Publications by authors named "Jing Shang"

279 Publications

The Great Capacity on Promoting Melanogenesis of Three Compatible Components in

Int J Mol Sci 2021 Apr 15;22(8). Epub 2021 Apr 15.

State Key Laboratory of Natural Medicines, China Pharmaceutical University, Nanjing 210009, China.

To investigate a possible methodology of exploiting herbal medicine and design polytherapy for the treatment of skin depigmentation disorder, we have made use of , a traditional Chinese herbal medicine that has been proven to be effective in treating vitiligo. Here, we report that the extract of . effectively enhances melanogenesis responses in B16F10. In its compound library, we found three ingredients (butin, caffeic acid and luteolin) also have the activity of promoting melanogenesis in vivo and in vitro. They can reduce the accumulation of ROS induced by hydrogen peroxide and inflammatory response induced by sublethal concentrations of copper sulfate in wild type and green fluorescent protein (GFP)-labeled leukocytes zebrafish larvae. The overall objective of the present study aims to identify which compatibility proportions of the medicines may be more effective in promoting pigmentation. We utilized the D-optimal response surface methodology to optimize the ratio among three molecules. Combining three indicators of promoting melanogenesis, anti-inflammatory and antioxidant capacities, we get the best effect of butin, caffeic acid and luteolin at the ratio (butin:caffeic acid:luteolin = 7.38:28.30:64.32) on zebrafish. Moreover, the effect of melanin content recovery in the best combination is stronger than that of the monomer, which suggests that the three compounds have a synergistic effect on inducing melanogenesis. After simply verifying the result, we performed in situ hybridization on whole-mount zebrafish embryos to further explore the effects of multi-drugs combination on the proliferation and differentiation of melanocytes and the expression of genes (, , , ) related to melanin synthesis. In conclusion, the above three compatible compounds can significantly enhance melanogenesis and improve depigmentation in vivo.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms22084073DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8071200PMC
April 2021

Study on browning mechanism of fresh-cut eggplant (Solanum melongena L.) based on metabolomics, enzymatic assays and gene expression.

Sci Rep 2021 Mar 25;11(1):6937. Epub 2021 Mar 25.

Shanghai Key Laboratory of Protected Horticultural Technology, Shanghai, 201403, China.

Enzymatic browning is one of the crucial problems compromising the flavor and texture of fresh-cut fruit and vegetables. In this study, an untargeted metabolomics approach based on liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) was used to explore the browning mechanism in fresh-cut eggplant. Metabolomics studies showed that with the increase of fresh-cut time, the contents of 946 metabolites changed dynamically. The metabolites having the same trend share common metabolic pathways. As an important browning substrate, the content of chlorogenic acid increased significantly, suggesting that may be more important to fresh-cut eggplant browning; all 119 common differential metabolites in 5 min/CK and 3 min/CK contrastive groups were mapped onto 31 KEGG pathways including phenylpropanol metabolism, glutathione metabolism pathway, et al. In physiological experiments, results showed that the Phenylpropanoid-Metabolism-Related enzymes (PAL, C4H, 4CL) were changed after fresh-cut treatment, the activities of three enzymes increased first and then decreased, and reached the maximum value at 5 min, indicating the accumulation of phenolic substances. At the same time, ROS were accumulated when plant tissue damaged by cutting, the activities of related antioxidant enzymes (SOD, APX and CAT) changed dynamically after oxidative damage. SOD and APX content increased significantly and reached the maximum value at 10 min after cutting, and then showed a downward trend. However, CAT activity increased sharply and reached the maximum value within 3 min after cutting, then maintained the same activity, and showed a downward trend after 30 min. These data fully demonstrated that the activities of browning related enzymes and gene expression increased with the prolonging of fresh cutting time. We explained the browning mechanism of fresh-cut eggplant by combining metabolomics and physiology, which may lay the foundation for better understanding the mechanism of browning during the fruits and vegetables during processing.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-86311-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7994816PMC
March 2021

Enhanced Ion Sieving of Graphene Oxide Membranes via Surface Amine Functionalization.

J Am Chem Soc 2021 Apr 24;143(13):5080-5090. Epub 2021 Mar 24.

Deakin University, Institute for Frontier Materials, Waurn Ponds Campus, Locked Bag 20000, Geelong, Victoria 3220, Australia.

Membranes based on two-dimensional (2D) nanomaterials have shown great potential to alleviate the worldwide freshwater crisis due to their outstanding performance of freshwater extraction from saline water via ion rejection. However, it is still very challenging to achieve high selectivity and high permeance of water desalination through precise -spacing control of 2D nanomaterial membranes within subnanometer. Here, we developed functionalized graphene oxide membranes (FGOMs) with nitrogen groups such as amine groups and polarized nitrogen atoms to enhance metal ion sieving by one-step controlled plasma processing. The nitrogen functionalities can produce strong electrostatic interactions with metal ions and result in a mono/divalent cation selectivity of FGOMs up to 90 and 28.3 in single and binary solution, which is over 10-fold than that of graphene oxide membranes (GOMs). First-principles calculation confirms that the ionic selectivity of FGOMs is induced by the difference of binding energies between metal ions and polarized nitrogen atoms. Besides, the ultrathin FGOMs with a thickness of 50 nm can possess a high water flux of up to 120 mol m h without sacrificing rejection rates of nearly 99.0% on NaCl solution, showing an ultrahigh water/salt selectivity of around 4.31 × 10. Such facile and efficient plasma processing not only endows the GOMs with a promising future sustainable water purification, including ion separation and water desalination, but also provides a new strategy to functionalize 2D nanomaterial membranes for specific purposes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/jacs.1c00575DOI Listing
April 2021

Effect of ozone aging on light absorption and fluorescence of brown carbon in soot particles: The important role of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.

J Hazard Mater 2021 Jul 11;413:125406. Epub 2021 Feb 11.

School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Shaanxi University of Science and Technology, Xi'an 710021, People's Republic of China.

The evolution of brown carbon (BrC) during atmospheric aging, including the changes in optical properties and chemical compositions, is still unclear. Light absorption and fluorescence of BrC fraction extracted from fresh and ozonized propane soot particles by methanol were systematically measured, which showed that (1) the mass absorption efficiencies (MAE) sharply decreased by ozone (O) aging (e.g., 1.2 ± 0.3-0.8 ± 0.1 m g for MAE), but changed slowly with increased O concentration (e.g., from 0.7 ± 0.2-0.8 ± 0.1 m g for MAE); (2) the fluorescence emission peaks were blue shifted, implying a loss of conjugated structures; (3) excitation-emission matrix analysis suggested that humic-like substances, charge transfer complexes, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH)-like substances were the main chromophores. The PAH loss, accompanied by the decline of surface C˭C content, contributed more to the change of optical properties than the oxygenated PAH formation, thereby leading to the decrease in light absorption and fluorescence with O aging. This research reveals the importance of identifying the components responsible for optical properties in investigating the evolution of BrC during atmospheric aging, and is benefit for improving the evaluation of BrC's radiative forcing.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2021.125406DOI Listing
July 2021

Mental workload of frontline nurses aiding in the COVID-19 pandemic: A latent profile analysis.

J Adv Nurs 2021 May 16;77(5):2374-2385. Epub 2021 Feb 16.

School of Nursing, Naval Medical University (Second Military Medical University), Shanghai, China.

Aims: To investigate the mental workload level of nurses aiding the most affected area during the Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic and explore the subtypes of nurses regarding their mental workload.

Design: Cross-sectional study.

Methods: A sample of 446 frontline nurses participated from March 8 to 19, 2020. A latent profile analysis was performed to identify clusters based on the six subscales of the Chinese version of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration Task Load Index. The differences among the classes and the variables including sociodemographic characteristics, psychological capital and coping style were explored.

Results: The level of mental workload indicates that the nurses had high self-evaluations of their performance while under extremely intensive task loads. The following three latent subtypes were identified: 'low workload & low self-evaluation' (8.6%); 'medium workload & medium self-evaluation' (35.3%) and 'high workload & high self-evaluation' (56.1%) (Classes 1, 2, and 3, respectively). Nurses with shared accommodations, fewer years of practice, junior professional titles, lower incomes, nonmanagement working positions, lower psychological capital levels and negative coping styles had a higher likelihood of belonging to Class 1. In contrast, senior nurses with higher psychological capital and positive coping styles were more likely to belong to Classes 2 and 3.

Conclusion: The characteristics of the 'low workload & low self-evaluation' subtype suggest that attention should be paid to the work pressure and psychological well-being of junior nurses. Further research on regular training program of public health emergency especially for novices is needed. Personnel management during public health events should be focused on the allocation between novice and senior frontline nurses.

Impact: This study addresses the level of mental workload of frontline nurses who aid in the most severe area of the COVID-19 pandemic in China and delineates the characteristics of the subtypes of these nurses.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jan.14769DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8014576PMC
May 2021

BC and 1,4NQ-BC up-regulate the cytokines and enhance IL-33 expression in LPS pretreatment of human bronchial epithelial cells.

Environ Pollut 2021 Jan 14;273:116452. Epub 2021 Jan 14.

Department of Toxicology, School of Public Health, Peking University, Beijing, 100191, PR China; Beijing Key Laboratory of Toxicological Research and Risk Assessment for Food Safety, Beijing, 100191, PR China. Electronic address:

Black carbon (BC) reacts with different substances to form secondary pollutants called aged black carbon, which causes inflammation and lung damage. BC and aged BC may enhance IL-33 in vivo, which may be derived from macrophages. The pro-inflammatory effect of IL-33 makes it essential to determine the source of IL-33, so it guides us to explore how to alleviate lung injury. In this study, a human bronchial epithelial cell line of 16HBE cells was selected, and aged BC (1,4-NQ coated BC and ozone oxidized BC) was used. We found that both BC and aged BC were able to up-regulate the mRNA expression of IL-1β, IL-6, and IL-8 except IL-33. However, the Mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) and Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/Protein kinase B (AKTs) pathways remained inactive. After pretreatment with Lipopolysaccharide (LPS), IL-33 mRNA expression was significantly increased in 16HBE cells and MAPKs and PI3K/AKT were activated. These results suggested that MAPKs and PI3K/AKT pathways were involved in the elevation of IL-33. Furthermore, epithelial cells are unlikely to be the source of lung inflammation caused by elevated IL-33 in BC and aged BC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2021.116452DOI Listing
January 2021

The complete mitochondrial genome of the tea weevil, (Coleoptera: Curculionidae).

Mitochondrial DNA B Resour 2020 Jun 24;5(3):2559-2560. Epub 2020 Jun 24.

Tea Research Institute of Chongqing Academy of Agricultural Science, Chongqing, P. R. China.

The tea weevil, (Voss), is a serious pest of tea plants. We have obtained and annotated the complete mitochondrial genome of (GenBank accession No. MH197100). The entire mt genome is 17,762 bp long with an A + T content of 75.45%. The mt genome of encodes all 37 genes that are typically found in animal mt genomes, consists of 13 protein-coding genes, 2 ribosomal RNA and 22 transfer RNA genes. The gene order is consistent with other weevil mt genomes in Entiminae, within a typical gene order of "RANSEF". Phylogenetic analysis was performed using 13 protein-coding genes among 18 weevils showed that is closely related to another Entiminae species, .
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/23802359.2020.1780987DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7782068PMC
June 2020

Inhibition of Nrf2/HO-1 signaling pathway by Dextran Sulfate suppresses angiogenesis of Gastric Cancer.

J Cancer 2021 1;12(4):1042-1060. Epub 2021 Jan 1.

Department of Pathology, Ningxia Medical University, Yinchuan, Ningxia 750004, China.

To investigate the role of Nrf2/HO-1 signaling pathway in angiogenesis and whether dextran sulfate (DS) could suppress angiogenesis by inhibiting Nrf2/HO-1 signaling pathway in gastric cancer. Western blot analyzed the expression of Nrf2 in gastric cell lines. Tube formation assay observed the effect of gradient concentration DS on the angiogenic potential of HGC-27 cells. Immunofluorescence,western blot and qPCR analyzed the effects of DS on the expression of Nrf2, HO-1 and VEGF under gradient hypoxia time. Immunofluorescence,western blot,qPCR and tube formation assay analyzed the effects of up-regulating or down-regulating Nrf2/HO-1 signaling pathway on VEGF expression and angiogenic potential in HGC-27 cells. Construct nude mouse intraperitoneal implantation metastasis model. Immunohistochemistry and western blot analyzed the effects of DS on the expression of Nrf2, HO-1, VEGF and MVD in nude mice. Immunohistochemistry detected the expression of Nrf2, HO-1, VEGF and MVD in human paracancerous tissue and gastric cancer tissues with different degrees of differentiation. The expression of Nrf2 increased most significantly in HGC-27 cell line. DS reduced the angiogenic potential and the expression of Nrf2, HO-1 and VEGF in HGC-27 cells. Down-regulation of Nrf2/HO-1 signaling pathway decreased VEGF expression and angiogenic potential in HGC-27 cells. Up-regulation of Nrf2/HO-1 signaling pathway increased VEGF expression and angiogenic potential in HGC-27 cells. DS reduced the expression of Nrf2, HO-1, VEGF and MVD in nude mice. Nrf2, HO-1, VEGF and MVD showed low expression in paracancerous tissue but high expression in gastric cancer tissues. They were weak, moderate and strong in well, moderately and poorly differentiated gastric cancer tissues, respectively. Nrf2/HO-1 signaling pathway may positively regulate gastric cancer angiogenesis and DS may suppress the angiogenesis by inhibiting Nrf2/HO-1 signaling pathway in gastric cancer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7150/jca.50605DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7797653PMC
January 2021

Comparison of the predictive value of progesterone-related indicators for pregnancy outcomes of women undergoing the short-acting GnRH agonist long protocol: a retrospective study.

J Ovarian Res 2021 Jan 12;14(1):14. Epub 2021 Jan 12.

Department of Obstetrics & Gynecology, Peking University First Hospital, 100034, Beijing, China.

Background: There are many progesterone (P) elevation-related indicators for predicting pregnancy outcomes, including the serum P, P-to-oestradiol ratio (P/E), P-to-follicle index (PFI), and P-to-mature oocyte index (PMOI); however, due to inconsistencies in study populations and controlled ovarian hyperstimulation (COH) protocols among studies, these indicators are controversial. Moreover, no researchers have included these four commonly used indicators in one study to compare their predictive efficacies. The objective of this study was to compare the predictive value of P-related indicators for pregnancy outcomes of women undergoing the short-acting GnRH agonist long protocol.

Methods: A total of 612 infertile women undergoing IVF/ICSI were recruited for this study. Serum samples were obtained on the morning of HCG injection for serum P and E measurements. Transvaginal ultrasound was performed to determine the follicle count (≥ 14 mm in diameter). The number of mature oocytes was observed in the embryo laboratory after oocyte retrieval.

Results: In cases of P < 2.5 ng/ml, there was no significant difference in the serum P level or P/E between the pregnant group and the non-pregnant group. The PFI and PMOI of the pregnant group were significantly lower than those of the non-pregnant group. According to the stratified analysis of the ovarian response, only the PMI and PMOI of the pregnant women in the normal ovarian response group were lower than those of the non-pregnant women. To compare the predictive value of the PFI and PMOI in IVF/ICSI outcomes, the patients were divided into four groups. The good-quality embryo rate and clinical pregnancy rate were highest in Group A (low PFI and low PMOI) and lowest in Group D (high PFI and high PMOI). In the two groups with discordant PFI and PMOI, namely Group B (low PFI and high PMOI) and Group C (high PFI and low PMOI), the good-quality embryo rate and clinical pregnancy rate were not significantly different.

Conclusions: The PFI and PMOI had equal value in predicting clinical pregnancy outcomes in the normal ovarian response group undergoing the short-acting GnRH agonist long protocol. Each clinical centre can choose one of the indicators according to their actual situation in clinical practice and establish individual cut-off values for PFI and PMOI based on their own hormonal measurements.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13048-021-00768-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7802138PMC
January 2021

Robust Magnetoelectric Effect in the Decorated Graphene/InSe Heterostructure.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2021 Jan 5;13(2):3033-3039. Epub 2021 Jan 5.

School of Mechanical, Medical and Process Engineering, Queensland University of Technology, Brisbane, QLD 4001, Australia.

The magnetoelectric effect is a fundamental physical phenomenon that synergizes electric and magnetic degrees of freedom to generate distinct material responses like electrically tuned magnetism, which serves as a key foundation of the emerging field of spintronics. Here, we show by first-principles studies that ferroelectric (FE) polarization of an InSe monolayer can modulate the magnetism of an adjacent transition-metal (TM)-decorated graphene layer via a ferroelectrically induced electronic transition. The TM nonbonding -orbital shifts downward and hybridizes with carbon-p states near the Fermi level, suppressing the magnetic moment, under one FE polarization, but on reversed FE polarization this TM -orbital moves upward, restoring the original magnetic moment. This finding of robust magnetoelectric effect in the TM-decorated graphene/InSe heterostructure offers powerful insights and a promising avenue for experimental exploration of ferroelectrically controlled magnetism in two-dimensional (2D) materials.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsami.0c19768DOI Listing
January 2021

Traditional Chinese medicine network pharmacology study on exploring the mechanism of Xuebijing Injection in the treatment of coronavirus disease 2019.

Chin J Nat Med 2020 Dec;18(12):941-951

School of Science, China Pharmaceutical University, Nanjing 211198, China. Electronic address:

As a representative drug for the treatment of severe community-acquired pneumonia and sepsis, Xuebijing (XBJ) injection is also one of the recommended drugs for the prevention and treatment of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), but its treatment mechanism for COVID-19 is still unclear. Therefore, this study aims to explore the potential mechanism of XBJ injection in the treatment of COVID-19 employing network pharmacology and molecular docking methods. The corresponding target genes of 45 main active ingredients in XBJ injection and COVID-19 were obtained by using multiple database retrieval and literature mining. 102 overlapping targets of them were screened as the core targets for analysis. Then built the PPI network, TCM-compound-target-disease, and disease-target-pathway networks with the help of Cytoscape 3.6.1 software. After that, utilized DAVID to perform gene ontology (GO) function enrichment analysis and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway enrichment analysis to predict the action mechanism of overlapping targets. Finally, by applying molecular docking technology, all compounds were docked with COVID-19 3 CL protease(3CLpro), spike protein (S protein), and angiotensin-converting enzyme II (ACE2). The results indicated that quercetin, luteolin, apigenin and other compounds in XBJ injection could affect TNF, MAPK1, IL6 and other overlapping targets. Meanwhile, anhydrosafflor yellow B (AHSYB), salvianolic acid B (SAB), and rutin could combine with COVID-19 crucial proteins, and then played the role of anti-inflammatory, antiviral and immune response to treat COVID-19. This study revealed the multiple active components, multiple targets, and multiple pathways of XBJ injection in the treatment of COVID-19, which provided a new perspective for the study of the mechanism of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) in the treatment of COVID-19.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1875-5364(20)60038-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7831566PMC
December 2020

Insight into the Mechanism of Internalization of the Cell-Penetrating Carrier Peptide Pep-1 by Conformational Analysis.

J Biomed Nanotechnol 2020 Jul;16(7):1135-1143

Different secondary structures of the pep-1 protein were blamed for transmembrane internalization process of drugs and drug deliveries. But which structure will be important for transmembrane delivery was still not clear. In this study, interactions between pep-1 and cell membranes were studied. Pep-1 in the buffer (Pep-1) and pep-1 on graphene (PDS/G) or they on graphene oxide (PDS/GO) were composed as the transmembrane delivery system to study the different secondary structure of pep-1 that influence for their transmembrane delivery. The curves of chirascan circular dichroism (CD) and all-atom discontinuous molecular dynamics (DMD) simulations illuminate that, in a buffer environment, most pep-1 formed 3-10 helix structures. Meanwhile, when Pep-1 composed graphene slice and formed PDS/G, 3-10 helix and alpha-helix structures can be found in small quantities. When they on graphene oxide and formed PDS/GO, coil or type II beta-turn structure can be found from most of the pep-1 and 3-10 helix structure disappeared. By using sum-frequency generation (SFG) vibrational spectroscopy, we found that pep-1 with 3-10 helix structures in buffer solutions damaged the lipid bilayer violently. PDS/G with less 3-10 helix structures will change the orientation of lipid bilayer effectively but slightly. Pep-1 with coil or type II Beta-turn in PDS/GO cannot influence the structure of lipid bilayers. Hemolysis experiments also proved that when pep-1 composed as PDS/G, they will change the orientation of the plasma membrane of red blood cells effectively but slightly. When they attach on the GO and formed PDS/GO, the plasma membrane of red blood cells cannot be influenced. In conclusion, 3-10 helix structures will be positively correlated with disturbance of membranes. These results will be effectively guided the clinic application of pep-1 as a transporter of the drug delivery system.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1166/jbn.2020.2950DOI Listing
July 2020

Ring Expansion of Thiolactams via Imide Intermediates: An Amino Acid Insertion Strategy.

Chemistry 2021 Jan 22;27(5):1620-1625. Epub 2020 Dec 22.

School of Chemistry and Bio21 Molecular Science and Biotechnology Institute, University of Melbourne, Parkville, Vic 3010, Australia.

The Ag -promoted reaction of thiolactams with N-Boc amino acids yields an N-(α-aminoacyl) lactam that can rearrange through an acyl transfer process. Boc-deprotection results in convergence to the ring-expanded adduct, thereby facilitating an overall insertion of an amino acid into the thioamide bond to generate medium-sized heterocycles. Application to the site-specific insertion of amino acids into cyclic peptides is demonstrated.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/chem.202005035DOI Listing
January 2021

Otoendoscope combined with ablation electrodes for treatment of benign tracheal stenosis caused by granulation tissue hyperplasia after tracheotomy.

Pan Afr Med J 2020 31;36:382. Epub 2020 Aug 31.

Department of Otolaryngology, First Hospital of Jilin University, Changchun, China.

Benign tracheal stenosis mainly appears due to tracheotomy, tuberculosis, trauma, benign tumor, or ventilation. With the increase in the number of tracheotomies and the prolongation of the life span of patients after incision, the long-term complications after tracheotomy gradually increase, among which intratracheal granulation hyperplasia is a more serious complication. The present case describes a 59-year-old male with granulation tissue hyperplasia induced by tracheotomy. He underwent tracheal resection to remove the granulation tissue and he remained well after the follow-up. Even though the endoscopic intervention and tracheal resection are readily accessible, they usually quite challenging. Here we summarize the present details on this condition.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.11604/pamj.2020.36.382.25125DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7666696PMC
January 2021

A new understanding of the microstructure of soot particles: The reduced graphene oxide-like skeleton and its visible-light driven formation of reactive oxygen species.

Environ Pollut 2021 Feb 17;270:116079. Epub 2020 Nov 17.

State Key Joint Laboratory of Environmental Simulation and Pollution Control, College of Environmental Sciences and Engineering, 5 Yiheyuan Road, Beijing, 100871, PR China; Beijing Innovation Center for Engineering Science and Advanced Technology (BIC-ESAT), Peking University, 5 Yiheyuan Road, Beijing, 100871, PR China.

The mechanisms of soot's photochemistry are still unclear, especially, how the microstructure and composition of soot influence its photoactivity. In the current study, we started with the exploration of the microstructure of soot particles and gained new insights. The elemental-carbon fraction of soot (E-soot), considered the core component of soot and can reflect the intrinsic characteristics of soot, was extracted by organic solvents and characterized in terms of structure and chemical reactivity. The intrinsic structure of E-soot was found to be more analogous to reduced graphene oxide than to graphene, in terms of containing similar levels of defective sites such as oxygen-containing functional groups and environmentally persistent free radicals, as well as exhibiting similar optoelectronic performance. The generation of reactive oxygen species via an electron transfer pathway under visible light suggests that reduced graphene oxide-like E-soot can serve as a potential carbo-photocatalyst, which facilitates elucidating the mechanism of E-soot's role during soot's photochemical aging. Our study reveals the intrinsic structure of soot and its role in photo-triggered reactive oxygen species production, which is vital for atmospheric and health effects.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2020.116079DOI Listing
February 2021

5-Hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) Positively Regulates Pigmentation via Inducing Melanoblast Specification and Melanin Synthesis in Zebrafish Embryos.

Biomolecules 2020 09 19;10(9). Epub 2020 Sep 19.

School of Traditional Chinese Pharmacy, China Pharmaceutical University, Nanjing 210009, Jiangsu, China.

It has been reported that 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) is related to melanogenesis in mice and melanoma cells. However, the underlying mechanisms of 5-HT in regulating pigmentation remains unknown. In this study, we aim to clarify the regulatory mechanism of 5-HT in the pigmentation of zebrafish embryos and B16F10 cells. Our results show that 5-HT induces the pigmentation of zebrafish embryos in a dosage-dependent manner at concentrations of 0.01-1 mM. Whole mount in situ hybridizations and qRT-PCR in zebrafish embryos indicate that the expression of neural crest cells marker gene is not changed in embryos treated with 5-HT compared to control group. The expression of , the marker gene of melanoblasts, is increased in the presence of 5-HT. Furthermore, 5-HT increased the expression of regeneration associated genes, namely , , and after ablation of the melanogenic cells in zebrafish embryos. The experiments in B16F10 cells show that 5-HT promotes melanin synthesis by up-regulating the expression of key proteins MITF, TYR, TRP-1, and TRP-2. Especially, the small molecule inhibitor of PKA signaling, but not AKT and MAPK signaling, attenuates the up-regulation of MITF and TYR resulted from 5-HT induction in B16F10 cells. These results will help us to further understand the regulatory network of vertebrate pigmentation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/biom10091344DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7563192PMC
September 2020

Competing PM and NO holiday effects in the Beijing area vary locally due to differences in residential coal burning and traffic patterns.

Sci Total Environ 2021 Jan 11;750:141575. Epub 2020 Aug 11.

Department of Earth and Atmospheric Sciences, Saint Louis University, St. Louis, MO, USA.

The holiday effect is a useful tool to estimate the impact on air pollution due to changes in human activities. In this study, we assessed the variations in concentrations of fine particulate matter (PM) and nitrogen dioxide (NO) during the holidays in the heating season from 2014 to 2018 based on daily surface air quality monitoring measurements in Beijing. A Generalized Additive Model (GAM) is used to analyze pollutant concentrations for 34 sites by comprehensively accounting for annual, monthly, and weekly cycles as well as the nonlinear impacts of meteorological factors. A Saturday effect was found in the downtown area, with about 4% decrease in PM and 3% decrease in NO relative to weekdays. On Sundays, the PM concentrations increased by about 5% whereas there were no clear changes for NO. In contrast to the small effect of the weekend, there was a strong holiday effect throughout the region with average increases of about 22% in PM and average reductions of about 11% in NO concentrations. There was a clear geographical pattern in the strength of the holiday effect. In rural areas the increase in PM is related to the proportion of coal and biomass consumption for household heating. In the suburban areas between the Fifth Ring Road and Sixth Ring Road there were larger reductions in NO than downtown which might be due to decreased traffic as many people return to their hometown for the holidays. This study provides insights into the pattern of changes in air pollution due to human activities. By quantifying the changes, it also provides insights for improvements in air quality due to control policies implemented in Beijing during the heating season.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2020.141575DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7417943PMC
January 2021

De novo transcriptomic and proteomic analysis and potential toxin screening of Mesobuthus martensii samples from four different provinces.

J Ethnopharmacol 2021 Jan 15;265:113268. Epub 2020 Aug 15.

Faculty of Naval Medicine, Second Military Medical University (Naval Medical University), Shanghai, 200433, China. Electronic address:

Ethnopharmacological Relevance: As well-known medicinal materials in traditional Chinese medicine, scorpions, commonly called as Quanxie () in Chinese, have been widely used to treat several diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis, apoplexy, epilepsy and chronic pain for more than a thousand years. Not only in the ancient times, the scorpions have also been recorded nowadays in the Pharmacopoeia of the People's Republic of China since 1963.

Aim Of Study: This study aims to explore the differences in composition of the venom of scorpions from different regions by using the method of transcriptomics and proteomics.

Materials And Methods: Whole de novo transcriptomes, proteomics and their bioinformatic analyses were performed on samples of the scorpion Mesobuthus martensii and their venoms from four different provinces with clear geographical boundaries, including Hebei, Henan, Shandong and Shanxi.

Results: The four captured samples had the same morphology, and the conserved CO-1 sequence matched that of M. martensii. A total of 141,003 of 174,653 transcripts were identified as unigenes, of which we successfully annotated 51,627 (36.61%), 21,970 (15.58%), 7,168 (5.08%), and 45,263 (32.10%) unigenes with the NR, GO, KEGG and SWISSPROT databases, respectively, while a total of 427 proteins were collected from the protein extracted from venoms. Both GO and KEGG annotations exhibited only slight differences among the four samples while the expression level of gene and protein was quite different. A total of 249 toxin-related unigenes were successfully screened, including 41 serine proteases and serine protease inhibitors, 39 potassium channel toxins, 38 phospholipases, 16 host defense peptides, 9 metalloproteases, and 50 other toxins. Although the toxin species were similar among the four samples, the gene expression of each toxin varied considerably, for example, the scorpion from HB province has the most abundant expression quality in sequences c48391_g1, c55239_g1 and c47749_g1 while the lowest expressions of c51178_g1, c62033_g3 and c63754_g2.

Conclusion: The regional differences in the transcriptomes and proteomes of M. martensii are mainly from expression levels e.g. toxins rather than expression species, of which the method can be further extended to evaluate the qualities of traditional Chinese medicines obtained from different regions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2020.113268DOI Listing
January 2021

Tuning Magnetism of Metal Porphyrazine Molecules by a Ferroelectric InSe Monolayer.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2020 Sep 21;12(35):39561-39566. Epub 2020 Aug 21.

School of Mechanical, Medical and Process Engineering, Queensland University of Technology, Brisbane, QLD 4001, Australia.

Electric field tuning of magnetism is highly desirable for nanoelectronics, but volatility in electron spin manipulation presents a major challenge that needs urgent resolution. Here, we show by first-principles calculations that magnetism of metal porphyrazine (MPz) molecules can be effectively tuned by switching ferroelectric polarization of an adjacent InSe monolayer. The magnetic moments of TiPz and VPz (MnPz, FePz, and CoPz) decrease (increase) at one polarization but remain unchanged at reversed polarization. This intriguing phenomenon stems from distinct metal d-orbital occupation caused by electron transfer and energy-level shift associated with the polarization switch of the InSe monolayer. Moreover, the ferroelectric switch also tunes the underlying electronic properties, producing a metallic, half-metallic, or semiconducting state depending on polarization. These findings of robust ferroelectric tuning of magnetism and related electronic properties in MPz-adsorbed InSe hold great promise for innovative design and implementation in advanced magnetic memory storage, sensor, and spintronic devices.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsami.0c09247DOI Listing
September 2020

Identification of the absorptive constituents and their metabolites in vivo of Ziziphi Spinosae Semen by UPLC-ESI-Q-TOF-MS/MS.

Biomed Chromatogr 2020 Dec 24;34(12):e4965. Epub 2020 Aug 24.

State Key Laboratory of Pharmaceutical New-tech for Chinese Medicine, Jiangsu Kanion Pharmaceutical Co. Ltd, Lianyungang, China.

In this research, ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray ionization quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-ESI-Q-TOF-MS/MS) was used for detection and identification of the absorptive constituents and their metabolites in rat plasma, urine and feces following oral administration of Ziziphi Spinosae Semen alcohol extract. After structure elucidation, a total of 12 compounds in rat plasma, comprising seven prototypes and five metabolites, 28 compounds in urine, comprising 17 prototypes and 11 metabolites, and 23 compounds in feces, comrpising 17 prototypes and six metabolites, have been tentatively identified by comparison with standard compounds and reference literature information. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first comprehensive and systematical metabolic study on the seed. Mostly importantly, we propose that gastric acid could convert jujubosides into an absorbable form of ebelin lactone oligosaccharides, which may be responsible for the low bioavailability and specific bioactivities of these compounds. Additionally, we deduced that the absorption site of ebelin lactone oligosaccharides is located in the stomach, and that the ebelin lactone form of jujubosides may be more suitable for absorption than its hydrolysis product. Our investigation will be helpful to narrow the scope for potentially active ingredients of the seed, and pave the way for determination of the pharmacological mechanism of the seed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/bmc.4965DOI Listing
December 2020

Transcriptome profiling and gene expression analyses of eggplant (Solanum melongena L.) under heat stress.

PLoS One 2020 11;15(8):e0236980. Epub 2020 Aug 11.

Horticultural Research Institute, Shanghai Key Laboratory of Protected Horticultural Technology, Shanghai Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Shanghai, China.

Global warming induces heat stress in eggplant, seriously affecting its quality and yield. The response to heat stress is a complex regulatory process; however, the exact mechanism in eggplant is unknown. We analyzed the transcriptome of eggplant under different high-temperature treatments using RNA-Seq technology. Three libraries treated at high temperatures were generated and sequenced. There were 40,733,667, 40,833,852, and 40,301,285 clean reads with 83.98%, 79.69%, and 84.42% of sequences mapped to the eggplant reference genome in groups exposed to 28°C (CK), 38°C (T38), and 43°C (T43), respectively. There were 3,067 and 1,456 DEGs in T38 vs CK and T43 vs CK groups, respectively. In these two DEG groups, 315 and 342 genes were up- and down-regulated, respectively, in common. Differential expression patterns of DEGs in antioxidant enzyme systems, detoxication, phytohormones, and transcription factors under heat stress were investigated. We screened heat stress-related genes for further validation by qRT-PCR. Regulation mechanisms may differ under different temperature treatments, in which heat shock proteins and heat stress transcription factors play vital roles. These results provide insight into the molecular mechanisms of the heat stress response in eggplant and may be useful in crop breeding.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0236980PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7419001PMC
October 2020

Changes in light absorption by brown carbon in soot particles due to heterogeneous ozone aging in a smog chamber.

Authors:
Yu Kuang Jing Shang

Environ Pollut 2020 Nov 2;266(Pt 1):115273. Epub 2020 Aug 2.

State Key Joint Laboratory of Environmental Simulation and Pollution Control, College of Environmental Sciences and Engineering, and Center for Environment and Health, Peking University, Beijing, 100871, People's Republic of China. Electronic address:

Light absorption by brown carbon (BrC) is dynamic due to atmospheric aging processes, leading to complex and poorly constrained effects on photochemistry and climate. In this study, a smog chamber was used to simulate the heterogeneous ozone (O) aging of soot particles. Twelve aging times and seven O concentrations were set to investigate the effects of aging degree on BrC light absorption. The results showed that light absorption by BrC was enhanced after O aging, but followed a non-monotonic trend with an initial increase and subsequent decrease. An aging time of 60 min and O concentration of 1.2 ppm were optimal for enhancing BrC absorption, where the contribution of BrC to total absorption and the contribution of BrC relative to black carbon absorption at 370 nm of ozonized soot were 23.0 ± 1.8% and 30.0 ± 3.0%, respectively, much greater than those of fresh soot (8.1 ± 1.1% and 8.8 ± 1.3%, respectively). The absorption Ångström exponent (AAE) and delta C (ΔC) of ozonized soot at 60 min ranged from 1.18 ± 0.01 to 1.31 ± 0.03 and from 13.5 ± 7.0 to 24.3 ± 13.5 μg m, respectively, and were greater than those of fresh soot (1.12 ± 0.02 and 8.0 ± 0.8 μg m), but also showed non-monotonic trends, suggesting the formation of BrC during O aging. Comparative results indicated that AAE might be a better BrC indicator for soot than ΔC. The non-monotonic trend was tentatively explained by changes in organic carbon, oxygenated functional groups and conjugated structures, as well as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) degradation and oxygenated PAH formation. The relative intensities of oxidative formation and degradation of chromophores may determine BrC evolution during O aging. This study will be useful for clarifying BrC evolution in the atmosphere and estimating its radiative forcing.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2020.115273DOI Listing
November 2020

Protective Activities of C. Z. Tang et S. J. Cheng Polysaccharide against High-Cholesterol Diet-Induced Atherosclerosis in Zebrafish.

Oxid Med Cell Longev 2020 8;2020:8365056. Epub 2020 Jul 8.

School of Traditional Chinese Pharmacy, China Pharmaceutical University, Nanjing, 211198 Jiangsu, China.

Cardiovascular disease is the highest cause of death, and atherosclerosis (AS) is the primary pathogenesis of many cardiovascular diseases. In this study, we aim to investigate the possible pharmaceutical effects of C. Z. Tang et S. J. Cheng polysaccharide (DHP) in AS. We fed zebrafish with high-cholesterol diet (HCD) to establish a zebrafish AS model and treated with DHP and observed plaque formation and neutrophil counts under a fluorescence microscope. Next, a parallel flow chamber was utilized to establish low shear stress- (LSS-) induced endothelial cell (EC) dysfunction model. We observed that DHP significantly improved HCD-induced lipid deposition, oxidative stress, and inflammatory response, mainly showing that DHP significantly increased superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, decreased plaque formation, and decreased neutrophil recruitment and the levels of total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), malondialdehyde (MDA), and reactive oxygen species (ROS). Furthermore, DHP significantly improved LSS-induced oxidative stress and EC dysfunction. Our results indicated that DHP can exert treatment effects on AS, which may attribute to its hypolipidemic, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory activities and improving LSS-induced EC dysfunction. DHP has promising potential for further development as a functional natural medicine source targeted at AS prevention.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2020/8365056DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7366212PMC
July 2020

Multiferroic decorated FeO monolayer predicted from first principles.

Nanoscale 2020 Jul;12(27):14847-14852

Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Nevada, Las Vegas, Nevada 89154, USA.

Two-dimensional (2D) multiferroics exhibit cross-control capacity between magnetic and electric responses in a reduced spatial domain, making them well suited for next-generation nanoscale devices; however, progress has been slow in developing materials with required characteristic properties. Here we identify by first-principles calculations robust 2D multiferroic behaviors in decorated Fe2O3 monolayers, showcasing Li@Fe2O3 as a prototypical case, where ferroelectricity and ferromagnetism stem from the same origin, namely Fe d-orbital splitting induced by the Jahn-Teller distortion and associated crystal field changes. These findings establish strong material phenomena and elucidate the underlying physics mechanism in a family of truly 2D multiferroics that are highly promising for advanced device applications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d0nr03391jDOI Listing
July 2020

Reactive Oxygen Species-Related Inside-to-Outside Oxidation of Soot Particles Triggered by Visible-Light Irradiation: Physicochemical Property Changes and Oxidative Potential Enhancement.

Environ Sci Technol 2020 07 8;54(14):8558-8567. Epub 2020 Jul 8.

Modifications of the physicochemical properties and oxidative potential (OP) of soot due to visible-light irradiation and its underlying mechanisms during atmospheric aging have not been elucidated. In this study, two types of soot obtained using different air/fuel ratios (A/F) were aged under visible light with or without ozone (O) at an atmospherically relevant level in an environmental chamber. Physicochemical characteristics and OP of aged soot were systematically measured using the dithiothreitol (DTT) assay (OP). Regardless of the presence of O, visible light markedly promoted oxidation of soot, which led to consumption of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, formation of oxygen-containing functional groups, and enhancement of OP values. Compared to low-A/F soot, high-A/F soot contained more elemental carbon but less organic carbon and was more sensitive to visible light by exhibiting greater changes. It was proposed that elemental carbon in soot under visible-light irradiation initiated an inside-to-outside oxidation pathway, where reactive oxygen species played an important role. This study clarified the solar irradiation-triggered self-oxidation process in soot, which is important to its atmospheric and health effects.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.est.0c01150DOI Listing
July 2020

Negative emotions and quality of life among adolescents: A moderated mediation model.

Int J Clin Health Psychol 2020 May-Aug;20(2):118-125. Epub 2020 Mar 31.

School of Education, Zhengzhou University, China.

Background/objective: Depression, anxiety and stress are known as negative emotions. Previous studies have shown that negative emotions were associated with quality of life. There are a lot of researches on quality of life. However, previous studies mainly focused on health-related quality of life among patients. This study aims to examine the relationship between negative emotions and quality of life as well as the underlying psychological mechanism among community-based samples.

Method: We surveyed 6,401 adolescents (age: 9-15 years old). Participants were assessed using the Depression Anxiety Stress Scale, Resilience Scale for Chinese Adolescent, Perceived Social Support Scale and the Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory 4.0 Generic Scale for Negative Emotions, Resilience, Social Support and Quality of Life.

Results: Results revealed that negative emotions were negatively associated with quality of life, and resilience mediated the relationship between negative emotions and quality of life. Social support moderated all the paths among negative emotions, resilience and quality of life.

Conclusions: Adolescents' quality of life was indirectly affected by negative emotions via resilience, and less affected by negative emotions and more affected by resilience with the improvement of social support. The theoretical and practical implications of these results are discussed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijchp.2020.02.001DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7296238PMC
March 2020

Left ventricular systolic dyssynchrony in patients with Kawasaki disease: a real-time three-dimensional echocardiography study.

Int J Cardiovasc Imaging 2020 Oct 11;36(10):1941-1951. Epub 2020 Jun 11.

The Department of Ultrasound Medicine, The First Affiliated Hospital, Xi'an Jiaotong University, No 277, Yanta West Road, Xi'an, 710061, Shaanxi Province, China.

The left ventricular (LV) systolic dyssynchrony index (SDI) is an important prognostic indicator for many cardiovascular diseases; however, the characteristics of the SDI in patients with Kawasaki disease (KD) are unknown. In this study, we aimed to identify and quantify the SDI using real-time three-dimensional echocardiography (RT3DE) in KD patients during different phases. In addition, we intended to explore whether the SDI is associated with systolic dysfunction. Seventy consecutive KD patients and seventy age- and sex-matched controls were enrolled. The SDIs (percent of cardiac cycle) of 16 segments (16-SDI%) and 12 segments (12-SDI%) were calculated based on the defined standard deviation of each segment time from end diastole to the minimal systolic volume according to the 17-segment model (apex excluded). In the acute phase, the 16-SDI% and 12-SDI% were significantly higher in KD patients than in controls (4.40 ± 0.14 vs. 1.98 ± 0.12, P = 0.000; 3.55 ± 1.21 vs. 1.67 ± 0.93, P = 0.009, respectively), and patients with coronary artery aneurysm (CAA) exhibited higher 16-SDI% (P = 0.021) and 12-SDI% (P = 0.034) than patients without CAA. In the convalescent phase, patients with CAA still had higher 16-SDI% (P = 0.002) and 12-SDI% (P = 0.031) than controls, while the SDI in patients without CAA recovered to normal. The 16-SDI% was negatively correlated with the LV ejection fraction obtained from RT3DE (r = - 0.845, P = 0.000). Mechanical dyssynchrony is prevalent in KD patients during the acute phase and transient in patients without CAA, while patients with CAA still have impaired synchrony even in the convalescent phase. LV systolic dysfunction is associated with increased dyssynchrony. RT3DE is a valuable modality for identifying and quantifying dyssynchrony in KD patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10554-020-01909-2DOI Listing
October 2020

Janus WSSe Monolayer: An Excellent Photocatalyst for Overall Water Splitting.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2020 Jul 23;12(26):29335-29343. Epub 2020 Jun 23.

School of Mechanical, Medical and Process Engineering, Queensland University of Technology, Gardens Point Campus, Brisbane, QLD 4001, Australia.

Stable photocatalysts with excellent optical adsorption and low reaction barrier are the key for the water splitting. Here, we find that a two-dimensional Janus WSSe monolayer possesses the compelling photocatalytic properties from density functional theory simulations, which can be well modulated with strain deformation. Comprehensive investigations indicate that the Janus material not only exhibits strong optical absorbance in the visible spectrum, suitable band edge potentials, high carrier separation, and transfer efficiency but also has adequate driving forces of photoexcited carrier for water redox reaction and good resistance against photoinduced corrosion. Janus WSSe is therefore predicted to be a promising photocatalyst for water splitting. Moreover, we also find that tensile strains could further improve the photocatalytic performance for water splitting by effectively increasing the energy conversion efficiency and reducing the exciton binding energy. Our results not only predict a photocatalyst, which can utilize the visible light for overall water splitting, but also propose an effective path to extend the absorption spectra and raise the photocatalytic efficiency.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsami.0c06149DOI Listing
July 2020

Intercalation-Induced Disintegrated Layer-By-Layer Growth of Ultrathin Ternary Mo(TeS) Plates.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2020 Jul 23;12(27):30980-30989. Epub 2020 Jun 23.

School of Mechanical and Mining Engineering, The University of Queensland, St. Lucia, Queensland 4072, Australia.

Nanometer-thick transition-metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) have attracted increasing research interest because of their exotic physical properties, but their high-yield and large-scale synthesis remains a challenge for their practical device applications. In this study, we realize the high-yield synthesis of nanometer-thick single-crystalline Mo(TeS) plates by a facile chemical vapor deposition method. Adding S powders in the precursors can result in the products varying from well-faceted MoTe hexagonal plates to irregular Mo(TeS) plates with randomly stacked nanometer-thick layer steps. Moreover, their lateral dimension increases from several μm for binary MoTe to several tens of μm for ternary Mo(TeS). More interestingly, such irregular Mo(TeS) plates can form few layers by ultrasonic exfoliation. Our detailed electron microscopy analyses show that three kinds of S forms influence the ternary growth. In particular, elemental S intercalations play an important role in the growth and exfoliation of ultrathin Mo(TeS) plates. This study enriches the fundamental understanding of zero-valent intercalation in TMDs and provides a new insight into secure high-yield nanometer-thick TMDs, which is critical for practical applications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsami.0c07342DOI Listing
July 2020

Gut-Derived Serotonin Contributes to the Progression of Non-Alcoholic Steatohepatitis the Liver HTR2A/PPARγ2 Pathway.

Front Pharmacol 2020 14;11:553. Epub 2020 May 14.

State Key Laboratory of Natural Medicines, China Pharmaceutical University, Nanjing, China.

The precipitous increase in occurrence of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is a serious threat to public health worldwide. The pathogenesis of NASH has not yet been thoroughly studied. We aimed to elucidate the interplay between serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) and NASH. The serum 5-HT levels in patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and a rat fed with high fat-sucrose diet (HFSD) were evaluated using liquid chromatography-hybrid quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LC-QTOF MS)/MS. The peripheral Tph1 inhibitor, LP533401, and a tryptophan (TRP)-free diet were administered to rats with NASH, induced by HFSD. BRL-3A cells were treated with 1 mM free fatty acids (FFAs) and/or 50 μM 5-HT, and then small interfering RNA (siRNA) targeting the 5-HT2A receptor (HTR2A) and the PPARγ pharmaceutical agonist, pioglitazone, were applied. We found a marked correlation between 5-HT and NASH. The absence of 5-HT, through the pharmaceutical blockade of Tph1 (LP533401) and dietary control (TRP-free diet), suppressed hepatic lipid load and the expression of inflammatory factors (, , and ). In BRL-3A cells, 50 μM 5-HT induced lipid accumulation and upregulated the expression of lipogenesis-ralated genes (, , and ) and the inflammatory response. Specifically, HTR2A knockdown and evaluation of PPARγ agonist activity revealed that HTR2A promoted hepatic steatosis and inflammation by activating PPARγ2. These results suggested that duodenal 5-HT was a risk factor in the pathological progression of NASH. Correspondingly, it may represent an attractive therapeutic target for preventing the development of NASH the regulation of the HTR2A/PPARγ2 signaling pathway.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fphar.2020.00553DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7240039PMC
May 2020