Publications by authors named "Jing Pang"

221 Publications

Cost impact of undertaking detection and management of familial hypercholesterolaemia in Australian general practice.

Aust J Gen Pract 2022 08;51(8):604-609

DSc, PhD, DM, FRACP, Winthrop Professor, Medical School, The University of Western Australia, and Lipid Disorders Clinic, Cardiometabolic Unit, Royal Perth Hospital, Perth, WA.

Background And Objectives: Familial hypercholesterolaemia (FH) can be effectively detected and managed in primary care, but the health economic evidence for this is scarce. The aim of this study was to examine management pathways and cost implications of FH screening and management in Australian general practice.

Method: Cost-effectiveness outcomes were projected using a life table model. Data was used from 133 patients in 15 Australian general practice clinics from an earlier screening and management study. Costing and mortality data were sourced from governmental sources and published literature.

Results: Most patients had a regular general practice consultation at baseline (82%), though the proportion seen under a chronic disease management item at follow-up increased to 23%. The median cost of management was $275 per annum in the first year of management. Managing patients with statins up to the age of 60 years yielded an increase of 248,954 life-years at a cost of $759 million, representing a cost per life-year gained of $3047.

Discussion: Screening and management of FH in general practice has the potential for substantial health benefits while requiring relatively modest investments from the health system.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.31128/AJGP-09-21-6172DOI Listing
August 2022

Integrated guidance to enhance the care of children and adolescents with familial hypercholesterolaemia: Practical advice for the community clinician.

J Paediatr Child Health 2022 08 15;58(8):1297-1312. Epub 2022 Jul 15.

School of Medicine, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, University of Western Australia, Perth, Western Australia, Australia.

Familial hypercholesterolaemia (FH) is a highly penetrant monogenic disorder present from birth that markedly elevates plasma low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol (LDL-C) concentration and, if untreated, leads to premature atherosclerosis and coronary artery disease (CAD). At a prevalence of 1:250 individuals, with over 90% undiagnosed, recent estimates suggest that there are approximately 22 000 children and adolescents with FH in Australia and New Zealand. However, the overwhelming majority remain undetected and inadequately treated until adulthood or after their first cardiac event. The guidance in this paper aims to increase awareness about paediatric FH and provide practical advice for the diagnosis and management of FH in children and adolescents. Recommendations are given on the detection, diagnosis, assessment and management of FH in children and adolescents. Recommendations are also made on genetic testing, including counselling and the potential for universal screening programmes. Practical guidance on management includes treatment of non-cholesterol risk factors, and safe and appropriate use of LDL-C lowering therapies, including statins, ezetimibe, PCSK9 inhibitors and lipoprotein apheresis. Models of care for FH need to be adapted to local and regional health care needs and available resources. Targeting the detection of FH as a priority in children and young adults has the potential to alter the natural history of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease and recognise the promise of early detection for improving long-term health outcomes. A comprehensive implementation strategy, informed by further research, including assessments of cost-benefit, will be required to ensure that this new guidance benefits all families with or at risk of FH.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jpc.16096DOI Listing
August 2022

Parallel Reaction Monitoring Mass Spectrometry for Rapid and Accurate Identification of β-Lactamases Produced by .

Front Microbiol 2022 20;13:784628. Epub 2022 Jun 20.

Beijing Key Laboratory of Antimicrobial Agents, Institute of Medicinal Biotechnology, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing, China.

The increasing spread of drug-resistant bacterial strains presents great challenges to clinical antibacterial treatment and public health, particularly with regard to β-lactamase-producing . A rapid and accurate detection method that can expedite precise clinical diagnostics and rational administration of antibiotics is urgently needed. Targeted proteomics, a technique involving selected reaction monitoring or multiple reaction monitoring, has been developed for detecting specific peptides. In the present study, a rapid single-colony-processing procedure combined with an improved parallel reaction monitoring (PRM) workflow based on HRAM Orbitrap MS was developed to detect carbapenemases ( carbapenemase, KPC; imipenemase, IMP; Verona integron-encoded metallo-β-lactamase, VIM; New Delhi metallo-β-lactamase, NDM; and oxacillinase, OXA), extended spectrum β-lactamases (TEM and CTX-M), and AmpC (CMY-2) produced by . Specific peptides were selected and validated, and their coefficients of variation and stability were evaluated. In total, 188 strains were screened using the workflow. Fourteen out of total 19 peptides have 100% specificity; three peptides have specificity >95% and two peptides have specificity ranged from 74∼85%. On the sensitivity, only nine peptides have 95∼100% sensitivity. The other 10 peptides have sensitivity ranged from 27∼94%. Thus, a screening method based on peptide groups was developed for the first time. Taken together, this study described a rapid extraction and detection workflow for widespread β-lactamases, including KPC, IMP, VIM, NDM, OXA, CMY, CTX-M, and TEM, using single colonies of strains. PRM-targeted proteomics was proven to be a promising approach for the detection of drug-resistant enzymes.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2022.784628DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9251374PMC
June 2022

A variant in the fibronectin (FN1) gene, rs1250229-T, is associated with decreased risk of coronary artery disease in familial hypercholesterolaemia.

J Clin Lipidol 2022 May 20. Epub 2022 May 20.

School of Medicine, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, The University of Western Australia, Perth, Australia (Drs Page, Ellis, Chan, Pang, Hooper, Bell, Burnett, and Watts); Lipid Disorders Clinic, Department of Cardiology, Royal Perth Hospital, Perth, Australia (Drs Bell, Burnett, and Watts). Electronic address:

Background: Increased risk of coronary artery disease (CAD) in familial hypercholesterolaemia (FH) is modified by factors beyond defects in the low-density lipoprotein receptor pathway. The rs1250229-T single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in the FN1 gene is associated with CAD in genome-wide association studies and is in linkage disequilibrium with another SNP (rs1250259-T) in FN1 that is associated with decrease fibronectin secretion.

Objective: We investigated whether rs1250229-T was also associated with prevalent CAD in patients with genetically confirmed FH.

Methods: We collected clinical data from 256 patients with genetically confirmed FH. The FN1 rs1250229 SNP was genotyped on a SEQUENOM platform. The association between rs1250229-T and prevalent CAD was assessed using simple and multiple regression analyses.

Results: In patients with FH, the FN1 rs1250229-T (minor) allele was a significant negative predictor of prevalent CAD (odds ratio [OR] 0.353; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.193 - 0.647; P = 0.001). FN1 rs1250229-T remained a significant predictor of prevalent CAD after adjusting for age, sex, obesity, hypertension, smoking status and lipoprotein(a) concentration (OR 0.200; 95% CI 0.091 - 0.441; P < 0.001).

Conclusion: The FN1 rs1250229-T allele is inversely associated with CAD in patients with genetically confirmed FH, independently of traditional risk factors. While this finding requires replication, it suggests that the biology of fibronectin may contribute to variation in the risk of CAD in FH.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jacl.2022.05.065DOI Listing
May 2022

Effect of Omega-3 Fatty Acid Supplementation on the Postprandial Metabolism of Apolipoprotein(a) in Familial Hypercholesterolemia.

J Atheroscler Thromb 2022 Jun 8. Epub 2022 Jun 8.

Medical School, University of Western Australia.

Aim: Lipoprotein(a) (Lp(a)) is a low-density lipoprotein-like particle containing apolipoprotein(a) (apo(a)) that increases the risk of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) in familial hypercholesterolemia (FH). Postprandial redistribution of apo(a) protein from Lp(a) to triglyceride-rich lipoproteins (TRLs) may also increase the atherogenicity of TRL particles. Omega-3 fatty acid (ω3FA) supplementation improves postprandial TRL metabolism in FH subjects. However, its effect on postprandial apo(a) metabolism has yet to be investigated.

Methods: We carried out an 8-week open-label, randomized, crossover trial to test the effect of ω3FA supplementation (4 g/day) on postprandial apo(a) responses in FH patients following ingestion of an oral fat load. Postprandial plasma total and TRL-apo(a) concentrations were measured by liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry, and the corresponding areas under the curve (AUCs) (0-10h) were determined using the trapezium rule.

Results: Compared with no ω3FA treatment, ω3FA supplementation significantly lowered the concentrations of postprandial TRL-apo(a) at 0.5 (-17.9%), 1 (-18.7%), 2 (-32.6%), and 3 h (-19.2%) (P<0.05 for all). Postprandial TRL-apo(a) AUC was significantly reduced with ω3FA by 14.8% (P<0.05). By contrast, ω3FA had no significant effect on the total AUCs of apo(a), apoC-III, and apoE (P>0.05 for all). The decrease in postprandial TRL-apo(a) AUC was significantly associated with changes in the AUC of triglycerides (r=0.600; P <0.01) and apoB-48 (r=0.616; P<0.01).

Conclusions: Supplementation with ω3FA reduces postprandial TRL-apo(a) response to a fat meal in FH patients; this novel metabolic effect of ω3FA may have implications on decreasing the risk of ASCVD in patients with FH, especially in those with elevated plasma triglyceride and Lp(a) concentrations. However, the clinical implications of these metabolic findings require further evaluation in outcome or surrogate endpoint trials.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.5551/jat.63587DOI Listing
June 2022

Cascade testing for elevated lipoprotein(a) in relatives of probands with high lipoprotein(a).

Am J Prev Cardiol 2022 Jun 21;10:100343. Epub 2022 Apr 21.

Medical School, University of Western Australia, Perth, Western Australia, Australia.

Objective: Elevated lipoprotein(a) [Lp(a)] is a common inherited condition associated with cardiovascular disease. This study investigated whether cascade testing for Lp(a) was effective in detecting new cases of elevated Lp(a) in families.

Methods: Relatives from adult probands with Lp(a) concentration ≥100 mg/dL were tested for elevated Lp(a) (≥50 mg/dL) via a cascade testing program in a tertiary hospital setting. The prevalence and yield of detecting new cases of elevated Lp(a) among the relatives were assessed.

Results: Of the 83 probands, 43.4% had familial combined hyperlipidemia (FCHL) and 34.9% common hypercholesterolemia (CH). Among 182 relatives tested (151 adults and 31 children), elevated Lp(a) was found in 68.1%, with 32.9% having Lp(a) between 50 and 99 mg/dL and 35.2% having Lp(a) ≥100 mg/dL. One new case of elevated Lp(a) ≥50 mg/dL was identified for every 1.5 relatives tested and 1 new case of elevated Lp(a) ≥100 mg/dL for every 2.8 relatives tested. The proportion of relatives detected with elevated Lp(a) was significantly higher when tested from probands with Lp(a) >150 mg/dL compared with those with Lp(a) between 100 and 150 mg/dL (81.1% vs. 55.5%;  = 0.001). The concordance rates (kappa coefficient) for the detection of elevated Lp(a) with FCHL and CH were 34.8% (0.026) and 53.2% (0.099), respectively.

Conclusion: Cascade testing for elevated Lp(a) from affected probands with phenotypic dyslipidemia is highly effective in identifying new cases of high Lp(a) in families. The yield of detecting elevated Lp(a) is greater when probands have higher levels of Lp(a) and exceeds the detection of relatives with FCHL and CH.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ajpc.2022.100343DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9062205PMC
June 2022

Barth Syndrome Cardiomyopathy: An Update.

Genes (Basel) 2022 04 8;13(4). Epub 2022 Apr 8.

Department of Medicine, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093, USA.

Barth syndrome (BTHS) is an X-linked mitochondrial lipid disorder caused by mutations in the () gene, which encodes a mitochondrial acyltransferase/transacylase required for cardiolipin (CL) biosynthesis. Cardiomyopathy is a major clinical feature of BTHS. During the past four decades, we have witnessed many landmark discoveries that have led to a greater understanding of clinical features of BTHS cardiomyopathy and their molecular basis, as well as the therapeutic targets for this disease. Recently published knockout mouse models provide useful experimental models for studying BTHS cardiomyopathy and testing potential therapeutic approaches. This review aims to summarize key findings of the clinical features, molecular mechanisms, and potential therapeutic approaches for BTHS cardiomyopathy, with particular emphasis on the most recent studies.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/genes13040656DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9030331PMC
April 2022

Celastrol Induces Apoptosis and Autophagy via the AKT/mTOR Signaling Pathway in the Pituitary ACTH-secreting Adenoma Cells.

Curr Med Sci 2022 Apr 13;42(2):387-396. Epub 2022 Apr 13.

Sino-German Neuro-Oncology Molecular Laboratory, Department of Neurosurgery, Tongji Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, 430030, China.

Objective: Pituitary adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)-secreting adenoma is a relatively intractable endocrine adenoma that can cause a range of severe metabolic disorders and pathological changes involving multiple systems. Previous studies have shown that celastrol has antitumor effects on a variety of tumor cells via the AKT/mTOR signaling. However, whether celastrol has pronounced antitumor effects on pituitary ACTH-secreting adenoma is unclear. This study aimed to identify a new effective therapeutic drug for pituitary ACTH-secreting adenoma.

Methods: Mouse pituitary ACTH-secreting adenoma cells (AtT20 cells) were used as an experimental model in vitro and to establish a xenograft tumor model in mice. Cells and animals were administered doses of celastrol at various levels. The effects of celastrol on cell viability, migration, apoptosis and autophagy were then examined. Finally, the potential involvement of AKT/mTOR signaling in celastrol's mechanism was assessed.

Results: Celastrol inhibited the proliferation and migration of pituitary adenoma cells in a time- and concentration-dependent manner. It blocked AtT20 cells in the G0/G1 phase, and induced apoptosis and autophagy by downregulating the AKT/mTOR signaling pathway. Similar results were obtained in mice.

Conclusion: Celastrol exerts potent antitumor effects on ACTH-secreting adenoma by downregulating the AKT/mTOR signaling in vitro and in vivo.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11596-022-2568-6DOI Listing
April 2022

Effect of a PCSK9 inhibitor and a statin on cholesterol efflux capacity: A limitation of current cholesterol-lowering treatments?

Eur J Clin Invest 2022 Jul 24;52(7):e13766. Epub 2022 Mar 24.

Medical School, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, University of Western Australia, Perth, Western Australia, Australia.

Background: Cellular cholesterol efflux is a key step in reverse cholesterol transport that may impact on atherosclerotic cardiovascular risk. The process may be reliant on the availability of apolipoprotein (apo) B-100-containing lipoproteins to accept cholesterol from high-density lipoprotein. Evolocumab and atorvastatin are known to lower plasma apoB-100-containing lipoproteins that could impact on cholesterol efflux capacity (CEC).

Methods: We conducted a 2-by-2 factorial trial of the effects of subcutaneous evolocumab (420 mg every 2 weeks) and atorvastatin (80 mg daily) for 8 weeks on CEC in 81 healthy, normolipidaemic men. The capacity of whole plasma and apoB-depleted plasma, including ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1)-mediated and passive diffusion, to efflux cholesterol, was measured.

Results: Evolocumab and atorvastatin independently decreased whole plasma CEC (main effect p < .01 for both). However, there were no significant effects of evolocumab and atorvastatin on apoB-depleted plasma, ABCA1-mediated and passive diffusion-mediated CEC (p > .05 in all). In the three intervention groups combined, the reduction in whole plasma CEC was significantly correlated with the corresponding reduction in plasma apoB-100 concentration (r = .339, p < .01). In the evolocumab monotherapy group, the reduction in whole plasma CEC was also significantly correlated with the corresponding reduction in plasma lipoprotein(a) concentration (r = .487, p < .05).

Conclusions: In normolipidaemic men, evolocumab and atorvastatin decrease the capacity of whole plasma to efflux cellular cholesterol. These effects may be chiefly owing to a fall in the availability of apoB-100-containing lipoproteins. Reduction in circulating lipoprotein(a) may also contribute to the decrease in whole plasma cholesterol efflux with evolocumab monotherapy.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/eci.13766DOI Listing
July 2022

Ferritin-Nanocaged ATP Traverses the Blood-Testis Barrier and Enhances Sperm Motility in an Asthenozoospermia Model.

ACS Nano 2022 03 15;16(3):4175-4185. Epub 2022 Feb 15.

State Key Laboratory of Reproductive Medicine, Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing, Jiangsu 211166, China.

Sperm motility can be enhanced by adding ATP exogenously during fertilization. However, administering exogenous ATP to the testis to improve sperm motility for asthenozoospermia treatment has not been investigated yet. Inspired by the recent advances in nanomedicine, we investigated whether the capability of drug delivery nanocarriers to traverse the blood-testis barrier (BTB) can facilitate ATP-dependent asthenozoospermia treatment. We found that the human H-ferritin (HFn) nanocarrier possesses the capability to traverse the BTB and specifically targets the head of elongated sperm cells. Specifically, the HFn nanocarrier traversed the BTB and accumulated in the sperm heads by binding with the HFn receptor (HFR), whose expression was relatively low in Sertoli cells but high in sperm heads. In a gossypol-induced mouse asthenozoospermia model, the administration of an ATP-loaded HFn nanocage through a tail vein injection significantly improved sperm motility. Moreover, the HFn nanocarrier was not toxic to mice in the short (1d) and long terms (30d, 90d) nor did it affect their reproductive health. Thus, the ATP-loaded HFn nanocarrier can potentially serve as a drug-delivery system for treating asthenozoospermia.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsnano.1c10029DOI Listing
March 2022

Study of Bulk Amorphous and Nanocrystalline Alloys Fabricated by High-Sphericity FeSiBCCr Amorphous Powders at Different Spark-Plasma-Sintering Temperatures.

Materials (Basel) 2022 Jan 30;15(3). Epub 2022 Jan 30.

School of Metallurgical and Ecological Engineering, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083, China.

The new generation of high-frequency and high-efficiency motors has high demands on the soft magnetic properties, mechanical properties and corrosion resistance of its core materials. Bulk amorphous and nanocrystalline alloys not only meet its performance requirements but also conform to the current technical concept of integrated forming. At present, spark plasma sintering (SPS) is expected to break through the cooling-capacity limitation of traditional casting technology with high possibility to fabricate bulk metallic glasses (BMGs). In this study, FeSiBCCr soft magnetic amorphous powders with high sphericity were prepared by a new atomization technology, and its characteristic temperature was measured by DSC to determine the SPS temperature. The SEM, XRD, VSM and universal testing machine were used to analyze the compacts at different sintering temperatures. The results show that the powders cannot be consolidated by cold pressing (50 and 500 MPa) or SPS temperature below 753 K (glass transition temperature T = 767 K), and the tap density is only 4.46 g·cm. When SPS temperature reached above 773 K, however, the compact could be prepared smoothly, and the density, saturation magnetization, coercivity and compressive strength of the compacts increased with the elevated sintering temperature. In addition, due to superheating, crystallization occurred even when the sintering temperature was lower than 829 K (with the first crystallization onset temperature being T = 829 K). The compact was almost completely crystallized at 813 K, resulting in a sharp increase in the coercivity of the compact from 55.55 A·m at 793 K to 443.17 A·m. It is noted that the nanocrystals kept growing in size as the temperature increased to 833 K, which increased the coercivity remarkably but showed an enhanced saturation magnetization.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ma15031106DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8839480PMC
January 2022

PCSK9 inhibition with alirocumab decreases plasma lipoprotein(a) concentration by a dual mechanism of action in statin-treated patients with very high apolipoprotein(a) concentration.

J Intern Med 2022 06 9;291(6):870-876. Epub 2022 Feb 9.

Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, Medical School, University of Western Australia, Perth, Western Australia, Australia.

Background: Inhibition of proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 with alirocumab decreases plasma lipoprotein(a) [Lp(a)] levels. The kinetic mechanism for lowering Lp(a) by alirocumab may differ according to pre-treatment apolipoprotein(a) [apo(a)] levels.

Methods: The effect of 12-week alirocumab (150 mg subcutaneously fortnightly) on the kinetics of apo(a) was compared in statin-treated patients with high (n = 10) and very high Lp(a) concentrations (n = 11).

Results: In patients with high apo(a) concentrations, alirocumab lowered plasma apo(a) pool size (-17%, p < 0.01) chiefly by increasing the fractional catabolic rate (FCR) of apo(a) (+27%, p < 0.001). By contrast in patients with very high apo(a) concentrations, alirocumab significantly lowered plasma apo(a) pool size (-32%, p < 0.001) by both increasing apo(a) FCR (+30%, p < 0.001) and lowering production rate (-11%, p < 0.05).

Conclusions: In statin-treated patients with very high apo(a) concentrations, alirocumab lowers plasma Lp(a) concentration by a dual mode of action that increases the clearance and decreases the production of Lp(a) particles.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/joim.13457DOI Listing
June 2022

Hypertriglyceridemia: rationale, design and implementation of the Australian Hypertriglyceridemia Registry.

Curr Opin Endocrinol Diabetes Obes 2022 04;29(2):131-140

Medical School, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, University of Western Australia, Perth.

Purpose Of Review: Hypertriglyceridemia (HTG) is a risk factor for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD), aortic stenosis, hepatic steatosis and pancreatitis. We briefly review the aetiology and treatment of HTG and familial chylomicronemia syndrome (FCS), as well as the implementation of a clinical quality registry for improving care, the Australian Hypertriglyceridemia (AUSTRIG) Registry.

Recent Findings: There is a need to improve the detection of individuals with severe HTG and FCS, who could benefit from more intense and novel treatments to prevent end-organ damage. Patient registries provide valuable data for advancing care of individuals with severe HTG at high risk of acute pancreatitis, steatohepatitis and ASCVD. However, there is a paucity of registries of such patients. We outline the design and implementation of the AUSTRIG Registry.

Summary: Clinical registries can be employed in many ways for improving outcomes for patients with HTG, through the collation and analysis of data for enabling health service planning, clinical trials and audits, and for better informing and empowering registrants.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MED.0000000000000715DOI Listing
April 2022

Recognition of Metal Ion Ligand-Binding Residues by Adding Correlation Features and Propensity Factors.

Front Genet 2021 4;12:793800. Epub 2022 Jan 4.

College of Sciences, Inner Mongolia University of Technology, Hohhot, China.

The realization of many protein functions is inseparable from the interaction with ligands; in particular, the combination of protein and metal ion ligands performs an important biological function. Currently, it is a challenging work to identify the metal ion ligand-binding residues accurately by computational approaches. In this study, we proposed an improved method to predict the binding residues of 10 metal ion ligands (Zn, Cu, Fe, Fe, Co, Mn, Ca, Mg, Na, and K). Based on the basic feature parameters of amino acids, and physicochemical and predicted structural information, we added another two features of amino acid correlation information and binding residue propensity factors. With the optimized parameters, we used the GBM algorithm to predict metal ion ligand-binding residues. In the obtained results, the Sn and MCC values were over 10.17% and 0.297, respectively. Besides, the S and MCC values of transition metals were higher than 34.46% and 0.564, respectively. In order to test the validity of our model, another method (Random Forest) was also used in comparison. The better results of this work indicated that the proposed method would be a valuable tool to predict metal ion ligand-binding residues.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fgene.2021.793800DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8764267PMC
January 2022

Knockdown of long non-coding RNA plasmacytoma variant translocation 1 relieves ox-LDL-induced endothelial cell injury through regulating microRNA-30c-5p in atherosclerosis.

Bioengineered 2022 02;13(2):2791-2802

Department of Cardiology, Hubei No. 3 People's Hospital of Jianghan University, Wuhan, China.

Atherosclerosis (AS) is a chronic inflammatory disease involving endothelial dysfunction, and is one of the main causes of death from cardiovascular disease (CVD). Long non-coding RNA plasmacytoma variant translocation 1 (lncRNA PVT1) is overexpressed in the serum of CVD patients. However, the mechanism by which lncRNA PVT1 functions in AS remains unknown. Our research was designed to probe interactions involving lncRNA PVT1 and oxidized low-density lipoprotein (ox-LDL)-stimulated endothelial cell injury in AS. lncRNA PVT1 expression in the serum of AS patients and ox-LDL-stimulated human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) was detected using reverse transcriptase quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR). Cell counting kit (CCK)-8 assays, flow cytometry (FCM), and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) were used to determine cell proliferation, apoptosis, and levels of inflammatory cytokines, respectively. Moreover, the correlation between lncRNA PVT1 and miR-30 c-5p was predicted and verified using StarBase3.0, TargetScan, and luciferase reporter-gene assays. lncRNA PVT1 was overexpressed in the serum of AS patients and in ox-LDL-stimulated HUVECs relative to controls. Knockdown of lncRNA PVT1 facilitated proliferation, reduced apoptosis, and secretion of inflammatory factors in ox-LDL-treated HUVECs. Moreover, miR-30 c-5p was verified as a direct target of lncRNA PVT1. Furthermore, we observed that miR-30 c-5p expression was lower in AS patients than in controls. In addition, the influence of lncRNA PVT1 knockdown on ox-LDL-treated HUVECs was significantly reversed by downregulation of miR-30 c-5p. In conclusion, ncRNA PVT1 silencing inhibited HUVEC damage stimulated by ox-LDL via miR-30 c-5p regulation.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/21655979.2021.2019878DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8974020PMC
February 2022

Antibacterial effects of nano-decoction iron polysulfide in epididymitis and the systematic evaluation of its toxicity on the reproductive health of male mice.

Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 2022 Feb 12;231:113184. Epub 2022 Jan 12.

State Key Laboratory of Reproductive Medicine, Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing, Jiangsu 211166, China; Key Laboratory of Human Functional Genomics of Jiangsu Province, Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing, Jiangsu 211166, China; The Second Affiliated Hospital of Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing, China. Electronic address:

Ferrous iron and polysulfide (Fe(II)S aq) is a nano-decoction. It is usually prepared from the suspension of iron sulfide nanomaterial, using autoclave and centrifugation. A previous study conducted in our laboratory revealed that Fe(II)S aq was highly antibacterial, and it could efficiently kill more than 90% population of Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus, within 5 min of the treatment. Our study reported that the intravenous administration of Fe(II)S aq provided effective treatment against epididymis infection, caused by S. aureus. The results of the study further highlighted its potential for clinical application. However, its effects on the reproductive system and overall health of mammals have not been investigated earlier. The present study assessed the impacts of Fe(II)S aq on reproductive health and other aspects of male mice. Briefly, male mice were exposed to Fe(II)S aq, either intravenously at the dose of 0.7 mM, 1.4 mM, and 2.8 mM of Feor orally at the dose of 1.4 mM, 2.8 mM, and 5.6 mM of Fe. Following this, body weight, organs index, quality of sperm, blood biochemical markers, histopathology of organs, oxidative stress and apoptosis were evaluated, after 1 day and 30 days of exposure. In addition, male reproductivity was evaluated in terms of mating with female mice, and the body weight of the resulting offspring was recorded. Our results showed that the mice processed with Fe(II)S aq exhibited normal physiological status and reproductive capability. The present study illustrated the short- and long-term influences of Fe(II)S aq on the fertility of male mice for the first time. The findings of the study provided a valuable reference for the application of Fe(II)S aq, particularly in terms of reproductive safety.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ecoenv.2022.113184DOI Listing
February 2022

Cascade testing for elevated lipoprotein(a) in relatives of probands with familial hypercholesterolaemia and elevated lipoprotein(a).

Atherosclerosis 2022 05 12;349:219-226. Epub 2021 Nov 12.

Medical School, University of Western Australia, Perth, Western Australia, Australia; Lipid Disorders Clinic, Department of Cardiology and Internal Medicine, Royal Perth Hospital, Perth, Western Australia, Australia. Electronic address:

Background And Aims: Familial hypercholesterolaemia (FH) and elevated plasma lipoprotein(a) [Lp(a)] are inherited conditions independently associated with atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. This study investigated the detection of new cases of elevated Lp(a) during cascade testing of relatives of probands with a definite diagnosis of FH and elevated Lp(a) (≥50 mg/dL).

Methods: Relatives from 62 adult probands were tested for FH genetically and for elevated Lp(a) using an immunoassay. The prevalence and yield of new cases of FH with or without elevated Lp(a) among relatives and the association between the detection of elevated Lp(a) and the Lp(a) concentration of the probands were assessed.

Results: Among 162 relatives tested (136 adults and 26 children), the prevalence of FH and elevated Lp(a) was 60.5% and 41.4%, respectively: FH alone was detected in 31.5%, elevated Lp(a) alone in 12.3%, FH with elevated Lp(a) in 29.0%, and neither disorder in 27.2% of the relatives. Cascade testing detected a new case of FH, elevated Lp(a) and FH with elevated Lp(a) for every 1.5, 2.1 and 3.0 relatives tested, respectively. The proportion of relatives detected with elevated Lp(a) was significantly higher when tested from probands with Lp(a) ≥100 mg/dL compared with those from probands with Lp(a) between 50 and 99 mg/dL (53% vs 34%, p = 0.018). The concordance between the detection of FH and elevated Lp(a) was 56.2% (kappa statistic 0.154), indicating a poor agreement.

Conclusions: A dual approach to cascade testing families for FH and high Lp(a) from appropriate probands can effectively identify not only new cases of FH, but also new cases of elevated Lp(a) with or without FH. The findings accord with the co-dominant and independent heritability of FH and Lp(a).
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.atherosclerosis.2021.11.004DOI Listing
May 2022

The discovery of 1, 3-diamino-7H-pyrrol[3, 2-f]quinazoline compounds as potent antimicrobial antifolates.

Eur J Med Chem 2022 Jan 11;228:113979. Epub 2021 Nov 11.

Beijing Key Laboratory of Antimicrobial Agents/Laboratory of Pharmacology, Institute of Medicinal Biotechnology, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences & Peking Union Medical College, Beijing, 100050, China. Electronic address:

The shortage of new antibiotics makes infections caused by gram-negative (G) bacteria a significant clinical problem. The key enzymes involved in folate biosynthesis represent important targets for drug discovery, and new antifolates with novel mechanisms are urgently needed. By targeting to dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR), a series of 1,3-diamino-7H-pyrrol[3,2-f]quinazoline (PQZ) compounds were designed, and exhibited potent antibacterial activities in vitro, especially against multi-drug resistant G strains. Multiple experiments indicated that PQZ compounds contain a different molecular mechanism against the typical DHFR inhibitor, trimethoprim (TMP), and the thymidylate synthase (TS) was identified as another potential but a relatively weak target. A significant synergism between the representative compound, OYYF-175, and sulfamethoxazole (SMZ) was observed with a strong cumulative and significantly bactericidal effect at extremely low concentrations (2 μg/mL for SMZ and 0.03 pg/mL for OYYF-175), which could be resulted from the simultaneous inhibition of dihydropteroate synthase (DHPS), DHFR and TS. PQZ compounds exhibited therapeutic effects in a mouse model of intraperitoneal infections caused by Escherichia coli (E. coli). The co-crystal structure of OYYF-175-DHFR was solved and the detailed interactions were provided. The inhibitors reported represent innovative chemical structures with novel molecular mechanism of action, which will benefit the generation of new, efficacious bactericidal compounds.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejmech.2021.113979DOI Listing
January 2022

Population genomic screening of young adults for familial hypercholesterolaemia: a cost-effectiveness analysis.

Eur Heart J 2021 Nov 11. Epub 2021 Nov 11.

School of Public Health and Preventive Medicine, Monash University, 553 St Kilda Rd, Melbourne, VIC 3004, Australia.

Aims: The aim of this study was to assess the impact and cost-effectiveness of offering population genomic screening to all young adults in Australia to detect heterozygous familial hypercholesterolaemia (FH).

Methods And Results: We designed a decision analytic Markov model to compare the current standard of care for heterozygous FH diagnosis in Australia (opportunistic cholesterol screening and genetic cascade testing) with the alternate strategy of population genomic screening of adults aged 18-40 years to detect pathogenic variants in the LDLR/APOB/PCSK9 genes. We used a validated cost-adaptation method to adapt findings to eight high-income countries. The model captured coronary heart disease (CHD) morbidity/mortality over a lifetime horizon, from healthcare and societal perspectives. Risk of CHD, treatment effects, prevalence, and healthcare costs were estimated from published studies. Outcomes included quality-adjusted life years (QALYs), costs and incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER), discounted 5% annually. Sensitivity analyses were undertaken to explore the impact of key input parameters on the robustness of the model. Over the lifetime of the population (4 167 768 men; 4 129 961 women), the model estimated a gain of 33 488years of life lived and 51 790 QALYs due to CHD prevention. Population genomic screening for FH would be cost-effective from a healthcare perspective if the per-test cost was ≤AU$250, yielding an ICER of
Conclusion: Based on our model, offering population genomic screening to all young adults for FH could be cost-effective, at testing costs that are feasible.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/eurheartj/ehab770DOI Listing
November 2021

High Prevalence of Lipid-Related Residual Risk in ACS Patients.

Heart Lung Circ 2022 Feb 28;31(2):e20-e21. Epub 2021 Oct 28.

Medical School, University of Western Australia, Perth, WA, Australia; Lipid Disorders Centre, Royal Perth Hospital, Perth, WA, Australia. Electronic address:

View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.hlc.2021.10.006DOI Listing
February 2022

Ostarine attenuates pyocyanin in Pseudomonas aeruginosa by interfering with quorum sensing systems.

J Antibiot (Tokyo) 2021 12 3;74(12):863-873. Epub 2021 Sep 3.

Beijing Key Laboratory of Antimicrobial Agents, Institute of Medicinal Biotechnology, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences & Peking Union Medical College, Beijing, China.

Antimicrobial resistance has been an increasingly serious threat to global public health. Anti-virulence strategies are being developed to manage antibiotic resistance because they apply a lower selective pressure for antimicrobial-resistant pathogens than that created using traditional bactericides. We aimed to discover novel small molecules that can reduce the production of virulence factors in Pseudomonas aeruginosa and determine the mechanism of action underlying these effects. A clinical compound library was screened, and ostarine was identified as a potential anti-virulence agent. The effects of ostarine were studied via antimicrobial susceptibility testing, bacterial growth assays, pyocyanin quantitation assays, transcriptomic analysis, quorum sensing signal molecule quantification, and real-time PCR assays. Ostarine treatment significantly decreased the synthesis of pyocyanin without any bactericidal action. Besides, ostarine treatment did not affect the relative growth rate and cell morphology of bacteria. Treatment with ostarine interfered with quorum sensing by decreasing the transcription of genes associated with quorum sensing systems and the production of signalling molecules. The inhibition of ostarine on pyocyanin production and gene expression can be alleviated when signalling molecules were supplemented externally. Overall, ostarine may act as a novel anti-virulence agent that can attenuate P. aeruginosa pyocyanin by interfering with quorum sensing systems.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41429-021-00469-4DOI Listing
December 2021

Small extrachromosomal circular DNA (eccDNA): major functions in evolution and cancer.

Mol Cancer 2021 09 3;20(1):113. Epub 2021 Sep 3.

Dongguan Key Laboratory of Environmental Medicine, School of Public Health, Guangdong Medical University, Dongguan, 523808, P.R. China.

Extrachromosomal circular DNA (eccDNA) refers to a type of circular DNA that originate from but are likely independent of chromosomes. Due to technological advancements, eccDNAs have recently emerged as multifunctional molecules with numerous characteristics. The unique topological structure and genetic characteristics of eccDNAs shed new light on the monitoring, early diagnosis, treatment, and prediction of cancer. EccDNAs are commonly observed in both normal and cancer cells and function via different mechanisms in the stress response to exogenous and endogenous stimuli, aging, and carcinogenesis and in drug resistance during cancer treatment. The structural diversity of eccDNAs contributes to the function and numerical diversity of eccDNAs and thereby endows eccDNAs with powerful roles in evolution and in cancer initiation and progression by driving genetic plasticity and heterogeneity from extrachromosomal sites, which has been an ignored function in evolution in recent decades. EccDNAs show great potential in cancer, and we summarize the features, biogenesis, evaluated functions, functional mechanisms, related methods, and clinical utility of eccDNAs with a focus on their role in evolution and cancer.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12943-021-01413-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8414719PMC
September 2021

Awareness of familial hypercholesterolaemia in Australian primary care: A qualitative descriptive study.

Aust J Gen Pract 2021 09;50(9):634-640

DSc, PhD, MD, FRACP, FRCP, Winthrop Professor and Consultant Physician, School of Medicine, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, University of Western Australia, Crawley, WA; Lipid Disorders Clinic, Cardiometabolic Service, Departments of Cardiology and Internal Medicine, Royal Perth Hospital, Perth, WA.

Background And Objectives: A lack of public and health professional awareness about familial hypercholesterolaemia (FH) leads to an estimated 90,000 Australians remaining undiagnosed. The aim of this study was to establish the level of knowledge and awareness of FH in Australian general practices.

Method: A qualitative descriptive methodology was used to explore baseline knowledge and perceptions of practice staff about diagnosing and managing FH. Overall, 63 interviews were conducted with general practice staff at 15 practices taking part in a National Health and Medical Research Council partnership grant study (GNT1142883).

Results: Data were analysed thematically and coded into themes - knowledge/awareness/recall, management, use of guidelines/referrals, and contacting family members. Most general practitioners treated the high cholesterol component as their primary focus. Guidelines and referrals were rarely used.

Discussion: This research reflected a lack of knowledge, awareness and use of guidelines similar to that shown in other published studies. Improved primary care infrastructure, knowledge and awareness of FH need to be addressed.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.31128/AJGP-04-21-5952DOI Listing
September 2021

Implications of new clinical practice guidance on familial hypercholesterolaemia for Australian general practitioners.

Aust J Gen Pract 2021 09;50(9):616-621

DSc, PhD, MD, FRACP, FRCP, Winthrop Professor and Consultant Physician, School of Medicine, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, University of Western Australia, Crawley, WA; Lipid Disorders Clinic, Cardiometabolic Service, Departments of Cardiology and Internal Medicine, Royal Perth Hospital, Perth, WA.

Background: Familial hypercholesterolaemia (FH) is a monogenic lipid disorder that may be overlooked in the diagnostic process.

Objective: The aim of this article is to review the key areas for identification and management of FH that affect Australian general practitioners (GPs).

Discussion: Recent consensus advice on the care of patients with FH in Australia provides an opportunity for GPs to increase their awareness and skills in diagnosing and managing FH. New Medicare Benefits Schedule items for genetic testing and Pharmaceutical Benefits Scheme listing for the use of proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin 9 (PCSK9) inhibitors offer GPs additional supports to improve the care of patients with FH. A shared-care approach between GPs and non-GP specialists with expertise in multiple disciplines offers the best option to facilitate genetic testing and management of index cases and affected family relatives. Implementation of this guidance in the primary care setting remains an ongoing challenge and needs to be embraced as a high priority.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.31128/AJGP-02-21-5836DOI Listing
September 2021

Giant cell tumors of the mobile spine with invasion of adjacent vertebrae: an unusual imaging finding.

BMC Musculoskelet Disord 2021 Aug 24;22(1):726. Epub 2021 Aug 24.

Department of Radiology, The affiliated hospital of Qingdao University, Qingdao, 266003, China.

Background: Giant cell tumors of the mobile spine invasion of the adjacent vertebrae are an ignored imaging finding.

Methods: Nine patients with giant cell tumors of the mobile spine with invasion of the adjacent vertebrae confirmed by pathology were enrolled. Eight patients had pure giant cell tumors (GCTs), while one patient also had an aneurysmal bone cyst. All patients underwent conventional computed tomography, three-dimensional reconstruction, and conventional magnetic resonance imaging, while seven patients also underwent post-contrast magnetic resonance imaging.

Results: All patients showed GCTs of the mobile spine that arose from the vertebral body and extended to the vertebral arch. The tumors showed soft-tissue attenuation with no evidence of a mineralized matrix. Pathological fracture was seen in five patients. The margin of the original tumor showed partial sclerosis in four patients and involved an adjacent vertebral body with a sclerotic rim in two patients. The tumors showed a homogeneous and similar signal intensity to the normal spinal cord on T1WI (T1-weighted image) in five patients. The cystic area of the tumors was hyperintense on T2WI in the remaining four patients, while one patient showed hemorrhage that was hyperintense on T1WI. The solid components of the GCTs show marked enhancement in all cases, while the cystic area of the tumors was observed without enhancement on contrast-enhanced images in four patients. Bone destruction of the adjacent vertebral body showed a homogeneous signal on T1WI and T2WI and marked enhancement on contrast-enhanced images.

Conclusions: Giant cell tumors of the mobile spine with invasion into adjacent vertebrae are an unusual imaging finding. Radiologists should be familiar with this imaging characteristic.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12891-021-04610-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8385806PMC
August 2021

Pilot study of universal screening of children and child-parent cascade testing for familial hypercholesterolaemia in Australia.

J Paediatr Child Health 2022 Feb 13;58(2):281-287. Epub 2021 Aug 13.

School of Medicine, University of Western Australia, Perth, Western Australia, Australia.

Aim: Familial hypercholesterolaemia (FH) is a common and treatable cause of premature coronary artery disease. However, the majority of individuals with FH remain undiagnosed. This study investigated the feasibility, acceptability and cost-effectiveness of screening children aged 1-2 years for FH at the time of an immunisation.

Methods: Children 1-2 years of age were offered screening for FH with a point-of-care total cholesterol (TC) test by capillary-collected blood sample at the time of an immunisation. An additional blood sample was taken to allow genetic testing if the TC level was above the 95th percentile (>5.3 mmol/L). Parents of children diagnosed with FH were offered testing. Following detection of the affected parent, cascade testing of their first-degree blood relatives was performed.

Results: We screened 448 children with 32 (7.1%) having a TC ≥ 5.3 mmol/L. The FH diagnosis was confirmed in three children (1:150 screened). Reverse cascade testing of other family members identified a further five individuals with FH; hence, eight new cases of FH were diagnosed from screening 448 children (1:56 screened). Ninety-six percent of parents would screen future children for FH. The approach was cost-effective, at $3979 per quality-adjusted life year gained.

Conclusion: In Western Australia, universal screening of children aged 1-2 years for FH, undertaken at the time of an immunisation, was a feasible and effective approach to detect children, parents and other blood relatives with FH. The approach was acceptable to parents and is potentially a highly cost-effective detection strategy for families at risk of FH.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jpc.15700DOI Listing
February 2022

Observation on the value of evidence-based nursing in perioperative period of patients with hypertensive intracerebral hemorrhage and the reduction of complications.

Minerva Surg 2022 06 3;77(3):304-306. Epub 2021 Aug 3.

Department of Medical Education, Cardio Cerebrovascular Disease Hospital Affiliated Hospital of Yan'an University, Yan'an, China -

View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.23736/S2724-5691.21.09037-7DOI Listing
June 2022

Protective lipid-lowering variants in healthy older individuals without coronary heart disease.

Open Heart 2021 07;8(2)

Department of Epidemiology and Preventive Medicine, School of Public Health and Preventive Medicine, Monash University, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia.

Objective: Genetic variants that disrupt the function of the (proprotein convertase subtilisin kexin type 9) and (apolipoprotein B)genes result in lower serum low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels and subsequently confer protection against coronary heart disease (CHD). The objective of this study was to measure the prevalence and selective advantage of such variants among healthy older individuals without a history of CHD.

Methods: We performed targeted sequencing of the and genes in 13 131 healthy individuals without CHD aged 70 years or older enrolled into the ASPirin in Reducing Events in the Elderly trial. We detected variants in the and genes with predicted loss-of-function. We associated variant carrier status with serum LDL-C and total cholesterol (TC) levels at the time of study enrolment, adjusting for statin use.

Results: We detected 22 different rare candidate variants with putative lipid-lowering effect, carried by 104 participants (carrier rate 1 in 126). Serum LDL-C and TC concentrations for rare PCSK9/APOB variant carriers were consistently lower than non-carriers. Rare variant carrier status was associated with 19.4 mg/dL (14.6%) lower LDL-C, compared with non-carriers (p≤0.001, adjusted for statin use). Statin prescriptions were less prevalent in rare variant carriers (16%) than non-carriers (35%). The more common R46L variant (rs11591147-T) was associated with 15.5 mg/dL (11.8%) lower LDL-C in heterozygotes, and 25.2 mg/dL (19.2%) lower LDL-C in homozygotes (both p≤0.001).

Conclusions: Lipid-lowering genetic variants are carried by healthy older individuals and contribute to CHD-free survival.

Trial Registration Number: NCT01038583.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/openhrt-2021-001710DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8330577PMC
July 2021

Design of Structural Parameters of Cutters for Tea Harvest Based on Biomimetic Methodology.

Appl Bionics Biomech 2021 22;2021:8798299. Epub 2021 Jul 22.

College of Agricultural Equipment Engineering, Henan University of Science and Technology, Luoyang 471023, China.

Owing to their sharp teeth, crickets can eat through new shoots of the stalks of tea plants. Inspired by the special geometrical structure of the teeth of crickets, this study designed a biomimetic cutter to reduce the force and energy required to cut the stalks of tea plants. Therefore, four biomimetic cutters were considered: , , , and . Cutter was a traditional cutter used for comparison with the other three cutters, which were biomimetic. The cutters were manufactured using 3D printing technology and assessed by a texture tester at different loading speeds (5, 10, and 15 mm/s, respectively). The results show that cutter delivered better performance compared to cutter at loading speeds of 5, 10, and 15 mm/s, respectively. However, at 15 mm/s loading speed, the maximum cutting forces required for cutters and were 9.43% and 6.04% lower, respectively, than that for cutter (9.021 N). Similarly, the energies consumed by cutters and were 13.8% and 4.24% lower than that consumed by cutter (1.225 J). In addition, cutter delivered the best results compared to others. Based on the study results, it was concluded that the biomimetic cutters can thus help to optimize the tea harvest.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2021/8798299DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8324377PMC
July 2021
-->