on stationary selection (SS-LR)] were used respectively to select discriminative features in the iterative combinations of MRI and network measures. Then support vector machine (SVM) classifier with nested cross-validation was employed for classification. We also compared the performance of multiple classifiers (Random Forest, K-nearest neighbor, Adaboost, SVM) and verified the reliability of our results by upsampling.

Results: We found that in the classifications of MCIc vs. MCInc, and MCIc vs. AD, the proposed RSFS algorithm achieved the best accuracies (84.71, 89.80%) than the other algorithms. And the high-sensitivity brain regions found with the two classification groups were inconsistent. Specifically, in MCIc vs. MCInc, the high-sensitivity brain regions associated with both structural and functional features included frontal, temporal, caudate, entorhinal, parahippocampal, and calcarine fissure and surrounding cortex. While in MCIc vs. AD, the high-sensitivity brain regions associated only with functional features included frontal, temporal, thalamus, olfactory, and angular.

Conclusions: These results suggest that our proposed method could effectively predict the conversion of MCI to AD, and the inconsistency of specific brain regions provides a novel insight for clinical AD diagnosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fnagi.2021.688926DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8375594PMC
July 2021

Inhibition of phosphate sorptions on four soil colloids by two bacteria.

Environ Pollut 2021 Aug 18;290:118001. Epub 2021 Aug 18.

State Key Laboratory of Soil and Sustainable Agriculture, Institute of Soil Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing, 210008, China. Electronic address:

Ion sorption on soil and sediment has been reported to be potentially affected by bacteria which may interact both physically and chemically with solid surfaces. However, whether and how bacteria affect the sorption of inorganic phosphate (P) on soil colloids remains poorly known. Here, we comparably investigated the P sorption on four soil colloids (three highly weathered soils including two Oxisols and one Ultisol and one weakly weathered soil Alfisol) and their complexes with Bacillus subtilis and Pseudomonas fluorescens. Batch experiments showed a notable reduction in P sorption on the colloids of highly weathered soils by the two bacteria at varying P concentrations and pHs; whereas that on the colloids of Alfisol appeared to be unaffected by the bacteria. The inhibitory effect was confirmed by both greater decline in P sorption at higher bacteria dosages and the ability of the bacteria to desorb P pre-adsorbed on the colloids. Further evidence was given by isothermal titration calorimetric experiments which revealed an alteration in enthalpy change caused by the bacteria for P sorption on Oxisol but not for that on Alfisol. The B. subtilis was more efficient in suppressing P sorption than the P. fluorescens, indicating a dependence of the inhibition on bacterium type. After association with bacteria, zeta potentials of the soil colloids decreased considerably. The decrease positively correlated with the decline in P sorption, regardless of soil and bacterium types, demonstrating that the increment in negative charges of soil colloids by bacteria probably contributed to the inhibition. In addition, scanning electron microscopic observation and the Derjaguin-Landau-Verwey-Overbeek theory prediction suggested appreciable physical and chemical interactions between the bacteria and the highly weathered soil colloids, which might be another contributor to the inhibition. These findings expand our understandings on how bacteria mobilize legacy P in soils and sediments.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2021.118001DOI Listing
August 2021

Polydopamine-based multilevel molecularly imprinted nanocomposite membranes comprising metal organic frameworks for selective recognition and separation.

J Colloid Interface Sci 2021 Aug 14;606(Pt 1):696-708. Epub 2021 Aug 14.

Institute of Green Chemistry and Chemical Technology, Advanced Chemical Engineering Laboratory of Green Materials and Energy of Jiangsu Province, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang 212013, China. Electronic address:

Molecularly imprinted nanocomposite membranes with three-dimensional metal-organic frameworks (MOFs)-based structure (MINMs-TM) were successfully prepared by using propranolol as template molecule. Importantly, for the first time, polycarbonate track etch membranes had been used as the supporting surfaces to construct the polydopamine (PDA)-induced MOFs composite structure, in which the as-prepared PDA-modified surface would promote the crystallization and nucleation of ZIF-8-based composite layer. Based on the entire preparation processes of our design, the as-prepared PDA-induced ZIF-8-modified surfaces could be regarded as the imprinted-initiated units of sol-gel imprinting polymerization. Abundant recognition sits of propranolol were achieved in MINMs-TM, which showed characteristic properties of permeability and selectivity. Therefore, high adsorption capacity (41.31 mg/g) and fast adsorption equilibrium rate (within 30 min) had been successfully achieved. Meanwhile, excellent permselectivity rates (β) of MINMs-TM toward propranolol were also obtained as 5.04, 4.79 and 5.14, which MINMs-TM the successful synthesis of high-affinity and high-density propranolol-imprinted sites. Overall, for the practical selective separation and scalability, we had successfully MINMs-TM the preparation of MINMs-TM-based to selective rebinding and separation of propranolol from complex solution system and mimetic water sample, which had further confirmed the desired and potential applications of many environmental pollutants.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jcis.2021.08.076DOI Listing
August 2021

Efficacy of airway pressure release ventilation for acute respiratory distress syndrome: a systematic review with meta-analysis.

Ann Palliat Med 2021 Aug 11. Epub 2021 Aug 11.

Department of Critical Care Medicine, Zhejiang Hospital, Hangzhou, China.

Background: For many years, airway pressure release ventilation (APRV) has been used to manage patients with lung conditions such as acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). However, it is still unclear whether APRV improves outcomes in critically ill ARDS patients who have been admitted to an intensive care unit (ICU).

Methods: In this study, randomized controlled trials (RCTs) were used to compare the efficacy of APRV to traditional modes of mechanical ventilation. RCTs were sourced from PubMed, Cochrane, and Embase databases (the last dates from August 8, 2019). The Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions was used to assess the risk of bias. The relative risk (RR), mean difference (MD), and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were then determined. Article types such as observational studies, case reports, animal studies, etc., were excluded from our meta-analysis. In total, the data of 6 RCTs and 360 ARDS patients were examined.

Results: Six studies with 360 patients were included, our meta-analysis showed that the mean arterial pressure (MAP) in the APRV group was higher than that in the traditional mechanical ventilation group [MD =2.35, 95% CI = (1.05, 3.64), P=0.0004]. The peak pressure (Ppeak) was also lower in the APRV group with a statistical difference noted [MD =-2.04, 95% CI = (-3.33, -0.75), P=0.002]. Despite this, no significant beneficial effect on the oxygen index (PaO2/FiO2) was shown between the two groups [MD =26.24, 95% CI = (-26.50, 78.97), P=0.33]. Compared with conventional mechanical ventilation, APRV significantly improved 28-day mortality [RR =0.66, 95% CI = (0.47, 0.94), P=0.02].

Discussion: All the included studies were considered to have an unclear risk of bias. We determined that for critically ill patients with ARDS, the application of APRV is associated with an increase in MAP. Inversely, a reduction of the airway Ppeak and 28-day mortality was recorded. There was no sufficient evidence to support the idea that APRV is superior to conventional mechanical ventilation in improving PaO2/FiO2.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.21037/apm-21-747DOI Listing
August 2021

Exploring the value of pleural fluid biomarkers for complementary pleural effusion disease examination.

Comput Biol Chem 2021 Oct 12;94:107559. Epub 2021 Aug 12.

School of Medical Laboratory, Tianjin Medical University, No. 1 Guangdong Road, Hexi District, Tianjin 300203, PR China. Electronic address:

Objective: Pleural fluid biomarkers are beneficial for the complementary diagnosis of pleural effusion etiologies. This study focuses on the multidimensional evaluation of deep learning to investigate the pleural effusion biomarkers value and the diagnostic utility of combining these markers, in distinguishing pleural effusion etiologies.

Methods: Pleural effusion were divided into three groups according to the diagnosis and treatment guidelines: malignant pleural effusion (MPE), parapneumonic effusion (PPE), and congestive heart failure (CHF). First, the value of the biomarker was analyzed by a receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve. Then by utilizing deep learning and entropy weight method (EWM), the clinical value of biomarkers was computed multidimensionally for complementary diagnosis of pleural effusion diseases.

Results: There were significant differences in the six biomarkers, TP, ADA, CEA, CYFRA211, NSE, MNC% (p < 0.05) and no significant differences in three physical characteristics including color, transparency, specific gravity and six other biomarkers such as WBC, PNC%, MTC%, pH level, GLU, LDH (p > 0.05) among the three pleural effusion groups. The comprehensive test of pleural fluid biomarkers based on deep learning is of high accuracy. The clinical value of cytomorphology biomarkers WBC, MNC %, PNC %, MTC % was higher among pleural fluid biomarkers.

Conclusion: The clinical value of multi-dimensional analysis of biomarkers by deep learning and entropy weight method is different from the ROC curve analysis. It is suggested that during the clinical examination process, more attention should be paid to the cell morphology biomarkers, but the physical properties of the pleural fluid are less clinical significance.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.compbiolchem.2021.107559DOI Listing
October 2021

Intracranial microembolic signals might be a potential risk factor for cognitive impairment.

Neurol Res 2021 Aug 19:1-7. Epub 2021 Aug 19.

Department of Neurology, Beijing Tiantan Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, China.

: We aimed to explore the relationship between microembolic signals (MES) and cognitive impairment in patients with neurological disorders using a 30-minute MES monitoring test.: We retrospectively reviewed patients who visited outpatient departments and underwent a 30-minute MES monitoring session using dual-channel transcranial doppler (TCD) at Beijing Tiantan hospital between July 2016 and December 2018. All patients completed the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) and underwent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Cognitive impairment was defined as a MoCA score of less than 26. MES were identified according to the criteria of the International Consensus Group on Microembolus Detection.: Of the 1356 subjects who underwent MES monitoring, 159 patients (including 50 cases of MES positive and 109 cases of MES negative) had both analyzable MES monitoring recording and cognition evaluation data, of which 72 had cognitive impairment. Compared with the group with no deficits in cognitive function, the proportion of MES positive was significantly higher in patients with impaired cognitive function - that is, 47% (34/72) versus 18.4% (16/87), respectively, with p < 0.05. In multivariate logistic regression analysis, MES were independently associated with lower MoCA score (odd ratios (OR), 7.36; 95% confidence intervals (CI), 2.72-19.85, P < 0.0001).: In this retrospective study, we found a possible correlation and relationship between MES and cognitive impairment. Further studies are required to determine whether continuous cerebral microembolization to the brain will lead to progressive cognitive impairment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/01616412.2021.1939488DOI Listing
August 2021

Spatially defined single-cell transcriptional profiling characterizes diverse chondrocyte subtypes and nucleus pulposus progenitors in human intervertebral discs.

Bone Res 2021 Aug 16;9(1):37. Epub 2021 Aug 16.

Department of Spine Surgery, Center of Orthopedics, Daping Hospital, Army Medical University (Third Military Medical University), Chongqing, China.

A comprehensive understanding of the cellular heterogeneity and molecular mechanisms underlying the development, homeostasis, and disease of human intervertebral disks (IVDs) remains challenging. Here, the transcriptomic landscape of 108 108 IVD cells was mapped using single-cell RNA sequencing of three main compartments from young and adult healthy IVDs, including the nucleus pulposus (NP), annulus fibrosus, and cartilage endplate (CEP). The chondrocyte subclusters were classified based on their potential regulatory, homeostatic, and effector functions in extracellular matrix (ECM) homeostasis. Notably, in the NP, a PROCR resident progenitor population showed enriched colony-forming unit-fibroblast (CFU-F) activity and trilineage differentiation capacity. Finally, intercellular crosstalk based on signaling network analysis uncovered that the PDGF and TGF-β cascades are important cues in the NP microenvironment. In conclusion, a single-cell transcriptomic atlas that resolves spatially regulated cellular heterogeneity together with the critical signaling that underlies homeostasis will help to establish new therapeutic strategies for IVD degeneration in the clinic.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41413-021-00163-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8368097PMC
August 2021

Development of Novel Fractal Method for Characterizing the Distribution of Blood Flow in Multi-Scale Vascular Tree.

Front Physiol 2021 29;12:711247. Epub 2021 Jul 29.

Department of Biomedical Engineering, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, China.

Blood perfusion is an important index for the function of the cardiovascular system and it can be indicated by the blood flow distribution in the vascular tree. As the blood flow in a vascular tree varies in a large range of scales and fractal analysis owns the ability to describe multi-scale properties, it is reasonable to apply fractal analysis to depict the blood flow distribution. The objective of this study is to establish fractal methods for analyzing the blood flow distribution which can be applied to real vascular trees. For this purpose, the modified methods in fractal geometry were applied and a special strategy was raised to make sure that these methods are applicable to an arbitrary vascular tree. The validation of the proposed methods on real arterial trees verified the ability of the produced parameters (fractal dimension and multifractal spectrum) in distinguishing the blood flow distribution under different physiological states. Furthermore, the physiological significance of the fractal parameters was investigated in two situations. For the first situation, the vascular tree was set as a perfect binary tree and the blood flow distribution was adjusted by the split ratio. As the split ratio of the vascular tree decreases, the fractal dimension decreases and the multifractal spectrum expands. The results indicate that both fractal parameters can quantify the degree of blood flow heterogeneity. While for the second situation, artificial vascular trees with different structures were constructed and the hemodynamics in these vascular trees was simulated. The results suggest that both the vascular structure and the blood flow distribution affect the fractal parameters for blood flow. The fractal dimension declares the integrated information about the heterogeneity of vascular structure and blood flow distribution. In contrast, the multifractal spectrum identifies the heterogeneity features in blood flow distribution or vascular structure by its width and height. The results verified that the proposed methods are capable of depicting the multi-scale features of the blood flow distribution in the vascular tree and further are potential for investigating vascular physiology.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fphys.2021.711247DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8358817PMC
July 2021

Dual-imprinted mixed matrix membranes for selective recognition and separation: A synergetic imprinting strategy based on complex initiation system.

J Colloid Interface Sci 2021 Aug 2;606(Pt 1):87-100. Epub 2021 Aug 2.

Institute of Green Chemistry and Chemical Technology, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang 212013, China.

Molecularly imprinted membranes (MIMs) with sufficient and even-distributed recognition sites that can break the permeability-selectivity trade-off phenomenon are desirable in chemical field of selective separation. Herein graphene oxide (GO)/TiO-loaded nanocomposite fibrous membranes were prepared by developing two kinds of tetracycline (TC)-imprinted systems in the same MIMs-based material. Thereinto, polydopamine-based and sol-gel-based imprinting processes were applied to the synthesis of GO/TiO-loaded dual-imprinted mixed matrix membranes (GT-DIMs). The as-prepared GT-DIMs encompassed innovative GO/TiO-based nanocomposite fibrous channels and two kinds of TC-imprinted systems, and critical comparisons regarding the fluxes, rebinding capacities and permselectivity were provided and studied. Importantly, dual-imprinted system of GT-DIMs could not only allow for largely enhanced rebinding result (70.63 mg/g) and fast adsorption equilibrium rate within 30 min, but also facilitate the high permselectivity of TC in complex separation systems and lab-simulated wastewater samples. The permselectivity factors were all around 5.0, which strongly demonstrated the efficiently selective recognition and separation performance of GT-DIMs. Overall, based on testing results of practical separation and scalability, excellent structural stability and separation continuity had been successfully obtained for selective separation applications of pollutants.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jcis.2021.07.153DOI Listing
August 2021

Study on the mechanism of the effect of temperature on the decomposition reaction of SF (n = 1-6) under discharge conditions.

J Mol Model 2021 Aug 5;27(9):236. Epub 2021 Aug 5.

State Key Laboratory of Electrical Insulation and Power Equipment, Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an, People's Republic of China.

The study on the mechanism of the effect of temperature on the decomposition reaction of SF (n = 1-6) under discharge conditions is very important in studying the potential fault of SF high voltage switch equipment and perfecting the chemical kinetic model of SF discharge. In this paper, structural optimizations, thermal correction to Gibbs free energy for the reactants, and products were performed at the B3LYP/6-311 +  + G(d,p) theory level. The single-point energies of all species were collected at the CCSD(T)/aug-cc-PVTZ level. The electric and thermal decomposition mechanism of SF under discharge conditions of 298-10,000 K were studied, respectively. The conclusion drawn was that in the temperature range of 298-10,000 K, the thermal decomposition homopolytic reaction △G began to decline from 200 kJ/mol, while the △G of the other two heterogenous reactions began to decrease from 1000 kJ/mol and 2000 kJ/mol, showing a downward trend of an almost similar slope. The electrolysis of SF is related to electron energy. When the electron energy is low, SF + e → SF series reactions occur, and △G of R12, R20, R28, R36, and R44 increases with temperature rise, while △G of R4 decreases with temperature. When the electron energy is high, one of SF  → SF  + F, SF  → SF + F, and SF  → SF + F + e will occur, and the reactions that occur at various temperature ranges as the temperature rises vary. When the second electron hits the SF, the SF  + e → SF  + F reaction will occur. The △G of this reaction slowly decreases with an increase in temperature. This study in clearer terms explains the decomposition process and mechanism of SF at different temperatures.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00894-021-04866-2DOI Listing
August 2021

IL-1β-driven osteoclastogenic Tregs accelerate bone erosion in arthritis.

J Clin Invest 2021 Sep;131(18)

Division of Rheumatology, Inflammation, and Immunity, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts, USA.

IL-1β is a proinflammatory mediator with roles in innate and adaptive immunity. Here we show that IL-1β contributes to autoimmune arthritis by inducing osteoclastogenic capacity in Tregs. Using mice with joint inflammation arising through deficiency of the IL-1 receptor antagonist (Il1rn-/-), we observed that IL-1β blockade attenuated disease more effectively in early arthritis than in established arthritis, especially with respect to bone erosion. Protection was accompanied by a reduction in synovial CD4+Foxp3+ Tregs that displayed preserved suppressive capacity and aerobic metabolism but aberrant expression of RANKL and a striking capacity to drive RANKL-dependent osteoclast differentiation. Both Il1rn-/- Tregs and wild-type Tregs differentiated with IL-1β accelerated bone erosion upon adoptive transfer. Human Tregs exhibited analogous differentiation, and corresponding RANKLhiFoxp3+ T cells could be identified in rheumatoid arthritis synovial tissue. Together, these findings identify IL-1β-induced osteoclastogenic Tregs as a contributor to bone erosion in arthritis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1172/JCI141008DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8439607PMC
September 2021

Novel phenotypes of coronavirus disease: a temperature-based trajectory model.

Ann Intensive Care 2021 Aug 3;11(1):121. Epub 2021 Aug 3.

Department of Internal Medicine, The Second Affiliated Hospital, Zhejiang University School of Medicine, Hangzhou, Zhejiang, China.

Background: Coronavirus disease has heterogeneous clinical features; however, the reasons for the heterogeneity are poorly understood. This study aimed to identify clinical phenotypes according to patients' temperature trajectory.

Method: A retrospective review was conducted in five tertiary hospitals in Hubei Province from November 2019 to March 2020. We explored potential temperature-based trajectory phenotypes and assessed patients' clinical outcomes, inflammatory response, and response to immunotherapy according to phenotypes.

Results: A total of 1580 patients were included. Four temperature-based trajectory phenotypes were identified: normothermic (Phenotype 1); fever, rapid defervescence (Phenotype 2); gradual fever onset (Phenotype 3); and fever, slow defervescence (Phenotype 4). Compared with Phenotypes 1 and 2, Phenotypes 3 and 4 had a significantly higher C-reactive protein level and neutrophil count and a significantly lower lymphocyte count. After adjusting for confounders, Phenotypes 3 and 4 had higher in-hospital mortality (adjusted odds ratio and 95% confidence interval 2.1, 1.1-4.0; and 3.3, 1.4-8.2, respectively), while Phenotype 2 had similar mortality, compared with Phenotype 1. Corticosteroid use was associated with significantly higher in-hospital mortality in Phenotypes 1 and 2, but not in Phenotypes 3 or 4 (p for interaction < 0.01). A similar trend was observed for gamma-globulin.

Conclusions: Patients with different temperature-trajectory phenotypes had different inflammatory responses, clinical outcomes, and responses to corticosteroid therapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13613-021-00907-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8330187PMC
August 2021

Morphogenesis and cell ordering in confined bacterial biofilms.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2021 Aug;118(31)

Department of Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06511;

Biofilms are aggregates of bacterial cells surrounded by an extracellular matrix. Much progress has been made in studying biofilm growth on solid substrates; however, little is known about the biophysical mechanisms underlying biofilm development in three-dimensional confined environments in which the biofilm-dwelling cells must push against and even damage the surrounding environment to proliferate. Here, combining single-cell imaging, mutagenesis, and rheological measurement, we reveal the key morphogenesis steps of biofilms embedded in hydrogels as they grow by four orders of magnitude from their initial size. We show that the morphodynamics and cell ordering in embedded biofilms are fundamentally different from those of biofilms on flat surfaces. Treating embedded biofilms as inclusions growing in an elastic medium, we quantitatively show that the stiffness contrast between the biofilm and its environment determines biofilm morphology and internal architecture, selecting between spherical biofilms with no cell ordering and oblate ellipsoidal biofilms with high cell ordering. When embedded in stiff gels, cells self-organize into a bipolar structure that resembles the molecular ordering in nematic liquid crystal droplets. In vitro biomechanical analysis shows that cell ordering arises from stress transmission across the biofilm-environment interface, mediated by specific matrix components. Our imaging technique and theoretical approach are generalizable to other biofilm-forming species and potentially to biofilms embedded in mucus or host tissues as during infection. Our results open an avenue to understand how confined cell communities grow by means of a compromise between their inherent developmental program and the mechanical constraints imposed by the environment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.2107107118DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8346881PMC
August 2021

The Role of Computer Remote Monitoring Technology for Nursing Care in Elderly Breast Cancer Complications.

J Healthc Eng 2021 15;2021:5475997. Epub 2021 Jul 15.

Department of Breast Nail Surgery, Xiangya Third Hospital, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan 410013, China.

Geriatric patients undergoing mastectomy have a weakened organism and slow recovery of gastrointestinal function after surgery, which may lead to various complications, affect the absorption of intestinal nutrients, and prolong the healing rate of wounds. Therefore, it is necessary to find an effective nursing program to promote the recovery of gastrointestinal function and prevent postoperative complications in elderly patients undergoing mastectomy. With the continuous development and advancement of computer and communication technologies, telecare is gaining more and more attention and has become an important part of medical information technology construction. Falls endanger the elderly and other special populations, especially after a sudden but unassisted fall, which may be life-threatening. Timely fall detection and rescue can win valuable time for treatment and rescue, which is very important to protect users' health and improve medical monitoring. In order to provide better medical care to the elderly population and reduce the harm caused by falls, this paper will focus on the fall problem of the elderly in telecare. In order to facilitate the detection of falls of the elderly, we design an Android sensor-based data acquisition scheme, using the built-in acceleration sensor in the Android system to collect the human acceleration information, and through the JMS middleware technology, the collected data are transmitted to MATLAB for analysis and processing in real time. This paper preprocesses and synthesizes the collected human body data and visualizes the acceleration changes of various typical daily activities of the human body and breast cancer, then extracts the relevant data features according to the synthesized SVM curve, constructs a pattern recognition algorithm using the extracted features, and verifies the effectiveness of the pattern recognition algorithm through experiments.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2021/5475997DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8310455PMC
July 2021

Advanced HCC Patient Benefit From Neoantigen Reactive T Cells Based Immunotherapy: A Case Report.

Front Immunol 2021 13;12:685126. Epub 2021 Jul 13.

Comprehensive Cancer Centre of Drum Tower Hospital, Medical School of Nanjing University, Clinical Cancer Institute of Nanjing University, Nanjing, China.

Advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a highly lethal disease, mainly due to the late stage at diagnosis and its rapid progression. Although patients with advanced HCC can choose targeted therapy or chemotherapy, overall, the treatment response rate is extremely low and the average survival time is one year more or less. But the application of immunotherapy have led to a paradigm shift in the treatment of HCC,such as TILs (tumor infiltrating lymphocytes),Checkpoint blockade (immune Checkpoint blockade), CAR-T(chimeric antigen receptor T cells) and TCR-T (engineered t-cell receptor T cells). And recent data indicate neoantigens generated when tumors mutate are the main target of tumor-specific TILs, and they are also the main antigens mediating tumor regression in TILs treatment. Moreover, numerous evidences have revealed that radiotherapy lead to massive release of tumor antigens, which may increase the effectiveness of immunotherapy. Based on the above theory, we used neoantigen reactive T cells combined with tomotherapy to treat a patient with advanced HCC (Clinical Trial Study Registration Number: NCT03199807), who reached a long time progress free survival.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2021.685126DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8315135PMC
July 2021

Osteocytes but not osteoblasts directly build mineralized bone structures.

Int J Biol Sci 2021 11;17(10):2430-2448. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Department of Biomedical Sciences, Texas A&M University College of Dentistry, Dallas, TX 75246, USA.

Bone-forming osteoblasts have been a cornerstone of bone biology for more than a century. Most research toward bone biology and bone diseases center on osteoblasts. Overlooked are the 90% of bone cells, called osteocytes. This study aims to test the hypothesis that osteocytes but not osteoblasts directly build mineralized bone structures, and that defects in osteocytes lead to the onset of hypophosphatemia rickets. The hypothesis was tested by developing and modifying multiple imaging techniques, including both and models plus two types of hypophosphatemia rickets models (-null and Hyp, Phex mutation mice), and -Cre induced high level of β-catenin models. Our key findings were that osteocytes (not osteoblasts) build bone similar to the construction of a high-rise building, with a wire mesh frame (i.e., osteocyte dendrites) and cement (mineral matrices secreted from osteocytes), which is a lengthy and slow process whose mineralization direction is from the inside toward the outside. When osteoblasts fail to differentiate into osteocytes but remain highly active in -1-null or Hyp mice, aberrant and poor bone mineralization occurs, caused by a sharp increase in Wnt-β-catenin signaling. Further, the constitutive expression of β-catenin in osteocytes recaptures a similar osteomalacia phenotype as shown in null or mice. Thus, we conclude that osteocytes directly build bone, and osteoblasts with a short life span serve as a precursor to osteocytes, which challenges the existing dogma.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7150/ijbs.61012DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8315029PMC
June 2021

Color tunable CaZnM(PO) (M = Lu/Tb, Lu/Eu, Tb/Eu) phosphors: luminescence, energy transfer and thermal stability studies for n-UV white LEDs.

Dalton Trans 2021 Aug 29;50(32):11123-11129. Epub 2021 Jul 29.

Institute of Semiconductors, Guangdong Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou, 510651, P. R. China.

A series of Tb- and Eu-doped CaZnLu(PO) (CZLP:Tb and CZLP:Eu) as well as CaZnTb(PO):Eu (CZTP:Eu) phosphors have been prepared via the traditional high-temperature solid-state reaction. X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) patterns of the as-prepared phosphors indicate that the introduction of Tb or Eu affects neither the phase impurity nor the crystal structure of the CZLP host lattice. The concentration dependent photoluminescence (PL) spectra reveal that even if Lu was fully substituted by the dopants, Tb or Eu, the phenomenon of concentration quenching would not occur. Color tunable emissions from green to red can be realized by adjusting the type of doping ion (Tb and Eu) and their relative concentration. Furthermore, the energy transfer from Tb to Eu was confirmed and the mechanism was determined to be the dipole-quadrupole interaction. In addition, the quantum efficiencies were found to be 0.61, 0.58 and 0.85 for CZTP, CZTP:0.2Eu and CaZnEu(PO) (CZEP), respectively. As a result, a white light emitting diode (WLED) device was fabricated using the optimal CZTP:0.2Eu yellow phosphor, the BaMgAlO:Eu (BAM:Eu) blue phosphor and a 370 nm near-ultraviolet (n-UV) chip. The obtained device displays a suitable color rendering index (CRI, ∼81.3) and correlated color temperature (CCT, ∼2634 K) value, indicating its potential application in n-UV LEDs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d1dt01901eDOI Listing
August 2021

Quantitative MRI-based radiomics for noninvasively predicting molecular subtypes and survival in glioma patients.

NPJ Precis Oncol 2021 Jul 26;5(1):72. Epub 2021 Jul 26.

Department of Neurosurgery, The First Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou, China.

Gliomas can be classified into five molecular groups based on the status of IDH mutation, 1p/19q codeletion, and TERT promoter mutation, whereas they need to be obtained by biopsy or surgery. Thus, we aimed to use MRI-based radiomics to noninvasively predict the molecular groups and assess their prognostic value. We retrospectively identified 357 patients with gliomas and extracted radiomic features from their preoperative MRI images. Single-layered radiomic signatures were generated using a single MR sequence using Bayesian-regularization neural networks. Image fusion models were built by combing the significant radiomic signatures. By separately predicting the molecular markers, the predictive molecular groups were obtained. Prognostic nomograms were developed based on the predictive molecular groups and clinicopathologic data to predict progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS). The results showed that the image fusion model incorporating radiomic signatures from contrast-enhanced T1-weighted imaging (cT1WI) and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) achieved an AUC of 0.884 and 0.669 for predicting IDH and TERT status, respectively. cT1WI-based radiomic signature alone yielded favorable performance in predicting 1p/19q status (AUC = 0.815). The predictive molecular groups were comparable to actual ones in predicting PFS (C-index: 0.709 vs. 0.722, P = 0.241) and OS (C-index: 0.703 vs. 0.751, P = 0.359). Subgroup analyses by grades showed similar findings. The prognostic nomograms based on grades and the predictive molecular groups yielded a C-index of 0.736 and 0.735 in predicting PFS and OS, respectively. Accordingly, MRI-based radiomics may be useful for noninvasively detecting molecular groups and predicting survival in gliomas regardless of grades.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41698-021-00205-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8313682PMC
July 2021

[Distribution and Sources of Microplastics in Farmland Soil Along the Fenhe River].

Huan Jing Ke Xue 2021 Aug;42(8):3894-3903

Shanxi Laboratory for Yellow River, School of Environment and Resources, Shanxi University, Taiyuan 030006, China.

This study investigated the distribution and sources of microplastics smaller than 1 mm in farmland soil along the Fenhe River. Microplastics in soil samples were separated and extracted using the traditional density centrifugation method. The quantity and type of microplastics were examined with a stereomicroscope. The micro-morphology of plastic particles were observed with a scanning electron microscope-energy dispersive spectrometer. The chemical composition was determined using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The results indicate that the average abundance of microplastics in farmland soil along the Fenhe River is 290.5 n ·kg. These microplastics occur as fibers, films, fragments, and foams. Fiber microplastics are the most abundant, accounting for 52.67% of the total, and are mostly composed of polyethylene. Films and fragments mainly consist of polypropylene whereas the foams consist of polystyrene. Soil samples from different parts of the Fenhe River can be ranked according to the microplastics content in the following order:downstream>midstream>upstream. The abundance of microplastics in soil from the downstream region of the Fenhe River was 500.0 n ·kg, twice that of from the upstream and midstream regions. The results of the random forest model indicate that the sources of microplastics in farmland soil along the Fenhe River are closely related to the amount of agricultural films, population, gross domestic product, and industrial production. Among these factors, the amount of agricultural films is a key factor that influences the occurrence of microplastics in farmland soil along the Fenhe River.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.13227/j.hjkx.202012072DOI Listing
August 2021

Searching for the Secret of Stickiness: How Biofilms Adhere to Surfaces.

Front Microbiol 2021 8;12:686793. Epub 2021 Jul 8.

Department of Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology, Yale University, New Haven, CT, United States.

Bacterial biofilms are communities of cells enclosed in an extracellular polymeric matrix in which cells adhere to each other and to foreign surfaces. The development of a biofilm is a dynamic process that involves multiple steps, including cell-surface attachment, matrix production, and population expansion. Increasing evidence indicates that biofilm adhesion is one of the main factors contributing to biofilm-associated infections in clinics and biofouling in industrial settings. This review focuses on describing biofilm adhesion strategies among different bacteria, including , , and . Techniques used to characterize biofilm adhesion are also reviewed. An understanding of biofilm adhesion strategies can guide the development of novel approaches to inhibit or manipulate biofilm adhesion and growth.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2021.686793DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8295476PMC
July 2021

[Analysis of sepsis-related genes through weighted gene co-expression network].

Zhonghua Wei Zhong Bing Ji Jiu Yi Xue 2021 Jun;33(6):659-664

Department of Intensive Care Unit, Zhejiang Hospital, Hangzhou 310013, Zhejiang, China. Corresponding author: Yan Jing, Email:

Objective: To identify the Key genes in the development of sepsis through Weighted Gene Co-Expression Network Analysis (WGCNA).

Methods: The gene expression dataset GSE154918 was downloaded from the public database Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) database, which containes data from 105 microarrays of 40 control cases, 12 cases of asymptomatic infection, 39 cases of sepsis, and 14 cases of follow-up sepsis. The R software was used to screen out differentially expressed genes (DEG) in sepsis, and the Distributed Access View Integrated Database (DAVID), SEARCH TOOL FOR RETRIEVAL OF INTERACTING NEIGHBOURING GENES (STRING) and visualization software Cytoscape were used to perform gene function and pathway enrichment analysis, Protein-protein interaction (PPI) network analysis and key gene analysis to screen out the key genes in the development of sepsis.

Results: Forty-six candidate genes were obtained by WGCNA and combined with DEG expression analysis, and these 46 genes were analyzed by gene ontology (GO) and Kyoto City Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway enrichment to obtain gene functions and involved signaling pathways. The PPI network was further constructed using the STRING database, and 5 key genes were selected by the PPI network visualization software Cytoscape, including the mast cell expressed membrane protein 1 gene (MCEMP1), the S100 calcium-binding protein A12 gene (S100A12), the adipokine resistance factor gene (RETN), the c-type lectin structural domain family 4 member gene (CLEC4D), and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gene (PPARG), and differential expression analysis of each of these 5 genes showed that the expression levels of the above 5 genes were significantly upregulated in sepsis patients compared with healthy controls.

Conclusions: In this study, 5 key genes related to sepsis were screened by constructing WGCNA method, which may be potential candidate targets related to sepsis diagnosis and treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3760/cma.j.cn121430-20210127-00135DOI Listing
June 2021
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