Publications by authors named "Jing Qi"

370 Publications

Cyto-friendly polymerization at cell surfaces modulates cell fate by clustering cell-surface receptors.

Chem Sci 2020 Mar 25;11(16):4221-4225. Epub 2020 Mar 25.

Key Laboratory of Imaging Diagnosis and Minimally Invasive Intervention Research, Lishui Hospital of Zhejiang University Lishui 323000 China

Lots of strategies, using multivalent synthetic polymers, have been developed to control the spatial distribution of cell-surface receptors, thus modulating the cell function and fate in a custom-tailored manner. However, clustering cell-surface receptors multivalent synthetic polymers is highly dependent on the structure as well as the ligand-density of the polymers, which may impose difficulties on the synthesis of polymers with a high density of ligands. Here, we pioneered the utilization of a cyto-friendly polymerization at the cell surface to cluster cell-surface receptors. As a proof of concept, an anti-CD20 aptamer conjugated macromer was initially synthesized, which was then efficiently and stably introduced onto the Raji cell surface ligand-receptor interaction. With the assistance of an initiator, ammonium peroxysulfate (APS), the macromer bound onto the Raji cell surface polymerized, inducing the clustering of CD20 receptors, and thereby triggering cell apoptosis. This cell-surface polymerization induced cell-surface receptor crosslinking could alternatively be applied in modulating the fates and functions of other cells, especially those mediated by the spatial distribution of cell-surface receptors, such as T cell activation. Our work opens new possibilities in the area of chemical biology to some extent.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/c9sc06385dDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8152676PMC
March 2020

Effects of different doses of cisatracurium on intraoperative nerve monitoring in thyroid surgery: a randomised controlled trial.

Br J Anaesth 2021 Jun 9. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Department of Anaesthesiology and Perioperative Medicine, Shanghai Fourth People's Hospital, Tongji University School of Medicine, Shanghai, China; Translational Research Institute of Brain and Brain-like Intelligence, Shanghai Fourth People's Hospital, Tongji University School of Medicine, Shanghai, China; Department of Anaesthesiology, Shanghai Tenth People's Hospital, Tongji University School of Medicine, Shanghai, China. Electronic address:

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bja.2021.05.011DOI Listing
June 2021

TGFβ1 in Cancer-Associated Fibroblasts Is Associated With Progression and Radiosensitivity in Small-Cell Lung Cancer.

Front Cell Dev Biol 2021 20;9:667645. Epub 2021 May 20.

Department of Radiotherapy, Tianjin Medical University Cancer Institute and Hospital, Tianjin, China.

Objective: Small-cell lung cancer (SCLC) is aggressive, with early metastasis. Cytokines secreted by cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) within various tumors influences these features, but the function in particular of TGFβ1 (transforming growth factor beta 1) is controversial and unknown in SCLC. This study explored the influence of TGFβ1 in CAFs on the development, immune microenvironment, and radiotherapy sensitivity of SCLC.

Methods: SCLC specimens were collected from 90 patients who had received no treatment before surgery. Tumor and tumor stroma were subjected to multiplex immunohistochemistry to quantitate TGFβ1 and other immune factors in CAFs. Cell proliferation and flow cytometry apoptosis assays were used to investigate associations between TGFβ1 and proliferation and radiotherapy sensitivity. The immune factors in tumors were detected by immunohistochemistry and (mice).

Results: TGFβ1 levels on CAFs lower or higher than the median were found, respectively, in 52.2 and 47.8% of patients; overall survival of patients with TGFβ1-high levels (53.9 mo) was significantly longer than that of the TGFβ1-low group (26.9 mo; = 0.037). The univariate and multivariate analyses indicated that a TGFβ1-high level was an independent predictor of increased survival time. TGFβ1-high levels in CAFs were associated with inhibition of growth, proliferation, antitumor immunity, and enhanced radiotherapeutic sensitivity and tumor immunity of tumor. TGFβ1-low levels promoted tumor cell growth and radiotherapy sensitivity and .

Conclusion: High levels of TGFβ1 in CAFs were associated with longer overall survival in patients with SCLC and enhanced radiotherapy sensitivity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fcell.2021.667645DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8172974PMC
May 2021

Mechanism of Stability and Transport of Chitosan-Stabilized Nano Zero-Valent Iron in Saturated Porous Media.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2021 May 12;18(10). Epub 2021 May 12.

Faculty of Architecture, Civil and Transportation Engineering, Beijing University of Technology, Beijing 100124, China.

Chitosan-stabilized nano zero-valent iron (CTS-nZVI) prepared by the liquid-phase reduction method has been shown to achieve a good dispersion effect. However, there has been little analysis on the mechanism affecting its stability and transport in saturated porous media. In this paper, settling experiments were conducted to study the stabilization of CTS-nZVI. The transport of CTS-nZVI in saturated porous media at different influencing factors was studied by sand column experiments. The stability mechanism of CTS-nZVI was analyzed from the point of view of colloidal stability by settling experiments and a zeta potential test. The theoretical model of colloidal filtration was applied for the calculation of transport coefficients on the basis of the column experiments data. Considering attachment-detachment effects, a particle transport model was built using HYDRUS-1D software to analyze the transport and spatial distribution of CTS-nZVI in a sand column.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18105115DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8150866PMC
May 2021

Yixin-Fumai granules improve sick sinus syndrome in aging mice through Nrf-2/HO-1 pathway: A new target for sick sinus syndrome.

J Ethnopharmacol 2021 Sep 29;277:114254. Epub 2021 May 29.

Liaoning University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Shenyang, 110000, China; Department of Cardiology, Affiliated Hospital of Liaoning University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Shenyang, 110000, China. Electronic address:

Ethnopharmacological Relevance: Yixin-Fumai granules (YXFMs)-composed of Ginseng quinquefolium (L.) Alph. Wood, Ophiopogon japonicus (Thunb.) Ker Gawl, Schisandra arisanensis Hayata, Astragalus aaronsohnianus Eig, Salvia cryptantha Montbret & Aucher ex Benth, and Ligusticum striatum DC-are compound granules used in traditional Chinese medicine to increase heart rate and thus treat bradyarrhythmia. It may be effective in treating sick sinus syndrome (SSS).

Aim: To observe the effect of YXFMs on aging-induced SSS in mice and explore whether this effect is related to the Nrf-2/HO-1 signaling pathway.

Materials And Methods: Mice with a significant decrease in the heart rate due to natural aging were selected to construct an SSS model. After the mice were administered YXFMs, the damage to their sinoartrial node (SAN) was assessed through electrocardiography, Masson's trichrome staining, and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick-end labeling (TUNEL). Dihydroethidium staining and immunofluorescence staining were used to assay reactive oxygen species (ROS) content and HCN4, respectively. Moreover, to observe the effects of YXFMs in vitro, the HL-1 cell line, derived from mouse atrial myocytes, was used to simulate SAN pacemaker cells, with HO used as the cellular oxidative stress (OS) inducer. 2,7-Dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate staining was used to assay ROS content, whereas immunofluorescence staining and Western blotting were used to elucidate the related protein expression. Finally, mice were injected the Nrf-2 inhibitor ML385 to reversely verify the effects of YXFMs.

Results: In our in vivo experiments, YXFMs significantly inhibited aging-induced SSS, shortened the R-R interval, increased heart rate, alleviated fibrosis, reduced apoptosis rate and ROS content, and promote HCN4 expression in the SAN. In our in vitro experiments, YXFMs significantly inhibited HO-induced cell peroxidation damage, promoted Nrf-2 activation and nuclear metastasis, increased HO-1 expression- thereby inhibiting ROS accumulation-and finally, upregulated HCN4 expression through the inhibition of histone deacetylase 4 (HDAC4) expression and its nuclear metastasis. Finally, injection of the Nrf-2 inhibitor ML385 after YXFMs administration inhibited their protective effect in the mice.

Conclusion: Here, we elaborated on the relationship between aging-induced SSS and the Nrf-2/HO-1 pathway for the first time and proposed that YXFMs improve SSS via the Nrf-2/HO-1 axis. Specifically, YXFMs promoted Nrf-2 activation and plasma-nuclear transfer to enhance HO-1 expression via the Nrf-2/HO-1 axis. This inhibited OS and reduced ROS accumulation in the SAN, and then, through the ROS/HDAC4 axis, reduced HDAC4 expression and plasma-nuclear transfer. Thereby, the OS-induced HCN4 loss in the SAN was inhibited-improving the function of I channel and thus producing SAN protection effect against SSS and improving the heart rate and R-R interval. In the future, we plan to use bioinformatics analysis technology to execute the next step of our research, namely to determine the effect of isolated, purified components of YXFMs in SSS, to increase its efficiency and reduce the toxicity of YXFMs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2021.114254DOI Listing
September 2021

Inhibition of Antiviral Innate Immunity by Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus L through Interaction with N-terminal Domain of Swine RNase L.

J Virol 2021 May 12. Epub 2021 May 12.

Shandong Key Laboratory of Animal Disease Control and Breeding, Institute of Animal Science and Veterinary Medicine, Shandong Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Jinan, Shandong, China

Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) is the pathogen of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD), which is a highly contagious disease in cloven-hoofed animals. To survive in the host, FMDV has evolved multiple strategies to antagonize host innate immune responses. In this study, we showed that the leader protease (L) of FMDV, a papain-like proteinase, promoted viral replication by evading the antiviral interferon response through counteracting the 2',5'-oligoadenylate synthetase (OAS)/RNase L system. Specifically, we observed that the titers of L deletion virus were significantly lower than those of wild type FMDV (FMDV-WT) in cultured cells. Our mechanistic studies demonstrated that L interfered with the OAS/RNase L pathway by interacting with N-terminal domain of swine RNase L (sRNase L). Remarkably, L of FMDV exhibited species-specific binding to RNase L in that the interaction was observed only in swine cells, not human, monkey or canine cells. Lastly, we presented evidence that by interacting with sRNase L, FMDV L inhibited cellular apoptosis. Taken together, these results demonstrate a novel mechanism that L utilizes to escape the OAS/RNase L-mediated antiviral defense pathway.FMDV is a picornavirus that causes a significant disease in agricultural animals. FMDV has developed diverse strategies to escape the host interferon response. Here we show that L of FMDV antagonizes the OAS/RNase L pathway, an important interferon effector pathway, by interacting with N-terminal domain of sRNase L. Interestingly, such a virus-host interaction is species-specific because the interaction is detected only in swine cells, not in human, monkey, or canine cells. Furthermore, L inhibits apoptosis through interacting with sRNase L. This study demonstrates a novel mechanism by which FMDV has evolved to inhibit host innate immune responses.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/JVI.00361-21DOI Listing
May 2021

Antifouling potential and microbial characterization of an electrochemical anaerobic membrane bioreactor utilizing membrane cathode and iron anode.

Bioresour Technol 2021 Apr 30;334:125230. Epub 2021 Apr 30.

State Key Laboratory of Environmental Aquatic Chemistry, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100085, China; University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China. Electronic address:

Serious membrane fouling limits the application of anaerobic membrane bioreactors (AnMBRs) in sewage treatment. Herein, a novel electrochemical AnMBR (eAnMBR) was established by integrating electrocoagulation and a conductive membrane into an AnMBR. Compared with the traditional AnMBR, TP average removal rate increased by 24.97% and the membrane service cycle extended by 109.68% in the eAnMBR. Low extracellular polymeric substance concentration and large floc size were found in the mixed liquid of the eAnMBR due to the combined effect of coagulation and electric field, which induced a porous and hydrophilic cake layer, resulting in excellent water permeation capabilities. Additionally, the conductive membrane cathode effectively suppressed membrane fouling by the electrostatic repulsion and gas scouring. In the eAnMBR, the presence of an electric field and iron ions enriched the diversity of the microbial community, which may improve the adaptation of biochemical systems to environmental changes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2021.125230DOI Listing
April 2021

Shenxian-Shengmai Oral Liquid Improves Sinoatrial Node Dysfunction through the PKC/NOX-2 Signaling Pathway.

Evid Based Complement Alternat Med 2021 10;2021:5572140. Epub 2021 Apr 10.

Department of Cardiology, Affiliated Hospital of Liaoning University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Shenyang, China.

Sick sinus syndrome (SSS) is one of the common causes of cardiac syncope and sudden death; the occurrence of SSS is associated with the accumulation of ROS in the sinoatrial node (SAN). Shenxian-shengmai (SXSM) is a traditional Chinese medicine available as oral liquid that causes a significant increase in heart rate. The objective of this study is to observe the improvement of SXSM on SAN function in SSS mice and explore its potential mechanism. In the current study, SSS was simulated in mice by inducing SAN dysfunction using a micro-osmotic pump to inject angiotensin II (Ang II). The mouse model with SSS was used to determine the effect of SXSM on SAN function and to explore its potential mechanism. Furthermore, the HL-1 cell line, derived from mouse atrial myocytes, was used to simulate SAN pacemaker cells. Our results indicated that SXSM significantly increased the heart rate of SSS mice by reducing the AngII-induced accumulation of ROS in the SAN and by inhibiting the expression of HDAC4, thereby reducing the loss of HCN4, a critical component of the cardiac conduction system. MASSON staining revealed a reduction of SAN damage in SSS mice that were treated with SXSM compared with controls. In vitro experiments showed that AngII treatment caused an upregulation of the PKC/NOX-2 signaling pathway in HL-1 cells which could be prevented by pretreatment with SXSM. The protective effect of SXSM was attenuated upon treatment with the PCK agonist PMA. In conclusion, SXSM reduced the AngII-induced accumulation of ROS in the SAN through the PKC/NOX2 signaling pathway, improving the functioning of the SAN and preventing the decrease of heart rate in SSS mice.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2021/5572140DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8055400PMC
April 2021

HLA-A2.1-restricted ECM1-derived epitope LA through DC cross-activation priming CD8 T and NK cells: a novel therapeutic tumour vaccine.

J Hematol Oncol 2021 Apr 28;14(1):71. Epub 2021 Apr 28.

Department of Pharmacology, School of Pharmacy, China Medical University, No. 13, Beihai Road, Dadong District, Shenyang, Liaoning Province, China.

Background: CD8 T cell-mediated adaptive cellular immunity and natural killer (NK) cell-mediated innate immunity both play important roles in tumour immunity. This study aimed to develop therapeutic tumour vaccines based on double-activation of CD8 T and NK cells.

Methods: The immune Epitope database, Molecular Operating Environment software, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay were used for epitope identification. Flow cytometry, confocal microscopy, UPLC-QTOF-MS, and RNA-seq were utilized for evaluating immunity of PBMC-derived DCs, CD8 T or NK cells and related pathways. HLA-A2.1 transgenic mice combined with immunologically reconstituted tumour-bearing mice were used to examine the antitumour effect and safety of epitope vaccines.

Results: We identified novel HLA-A2.1-restricted extracellular matrix protein 1(ECM1)-derived immunodominant epitopes in which LA induced a potent immune response. We also found that LA-loaded DCs upregulated the frequency of CD3/CD8 T cells, CD45RO/CD69 activated memory T cells, and CD3/CD16/CD56 NK cells. We demonstrated cytotoxic granule release of LA/DC-CTLs or LA/DC-NK cells and cytotoxicity against tumour cells and microtissue blocks via the predominant IFN-γ/perforin/granzyme B cell death pathway. Further investigating the mechanism of LA-mediated CD8 T activation, we found that LA could be internalized into DCs through phagocytosis and then formed a LA-MHC-I complex presented onto the DC surface for recognition of the T cell receptor to upregulate Zap70 phosphorylation levels to further activate CD8 T cells by DC-CTL interactions. In addition, LA-mediated DC-NK crosstalk through stimulation of the TLR4-p38 MAPK pathway increased MICA/B expression on DCs to interact with NKG2D for NK activation. Promisingly, LA could activate CD8 T cells and NK cells simultaneously via interacting with DCs to suppress tumours in vivo. Moreover, the safety of LA was confirmed.

Conclusions: LA-induced immune antitumour activity through DC cross-activation with CD8 T and NK cells, which demonstrated proof-of-concept evidence for the capability and safety of a novel therapeutic tumour vaccine.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13045-021-01081-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8082934PMC
April 2021

Altered functional connectivity between the nucleus basalis of Meynert and anterior cingulate cortex is associated with declined attentional performance after total sleep deprivation.

Behav Brain Res 2021 Jul 25;409:113321. Epub 2021 Apr 25.

School of Medicine, Nankai University, Tianjin, 300071, China; Department of Neurology, The Secondary Medical Center, Sleep Medicine Research Center, National Clinical Research Centre for Geriatric Diseases, Chinese PLA General Hospital, Beijing, 100853, China. Electronic address:

Background: Sleep deprivation can markedly influence vigilant attention. The nucleus basalis of Meynert (NBM), the main source of cholinergic projections to the cortex, plays an important role in wakefulness maintenance and attention control. However, the involvement of NBM in attentional impairments after total sleep deprivation (TSD) has yet to be established. The purpose of this study is to investigate the alterations in NBM functional connectivity and its association with the attentional performance following TSD.

Methods: Thirty healthy adult males were recruited in the study. Participants underwent two resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) scans, once in rested wakefulness (RW) and once after 36 h of TSD. Seed-based functional connectivity analysis was performed using rs-fMRI data for the left and right NBM. The vigilant attention was measured using a psychomotor vigilance test (PVT). Furthermore, Pearson correlation analysis was conducted to investigate the relationship between altered NBM functional connectivity and changed PVT performance after TSD.

Results: Compared to RW, enhanced functional connectivity was observed between right NBM and bilateral thalamus and cingulate cortex, while reduced functional connectivity was observed between left NBM and right superior parietal lobule following TSD. Moreover, altered NBM functional connectivity with the left anterior cingulate cortex was negatively correlated with PVT performance after TSD.

Conclusion: Our results suggest that the disrupted NBM-related cholinergic circuit highlights an important role in attentional performance after TSD. The enhanced NBM functional connectivity with the anterior cingulate cortex may act as neural signatures for attentional deficits induced by sleep deprivation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbr.2021.113321DOI Listing
July 2021

Highly Enantioselective Synthesis of Pyrroloindolones and Pyrroloquinolinones via an -Heterocyclic Carbene-Catalyzed Cascade Reaction.

Org Lett 2021 May 23;23(9):3777-3781. Epub 2021 Apr 23.

In this work, the NHC-catalyzed Michael/Mannich/lactamization cascade reaction of enals with either indole-2-carboxaldehyde-derived aldimines or indole-7-carboxaldehyde-derived aldimines is described. This protocol enables the rapid assembly of optically active pyrroloindolones and pyrroloquinolinones derivatives under mild conditions with high yields, excellent enantioselectivities, and a broad substrate scope.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.orglett.1c01203DOI Listing
May 2021

Survival prediction for non-small cell lung cancer patients treated with CT-guided microwave ablation: development of a prognostic nomogram.

Int J Hyperthermia 2021 ;38(1):640-649

Department of Minimally Invasive Tumor Therapies Center, Beijing Hospital, National Center of Gerontology, Institute of Geriatric Medicine, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, Beijing, China.

Objectives: To explore the outcomes of CT-guided percutaneous microwave ablation (MWA) in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients, and then develop an effective nomogram to predict the survival.

Methods: NSCLC patients treated with MWA were randomly allocated to either the training cohort or the validation cohort (3:1). The primary outcome measurement was overall survival (OS), whose predictors were identified by univariate and multivariate analyses in the training cohort. Then, a predictive nomogram was developed to predict the OS, with the predictive accuracy evaluated by -statistic and receiver operating characteristic in both the training and validation cohorts.

Results: A total of 234 patients (training cohort:  = 176; validation cohort:  = 58) and 271 tumors with a median OS of 17.0 ± 12.2 months were included. The predictors selected into the nomogram included tumor diameter (hazard ratio [HR], 2.12; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.37-3.30;  < 0.001), extrapulmonary metastases (HR, 1.77; 95% CI, 1.06-2.95;  = 0.030), tumor stage (HR, 1.38; 95% CI, 1.07-1.79;  = 0.013), tumor type (HR, 2.00; 95% CI, 1.48-2.72;  < 0.001) and post-MWA TKIs (HR, 0.55; 95% CI, 0.34-0.89;  < 0.001), based on the results of univariate and multivariate analyses. The -statistic showed good predictive performance, with a -statistic of 0.838 (95% CI, 0.779-0.897) internally and 0.808 (95% CI, 0.695-0.920) externally (training cohort and validation cohort, respectively).

Conclusions: The nomogram was effective in predicting the OS in NSCLC patients treated with MWA, and could be applied to identify patients who may benefit most from MWA and be helpful for clinical decision making.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/02656736.2021.1914353DOI Listing
January 2021

Double-endpoint Genotoxicity Quantification and PAHs Characterization of Drinking Water Source alongside Polluted Yinghe River with High Tumor Mortality.

Curr Med Sci 2021 Apr 20;41(2):189-198. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

National Institute of Environmental Health, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, China CDC Key Laboratory of Environment and Population Health, Beijing, 100021, China.

The etiology for the high tumor mortality in heavy polluted Yinghe river basin is still unclear and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) belong to the priority pollutants in water based on the former surveillance data. In order to explore the potential genotoxicants contributing to the double-endpoint genotoxicity of polluted drinking water source, 12 groundwater and 3 surface water samples were collected from 3 villages and the nearby rivers alongside Yinghe river basin, respectively and their comprehensive genotoxicity was estimated with a bioassay group of SOS/umu test and micronucleus (MN) test (MNT). Some groundwater samples showed positive genotoxicity and all surface water samples were highly genotoxic. Eight groundwater samples showed DNA genotoxic effect with the average 4-NQO equivalent concentration (TEQ) of 0.067 µg/L and 0.089 µg/L in wet and dry season, respectively. The average MN ratios of groundwater samples were 14.19‰ and 17.52‰ in wet and dry season, respectively. Groundwater samples showed different genotoxic effect among 3 villages. The total PAHs concentrations in all water samples ranged from 8.98 to 25.17 ng/L with an average of 14.97±4.85 ng/L. BaA, CHR, BkF, BaP and DBA were the main carcinogenic PAHs contributing to the genotoxicity of water samples. In conclusion, carcinogenic PAHs are possibly related to the high tumor mortality in the target area. Characterization of carcinogenic PAHs to genotoxicity of drinking water source may shed light on the etiology study for high tumor mortality in Yinghe river basin.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11596-021-2336-zDOI Listing
April 2021

The Value of Serum Cell-Free DNA Levels in Patients With Schizophrenia.

Front Psychiatry 2021 30;12:637789. Epub 2021 Mar 30.

Center of Laboratory Medicine, Affiliated Hospital of Nantong University, Nantong, China.

Schizophrenia is a severe mental disorder, which has a major impact on the quality of life and imposes a huge burden on the family. However, the pathogenesis of schizophrenia remains unclear and there are no specific biomarkers. Therefore, we intend to explore whether cf-DNA levels are related to the occurrence and development of schizophrenia. We analyzed and compared the concentration of cf-DNA in 174 SZ patients and 100 matched healthy controls by using quantitative real-time PCR by amplifying the repeats. We found that cf-DNA levels in peripheral blood reliably distinguished SZ patients from healthy controls ( < 0.05). The ROC analysis also supports the above conclusion. By tracking the absolute concentration of serum cf-DNA in primary cases, we found a distinct increase before treatment with antipsychotics, which decreased progressively after treatment. The present work indicates that cf-DNA may improve the efficiency of disease diagnosis, and the level of cf-DNA plays a predictive role in the development of schizophrenia. By evaluating the level of cf-DNA, we might play a certain role in a more reasonable and standardized clinical treatment of schizophrenia.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpsyt.2021.637789DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8042127PMC
March 2021

[Primary Study on Chronic Myeloid Leukemia in NCG Mice from Qinba Mushroom].

Zhongguo Shi Yan Xue Ye Xue Za Zhi 2021 Apr;29(2):381-388

Department of Hematology, Gansu Provincial Hospital;Lanzhou 730000, Gansu Province, China,Department of Clinical Teachingy, Gansu Provincial Hospital;Lanzhou 730000, Gansu Province,

Objective: The present study was to evaluate the anti-tumor effects of acidic RNA protein complex (FA-2-b-β) extracted from the wild edible Qinba mushroom in inducing of apoptosis and immunoregulation of tumor cell.

Methods: Cell proliferation inducing rate of FA-2-b-β to K562 cell was measured using CCK-8. Apoptosis rate was detected by using flow cytometry. Chronic myeloid leukemia model was developed by tail vein injection/subcutaneous inoculation of K562 cells in NCG mice. The tumor burden of mice was observed. The general condition of the mice was monitored twice daily. The peripherivcal full blood counts of mice was tested daily. RT-qPCR and Western blot was FA-2-b-β performed to determine involvement of apoptotic-related gene and protenin, Immunofluorescence and immunohistochemistry was used to detected the expression of CD3, CD4 and CD8.

Results: The proliferation and apoptosis of K562 cell could be inhibitied and induced by FA-2-b-β, there was 100% successful in the tumor formation in vivo, after treated by drug for 21 days there were significantly increased peripheral leucocytes, but decreased hemoglobin of mice treated by FA-2-b-β as compared with those in control group. The CD3, CD4 and CD8 showed positive in mice, and the propotation was imbalance, but it showed reserved after treated by FA-2-b-β.

Conclusion: FA-2-b-β is strong anti-leukemia effect in vitro and in vivo, suggesting the traditional Chinese medicine maybe contribute to the anti-cancer and immunoregulation research.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.19746/j.cnki.issn.1009-2137.2021.02.012DOI Listing
April 2021

MiR-520a-3p Inhibited Macrophage Polarization and Promoted the Development of Atherosclerosis via Targeting UVRAG in Apolipoprotein E Knockout Mice.

Front Mol Biosci 2020 9;7:621324. Epub 2021 Mar 9.

Department of Geratology, Cangzhou Central Hospital, Cangzhou, China.

Atherosclerosis (AS), a kind of chronic inflammatory blood vessel disease, is a main cause of cardiovascular disease, which is a leading cause of mortality around the world. Accumulation of macrophages induced by inflammation contributes to AS development. It has been indicated that microRNAs (miRNAs) are involved in the process of AS. However, the pathway and gene miRNAs targeting are poorly understood. Here we reported that miR-520a-3p was increased in mice with AS and silencing of miR-520a-3p attenuated AS process. Furthermore, inhibition of miR-520a-3p increased the expression of α-SMA and collagen. In addition, miR-520a-3p silencing inhibited the expression of M1 macrophage polarization markers and pro-inflammatory genes and promoted the M2 macrophage polarization. What's more, forced expression of miR-520a-3p diminished IL4/IL13 induced macrophage autophagy via targeting UVRAG. Collectively, our study reveals the role of miR-520a-3p in macrophage polarization and suggests the potential of miRNA as a novel treatment target of AS.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fmolb.2020.621324DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7985160PMC
March 2021

Risk prediction of pneumothorax in lung malignancy patients treated with percutaneous microwave ablation: development of nomogram model.

Int J Hyperthermia 2021 ;38(1):488-497

Department of Minimally Invasive Tumor Therapies Center, Beijing Hospital, National Center of Gerontology, Institute of Geriatric Medicine, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, Beijing, PR China.

Objectives: To develop effective nomograms for predicting pneumothorax and delayed pneumothorax after microwave ablation (MWA) in lung malignancy (LM) patients.

Methods: LM patients treated with MWA were randomly allocated to a training or validation cohort at a ratio of 7:3. The predictors of pneumothorax identified by univariate and multivariate analyses in the training cohort were used to develop a predictive nomogram. The -statistic was used to evaluate predictive accuracy in both cohorts. A second nomogram for predicting delayed pneumothorax was developed and validated using identical methods.

Results: A total of 552 patients (training cohort:  = 402; validation cohort:  = 150) were included; of these patients, 27.9% (154/552) developed pneumothorax, with immediate and delayed pneumothorax occurring in 18.8% (104/552) and 9.1% (50/552), respectively. The predictors selected for the nomogram of pneumothorax were emphysema (hazard ratio [HR], 6.543;  < .001), history of lung ablation (HR, 7.841; = .025), number of pleural punctures (HR, 1.416;  < .050), ablation zone encompassing pleura (HR, 10.225;  < .001) and pulmonary fissure traversed by needle (HR, 10.776;  < .001). The -statistics showed good predictive performance in the training and validation cohorts (0.792 and 0.832, respectively). Another nomogram for delayed pneumothorax was developed based on emphysema (HR, 2.952; = .005), ablation zone encompassing pleura (HR, 4.915;  < .001) and pulmonary fissure traversed by needle (HR, 4.348; = .015). The -statistics showed good predictive performance in the training cohort, and it had efficacy for prediction in the validation cohort (0.719 and 0.689, respectively).

Conclusions: The nomograms could effectively predict the risk of pneumothorax and delayed pneumothorax after MWA.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/02656736.2021.1902000DOI Listing
January 2021

Selection of water source for water transfer based on algal growth potential to prevent algal blooms.

J Environ Sci (China) 2021 May 29;103:246-254. Epub 2020 Nov 29.

Key Laboratory of Drinking Water Science and Technology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100085, China; University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China.

Water transfer is becoming a popular method for solving the problems of water quality deterioration and water level drawdown in lakes. However, the principle of choosing water sources for water transfer projects has mainly been based on the effects on water quality, which neglects the influence in the variation of phytoplankton community and the risk of algal blooms. In this study, algal growth potential (AGP) test was applied to predict changes in the phytoplankton community caused by water transfer projects. The feasibility of proposed water transfer sources (Baqing River and Jinsha River) was assessed through the changes in both water quality and phytoplankton community in Chenghai Lake, Southwest China. The results showed that the concentration of total nitrogen (TN) and total phosphorus (TP) in Chenghai Lake could be decreased to 0.52 mg/L and 0.02 mg/L respectively with the simulated water transfer source of Jinsha River. The algal cell density could be reduced by 60%, and the phytoplankton community would become relatively stable with the Jinsha River water transfer project, and the dominant species of Anabaena cylindrica evolved into Anabaenopsis arnoldii due to the species competition. However, the risk of algal blooms would be increased after the Baqing River water transfer project even with the improved water quality. Algae gained faster proliferation with the same dominant species in water transfer source. Therefore, water transfer projects should be assessed from not only the variation of water quality but also the risk of algal blooms.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jes.2020.10.020DOI Listing
May 2021

Intralayered Ostwald Ripening-Induced Self-Catalyzed Growth of CNTs on MXene for Robust Lithium-Sulfur Batteries.

Small 2021 Apr 17;17(17):e2007446. Epub 2021 Mar 17.

Henan Key Laboratory of Photovoltaic Materials, Henan University, Kaifeng, 475004, China.

The distinguishable physicochemical properties of MXenes render them attractive in electrochemical energy storage. However, the strong tendency to self-restack owing to the van der Waals interactions between the MXene layers incurs a massive decrease in surface area and blocking of ions transfer and electrolytes penetration. Here, in situ generated Ti C T MXene-carbon nanotubes (Ti C T -CNTs) hybrids are reported via low-temperature self-catalyzing growth of CNTs on Ti C T nanosheets without the addition of any catalyst precursors. With combined spectroscopic studies and theoretical calculation results, it is certified that the intralayered Ostwald ripening-induced Ti C T nanomesh structure contributes to the uniform precipitation of ultrafine metal Ti catalysts on Ti C T , thus giving rise to the in situ CNTs formation on the surface of Ti C T with high integrity. Taking advantages of intimate electrolyte penetration, unobstructed 3D Li /e transport, and rich electroactive sites, the Ti C T -CNTs hybrids are confirmed to be ideal 3D scaffolds for accommodating sulfur and regulating the polysulfides conversion for high-loaded lithium-sulfur batteries.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/smll.202007446DOI Listing
April 2021

Combination Cancer Immunotherapy of Nanoparticle-Based Immunogenic Cell Death Inducers and Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors.

Int J Nanomedicine 2021 22;16:1435-1456. Epub 2021 Feb 22.

Institute of Pharmaceutics, College of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, 310058, People's Republic of China.

Cancer immunotherapy is a promising treatment strategy that aims to strengthen immune responses against cancer. However, the low immunogenicity of tumor cells and inhibition of effector T cells in the tumor immunosuppressive microenvironment remain two major challenges. Immunogenic cell death (ICD) inducers not only directly kill cancer cells but also increase the tumor immunogenicity and induce antitumor immune responses. Immune checkpoint inhibitors can alleviate the inhibition of immune cells. Significantly, the combination of ICD inducers and immune checkpoint inhibitors elicits a remarkable antitumor effect. Nanoparticles confer the ability to modulate systemic biodistribution and achieve targeted accumulation of administered therapeutic agents, thereby facilitating the clinical translation of immunotherapies based on ICD inducers in a safe and effective manner. In this review, we summarize the nanoparticle-based chemical and physical cues that induce effective tumor ICD and elicit an antitumor immune response. In particular, combination of ICD inducers with immune checkpoint inhibitors can further reverse immunosuppression and prevent tumor metastasis and recurrence. An overview of the future challenges and prospects is also provided.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/IJN.S285999DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7910111PMC
March 2021

The recognition of gaming disorder in China: a case series of 223 patients.

PeerJ 2021 4;9:e10827. Epub 2021 Feb 4.

National Clinical Research Center for Mental Disorders, and Department of Psychiatry, the Second Xiangya Hospital of Central South University, Changsha, Hunan, China.

Background: Internet gaming disorder (IGD) was listed in the appendix of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5) as a condition requiring further study in 2013, and gaming disorder (GD) was considered a mental disorder and listed in the 11th International Classification of Diseases Manual (ICD-11) in 2018. The study aims to obtain preliminary knowledge of the recognition of GD in China.

Methods: A total of 223 Chinese patients who met both the ICD-11 and DSM-5 criteria for GD participated in the study, and a self-administered questionnaire was used to collect demographic information, gaming use characteristics, and previous diagnoses.

Results: The average age of patients with GD was 20.5 years, and 71.3% were male. Most patients were diagnosed with emotion-related disorders at their first psychiatric visit: mood disorders (59.2%), bipolar affective disorder (18.4%), depressive episode (12.6%), and anxiety disorder (4.9%). Among the adolescent patients with a first diagnosis of mood disorders, 71.2% and 33.3% were diagnosed with bipolar affective disorder and personality disorders, respectively, at subsequent visits. Overall, after the first visit, the most common diagnosis was bipolar affective disorder (61.0%), followed by personality disorders (34.1%), mood disorders (17.0%), depressive episode (17.0%), and other disorders. Only three patients had Internet overuse.

Conclusion: The identification rate of GD is extremely low in routine psychiatric clinical practice in China. Most patients with GD were previously misdiagnosed with emotion-related disorders. Psychiatrists should be trained to improve their ability to recognize and manage GD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7717/peerj.10827DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7868065PMC
February 2021

Risk prediction of pleural effusion in lung malignancy patients treated with CT-guided percutaneous microwave ablation: a nomogram and artificial neural network model.

Int J Hyperthermia 2021 ;38(1):220-228

Department of Minimally Invasive Tumor Therapies Center, Beijing Hospital, National Center of Gerontology, Beijing, China.

Objectives: To develop an effective nomogram and artificial neural network (ANN) model for predicting pleural effusion after percutaneous microwave ablation (MWA) in lung malignancy (LM) patients.

Methods: LM patients treated with MWA were randomly allocated to either the training cohort or the validation cohort (7:3). The predictors of pleural effusion identified by univariable and multivariable analyses in the training cohort were used to develop a nomogram and ANN model. The -statistic was used to evaluate the predictive accuracy in both the training and validation cohorts.

Results: A total of 496 patients (training cohort:  = 357; validation cohort:  = 139) were enrolled in this study. The predictors selected into the nomogram for pleural effusion included the maximum power (hazard ratio [HR], 1.060; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.022-1.100,  = 0.002), the number of pleural punctures (HR, 2.280; 95% CI, 1.103-4.722;  = 0.026) and the minimum distance from needle to pleura (HR, 0.840; 95% CI, 0.775-0.899;  < 0.001). The -statistic showed good predictive performance in both cohorts, with a -statistic of 0.866 (95% CI, 0.787-0.945) internally and 0.782 (95% CI, 0.644-0.920) externally (training cohort and validation cohort, respectively). The optimal cutoff value for the risk of pleural effusion was 0.16.

Conclusions: Maximum power, number of pleural punctures and minimum distance from needle to pleura were predictors of pleural effusion after MWA in LM patients. The nomogram and ANN model could effectively predict the risk of pleural effusion after MWA. Patients showing a high risk (>0.16) on the nomogram should be monitored for pleural effusion.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/02656736.2021.1885755DOI Listing
January 2021

Selective electrosorption of Ca by MXene cathodes coupled with NiAl-LMO anodes through ion intercalation.

J Colloid Interface Sci 2021 May 27;590:539-547. Epub 2021 Jan 27.

State Key Laboratory of Environmental Aquatic Chemistry, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100085, China; University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China. Electronic address:

Capacitive deionization (CDI), or electrosorption, is a desalination technology that exhibits significant potential; however, its major technical requirement of selective ion separation poses a challenge for its further practical application. Herein, a titanium carbide (MXene)-layered electrosorption electrode with high selectivity for Ca was fabricated. The prepared MXene electrode had many surface hydroxyl functional groups that serve as adsorption sites for Ca. Ca was successfully inserted into the interlayers of the MXene cathode and formed a strong interaction with [Ti-O] bonds during the capacitive deionization process. When a Ni-Al layered metal oxide anion intercalation electrode was employed as the counter electrode, Ca adsorption by the MXene electrode was significantly enhanced due to the valence compensation balance effect. The maximum Ca electrosorption capacity of the MXene electrode reached 1011.82 mg per gram effective MXene material, which is 6.3 times higher than that of Na based on the Langmuir adsorption isotherm model. The MXene electrode exhibited prominent selectivity for Ca ions in the presence of Na and Mg. The Ca/Mg selectivity factor for electrosorption reached 2.63, and Ca/Na selectivity factor could achieve 9.84, respectively. After five electrosorption/desorption cycles, the Ca removal rate only decreased from 46.96% to 45.34%, suggesting that the MXene electrode has excellent stability. Our study demonstrated a novel CDI electrode and technical approach for softening water.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jcis.2021.01.058DOI Listing
May 2021

Exogenous activation of toll-like receptor 5 signaling mitigates acetaminophen-induced hepatotoxicity in mice.

Toxicol Lett 2021 May 9;342:58-72. Epub 2021 Feb 9.

Biosafety Research Institute and Laboratory of Pathology, College of Veterinary Medicine, Jeonbuk National University, Iksan, Jeollabuk-do, 54596, Republic of Korea. Electronic address:

Acetaminophen (APAP) poisoning is the most common cause of drug-induced acute liver injury (ALI). Our results showed that toll-like receptor 5 (TLR5) was abundantly expressed in hepatocytes and dramatically downregulated in the toxic mouse livers. Hence, we herein investigated the role of TLR5 signaling after APAP overdose. Mice were intraperitoneally (i.p.) injected with APAP to induce ALI, and then injected with flagellin at one hour after APAP administration. Flagellin attenuated APAP-induced ALI based on decreased histopathologic lesions, serum biochemical, oxidative stress, and inflammation. Furthermore, the protective effects of flagellin were abolished by TH1020 (a TLR5 antagonist) treatment. These results suggest that flagellin exerted protective effects on ALI via TLR5 activation. Mechanistically, flagellin injection promoted the translocation of nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) to the nucleus in hepatocytes. Consistent with the in vivo results, flagellin increased the activation of Nrf2 in hepatocytes, resulting in decreased APAP toxicity. ML385, a selective inhibitor of Nrf2, abolished the flagellin-mediated hepatoprotective effects in damaged livers and hepatocytes. Additionally, the flagellin-induced Nrf2 translocation was dependent upon the activation of TLR5-JNK/p38 pathways. These findings suggest that TLR5 signaling-induced Nrf2 activation, at least partially, contributed to the protection against APAP-induced ALI by flagellin treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.toxlet.2021.01.022DOI Listing
May 2021

Exploring user experience of digital pen and tablet technology for learning chemistry: applying an activity theory lens.

Heliyon 2021 Jan 22;7(1):e06020. Epub 2021 Jan 22.

RMIT University, Australia.

Mobile learning technologies are spreading rapidly in educational institutions throughout the world. Although research findings concerning the efficacy of mobile technologies for improving student outcomes are generally promising, there are still significant gaps in the research literature, particularly data from direct observational studies. This empirical investigation focused on how students made use of tablet devices and digital pens for learning Chemistry in an undergraduate university course. Observational data in the form of videos and static images, as well as, interview responses, were the main sources of data collected for the study. Activity theory was employed as the guiding theoretical framework to analyse and interpret the data. Several themes emerged from the data analyses, including the affordances of digital pen technology for facilitating reflective thinking, flexibility, peer collaboration, emerging learning and focused learning. It was also found that the use of these mobile technologies was contextualized, dependent on individual differences, and had challenges, for example, there was limited synchronicity between the operational design of the mobile devices and natural human movement. One of the main implications of the research is that when higher education institutions consider the potential benefits and challenges associated with mobile technologies they should take account of the interactions that occur between components within a system including, students, technological devices, and emerging learning processes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.heliyon.2021.e06020DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7840858PMC
January 2021

Experimental study and mechanism model on the ignition sensitivity of typical organic dust clouds in O/N, O/Ar and O/CO atmospheres.

J Hazard Mater 2021 Jun 14;412:125108. Epub 2021 Jan 14.

State Key Laboratory of Explosion Science and Technology, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing 100081, China. Electronic address:

To reveal and improve our understanding of the ignition behavior and mechanism, G-G furnace experiments of three typical organic dusts were performed to investigate the minimum ignition temperature (MIT) in O/N, O/Ar and O/CO atmospheres with oxygen mole fraction from 8.4% to 50%. The experimental results were presented in oxygen-lean and oxy-fuel atmospheres to evaluate the ignition sensitivity of dusts in different atmospheres. It was found that CO is the strongest in terms of lowing the ignition sensitivity of the three dusts, and the dust explosion risk increases significantly with increasing O mole fraction for the three dusts through a logarithmically and significantly reducing MIT. However, for different dusts, inert gases show different suppression effects. In addition, a modified steady-state homogeneous ignition model was proposed and successfully applied to oxygen-lean atmospheres, and in oxy-fuel atmospheres, this model has also been improved to estimate the ignition mechanism. This ignition mechanism model could be used to successfully predict the minimum ignition temperature of high volatile dust under different inert atmospheres controlled by homogeneous ignition, which will provide a reference for the ignition hazard assessment of dust on hot surfaces.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2021.125108DOI Listing
June 2021

Rapid Detection of , , and Genes by Loop-Mediated Isothermal Amplification in .

Foodborne Pathog Dis 2021 Apr 28;18(4):290-296. Epub 2021 Jan 28.

Shandong Key Laboratory of Animal Disease Control and Breeding, Institute of Animal Science and Veterinary Medicine, Shandong Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Jinan, China.

remains a serious threat to the worldwide swine industry and human health. In this study, rapid assays for the detection of three common virulence-related factors (, , and ) were developed, evaluated, and applied. Loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) primers were designed using Primer Explorer V5 software. The sensitivity and specificity of the LAMP assays were determined based on sample turbidity. For all three genes, LAMP assays were performed at 62°C with a reaction time of 60 min. The detection limit of conventional polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was 1 ng/μL, 10 pg/μL, and 100 fg/μL for the , , and genes, respectively. For the LAMP assays, the detection limits were 10 pg/μL, 10 fg/μL, and 100 fg/μL for , , and , respectively, representing sensitivities 100-1000 times higher than those of the PCR assay. Furthermore, when the LAMP assays were applied to clinical strains, the results were consistent with those of the PCR assay, confirming the LAMP assays as rapid and reliable detection techniques. In conclusion, the LAMP assays described in this study have the potential to become standard methods to detect the virulence factors , , and . To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to report the application of LAMP to detect the , , and genes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/fpd.2020.2868DOI Listing
April 2021

A Comprehensive Analysis Identified Hub Genes and Associated Drugs in Alzheimer's Disease.

Biomed Res Int 2021 9;2021:8893553. Epub 2021 Jan 9.

Department of Anesthesiology, Shanghai Tenth People's Hospital, Tongji University School of Medicine, Shanghai 200072, China.

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common neurodegenerative disease among the elderly and has become a growing global health problem causing great concern. However, the pathogenesis of AD is unclear and no specific therapeutics are available to provide the sustained remission of the disease. In this study, we used comprehensive bioinformatics to determine 158 potential genes, whose expression levels changed between the entorhinal and temporal lobe cortex samples from cognitively normal individuals and patients with AD. Then, we clustered these genes in the protein-protein interaction analysis and identified six significant genes that had more biological functions. Besides, we conducted a drug-gene interaction analysis of module genes in the drug-gene interaction database and obtained 26 existing drugs that might be applied for the prevention and treatment of AD. In addition, a predictive model was built based on the selected genes using different machine learning algorithms to identify individuals with AD. These findings may provide new insights into AD therapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2021/8893553DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7814952PMC
May 2021

Embedding ruthenium nanoparticles in the shell layer of titanium zirconium oxide hollow spheres to catalyze the degradation of alkali lignin under mild condition.

J Hazard Mater 2021 06 15;411:125161. Epub 2021 Jan 15.

Tsinghua Shenzhen International Graduate School, Tsinghua University, Shenzhen 518055, China.

To catalyze the degradation of lignin in refractory wastewater efficiently, a new nanocomposite with Ru nanoparticles embedded on the surface of TiZrO hollow spheres was fabricated with three method a "sol-gel + calcination + vacuum-impregnation" template method, and the unique binary composition of TiZrO/Ru prevented the aggregation of Ru and keep its high activity. During 3-h catalytic-oxidation at 160 °C and 2.0 MPa O, 98% alkali lignin was degraded and 70% organic carbon was mineralized with the catalysis of TiZrO/Ru, while the values were only 50% and 25% without analysts. The catalyst increased the catalytic-oxidation rate constant k (h) of alkali lignin from 0.282 h to 1.175 h because of high-efficiency hydroxyl radical production, as determined by EPR. LC-OCD showed that the catalyst decomposed alkali lignin with molecular weight 1-2 kDa to small molecules. Butyl acetate was the main intermediate product, which should be derived from the auto synthesis of butanol and acetic acid. In addition to high conversion efficiency, the catalyst had good stability with 95% capability after five cycles. In real biogas slurry treatment, an increase of biochemical to COD ratio from 0.28 to 0.51, with obvious decoloration, indicated TiZrO/Ru enhanced the biodegradability of the refractory wastewater significantly.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2021.125161DOI Listing
June 2021

Effervescence-assisted dual microextraction of PAHs in edible oils using lighter-than-water phosphonium-based ionic liquids and switchable hydrophilic/hydrophobic fatty acids.

Anal Bioanal Chem 2021 Mar 23;413(7):1983-1997. Epub 2021 Jan 23.

College of Public Health and Management, Wenzhou Medical University, Wenzhou, 325035, Zhejiang, China.

Herein, we developed a novel effervescence-assisted dual microextraction method, abbreviated as EM-LPSH, using lighter-than-water phosphonium-based ionic liquids (LPILs) and switchable hydrophilic/hydrophobic fatty acids (SHFAs). The EM-LPSH method was utilized for quick enrichment/extraction of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in edible oils. Owing to lower density than water, LPILs used as the first extractant were floated on the upper layer of the aqueous phase, leading to a convenient separation/collection compared with traditional heavier-than-water imidazolium-based ionic liquids. Interestingly, SHFAs play triple functions: a dispersive solvent in the microextraction process, an acidic source in effervescent reaction, and the second extractant in dual microextraction, due to switchability from hydrophilicity to hydrophobicity. Consequently, the integration of LPILs with SHFAs greatly enhanced the extraction efficiency for PAHs owing to the quick dual microextraction process. Some important variables were rigorously optimized using a one-factor-at-a-time approach. Under optimized conditions, the EM-LPSH/HPLC-FLD method provided a wide linear range (0.07~0.63-200 μg kg), satisfactory recovery (80.12-103.27%), and low limit of detection (0.02-0.19 μg kg), as well as high intra-day and inter-day precision (0.03-6.55) for six PAHs in edible oils. By using certified reference material in olive oil samples (GBW10162), the recoveries ranged from 97.40 to 98.39%, demonstrating high accuracy and precision. According to the detected levels of PAHs in six unheated and heated oils, their edible safety was evaluated in detail. In short, the newly developed method is simple, convenient, and highly efficient, thereby showing great prospects for application in conventional monitoring of trace-level PAHs in edible oils.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00216-021-03167-0DOI Listing
March 2021