Publications by authors named "Jing Xu"

3,948 Publications

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Low shear stress inhibits endothelial mitophagy via caveolin-1/miR-7-5p/SQSTM1 signaling pathway.

Atherosclerosis 2022 Jul 31;356:9-17. Epub 2022 Jul 31.

Department of Cardiology, Second Affiliated Hospital and Yuying Children's Hospital of Wenzhou Medical University, Wenzhou, Zhejiang, 325000, China. Electronic address:

Background And Aims: Mitophagy plays a crucial role in mitochondrial homeostasis and is closely associated with endothelial function. However, the mechanism underlying low blood flow shear stress (SS), detrimental cellular stress, regulating endothelial mitophagy is unclear. This study aimed to investigate whether low SS inhibits endothelial mitophagy via caveolin-1 (Cav-1)/miR-7-5p/Sequestosome 1 (SQSTM1) signaling pathway.

Methods: Low SS in vivo modeling was induced using a perivascular SS modifier implanted in the carotid artery of mice. In vitro modeling, low and physiological SS (4 and 15 dyn/cm, respectively) were exerted on human aortic endothelial cells using a parallel plate chamber system.

Results: Compared with physiological SS, low SS significantly inhibited endothelial mitophagy shown by down-regulation of SQSTM1, PINK1, Parkin, and LC 3II expressions. Deficient mitophagy deteriorated mitochondrial dynamics shown by up-regulation of Mfn1 and Fis1 expression and led to decreases in mitochondrial membrane potential. Cav-1 plays a bridging role in the process of low SS inhibiting mitophagy. The up-regulated miR-7-5p expression induced by low SS was suppressed after Cav-1 was silenced. The results of dual-luciferase reporter assays showed that miR-7-5p targeted inhibiting the SQSTM1 gene. Oxidative stress reaction shown by the elevation of reactive oxygen species and O and endothelial dysfunction by the decrease in nitric oxide and the increase in macrophage chemoattractant protein-1 were associated with the low SS inhibiting endothelial mitophagy process.

Conclusions: Cav-1/miR-7-5p/SQSTM1 signaling pathway was the mechanism underlying low SS inhibiting endothelial mitophagy that involves mitochondrial homeostasis impairment and endothelial dysfunction.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.atherosclerosis.2022.07.014DOI Listing
July 2022

Associations and burdens of relative humidity with cause-specific mortality in three Chinese cities.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2022 Aug 10. Epub 2022 Aug 10.

Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Institute of Basic Medical Sciences Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, School of Basic Medicine Peking Union Medical College, Beijing, 100005, China.

This study aimed to investigate the association between relative humidity (RH) and various cause of mortality, and then quantify the RH-related mortality fraction of low and high RH under the assumption that causal effects exist. Daily cause-specific mortality counts from 2008 to 2011, and contemporaneous meteorological data in three Chinese cities were collected. Distributed lag nonlinear models were adopted to quantify the nonlinear and delayed effects of RH on mortality risk. Low and high RH were defined as RH lower or higher than the minimum mortality risk RH (MMRH), respectively. Corresponding RH-related mortality fractions were calculated in the explanatory analysis. From the three cities, 736,301 deaths were collected. RH (mean ± standard deviation) were 50.9 ± 20.0 for Beijing, 75.5 ± 8.6 for Chengdu, and 70.8 ± 14.6 for Nanjing. We found that low RH in Beijing and high RH (about 80-90%) in Chengdu was associated with increased all-cause mortality risk. Both low and high RH may increase the CVD mortality risk in Beijing. Both low and high (about 80-85%) RH may increase the COPD mortality risk in Chengdu. Low RH (about < 45%) was associated with increased diabetes mortality risk in Nanjing. Effects of extreme low and extreme high RH were delayed in these cities, except that extreme low effects on COPD mortality appeared immediately in Chengdu. The effects of extreme low RH are higher than that of the extreme high RH in Beijing and Nanjing, while contrary in Chengdu. Finally, under the causal effect assumption, 6.80% (95% eCI: 2.90, 10.73) all-cause mortality and 12.48% (95% eCI: 7.17, 16.80) CVD deaths in Beijing, 9.59% (95% eCI: 1.38, 16.88) COPD deaths in Chengdu, and 23.79% (95% eCI: 0.92, 387.93) diabetes mortality in Nanjing were attributable to RH. Our study provided insights into RH-mortality risk, helped draw relative intervention policies, and is also significant for future predictions of climate change effects under different scenarios.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-022-22350-zDOI Listing
August 2022

Neuroprotection of Triptolide against Amyloid-Beta1-42-induced toxicity via the Akt/mTOR/p70S6K-mediated Autophagy Pathway.

An Acad Bras Cienc 2022 8;94(2):e20210938. Epub 2022 Aug 8.

Tianjin University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, School of Integrative Medicine, 10 Poyanghu Road, Jinghai District, Tianjin 301617, China.

Triptolide is a natural active compound that has significant neuroprotective properties and shows promising effects in the treatment of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Recent studies have shown that autophagy occurs in AD. In this study, we determined whether autophagy regulated by triptolide ameliorates neuronal death caused by amyloid-Beta1-42 (Aβ1-42). We examined the effects of triptolide on cell viability, autophagy, apoptosis, and the protein kinase B/mammalian target of the rapamysin/70 kDa ribosomal protein S6 kinase (Akt/mTOR/p70S6K) signaling pathway in PC12 cells. The results indicated that triptolide treatment exhibited a cytoprotective effect against cell injury induced by Aβ1-42. Triptolide also reduced apoptosis and enhanced cell survival by decreasing autophagosome accumulation and inducing autophagic degradation. Furthermore, our results also showed that activating the Akt/mTOR/p70S6K mechanism was one reason for the protection of triptolide. Triptolide treatment protected against Aβ1-42-induced cytotoxicity by decreasing autophagosome accumulation, and inducing autophagic degradation in PC12 cells. These findings also suggest that the reduction of autophagosome accumulation observed in triptolide-treated cells was Akt/mTOR/p70S6K pathway dependent. Overall, triptolide exhibits a neuron protective effect and this study provides new insight into AD prevention and treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/0001-3765202220210938DOI Listing
August 2022

Staying local or going back: A study on international university graduates' mobility.

PLoS One 2022 9;17(8):e0268821. Epub 2022 Aug 9.

College of Professional and Continuing Education, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Kowloon, Hong Kong.

Upon graduation, international students studying abroad often have to decide whether to stay local or return home. We investigate university graduates' mobility from the perspective of social capital theory. An empirical study of mainland Chinese university students' intention to remain in Hong Kong upon completion of their university studies was conducted. An online survey was used to recruit the participants. In total, 155 valid questionnaires were received, with a response rate of 40.8%. Structural capital and relational capital were found to be the important factors affecting mainland Chinese students' intention to stay in a linear manner. Cognitive capital self-moderated the relationship between cognitive capital and intention to stay. Cognitive capital affected the intention to stay in a non-linear way. We make a unique contribution to the field by showing that 1) the effect of cognitive capital is quadratic rather than linear; 2) relational capital is more important to female students than to male students; and 3) structural capital is more important to senior year university degree students than to junior year degree students. The theoretical and managerial implications of these findings are discussed.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0268821PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9362924PMC
August 2022

Comparison of the robotic bilateral axillo-breast approach and conventional open thyroidectomy in pediatric patients: a retrospective cohort study.

Thyroid 2022 Aug 9. Epub 2022 Aug 9.

the 960th Hospital of People's Liberation Army, Jinan, Shandong, China;

Background: Operations for pediatric thyroid nodules are more complicated, and usually lead to longer scars, which may impair life quality in the long term. Bilateral axillo-breast approach (BABA) robotic thyroidectomy (BABA RT) may provide a better alternative to conventional open thyroidectomy (COT) for pediatric thyroid nodules. Our study aimed to compare the surgical and oncological outcomes of BABA RT and COT in pediatric patients.

Methods: The data of 49 pediatric patients who consecutively underwent BABA RT or COT (20:29) between July 1998 and November 2021 in our center were retrospectively analyzed, including demographics, surgery extent, surgical outcomes, pathological characteristics, and oncological outcomes.

Results: All BABA RT procedures were completed successfully without conversion to open operation. The BABA RT group consisted of 5 benign and 15 malignant cases, while the COT group consisted of 19 benign and 10 malignant cases. The operation time, drain removal time, and number of lymph nodes harvested by central lymph node dissection (CND) or lateral lymph node dissection (LND) were equivalent in the BABA RT and COT groups. Notably, the postoperative hospital stay of the BABA RT group was shorter than that of the COT group [8.5 (IQR:3) vs. 11(IQR:8) days, p=0.008]. The aesthetic score of the BABA RT group was much higher than that of the COT group [9 (IQR:1) vs. 6 (IQR: 1), p<0.001]. There was no significant difference between the BABA RT and COT groups in hypoparathyroidism rate (transient, 5 vs. 4; permanent, 1 vs. 0). There was one case of chyle leakage in the COT group and no other complications in any group, such as recurrent laryngeal nerve injury. With a median follow-up of 101 (IQR:189) months, one case of local relapse and one case of pulmonary metastasis in the COT group were documented.

Conclusion: In the hands of experienced surgeons, robotic BABA thyroidectomy can be a safe and effective option for both benign and malignant thyroid nodules in children, including those with lymph node metastasis. Robotic BABA thyroidectomy can offer a better and faster postoperative course and a much better cosmetic result, which is crucial for pediatric thyroid patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/thy.2022.0242DOI Listing
August 2022

Cold exposure-induced endoplasmic reticulum stress regulates autophagy through the SIRT2/FoxO1 signaling pathway.

J Cell Physiol 2022 Aug 8. Epub 2022 Aug 8.

National Experimental Teaching Demonstration Center of Animal Medicine Foundation, College of Animal Science and Veterinary Medicine, Heilongjiang Bayi Agricultural University, Daqing, China.

Cold is a factor affecting health in humans and animals. The liver, a major metabolic center, is highly susceptible to ambient air temperature. Recent studies have shown that endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress is associated with the liver, and regulates the occurrence and development of liver injury and autophagy. However, the mechanism underlying the relationship between cold exposure and ER stress in the liver is not well understood. In this study, we investigated the effect of ER stress on liver autophagy and its mechanism under cold exposure. AML12 cells were treated with Tg to construct an ER stress model, and the level of autophagy increased. To further explore the mechanism through which ER stress regulates autophagy, we knocked down SIRT2 with shRNA in Tg-treated AML12 cells. Knockdown of SIRT2 significantly increased ER stress and autophagy, increased FoxO1 acetylation, and promoted its entry into the nucleus. To further verify the results of in vitro experiments, we exposed mice to 4°C for 3 h per day for 3 weeks to exacerbate the burden on the liver after cold exposure. Cold exposure damaged the structure and function of the liver and promoted the inflammatory response. It also activated ER stress and promoted autophagy. In addition, cold exposure inhibited the expression of SIRT2, promoted FoxO1 acetylation, and enhanced the interaction with autophagy. Our findings indicated that cold exposure induces liver damage, ER stress, and autophagy through the SIRT2/FoxO1 pathway. These findings suggest that SIRT2 may be a potential target for regulating health under cold exposure.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jcp.30856DOI Listing
August 2022

A Novel Anti-Cancer Therapy: CRISPR/Cas9 Gene Editing.

Front Pharmacol 2022 22;13:939090. Epub 2022 Jul 22.

Guangzhou Municipal and Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Molecular Target & Clinical Pharmacology, The NMPA and State Key Laboratory of Respiratory Disease, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences and the Fifth Affiliated Hospital, Guangzhou Medical University, Guangzhou, China.

Cancer becomes one of the main causes of human deaths in the world due to the high incidence and mortality rate and produces serious economic burdens. With more and more attention is paid on cancer, its therapies are getting more of a concern. Previous research has shown that the occurrence, progression, and treatment prognosis of malignant tumors are closely related to genetic and gene mutation. CRISPR/Cas9 has emerged as a powerful method for making changes to the genome, which has extensively been applied in various cell lines. Establishing the cell and animal models by CRISPR/Cas9 laid the foundation for the clinical trials which possibly treated the tumor. CRISPR-Cas9-mediated genome editing technology brings a great promise for inhibiting migration, invasion, and even treatment of tumor. However, the potential off-target effect limits its clinical application, and the effective ethical review is necessary. The article reviews the molecular mechanisms of CRISPR/Cas9 and discusses the research and the limitation related to cancer clinical trials.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fphar.2022.939090DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9353945PMC
July 2022

Fertility intentions, parenting attitudes and fear of childbirth among college students in China: A cross-sectional study.

J Pediatr Adolesc Gynecol 2022 Aug 3. Epub 2022 Aug 3.

School of Nursing, Wuhan University, Wuhan, China. Electronic address:

Study Objective: This study aimed to investigate the current situation regarding fertility intentions, parenting attitudes and fear of childbirth among college students in mainland China, and the factors related to these variables.

Design: A cross-sectional study.

Setting: Colleges across China.

Participants: 583 college students attending regular institutions of higher education.

Main Outcome Measures: Fertility intentions and fear of childbirth were measured using the Swedish Fertility Awareness Questionnaire and the Childbirth Fear Prior to Pregnancy (CFPP) scale.

Results: Only 38.8% of participants expressed their willingness to have children, and there was a significant difference between male and female students (P < 0.02). Males regarded having children as more important (P < 0.01), and females were more concerned about the negative effects of becoming parents, including the labor market, having less freedom and a reduced economy. When deciding whether to have children, factors such as work, economics and childcare were more important to females. Students who did not want children had higher levels of fear of childbirth than those who want children or were unsure (P < 0.02).

Conclusions: The fertility intentions of college students were not optimistic. In addition to the two-child Chinese fertility policy, interventions aimed at reducing the cost of raising children, eliminating gender inequality in the workplace, and normalizing child-care institutions might help alleviate conflict between work and child rearing.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jpag.2022.07.015DOI Listing
August 2022

Correction to: Preoperative geriatric nutritional risk index is an independent prognostic factor for postoperative survival after gallbladder cancer radical surgery.

Authors:
Huifang Dai Jing Xu

BMC Surg 2022 Aug 4;22(1):299. Epub 2022 Aug 4.

Department of Endocrinology, The Second Affiliated Hospital and Yuying Children's Hospital of Wenzhou Medical University, Lucheng District, Wenzhou, Zhejiang Province, People's Republic of China.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12893-022-01731-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9354435PMC
August 2022

N6-Methyladenosine Reader YTHDF2 Enhances Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer Cell Proliferation and Metastasis through Mediating circ_SFMBT2 Degradation.

Contrast Media Mol Imaging 2022 16;2022:1087622. Epub 2022 Jul 16.

Department of Respiratory Medicine, Seventh People's Hospital of Shanghai University of TCM, Shanghai 200137, China.

Objective: circ_SFMBT2 was reported to facilitate malignant progression in various cancers, but its function in non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) has not been fully uncovered. This study aimed to investigate the effects of N6-methyladenosine (m6A) methylation of circ_SFMBT2 (circ_0017628) on non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and its underlying mechanisms.

Methods: Paired tumor and noncancerous tissues from NSCLC patients were surgically collected from January 2020 to March 2021 in our hospital. The levels of circ_SFMBT2 and LATS2 in NSCLC and human bronchial epithelial cells were assayed with qRT-PCR. Overexpression or silencing of circ_SFMBT2, LATS2, or YTHDF2 was performed in the NSCLC cells. CCK-8, colony-forming, and transwell assays were performed to analyze cell proliferation, viability, and migration, respectively. Meanwhile, the expression of MMP-9, E-cadherin, vimentin, and the Hippo/YAP pathway components was examined by western blotting. The m6A enrichment in circ_SFMBT2 was verified using methylated RNA immunoprecipitation, and interaction between circ_SFMBT2 and YTHDF2 was assessed by RNA pull-down and immunoprecipitation assays.

Results: Both circ_SFMBT2 and LATS2 were lowly expressed in NSCLC cells and tissues. A positive correlation of circ_SFMBT2 with LATS2 was identified, and circ_SFMBT2 was localized predominantly in the cytoplasm. circ_SFMBT2 overexpression negatively regulated cell proliferation, viability, migration, and epithelial-mesenchymal transition while promoting the Hippo/YAP pathway activation. Notably, knockdown of LATS2 effectively abrogated the inhibitory effects of circ_SFMBT2 overexpression on NSCLC cell malignancies. Besides, m6A was specifically enriched in circ_SFMBT2, and circ_SFMBT2 could bind to YTHDF2. Silencing of YTHDF2 led to an increase in circ_SFMBT2 expression while inhibiting the malignancy of cancer cells.

Conclusion: Our results showed that YTHDF2 could facilitate NSCLC cell proliferation and metastasis via the Hippo/YAP pathway activation by mediating circ_SFMBT2 degradation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2022/1087622DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9308553PMC
August 2022

The effect of urinary essential and non-essential elements on serum albumin: Evidence from a community-based study of the elderly in Beijing.

Front Nutr 2022 18;9:946245. Epub 2022 Jul 18.

Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Basic Medicine Peking Union Medical College, Institute of Basic Medical Sciences Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, Beijing, China.

Background & Aims: Few epidemiological studies have investigated the relationships of urinary essential and non-essential elements with serum albumin, an indicator of nutritional status, especially for the elderly in China.

Methods: A community-based study among elderly participants ( = 275) was conducted in Beijing from November to December 2016. We measured 15 urinary elements concentrations and serum albumin levels. Three statistical methods including the generalized linear model (GLM), quantile g-computation model (qgcomp) and bayesian kernel machine regression (BKMR) were adapted.

Results: In GLM analysis, we observed decreased serum albumin levels associated with elevated urinary concentrations of aluminum, arsenic, barium, cobalt, chromium, copper, iron, manganese, selenium, strontium, and zinc. Compared with the lowest tertile, the highest tertile of cadmium and cesium was also negatively associated with serum albumin. Urinary selenium concentration had the most significant negative contribution (30.05%) in the qgcomp analysis. The negative correlations of element mixtures with serum albumin were also observed in BKMR analysis.

Conclusions: Our findings suggested the negative associations of essential and non-essential elements with serum albumin among the elderly. Large-scare cohort studies among the general population are required to validate our findings and elucidate the relevant underlying mechanisms.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fnut.2022.946245DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9342688PMC
July 2022

Brown-fat-mediated tumour suppression by cold-altered global metabolism.

Nature 2022 Aug 3;608(7922):421-428. Epub 2022 Aug 3.

Department of Microbiology, Tumor and Cell Biology, Karolinska Institutet, Solna, Sweden.

Glucose uptake is essential for cancer glycolysis and is involved in non-shivering thermogenesis of adipose tissues. Most cancers use glycolysis to harness energy for their infinite growth, invasion and metastasis. Activation of thermogenic metabolism in brown adipose tissue (BAT) by cold and drugs instigates blood glucose uptake in adipocytes. However, the functional effects of the global metabolic changes associated with BAT activation on tumour growth are unclear. Here we show that exposure of tumour-bearing mice to cold conditions markedly inhibits the growth of various types of solid tumours, including clinically untreatable cancers such as pancreatic cancers. Mechanistically, cold-induced BAT activation substantially decreases blood glucose and impedes the glycolysis-based metabolism in cancer cells. The removal of BAT and feeding on a high-glucose diet under cold exposure restore tumour growth, and genetic deletion of Ucp1-the key mediator for BAT-thermogenesis-ablates the cold-triggered anticancer effect. In a pilot human study, mild cold exposure activates a substantial amount of BAT in both healthy humans and a patient with cancer with mitigated glucose uptake in the tumour tissue. These findings provide a previously undescribed concept and paradigm for cancer therapy that uses a simple and effective approach. We anticipate that cold exposure and activation of BAT through any other approach, such as drugs and devices either alone or in combination with other anticancer therapeutics, will provide a general approach for the effective treatment of various cancers.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41586-022-05030-3DOI Listing
August 2022

Effective regulation of the electronic properties of a biphenylene network by hydrogenation and halogenation.

RSC Adv 2022 Jul 11;12(31):20088-20095. Epub 2022 Jul 11.

Department of Optical Engineering, College of Optical, Mechanical and Electrical Engineering, Zhejiang A&F University Hangzhou Zhejiang 311300 P. R. China

A biphenylene network, the first synthesized non-graphene planar carbon allotrope composed entirely of sp-hybridized carbon atoms, has attracted widespread interest due to its unique structure, and electronic and mechanical properties. A pristine biphenylene network is metallic, and the effective regulation of its electronic properties will greatly expand its application in the fields of optoelectronics, nanoelectronic devices and photocatalysis. In this paper, the hydrogenation and halogenation of biphenylene networks were investigated using density functional theory, and their electronic properties were tuned by varying the functionalization concentration. Calculation results show that the maximum functionalization degree is CH, CF, CCl and CBr, respectively. The band gap could be modulated in the range of 0.00-4.86 eV by hydrogenation, 0.012-4.82 eV by fluorination, 0.090-3.44 eV by chlorination, and 0.017-1.73 eV by bromination. It is also found that CH ( = 0.92, 1.00), CF ( = 0.75, 1.00), and CCl ( = 0.42-0.67) have the potential to photolyse water. Our research indicates that hydrogenation and halogenation can effectively regulate the electronic properties of the biphenylene network by controlling the concentration of functionalization, thus expanding its potential applications in the field of electronic devices and photocatalysis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d2ra03673hDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9272470PMC
July 2022

A Soft Magnetoelastic Generator for Wind Energy Harvesting.

Adv Mater 2022 Aug 2:e2204238. Epub 2022 Aug 2.

Department of Bioengineering, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA, 90095, United States.

The current energy crises and imminent danger of global warming severely limits our ability to scale societal development sustainably. As such, there is a pressing need for utilizing renewable, green energy sources such as wind energy which is ubiquitously available on Earth. In this work, we report a fundamentally new wind energy harvesting technology based on the giant magnetoelastic effect in a soft composite system, namely, magnetoelastic generators. Wind-induced mechanical deformation alters the magnetic field in a soft system, which converts wind energy into electricity via electromagnetic induction from arbitrary directions. The wind energy harvesting system features a low internal impedance of 68 Ω, a high current density of 1.17 mA cm , and a power density of 0.82 mW cm under ambient natural winds. The system is capable of sustainably driving small electronics and electrolytically splitting water. The system can generate hydrogen at a rate of 7.5 × 10  mL h with a wind speed of 20 m/s. Additionally, since magnetic fields can penetrate water molecules, the magnetoelastic generators are intrinsically waterproof and work stably in harsh environments. This work paves way for wind energy harvesting with compelling features, which can contribute largely to the hydrogen economy and the sustainability of human civilization . This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/adma.202204238DOI Listing
August 2022

Marinacarboline glucuronide, a new member of β-carboline alkaloids from sponge-derived actinomycete Actinoalloteichus cyanogriseus LHW52806.

J Antibiot (Tokyo) 2022 Sep 2;75(9):523-525. Epub 2022 Aug 2.

College of Life Sciences and Biopharmaceuticals, Shenyang Pharmaceutical University, Shenyang, 110000, PR China.

A new member of β-carboline alkaloids, Marinacarboline glucuronide (1), along with nine known compounds (2-10), were isolated from static liquid fermentation extracts of Actinoalloteichus cyanogriseus LHW52806 isolated from the marine sponge Phakellia fusca. Their structures were elucidated by NMR, mass spectrometry and single-crystal X-ray diffraction. All compounds exhibited neither antimicrobial activity nor cytotoxicity. Compounds 1, 8 and 10 showed anti-inflammatory potential of significant decreasing the expressions of IL- 6 in vitro at 20 µM.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41429-022-00552-4DOI Listing
September 2022

Correction: Creatinine‑to‑cystatin C ratio as a marker of sarcopenia for identifying osteoporosis in male patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

Authors:
Huifang Dai Jing Xu

BMC Musculoskelet Disord 2022 Aug 1;23(1):737. Epub 2022 Aug 1.

Department of Endocrinology, The Second Affiliated Hospital and Yuying Children's Hospital of Wenzhou Medical University, Lucheng District, Wenzhou, Zhejiang Province, People's Republic of China.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12891-022-05707-wDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9344726PMC
August 2022

Polarization multiplexed dissipative Kerr solitons in an on-chip micro-resonator.

Opt Lett 2022 Aug;47(15):3644-3647

We demonstrate polarization multiplexed dissipative Kerr solitons in an on-chip silicon nitride micro-resonator. In our experiment, TE- and TM-polarized solitons can be individually generated and controlled, thanks to their weak mutual interaction as the result of sufficiently different repetition rates and orthogonal polarization states. Furthermore, we find that TE- and TM-polarized solitons usually exhibit uncorrelated time jitters. Therefore, the frequency and phase coherence between the polarization multiplexed soliton microcombs change dramatically as a function of pump laser parameters, where by optimization, we achieve a narrow dual-microcomb beat note linewidth as small as 4.4 kHz. Potential applications of on-chip polarization multiplexed soliton microcombs include Kerr comb spectral expansion, dual-comb metrology, and measurement of quantum entanglements.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OL.466368DOI Listing
August 2022

Cerebral small vessel disease mediates the association between homocysteine and cognitive function.

Front Aging Neurosci 2022 15;14:868777. Epub 2022 Jul 15.

Department of Neurology, Hebei Medical University, Shijiazhuang, China.

Objective: To investigate the relations of serum total homocysteine (tHcy) with cerebral small vessel disease (CSVD) and cognitive function and evaluate whether CSVD mediates the effect of serum tHcy on cognitive function.

Methods: A total of 1,033 consecutive eligible participants who received serum tHcy, brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and neuropsychological assessment were included in this retrospective study. White matter hyperintensity, lacune, cerebral microbleed, and enlarged perivascular space were evaluated based on brain MRI. We used multivariate binary logistic regression analysis, multivariate ordinal logistic regression analysis, and mediation analyses to assess the relations of serum tHcy with CSVD and cognitive function.

Results: Serum tHcy levels were higher in patients with cognitive impairment than those with no cognitive impairment. Logistic regression analyses showed elevated serum tHcy was associated with cognitive impairment [odds ratio (OR): 10.475; 95% confidence interval (CI): 4.522 to 24.264; < 0.001] and a higher CSVD burden score (OR: 17.151; 95% CI: 8.785 to 33.921; < 0.001) after adjusting potential confounders. Compared with the lowest tHcy quartile, the multivariable-adjusted OR of the highest quartile was 4.851 (95% CI: 3.152 to 7.466; for the trend < 0.001) for cognitive impairment, 3.862 (95% CI: 2.467 to 6.047; for the trend < 0.001) for a severe CSVD burden score. Mediation analyses showed significant moderating effects (9.3-23.6%) by different imaging markers of CSVD on the association between higher serum tHcy levels and cognitive impairment.

Conclusion: Elevated serum tHcy is associated with cognitive impairment and the development of CSVD. A proportion of the association between elevated serum tHcy and cognitive impairment may be attributed to the presence of different imaging markers of CSVD, especially the severe CSVD burden score.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fnagi.2022.868777DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9335204PMC
July 2022

Comprehensive Pan-Cancer Analysis of Senescence With Cancer Prognosis and Immunotherapy.

Front Mol Biosci 2022 15;9:919274. Epub 2022 Jul 15.

Department of Laboratory Medicine, First Affiliated Hospital of Gannan Medical University, Ganzhou, China.

Senescence is a double-edged sword in tumorigenesis and affects the immunotherapy response through the modulation of the host's immune system. However, there is currently a lack of comprehensive analysis of the senescence-related genes (SRGs) in human cancers, and the predictive role of senescence in cancer immunotherapy response has not been explored. The multi-omics approaches were performed in this article to conduct a systematic pan-cancer genomic analysis of SRGs in cancer. In addition, we calculated the generic senescence score (SS) to quantify the senescence levels in cancers and explored the correlations of SS with cancer prognosis, biological processes, and tumor microenvironment (TME). The gene signatures were deregulated in multiple cancers and indicated a context-dependent correlation with prognosis, tumor-immune evasion, and response to therapy across various tumor types. Further analysis disclosed that SS was positively associated with the infiltration levels of immune suppressive cells, including induced Tregs (iTregs), central memory Ts (Tcms), and natural Tregs (nTregs), and negatively associated with immune killer cells, including natural killers (NKs) and mucosal-associated invariant Ts (MAITs). Moreover, the SS was significantly correlated with tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs), cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs), immune-related genes, and immune checkpoints and had a predictive value of immunotherapy response. Thus, the expression of SRGs was involved in resistance to several anticancer drugs. Our work illustrates the characterization of senescence across various malignancies and highlights the potential of senescence as a biomarker of the response to immunotherapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fmolb.2022.919274DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9334796PMC
July 2022

Rice carotenoid biofortification and yield improvement conferred by endosperm-specific overexpression of .

Front Plant Sci 2022 15;13:951605. Epub 2022 Jul 15.

Shanghai Key Laboratory of Agricultural Genetics and Breeding, Agro-Biotechnology Research Institute, Shanghai Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Shanghai, China.

Carotenoids, indispensable isoprenoid phytonutrients, are synthesized in plastids and are known to be deficient in rice endosperm. Many studies, involving transgenic manipulations of carotenoid biosynthetic genes, have been performed to obtain carotenoid-enriched rice grains. Nuclear-encoded GOLDEN2-LIKE (GLK) transcription factors play important roles in the regulation of plastid and thylakoid grana development. Here, we show that endosperm-specific overexpression of rice gene () leads to enhanced carotenoid production, increased grain yield, but deteriorated grain quality in rice. Subsequently, we performed the bioengineering of carotenoids biosynthesis in rice endosperm by introducing other three carotenogenic genes, , , and , which encode the enzymes truncated 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase, phytoene synthase, and phytoene desaturase, respectively. Transgenic overexpression of all four genes (, , , and ) driven by rice endosperm-specific promoter established a mini carotenoid biosynthetic pathway in the endosperm and exerted a roughly multiplicative effect on the carotenoid accumulation as compared with the overexpression of only three genes (, , and ). In addition, the yield enhancement and quality reduction traits were also present in the transgenic rice overexpressing the selected four genes. Our results revealed that confers favorable characters in rice endosperm and could help to refine strategies for the carotenoid and other plastid-synthesized micronutrient fortification in bioengineered plants.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpls.2022.951605DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9335051PMC
July 2022

Highly Efficient BiTiO/g-CN/BiOBr Dual Z-Scheme Heterojunction Photocatalysts with Enhanced Visible Light-Responsive Activity for the Degradation of Antibiotics.

Langmuir 2022 Aug 29;38(31):9532-9545. Epub 2022 Jul 29.

School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Southwest Petroleum University, Chengdu 610500, P. R. China.

A novel BiTiO/g-CN/BiOBr(BTO/CN/BOB) composite was synthesized by a solvothermal-mechanical mixed thermal method. The composition, structure, and micromorphology of the samples were analyzed. The BTO/CN/BOB composite photocatalyst shows better photocatalytic performance for tetracycline hydrochloride (TC) degradation compared to BiTiO and binary composite photocatalysts. The highest degradation rate of TC can reach 89.84% using the BTO/CN/BOB photocatalyst under the optimal conditions, and BTO/CN/BOB still exhibits good photocatalytic properties after recycling. Moreover, it also shows good photodegradation activity for different kinds of antibiotics, implying its wide application prospect. The photocatalytic performance and reuse stability of BTO/CN/BOB were significantly improved, which may be because of the enhanced spectral absorption range and efficient electron transfer capability by the synergistic effect and interaction among BiTiO, BiOBr, and g-CN. Finally, the possible degradation pathway and electron transfer mechanism of the dual Z-scheme heterojunction are proposed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.langmuir.2c00907DOI Listing
August 2022

Driving With Hemianopia X: Effects of Cross Traffic on Gaze Behaviors and Pedestrian Responses at Intersections.

Front Hum Neurosci 2022 11;16:938140. Epub 2022 Jul 11.

Schepens Eye Research Institute of Massachusetts Eye and Ear, Boston, MA, United States.

Purpose: We conducted a driving simulator study to investigate the effects of monitoring intersection cross traffic on gaze behaviors and responses to pedestrians by drivers with hemianopic field loss (HFL).

Methods: Sixteen HFL and sixteen normal vision (NV) participants completed two drives in an urban environment. At 30 intersections, a pedestrian ran across the road when the participant entered the intersection, requiring a braking response to avoid a collision. Intersections with these pedestrian events had either (1) no cross traffic, (2) one approaching car from the side opposite the pedestrian location, or (3) two approaching cars, one from each side at the same time.

Results: Overall, HFL drivers made more ( < 0.001) and larger ( = 0.016) blind- than seeing-side scans and looked at the majority (>80%) of cross-traffic on both the blind and seeing sides. They made more numerous and larger gaze scans ( < 0.001) when they fixated cars on both sides (compared to one or no cars) and had lower rates of unsafe responses to blind- but not seeing-side pedestrians (interaction, = 0.037). They were more likely to demonstrate compensatory blind-side fixation behaviors (faster time to fixate and longer fixation durations) when there was no car on the seeing side. Fixation behaviors and unsafe response rates were most similar to those of NV drivers when cars were fixated on both sides.

Conclusion: For HFL participants, making more scans, larger scans and safer responses to pedestrians crossing from the blind side were associated with looking at cross traffic from both directions. Thus, cross traffic might serve as a reminder to scan and provide a reference point to guide blind-side scanning of drivers with HFL. Proactively checking for cross-traffic cars from both sides could be an important safety practice for drivers with HFL.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fnhum.2022.938140DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9309302PMC
July 2022

Visualizing MiRNA Regulation of Apoptosis for Investigating the Feasibility of MiRNA-Targeted Therapy Using a Fluorescent Nanoprobe.

Pharmaceutics 2022 Jun 25;14(7). Epub 2022 Jun 25.

Shandong Provincial Key Laboratory of Molecular Engineering, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Qilu University of Technology (Shandong Academy of Sciences), Jinan 250353, China.

MiRNA-targeted therapy is an active research field in precision cancer therapy. Studying the effect of miRNA expression changes on apoptosis is important for evaluating miRNA-targeted therapy and realizing personalized precision therapy for cancer patients. Here, a new fluorescent nanoprobe was designed for the simultaneous imaging of miRNA-21 and apoptotic protein caspase-3 in cancer cells by using gold nanoparticles as the core and polydopamine as the shell. Confocal imaging indicated that the nanoprobe could be successfully applied for in situ monitoring of miRNA regulation of apoptosis. This design strategy is critical for investigating the feasibility of miRNA-targeted therapy, screening new anti-cancer drugs targeting miRNA, and developing personalized treatment plans.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics14071349DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9323288PMC
June 2022

Effects of Different Extraction Methods in Pharmacopoeia on the Content and Structure Transformation of Ginsenosides.

Molecules 2022 Jul 6;27(14). Epub 2022 Jul 6.

School of Functional Food and Wine, Shenyang Pharmaceutical University, Shenyang 110016, China.

Ginseng ( C. A. Meyer), a perennial herb, possesses immunostimulatory, anticarcinogenic, antiemetic, and antioxidative biological activities. In recent years, more and more people have paid attention to the extraction methods and quality evaluation of ginseng. China, the United States, Europe, Japan, and Korea have all had the quality standards and content determination methods of ginseng. The different treatment methods are adopted before the determination of ginseng samples and the content limits of the index components, such as ginsenoside Rb, ginsenoside Rg, and ginsenoside Re exist differences. The similarities and differences of ginseng content detection methods in pharmacopoeias of different countries have been analyzed by a research group, but the comparison of the effects of different methods on the ginsenoside content and structural transformation has not been reported. In this paper, ginsenosides in ginseng were extracted according to four national pharmacopoeias and analyzed quantitatively and qualitatively by UPLC-Q-Exactive-MS and HPLC-UV. It was illustrated that the pretreatment method has a significant influence on the content determination of ginseng. The yield of rare saponins was increased by heating concluded from both the qualitative and quantitative comparison. Finally, a simple and feasible extraction method was optimized by response surface method at room temperature. The analysis of the preparation method and process optimization of the four pharmacopoeias can provide important reference information for the revision of ginseng standards.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/molecules27144347DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9351678PMC
July 2022

Photo-Crosslinkable Hydrogels for 3D Bioprinting in the Repair of Osteochondral Defects: A Review of Present Applications and Future Perspectives.

Micromachines (Basel) 2022 Jun 29;13(7). Epub 2022 Jun 29.

Department of Orthopedic Surgery and Orthopedic Research Institute, West China Hospital and West China School of Medicine, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610041, China.

An osteochondral defect is a common and frequent disease in orthopedics and treatment effects are not good, which can be harmful to patients. Hydrogels have been applied in the repair of cartilage defects. Many studies have reported that hydrogels can effectively repair osteochondral defects through loaded cells or non-loaded cells. As a new type of hydrogel, photo-crosslinked hydrogel has been widely applied in more and more fields. Meanwhile, 3D bioprinting serves as an attractive platform to fabricate customized tissue-engineered substitutes from biomaterials and cells for the repair or replacement of injured tissues and organs. Although photo-crosslinkable hydrogel-based 3D bioprinting has some advantages for repairing bone cartilage defects, it also has some disadvantages. Our aim of this paper is to review the current status and prospect of photo-crosslinkable hydrogel-based 3D bioprinting for repairing osteochondral defects.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/mi13071038DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9318225PMC
June 2022

Emerging Trends and Hotspots in Tai Chi Fall Prevention: Analysis and Visualization.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2022 Jul 7;19(14). Epub 2022 Jul 7.

School of Physical Education, Hangzhou Normal University, Hangzhou 311121, China.

Recently, substantial studies have increased around the topic of the tai chi fall-prevention field. Few studies, however, have revealed the current progress and hotspots under a bibliometric analysis. Therefore, the present study aimed to conduct Citespace, a significant application for bibliometric analysis, to carry out the situation and trend in this field. This study has identified the core countries are the United States, China, Australia, and England, which are also the origins of the core institutions. Besides this, we also have found two large research groups led by Li and Sherrington. Moreover, the result has revealed that and are the primary journals. Geriatrics and gerontology, sport sciences, rehabilitation, and gerontology are the leading categories. Furthermore, one of the more important findings to come out in this study are that "elderly", "Parkinson's disease", "vestibular rehabilitation", "frail patient", and "community fall prevention" are the research hotspots. "Women", "proprioception", "cognitive impairment", "dementia", "osteoarthritis", and "stroke" are the potential research trend in the future. These findings suggest that the tai chi fall-prevention field has a broad research prospect. Although several questions remain uncertain currently, it is worthy for scholars to do further study.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19148326DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9320470PMC
July 2022

Simultaneous Visualization of MiRNA-221 and Caspase-3 in Cancer Cells for Investigating the Feasibility of MiRNA-Targeted Therapy with a Dual-Color Fluorescent Nanosensor.

Biosensors (Basel) 2022 Jun 23;12(7). Epub 2022 Jun 23.

Shandong Provincial Key Laboratory of Molecular Engineering, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Qilu University of Technology (Shandong Academy of Sciences), Jinan 250353, China.

MiRNA-targeted therapy holds great promise for precision cancer therapy. It is important to investigate the effect of changes in miRNA expression on apoptosis in order to evaluate miRNA-targeted therapy and achieve personalized therapy. In this study, we designed a dual-color fluorescent nanosensor consisting of grapheme oxide modified with a molecular beacon and peptide. The nanosensor can simultaneously detect and image miRNA-221 and apoptotic protein caspase-3 in living cells. Intracellular experiments showed that the nanosensor could be successfully applied for in situ monitoring of the effect of miRNA-221 expression changes on apoptosis by dual-color imaging. The current strategy could provide new avenues for investigating the feasibility of miRNA-targeted therapy, screening new anti-cancer drugs targeting miRNA and developing personalized treatment plans.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/bios12070444DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9312853PMC
June 2022

Therapeutic drug monitoring of caffeine and its primary metabolites in plasma using LC-ESI-MS/MS for apnea of prematurity treatment: Evaluation of ultrapure water as a surrogate matrix.

Biomed Chromatogr 2022 Jul 26:e5462. Epub 2022 Jul 26.

Pharmaceutical Sciences Research Center, Department of Pharmacy, Children's Hospital of Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing, China.

The growing evidence has endorsed the view that therapeutic drug monitoring of caffeine for apnea of prematurity is helpful for dose tailoring when the therapeutic response is lacking or toxicity is suspected. However, plasma without caffeine is difficult to obtain. Therefore, a method was developed and validated to measure caffeine and its three primary metabolites (paraxanthine, theobromine and theophylline) using LC-ESI-MS/MS in human plasma and several surrogate matrices. The chromatographic separation of analytes was finally achieved on a Waters Symmetry C (4.6 × 75 mm, 3.5 μm) column. Several strategies were successfully applied to overcome the matrix effects: (a) appropriate dilution for sample cleanup; (b) a starting lower proportion of organic phase; and (c) multiple individual stable-labeled isotopic internal standards. The parallelism between the authentic matrix and surrogate matrices was convincing. The recovery of the analytes in both human plasma and rat plasma was acceptable over the linear range (0.500-50.0 μg/ml for caffeine and 0.0100-1.00 μg/ml for three metabolites). The method was successfully applied in 118 samples from 74 preterm infants with apnea of prematurity. The rat plasma or ultrapure water as a surrogate matrix is worthy of recommendation for routine therapeutic drug monitoring of caffeine.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/bmc.5462DOI Listing
July 2022

Cytoprotective effects and antioxidant activities of acteoside and various extracts of Clerodendrum cyrtophyllum Turcz leaves against t-BHP induced oxidative damage.

Sci Rep 2022 Jul 25;12(1):12630. Epub 2022 Jul 25.

School of Chemical Engineering and Technology, Hainan University, Haikou, 570228, People's Republic of China.

This study evaluates the antioxidant potential and cytoprotective effects of ethanolic crude extract from Clerodendrum cyrtophyllum leaves (ECE) and five derived fractions (namely, petroleum ether fraction (PEF), dichloromethane fraction (DMF), ethyl acetate fraction (EAF), n-butyl alcohol fraction (BAF) and the remaining fraction (RF)), as well as acteoside (Ac, a major phenolic component in EAF) on oxidative damage caused by tert-butyl hydroperoxide (t-BHP) in HepG2 cells. MTT assay results showed that ECE, EAF, BAF, RF and Ac increased the viability of t-BHP-damaged cells in a dose-dependent manner, while EAF significantly promoted cell viability. EAF, BAF, RF, or Ac reduced the levels of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) leakage, malondialdehyde (MDA), and reactive oxygen species (ROS). Additionally, glutathione (GSH) levels and the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) increased. Western blot analysis further indicated that EAF, BAF, RF, or Ac up-regulated pro-caspase-3 and reduced cleaved caspase-3 during t-BHP-induced oxidative stress. Flow cytometry analysis and fluorescence micrographs showed that Ac could inhibit apoptosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-022-17038-wDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9314432PMC
July 2022

Magnetic-Driven Hydrogel Microrobots Selectively Enhance Synthetic Lethality in MTAP-Deleted Osteosarcoma.

Front Bioeng Biotechnol 2022 6;10:911455. Epub 2022 Jul 6.

Department of Orthopedics, Shanghai General Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai, China.

Drugs based on synthetic lethality have advantages such as inhibiting tumor growth and affecting normal tissue . However, specific targets for osteosarcoma have not been acknowledged yet. In this study, a non-targeted but controllable drug delivery system has been applied to selectively enhance synthetic lethality in osteosarcoma , using the magnetic-driven hydrogel microrobots. In this study, EPZ015666, a PRMT5 inhibitor, was selected as the synthetic lethality drug. Then, the drug was carried by hydrogel microrobots containing FeO. Morphological characteristics of the microrobots were detected using electron microscopy. drug effect was detected by the CCK-8 assay kit, Western blotting, etc. Swimming of microrobots was observed by a timing microscope. Selective inhibition was verified by cultured tumors in an increasing magnetic field. Genomic mutation of MTAP deletion occurred commonly in pan-cancer in the TCGA database (nearly 10.00%) and in osteosarcoma in the TARGET database (23.86%). HOS and its derivatives, 143B and HOS/MNNG, were detected by MTAP deletion according to the CCLE database and RT-PCR. EPZ015666, the PRMT5 inhibitor, could reduce the SDMA modification and inhibition of tumor growth of 143B and HOS/MNNG. The hydrogel microrobot drug delivery system was synthesized, and the drug was stained by rhodamine. The microrobots were powered actively by a magnetic field. A simulation of the selected inhibition of microrobots was performed and lower cell viability of tumor cells was detected by adding a high dose of microrobots. Our magnetic-driven drug delivery system could carry synthetic lethality drugs. Meanwhile, the selective inhibition of this system could be easily controlled by programming the strength of the magnetic field.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fbioe.2022.911455DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9299081PMC
July 2022
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