Publications by authors named "Jing Liu"

6,311 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Enhanced anaerobic digestion of swine manure via a coupled microbial electrolysis cell.

Bioresour Technol 2021 Jul 22;340:125619. Epub 2021 Jul 22.

Yunnan Normal University, Kunming 650500, PR China; Yunnan Research Center of Biogas Technology and Engineering, Kunming 650500, PR China; Jilin Dongsheng Institute of Biomass Energy Engineering, Tonghua 134118, PR China. Electronic address:

Microbial electrolysis cell coupled anaerobic digestion (MEC-AD) is a new technology in energy recovery and waste treatment, which could be used to recycle swine manure. Here, different applied voltage effects were studied using MEC-AD with swine manure as a substrate. The maximum cumulative biogas and methane yields, both occurring with 0.9 V, were 547.3 mL/g total solid (TS) and 347.7 mL/g TS, respectively. The increased energy can counterbalance the electrical input. First order, logistic, gompertz, and back-propagation artificial neural network (BP-ANN) models were used to study cumulative biogas and methane yields. The BP-ANN model was superior to the other three models. The maximum degradation rate of hemicellulose, cellulose, and lignin was 60.97%, 48.59%, and 31.59% at 0.9 V, respectively. The BP-ANN model establishes a model for cumulative biogas and methane yields using MEC-AD. Thus, MEC-AD enhanced biogas and methane production and accelerated substrate degradation at a suitable voltage.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2021.125619DOI Listing
July 2021

Diverse expression patterns of mucin 2 in colorectal cancer indicates its mechanism related to the intestinal mucosal barrier.

World J Gastroenterol 2021 Jul;27(25):3888-3900

Changjiang Scholar's Laboratory, Shantou University Medical College, Shantou 515041, Guangdong Province, China.

Background: Abnormal expression patterns of mucin 2 (MUC2) have been reported in a variety of malignant tumors and precancerous lesions. Reduced MUC2 expression in the intestinal mucosa, caused by various pathogenic factors, is related to mechanical dysfunction of the intestinal mucosa barrier and increased intestinal mucosal permeability. However, the relationship between MUC2 and the intestinal mucosal barrier in patients with colorectal cancer (CRC) is not clear.

Aim: To explore the relationship between MUC2 and intestinal mucosal barrier by characterizing the multiple expression patterns of MUC2 in CRC.

Methods: Immunohistochemical staining was performed on intestinal tissue specimens from 100 CRC patients, including both cancer tissues and adjacent normal tissues. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays were performed on preoperative sera from 66 CRC patients and 20 normal sera to detect the serum levels of MUC2, diamine oxide (DAO), and D-lactate (D-LAC). The relationship between MUC2 expression and clinical parameters was calculated by the test or Fisher's exact test. Prognostic value of MUC2 was evaluated by Kaplan-Meier curve and log-rank tests.

Results: Immunohistochemical staining of 100 CRC tissues showed that the expression of MUC2 in cancer tissues was lower than that in normal tissues (54% 79%, < 0.05), and it was correlated with tumor-node-metastasis (TNM) stage and lymph node metastasis in CRC patients ( < 0.05). However, the serum level of MUC2 in CRC patients was higher than that in normal controls, and was positively associated with serum levels of human DAO ( = 3.957, < 0.05) and D-LAC ( = 7.236, < 0.05), which are the biomarkers of the functional status of the intestinal mucosal barrier. And the serum level of MUC2 was correlated with TNM stage, tumor type, and distant metastasis in CRC patients ( < 0.05). Kaplan-Meier curves showed that decreased MUC2 expression in CRC tissues predicted a poor survival.

Conclusion: MUC2 in tissues may play a protective role by participating in the intestinal mucosal barrier and can be used as an indicator to evaluate the prognosis of CRC patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3748/wjg.v27.i25.3888DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8291017PMC
July 2021

Methylation of dual-specificity phosphatase 4 controls cell differentiation.

Cell Rep 2021 Jul;36(4):109421

Department of Oncology, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Montefiore Medical Center, Bronx, NY 10461, USA. Electronic address:

Mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) are inactivated by dual-specificity phosphatases (DUSPs), the activities of which are tightly regulated during cell differentiation. Using knockdown screening and single-cell transcriptional analysis, we demonstrate that DUSP4 is the phosphatase that specifically inactivates p38 kinase to promote megakaryocyte (Mk) differentiation. Mechanistically, PRMT1-mediated methylation of DUSP4 triggers its ubiquitinylation by an E3 ligase HUWE1. Interestingly, the mechanistic axis of the DUSP4 degradation and p38 activation is also associated with a transcriptional signature of immune activation in Mk cells. In the context of thrombocytopenia observed in myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS), we demonstrate that high levels of p38 MAPK and PRMT1 are associated with low platelet counts and adverse prognosis, while pharmacological inhibition of p38 MAPK or PRMT1 stimulates megakaryopoiesis. These findings provide mechanistic insights into the role of the PRMT1-DUSP4-p38 axis on Mk differentiation and present a strategy for treatment of thrombocytopenia associated with MDS.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.celrep.2021.109421DOI Listing
July 2021

Overexpression of a Small GTP-Binding Protein Ran1 in Arabidopsis Leads to Promoted Elongation Growth and Enhanced Disease Resistance against P. syringae DC3000.

Plant J 2021 Jul 27. Epub 2021 Jul 27.

Laboratory of Photosynthesis and Environment, CAS Center for Excellence in Molecular Plant Sciences, Shanghai Institute of Plant Physiology and Ecology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, No. 300 Fenglin Road, Shanghai, 200032, China.

Plants resist infection through an innate immune response, which is usually associated with slowing of growth. The molecular mechanisms underlying the trade-off between plant growth and defense remain unclear. Here, our study reveals that growth/defense trade-offs mediated by gibberellin (GA)- and salicylic acid (SA)-signaling pathways are uncoupled during constitutive overexpression of transgenic AtRAN1 and AtRAN1 (GTP locked form) Arabidopsis plants. It is well known that the small G (GTP-binding) protein Ran (a Ras-related nuclear protein) functions in the nucleus-cytoplasmic transport of proteins. Although there is considerable evidence to indicate that nuclear-cytoplasmic partitioning of specific proteins can participate in hormone signaling, the mechanism of Ran-dependent nuclear transport in hormone signaling is not yet fully understood. In this report, we used a combination of genetic and molecular methods to reveal whether AtRAN1 is involved in both GA- and SA-signaling pathways. Constitutively overexpressed AtRAN1 promoted both the elongation growth and disease resistance response, whereas overexpression of AtRAN1 in the atran2atran3 double mutant background clearly inhibited elongation growth and defense response. Furthermore, we found that AtRAN1 coordinated plant growth and defense by promoting the stability of the DELLA protein RGA in the nucleus and by modulating NPR1 nuclear localization. Interestingly, genetically modified rice overexpressing AtRAN1 exhibited increased plant height and yield per plant. Altogether, the ability to achieve growth/defense tradeoffs through AtRAN1 overexpression provides an approach to maximizing crop yield to meet rising global food demands.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/tpj.15445DOI Listing
July 2021

Decision-Making Experience Related to Mastectomy Among Women With Breast Cancer: An Integrative Review.

Cancer Nurs 2021 Jul 21. Epub 2021 Jul 21.

Author Affiliations: Faculty of Health and Medicine, School of Nursing and Midwifery, University of Newcastle, New South Wales, Australia (Ms Liu and Drs Hunter and Lee); Department of Nursing, School of Medicine, Xiamen University, China (Dr Zhu); and UON Singapore Campus and Priority Research Centre for Brain and Mental Health (Dr Chan), University of Newcastle, New South Wales, Australia.

Background: Deciding to have a mastectomy can be challenging for women. An understanding of the decision-making experience related to mastectomy would contribute to improving the support of women making this decision.

Objective: The aim of this study was to understand women's decision-making experience related to mastectomy.

Methods: Studies published from 2000 to 2020 were identified by searching databases (CINAHL, MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO, PubMed, Web of Science, and China National Knowledge Infrastructure) and reference lists of previous reviews. Methodological quality of these studies was assessed using the Mixed Methods Appraisal Tool version 2018. Data were analyzed using content comparison analysis.

Results: Twenty-three quantitative and 6 qualitative studies were included in this review. Four themes emerged from the included studies: participation in decision-making, seeking information about treatment choices, postoperative perceptions of mastectomy decision-making, and factors related to mastectomy choice. Several negative experiences related to decision-making were identified. A number of clinical, sociodemographic, and psychosocial factors that influenced women to choose a mastectomy were identified.

Conclusions: This review provides in-depth information about decision-making experiences and factors that influence the choice of mastectomy. Research is required about women who have had a mastectomy using standardized instruments to investigate their decision-making experiences. Studies are also necessary in non-Western countries.

Implications For Practice: The factors and experiences identified in this review may help nurses to assist in the treatment decision-making process. Further research is required regarding breast care and other nurses' involvement in the decision-making process related to mastectomy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/NCC.0000000000000981DOI Listing
July 2021

Effects of drawing damage on root growth and soil reinforcement of in a coal mining subsidence area.

Int J Phytoremediation 2021 Jul 22:1-11. Epub 2021 Jul 22.

Ministry of Water Resources, Institute of Water Resource for Pasturing Area, Hohhot, China.

Roots can effectively consolidate and support the soil and are affected by external forces. To identify the survival strategies and soil reinforcement capability of roots against damaging forces, we investigated taproots with a diameter of 1-4 mm in a coal mining subsidence area. To simulate root damage from erosion, an HG100 digital push&pull tester and self-developed experimental installation were used in situ. Relative growth rate, activity, tensile force, and strength of taproots were inhibited by damage. Significant differences occurred in these indicators depending on drawing damage type and level. Inhibition effects from persistent drawing damage on growth and tensile properties were markedly greater than those from instantaneous drawing. Inhibition effects of severe damage were markedly greater than those of mild damage. The number of living roots declined more after persistent drawing or severe injury than after instantaneous or mild damage. The taproots showed self-healing ability, and the inhibitory effect of drawing damage gradually weakened with the time of self-repair, ensuring taproots could continue to play a role in soil reinforcement. The self-healing ability of roots should be considered in vegetation restoration of erosion-prone areas to ensure that the roots' ability to resist erosion is accurately estimated. Research on the soil reinforcement ability of damaged plant roots is very limited at present. This study provides a new perspective for soil reinforcement: roots can be destroyed by erosional forces while providing support for soil, the self-healing ability of plants determines whether they can provide effective support for soil in the erosive environment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/15226514.2021.1950119DOI Listing
July 2021

Hydrochromic Visualization of a Keggin-Type Structure Triggered by Metallic Fluids for Liquid Displays, Reversible Writing, and Acidic Environment Detection.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2021 Jul 26. Epub 2021 Jul 26.

Beijing Key Lab of CryoBiomedical Engineering and Key Lab of Cryogenics, Technical Institute of Physics and Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190, China.

Hydrochromic visualization of a liquid interface shows vital potential applications in liquid displays, reversible writing, and acidic environmental detection, which offers a platform for detection and forewarning due to its intuitive and visual characteristics. Herein, we report a hydrochromic display due to the interfacial effect of liquid metal (LM)-triggered ammonium metatungstate (AMT) with instant dual-mode color switching. The double-electron-transfer reaction of the AMT on the surface of gallium-based LM caused the formation of heteropoly blue in the presence of acidic surroundings, resulting in a reversible color switching from being colorless to blue or blue to colorless. This visual interfacial discoloration phenomenon can be applied to the liquid display on diverse patterns of the LM surface. Furthermore, papers with a functional display were prepared, which can be used for writing up to eight times with dual-mode color switching. In addition, the reactive activity of acid triggering make it a potential candidate for use in visualizing an acidic environment with a detection range of pH = 1 to 0 (0.1-1.5 M). Briefly, this interfacial discoloration phenomenon enriches the interfacial engineering of LM and provides a unique prospective and wide-range platform for the application of LM.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsami.1c07506DOI Listing
July 2021

Rapid diagnosis of disseminated infection in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded specimen using next-generation sequencing: A case report.

World J Clin Cases 2021 Jul;9(20):5621-5630

State Key Laboratory of Respiratory Disease, The First Affiliated Hospital of Guangzhou Medical University, Guangzhou 510120, Guangdong Province, China.

Background: () belongs to the group of rapidly growing . This microorganism is associated with a wide spectrum of infectious diseases. Due to a low detection rate or the time required for conventional culture methodology, a rapid and broad-spectrum method is necessary to identify rare pathogens.

Case Summary: A 12-year-old immunocompetent girl presented with painful masses for five months. The first mass was found in the right upper quadrant of the abdomen, and was about 1 cm × 1.5 cm in size, tough but pliable in texture, with an irregular margin and tenderness. An abscess gradually formed and ulcerated with suppuration of the mass. Three new masses appeared on the back one by one. Chest computed tomography showed patchy and streaky cloudy opacities in both lungs. Needle aspiration of the abscess was performed, but the smear and conventional culture were negative, and the pathological examination showed no pathogens. We then performed next-generation sequencing using a formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded specimen to identify the pathogen. A significantly high abundance of was detected. The patient's abscesses gradually decreased in size, while inflammation in both lungs improved following 12-wk of treatment. No recurrence was observed four months after the end of the one-year treatment period.

Conclusion: Next-generation sequencing is a promising tool for the rapid and accurate diagnosis of rare pathogens, even when using a formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded specimen.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.12998/wjcc.v9.i20.5621DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8281395PMC
July 2021

Efficacy of Solitaire AB stent-release angioplasty in acute middle cerebral artery atherosclerosis obliterative cerebral infarction.

World J Clin Cases 2021 Jul;9(19):5028-5036

Department of Neurology, Puai Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430033, Hubei Province, China.

Background: In both national and international studies, the safety and effectiveness of treatment with the Solitaire stent in patients with ischemic stroke caused by acute large vessel occlusion were good, and the disability rate was significantly reduced. However, there are currently only a few reports on the differences in endovascular treatment for different etiological classifications, especially in the anterior cranial circulation, aorta atherosclerotic stenosis, and acute thrombosis.

Aim: To investigate the efficacy of Solitaire AB stent-release angioplasty in patients with acute middle cerebral artery atherosclerosis obliterative cerebral infarction.

Methods: Twenty-five patients with acute middle cerebral atherosclerosis obliterative cerebral infarction were retrospectively enrolled in this study from January 2017 to December 2019. The Solitaire AB stent was used to improve anterior blood flow to maintain modified cerebral infarction thrombolysis [modified thrombolysis in cerebral infarction (mTICI)] at the 2b/3 level or above, the stent was then unfolded and released.

Results: All 25 patients underwent successful surgery, with an average recanalization time of 23 min. One patient died of cerebral hemorrhage and cerebral herniation after the operation. The National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) scores immediately after surgery (7.5 ± 5.6), at 24 h (5.5 ± 5.6) and at 1 wk (3.6 ± 6.7) compared with the preoperative NIHSS score (15.9 ± 4.4), were significantly different ( < 0.01). One case of restenosis was observed 3 mo after surgery (the stenosis rate was 50% without clinical symptoms), the modified Rankin scale scores were 0 points in 14 cases (56%), 1 point in 4 cases (16%), 2 points in 2 cases (8%), 3 points in 3 cases (12%), 4 points in 1 case (4%), and 6 points in 1 case (4%).

Conclusion: In acute middle cerebral artery atherosclerosis obliterative cerebral infarction, when the Solitaire AB stent is unfolded and the forward blood flow is maintained at mTICI level 2b/3 or higher, stent release may be a safe and effective treatment method; however, long-term observation and a larger sample size are required to verify these findings.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.12998/wjcc.v9.i19.5028DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8283618PMC
July 2021

COVID-19 and gastroenteric manifestations.

World J Clin Cases 2021 Jul;9(19):4990-4997

Department of Pharmacy, The First Affiliated Hospital of Nanchang University, Nanchang 330100, Jiangxi Province, China.

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by the infection of a novel coronavirus [severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2)], has become a pandemic. The infection has resulted in about one hundred million COVID-19 cases and millions of deaths. Although SARS-CoV-2 mainly spreads through the air and impairs the function of the respiratory system, it also attacks the gastrointestinal epithelial cells through the same receptor, angiotensin converting enzyme 2 receptor, which results in gastroenteric symptoms and potential fecal-oral transmission. Besides the infection of SARS-CoV-2, the treatments of COVID-19 also contribute to the gastroenteric manifestations due to the adverse drug reactions of anti-COVID-19 drugs. In this review, we update the clinical features, basic studies, and clinical practices of COVID-19-associated gastroenteric manifestations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.12998/wjcc.v9.i19.4990DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8283602PMC
July 2021

GGC Repeat Expansion in the Gene Is Associated With a Phenotype of Predominant Motor-Sensory and Autonomic Neuropathy.

Front Genet 2021 7;12:694790. Epub 2021 Jul 7.

Department of Neurology, Peking University First Hospital, Beijing, China.

There is still a considerable proportion of patients with inherited peripheral neuropathy (IPN) whose pathogenic genes are unknown. This study was intended to investigate whether the GGC repeat expansion in the is presented in some patients with IPN. A total of 142 unrelated mainland Chinese patients with highly suspected diagnosis of IPN without any known causative gene were recruited. Repeat-primed polymerase chain reaction (RP-PCR) was performed to screen GGC repeat expansion in , followed by fluorescence amplicon length analysis-PCR (AL-PCR) to determine the GGC repeat size. Detailed clinical data as well as nerve, muscle, and skin biopsy were reviewed and analyzed in the -related IPN patients. In total, five of the 142 patients (3.52%) were found to have pathogenic GGC expansion in , with repeat size ranging from 126 to 206 repeats. All the -related IPN patients presented with adult-onset motor-sensory and autonomic neuropathy that predominantly affected the motor component of peripheral nerves. While tremor and irritating dry cough were noted in four-fifths of the patients, no other signs of the central nervous system were presented. Electrophysiological studies revealed both demyelinating and axonal changes of polyneuropathy that were more severe in lower limbs and asymmetrically in upper limbs. Sural nerve pathology was characterized by multiple fibers with thin myelination, indicating a predominant demyelinating process. Muscle pathology was consistent with neuropathic changes. P62-positive intranuclear inclusions were observed in nerve, skin, and muscle tissues. Our study has demonstrated that GGC expansion in is associated with IPN presenting as predominant motor-sensory and autonomic neuropathy, which expands the phenotype of the -related repeat expansion spectrum. Screening of GGC repeat expansions in the should be considered in patients presenting with peripheral neuropathy with tremor and irritating dry cough.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fgene.2021.694790DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8293674PMC
July 2021

Identification of the SARS-CoV-2 Entry Receptor ACE2 as a Direct Target for Transcriptional Repression by Miz1.

Front Immunol 2021 7;12:648815. Epub 2021 Jul 7.

Department of Surgery, College of Medicine and University of Illinois Cancer Center, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL, United States.

Multiple lines of evidence have demonstrated that cigarette smoke or Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease upregulates angiotensin-converting enzyme 2, the cellular receptor for the entry of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2, which predisposes individuals to develop severe Coronavirus disease 2019. The reason for this observation is unknown. We recently reported that the loss of function of Miz1 in the lung epithelium in mice leads to a spontaneous COPD-like phenotype, associated with upregulation of angiotensin-converting enzyme 2. We also reported that cigarette smoke exposure downregulates Miz1 in lung epithelial cells and in mice, and Miz1 is also downregulated in the lungs of COPD patients. Here, we provide further evidence that Miz1 directly binds to and represses the promoter of angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 in mouse and human lung epithelial cells. Our data provide a potential molecular mechanism for the upregulation of angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 observed in smokers and COPD patients, with implication in severe Coronavirus disease 2019.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2021.648815DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8292894PMC
July 2021

Influence of Loss Aversion and Income Effect on Consumer Food Choice for Food Safety and Quality Labels.

Front Psychol 2021 8;12:711671. Epub 2021 Jul 8.

College of Economics and Management, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing, China.

Food safety and food quality are two closely related aspects of the food management system. The difference between the two is that one keeps consumers safe while the other keeps consumers satisfied. This study examined the differences in how consumers value food safety and food quality with a focus on the influence of loss aversion on one's psychological level and of income effect on one's socio-demographic level. Our findings indicate that loss aversion and income effect significantly influence the way consumers value food safety vs. quality labels when considering potential health risks and food price. High risk-averse and low-income consumers with strong loss aversion and a weak income effect show a higher demand for food safety labels as a way to ensure easy access to safety indications. Low risk-averse and high-income consumers with weak loss aversion and a strong income effect show a higher demand for food quality labels because they hope to gain more health benefits from high-quality food at good prices. This study provides insights that will assist public authorities and food industry in balancing food safety control and food quality improvement in order to meet the heterogeneous market demand changing alongside the transition of China's food consumption and production.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2021.711671DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8295499PMC
July 2021

Cell cycle on the crossroad of tumorigenesis and cancer therapy.

Trends Cell Biol 2021 Jul 22. Epub 2021 Jul 22.

Department of Pathology, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02215, USA. Electronic address:

Aberrancy in cell cycle progression is one of the fundamental mechanisms underlying tumorigenesis, making regulators of the cell cycle machinery rational anticancer therapeutic targets. A growing body of evidence indicates that the cell cycle regulatory pathway integrates into other hallmarks of cancer, including metabolism remodeling and immune escape. Thus, therapies against cell cycle machinery components can not only repress the division of cancer cells, but also reverse cancer metabolism and restore cancer immune surveillance. Besides the ongoing effects on the development of small molecule inhibitors (SMIs) of the cell cycle machinery, proteolysis targeting chimeras (PROTACs) have recently been used to target these oncogenic proteins related to cell cycle progression. Here, we discuss the rationale of cell cycle targeting therapies, particularly PROTACs, to more efficiently retard tumorigenesis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tcb.2021.07.001DOI Listing
July 2021

The avian W chromosome is a refugium for endogenous retroviruses with likely effects on female-biased mutational load and genetic incompatibilities.

Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 2021 Sep 26;376(1833):20200186. Epub 2021 Jul 26.

Department of Organismal Biology-Systematic Biology, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.

It is a broadly observed pattern that the non-recombining regions of sex-limited chromosomes (Y and W) accumulate more repeats than the rest of the genome, even in species like birds with a low genome-wide repeat content. Here, we show that in birds with highly heteromorphic sex chromosomes, the W chromosome has a transposable element (TE) density of greater than 55% compared to the genome-wide density of less than 10%, and contains over half of all full-length (thus potentially active) endogenous retroviruses (ERVs) of the entire genome. Using RNA-seq and protein mass spectrometry data, we were able to detect signatures of female-specific ERV expression. We hypothesize that the avian W chromosome acts as a refugium for active ERVs, probably leading to female-biased mutational load that may influence female physiology similar to the 'toxic-Y' effect in males. Furthermore, Haldane's rule predicts that the heterogametic sex has reduced fertility in hybrids. We propose that the excess of W-linked active ERVs over the rest of the genome may be an additional explanatory variable for Haldane's rule, with consequences for genetic incompatibilities between species through TE/repressor mismatches in hybrids. Together, our results suggest that the sequence content of female-specific W chromosomes can have effects far beyond sex determination and gene dosage. This article is part of the theme issue 'Challenging the paradigm in sex chromosome evolution: empirical and theoretical insights with a focus on vertebrates (Part II)'.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rstb.2020.0186DOI Listing
September 2021

CD73 induces gemcitabine resistance in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma: A promising target with non-canonical mechanisms.

Cancer Lett 2021 Jul 21. Epub 2021 Jul 21.

Department of Pancreatic Cancer, Tianjin Medical University Cancer Institute and Hospital, National Clinical Research Center for Cancer, Key Laboratory of Cancer Prevention and Therapy, Tianjin's Clinical Research Center for Cancer, Tianjin, 300060, China. Electronic address:

CD73, a cell surface-localized ecto-5'-nucleotidase, is the major enzymatic source of extracellular adenosine. Canonically, it plays multiple roles in cancer-related processes via its metabolite. As a druggable target, clinical trials targeting CD73 in various malignant diseases are currently ongoing. Here, we report the ecto-5'-nucleotidase-independent functions of CD73 in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC). Our findings support that the elevated expression of CD73 in PDAC cells promotes gemcitabine (GEM) resistance by activating AKT. We discovered that a large amount of intracellular CD73 are localized in the endoplasmic reticulum membrane. Intracellular CD73 physically interacts with major vault protein to activate the SRC-AKT circuit. Troglitazone (TGZ) is a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma agonist that could inhibit the expression of CD73. The administration of TGZ markedly enhances sensitivity to GEM via downregulating CD73 in PDAC. Our findings support that CD73 could be targeted to overcome chemoresistance in PDAC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.canlet.2021.07.024DOI Listing
July 2021

AKT degradation selectively inhibits the growth of PI3K/PTEN pathway mutant cancers with wild-type KRAS and BRAF by destabilizing Aurora kinase B.

Cancer Discov 2021 Jul 23. Epub 2021 Jul 23.

Oncological Sciences, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai

Using a panel of cancer cell lines, we characterized a novel degrader of AKT, MS21. In mutant PI3K/PTEN pathway lines, AKT degradation was superior to AKT kinase inhibition for reducing cell growth and sustaining lower signaling over many days. AKT degradation but not kinase inhibition profoundly lowered Aurora kinase B (AURKB) protein, which is known to be essential for cell division, and induced G2/M arrest and hyperploidy. PI3K activated AKT phosphorylation of AURKB on threonine 73, which protected it from proteasome degradation. A mutant of AURKB (T73E) that mimics phosphorylation and blocks degradation rescued cells from growth inhibition. Degrader resistant lines were associated with low AKT phosphorylation, wild type PI3K/PTEN status, and mutation of KRAS/BRAF. Pan-cancer analysis identified that 19% of cases have PI3K/PTEN pathway mutation without RAS pathway mutation, suggesting that these cancer patients could benefit from AKT degrader therapy that leads to loss of AURKB.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/2159-8290.CD-20-0815DOI Listing
July 2021

Study of Highly Sensitive Formaldehyde Sensors Based on ZnO/CuO Heterostructure via the Sol-Gel Method.

Sensors (Basel) 2021 Jul 8;21(14). Epub 2021 Jul 8.

Xinjiang Key Laboratory of Solid State Physics and Devices, Xinjiang University, Urumqi 830046, China.

Formaldehyde (HCHO) gas sensors with high performance based on the ZnO/CuO heterostructure (ZC) were designed, and the sensing mechanism was explored. FTIR results show that more OH and N-H groups appeared on the surface of ZC with an increase in Cu content. XPS results show that ZC has more free oxygen radicals (O*) on its surface compared with ZnO, which will react with more absorbed HCHO molecules to form CO, HO and, electrons, accelerating the oxidation-reduction reaction to enhance the sensitivity of the ZC sensor. Furthermore, electrons move from ZnO to CuO in the ZC heterostructure due to the higher Fermi level of ZnO, and holes move from CuO to ZnO until the Fermi level reaches an equilibrium, which means the ZC heterostructure facilitates more free electrons existing on the surface of ZC. Sensing tests show that ZC has a low detection limit (0.079 ppm), a fast response/recovery time (1.78/2.90 s), and excellent selectivity and sensitivity for HCHO detection at room temperature. In addition, ambient humidity has little effect on the ZC gas sensor. All results indicate that the performance of the ZnO sensor for HCHO detection can be improved effectively by ZC heterojunction.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/s21144685DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8309541PMC
July 2021

The Impact of Village Rules and Formal Environmental Regulations on Farmers' Cleaner Production Behavior: New Evidence from China.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2021 Jul 8;18(14). Epub 2021 Jul 8.

Yantai Research Institute, China Agricultural University, Yantai 264670, China.

Village rules and formal environmental regulations are of great significance for standardizing farmers' cleaner production behavior, promoting green transformation of agriculture and realizing sustainable development of agriculture. Based on the survey data of 946 farmers in five provinces of China, taking seed coating technology, soil testing and formulated fertilization technology, subsoiling tillage technology, green technology for pest and disease control and straw returning technology as examples, this article empirically analyzes the impact of village rules and formal environmental regulations on farmers' cleaner production behavior by using the multivariate probit model. When formal environmental regulations are relatively lacking or weak, village rules can be used as a useful supplement to formal environmental regulations to promote farmers' participation in cleaner production. Based on this, this article argues that the important reason for formal environmental regulations falling into relative system failure is that village rules have not been paid enough attention in promoting farmers' cleaner production behavior. In the future, we should not only continue to strengthen the role of formal environmental regulations in farmers' cleaner production, but also cultivate the informal institution represented by the village rules, and build the regulatory system of mutual support between informal institution and formal institution.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18147311DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8306031PMC
July 2021

Identification and Characterization of Multiple Myeloma Stem Cell-Like Cells.

Cancers (Basel) 2021 Jul 14;13(14). Epub 2021 Jul 14.

Department of Hematology, the Second Xiangya Hospital, Molecular Biology Research Center, School of Life Sciences, Hunan Province Key Laboratory of Basic and Applied Hematology, Central South University, Changsha 410011, China.

Multiple myeloma (MM) is a B-cell tumor of the blood system with high incidence and poor prognosis. With a further understanding of the pathogenesis of MM and the bone marrow microenvironment, a variety of adjuvant cell therapies and new drugs have been developed. However, the drug resistance and high relapse rate of MM have not been fundamentally resolved. Studies have shown that, in patients with MM, there is a type of poorly differentiated progenitor cell (MM stem cell-like cells, MMSCs). Although there is no recognized standard for identification and classification, it is confirmed that they are closely related to the drug resistance and relapse of MM. This article therefore systematically summarizes the latest developments in MMSCs with possible markers of MMSCs, introduces the mechanism of how MMSCs work in MM resistance and recurrence, and discusses the active pathways that related to stemness of MM.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/cancers13143523DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8306148PMC
July 2021

[Predictive analysis of quality markers of Coptidis Rhizoma based on network pharmacology and multivariate statistical analysis].

Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi 2021 Jun;46(11):2718-2727

State Key Laboratory of Component-based Chinese Medicine,Tianjin University of Traditional Chinese Medicine Tianjin 301617,China.

Coptidis Rhizoma, as a bulk medicinal material, is in great demand in clinical practice. Its quality is uneven in the market due to the mixture of genuine, counterfeit and adulterants. Therefore, it is particularly important to establish a quality control system for Coptidis Rhizoma. Based on the concept of Chinese medicine quality marker(Q-marker), the potential quality markers of Coptidis Rhizoma were analyzed and predicted from the perspective of chemistry and pharmacology. The sources of the Q-markers of Coptidis Rhizoma were identified by literature retrieval. The potential Q-markers were then screened through the visualization of the "components-targets-pathways" network. High performance liquid chromatography(HPLC) was used to establish a multi-indicator qualitative and quantitative control method featuring fingerprints for 10 batches of Coptidis Rhizoma. A supervised mode of orthogonality partial least squares method-discriminant analysis(OPLS-DA) was used to screen the main marker components that caused differences between groups. The literature review results showed that the alkaloids were the main source of Coptidis Rhizoma Q-markers.The fingerprints of 13 common peaks were successfully established, and berberine, palmatine, berberine and epiberberine were selected as Q-markers of Coptidis Rhizoma, and their contents were determined.Based on the concept of the Q-marker of traditional Chinese medicine, the four components can be selected as the Q-marker of Coptidis Rhizoma after comprehensive consideration. The results of this study are not only conducive to the quality evaluation of Coptidis Rhizoma on the market, but also provide a reference for the overall quality control of Coptidis Rhizoma and lay foundation for the future exploration of the mechanism of Coptidis Rhizoma.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.19540/j.cnki.cjcmm.20210125.302DOI Listing
June 2021

Nicotinamide Mononucleotide Alleviates LPS-Induced Inflammation and Oxidative Stress Decreasing COX-2 Expression in Macrophages.

Front Mol Biosci 2021 6;8:702107. Epub 2021 Jul 6.

MOE Key Laboratory of Bioinformatics, Center for Synthetic and Systematic Biology, School of Life Sciences, Tsinghua University, Beijing, China.

Macrophage activation is an important process in controlling infection, but persistent macrophage activation leads to chronic inflammation and diseases, such as tumor progression, insulin resistance and atherosclerosis. Characterizing metabolic signatures of macrophage activation is important for developing new approaches for macrophage inactivation. Herein, we performed metabolomic analysis on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-activated macrophages and identified the associated changes in metabolites. Notably, the cellular Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide levels were decreased while NADPH was increased, proposing that NAD restoration can inhibit macrophage activation. Indeed, supplementation of nicotinamide mononucleotide (NMN) increased cellular NAD levels and decreased cytokine productions in LPS-activated cells. Quantitative proteomics identified that nicotinamide mononucleotide downregulated the expressions of LPS-responsive proteins, in which cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) expression was significantly decreased in NMN-treated cells. Consequently, the cellular levels of prostaglandin E (PGE) was also decreased, indicating that NMN inactivated macrophages via COX-2-PGE pathway, which was validated in activated THP-1 cells and mouse peritoneal macrophages. In conclusion, the present study identified the metabolic characteristics of activated macrophages and revealed that NMN replenishment is an efficient approach for controlling macrophage activation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fmolb.2021.702107DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8290259PMC
July 2021

Correction to: Admission fasting plasma glucose is associated with in-hospital outcomes in patients with acute coronary syndrome and diabetes: findings from the improving Care for Cardiovascular Disease in China - Acute Coronary Syndrome (CCC-ACS) project.

BMC Cardiovasc Disord 2021 Jul 22;21(1):349. Epub 2021 Jul 22.

Department of Epidemiology, Beijing Anzhen Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing Institute of Heart, Lung and Blood Vessel Diseases, No. 2 Anzhen Street, Chao yang District, Beijing, 100029, PR China.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12872-021-02118-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8296530PMC
July 2021

Prenatal case of Simpson-Golabi-Behmel syndrome with a de novo 370Kb-sized microdeletion of Xq26.2 compassing partial GPC3 gene and review.

Mol Genet Genomic Med 2021 Jul 22:e1750. Epub 2021 Jul 22.

Department of Medical Genetics, Hunan Provincial Maternal and Child Health Care Hospital, Changsha, Hunan, China.

Background: Simpson-Golabi-Behmel syndrome type 1 (SGBS1) is a rare X-linked recessive disorder characterized by pre- and postnatal overgrowth and a broad spectrum of anomalies including craniofacial dysmorphism, heart defects, renal, and genital anomalies. Due to the ultrasound findings are not pathognomonic for this syndrome, most clinical diagnosis of SGBS1 are made postnatally.

Methods: A pregnant woman with abnormal prenatal sonographic findings was advised to perform molecular diagnosis. Single nucleotide polymorphism array (SNP array) was performed in the fetus, and the result was validated with multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) and real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR).

Results: The prenatal sonographic presented with increased nuchal translucency at 13 gestational weeks, and later at 21 weeks with cleft lip and palate, heart defect, increased amniotic fluid index and over growth. A de novo 370Kb-deletion covering the 5'-UTR and exon 1 of GPC3 gene was detected in the fetus by SNP array, which was subsequently confirmed by MLPA and qPCR.

Conclusion: The de novo 370Kb hemizygous deletion of 5'-UTR and exon 1 of GPC3 results in the SGBS1 of this Chinese family. Combination of ultrasound and genetics tests helped us effectively to diagnose the prenatal cases of SGBS1. Our findings also enlarge the spectrum of mutations in GPC3 gene.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/mgg3.1750DOI Listing
July 2021

Identification and Validation of a Four-Long Non-coding RNA Signature Associated With Immune Infiltration and Prognosis in Colon Cancer.

Front Genet 2021 5;12:671128. Epub 2021 Jul 5.

Department of Colorectal Surgery, Harbin Medical University Cancer Hospital, Harbin, China.

The emerging evidence has demonstrated the critical roles of long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) as regulators in the tumor immune microenvironment (TIME). However, the tumor immune infiltration-associated lncRNAs and their clinical significance in colon cancer have not yet been thoroughly investigated. This study performed an integrative analysis of lncRNA expression profiles and immune cell infiltration profiles and identified 258 immune infiltration-associated lncRNAs. Of them, four lncRNAs (AC008494.3, LINC00926, AC022034.1, and SNHG26) were significantly and independently associated with the patient's overall survival. Finally, we developed a tumor immune infiltration-associated lncRNA signature (TIILncSig) comprising of these four lncRNAs, which can divide colon cancer patients of The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) into high-risk and low-risk groups with a significantly different outcome [Hazard ratio (HR) = 2.718, 95% CI = 1.955-3.779, < 0.001]. Prognostic performance of the TIILncSig was further validated in another independent colon cancer cohort (HR = 1.832, 95% CI = 1.045-3.21, = 0.034). Results of multivariate Cox regression and stratification analysis demonstrated that the TIILncSig is an independent predictive factor from other clinical features (HR = 2.687, 95% CI = 1.912-3.776, < 0.001 for TCGA cohort and HR = 1.837, 95% CI = 1.047-3.223, = 0.034 for GSE17538 cohort). Literature analysis provided experimental evidence supporting roles of the TIILncSig in cancer carcinogenesis and progression and immune regulation. Summary, our study will help to understand the mechanisms of lncRNAs in immune regulation in the tumor microenvironment and provide novel biomarkers or targets for prognosis prediction and therapy decision-making for patients with colon cancer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fgene.2021.671128DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8287327PMC
July 2021

Association of Parenteral Anticoagulation Therapy with Outcomes in Non-ST-Segment Elevation Acute Coronary Syndrome Patients Without Invasive Therapy.

Clin Pharmacol Ther 2021 Jul 19. Epub 2021 Jul 19.

Department of Cardiology, Guangdong Cardiovascular Institute, Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Coronary Heart Disease Prevention, Guangdong Provincial People's Hospital, Guangdong Academy of Medical Sciences, Guangzhou, China.

Our previous study showed that parenteral anticoagulation therapy (PACT) in the context of aggressive antiplatelet therapy failed to improve clinical outcomes in patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) for non-ST-segment elevation acute coronary syndrome (NSTE-ACS). However, the roles of PACT in patients managed medically remains unknown. This observational cohort study enrolled NSTE-ACS patients receiving medical therapy from November 2014 to June 2017 in the Improving Care for Cardiovascular Disease in China-Acute Coronary Syndrome project. Eligible patients were included in the PACT group and non-PACT group. The primary outcomes were in-hospital all-cause mortality and major bleeding. The secondary outcome included minor bleeding. Among 23,726 patients, 8,845 eligible patients who received medical therapy were enrolled. After adjusting the potential confounders, PACT was not associated with a lower risk of in-hospital all-cause mortality (adjusted odds ratio [OR], 1.25, 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.92-1.71, P = 0.151). Additionally, PACT did not increase the incidence of major bleeding or minor bleeding (major bleeding: adjusted OR, 1.04, 95% CI, 0.80-1.35, P = 0.763, minor bleeding: adjusted OR, 1.27, 95% CI, 0.91-1.75, P = 0.156). The propensity score analysis confirmed the primary analyses. In patients with NSTE-ACS receiving antiplatelet therapy, PACT was not associated with a lower risk of in-hospital all-cause mortality or a higher bleeding risk in NSTE-ACS patients receiving non-invasive therapies and concurrent antiplatelet strategies. Randomized clinical trials are warranted to reevaluate the safety and efficacy of PACT in all NSTE-ACS patients who receive noninvasive therapies and current antithrombotic strategies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cpt.2370DOI Listing
July 2021

IRE1α regulates skeletal muscle regeneration through Myostatin mRNA decay.

J Clin Invest 2021 Jul 20. Epub 2021 Jul 20.

College of Life Sciences, Wuhan University, Wuhan, China.

Skeletal muscle can undergo a regenerative process from injury or disease to preserve muscle mass and function, which is critically influenced by cellular stress responses. Inositol-requiring enzyme 1 (IRE1) is an ancient endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress sensor and mediates a key branch of the unfolded protein response (UPR). In mammals, IRE1α is implicated in the homeostatic control of stress responses during tissue injury and regeneration. Here, we show that IRE1α serves as a myogenic regulator in skeletal muscle regeneration in response to injury and muscular dystrophy. We found in mice that IRE1α was activated during injury-induced muscle regeneration, and muscle-specific IRE1α ablation resulted in impaired regeneration upon cardiotoxin-induced injury. Gain- and loss-of-function studies in myocytes demonstrated that IRE1αacts to sustain both differentiation in myoblasts and hypertrophy in myotubes through regulated IRE1-dependent decay (RIDD) of mRNA encoding Myostatin, a key negative regulator of muscle repair and growth. Furthermore, in the mouse model of Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD), loss of muscle IRE1α resulted in augmented Myostatin signaling and exacerbated the dystrophic phenotypes. Thus, these results reveal a pivotal role for the RIDD output of IRE1α in muscle regeneration, offering new insight into potential therapeutic strategies for muscle loss diseases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1172/JCI143737DOI Listing
July 2021

Tacrolimus inhibits insulin release and promotes apoptosis of Min6 cells through the inhibition of the PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway.

Mol Med Rep 2021 Sep 19;24(3). Epub 2021 Jul 19.

Department of Clinical Pharmacy, General Hospital of Central Theater Command, Wuhan, Hubei 430000, P.R. China.

As a calcineurin inhibitor, tacrolimus is commonly used as a first‑line immunosuppressant in organ transplant recipients. Post‑transplantation diabetes mellitus (PTDM) is a common complication following kidney transplantation and is associated with immunosuppressant drugs, such as tacrolimus. PTDM caused by tacrolimus may be related to its influence on insulin secretion and insulin resistance. However, the specific mechanism has not been fully elucidated. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether the PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling pathway served an important role in the pathogenesis of PTDM induced by tacrolimus. In the present study, the Cell Counting Kit‑8 assay was used to measure the effect of tacrolimus on the viability of Min6 mouse insulinoma cells. The effects of tacrolimus on the insulin secretion and the activity of caspase‑3 of Min6 cells stimulated by glucose exposure were measured by ELISA. Superoxide dismutase (SOD) and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels were measured using WST‑8 and thiobarbituric acid assays, respectively. The effects of tacrolimus on the mRNA expression levels of PI3K, Akt and mTOR were detected by reverse transcription‑quantitative PCR (RT‑qPCR), whereas the protein expression levels of PI3K, Akt, mTOR, phosphorylated (p)‑AKT and p‑mTOR in Min6 cells were assessed using western blotting. The present data indicated that, compared with the control group, 5, 25 and 50 ng/ml tacrolimus treatment could inhibit the insulin secretion of Min6 cells stimulated by glucose solution, and 50 ng/ml tacrolimus could notably decrease the stimulation index (P<0.05). Moreover, 50 ng/ml tacrolimus markedly increased the activity of caspase‑3 by 175.1% (P<0.05), it also decreased the SOD activity (P<0.01) and increased MDA levels (P<0.05). The RT‑qPCR results demonstrated that the mRNA expression levels of PI3K, Akt and mTOR were downregulated by 25 and 50 ng/ml tacrolimus (P<0.01). Furthermore, the western blotting results suggested that tacrolimus had no significant effects on the expression levels of total PI3K, Akt and mTOR proteins (P>0.05), but 25 and 50 ng/ml tacrolimus could significantly inhibit the expression levels of p‑Akt and p‑mTOR (P<0.01). In conclusion, tacrolimus decreased the activity and insulin secretion of pancreatic β cells and induced the apoptosis of islet β cells by inhibiting the mRNA expression levels of PI3K, Akt and mTOR and reducing the phosphorylation of Akt and mTOR proteins in the PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling pathway, which may ultimately lead to the occurrence of diabetes mellitus, and may be considered as one of the specific mechanisms of PTDM caused by tacrolimus.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3892/mmr.2021.12297DOI Listing
September 2021

Global, Regional, and National Burden of Myocarditis From 1990 to 2017: A Systematic Analysis Based on the Global Burden of Disease Study 2017.

Front Cardiovasc Med 2021 2;8:692990. Epub 2021 Jul 2.

Cardiovascular Division, Department of Medicine, Center for Cardiovascular Research, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO, United States.

The global trends in myocarditis burden over the past two decades remain poorly understood and might be increasing during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) worldwide pandemic. This study aimed to provide comprehensive estimates of the incidence, mortality, and disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) for myocarditis globally from 1990 to 2017. Data regarding the incidence, mortality, DALY, and estimated annual percentage change (EAPC) between 1990 and 2017 for myocarditis worldwide were collected and calculated from the 2017 Global Burden of Disease study. We additionally calculated the myocarditis burden distribution based on the Socio-Demographic Index (SDI) quintile and Human Development Index (HDI). The incidence cases of myocarditis in 2017 was 3,071,000, with a 59.6% increase from 1990, while the age-standardized incidence rate (ASIR) was slightly decreased. The number of deaths due to myocarditis increased gradually from 27,120 in 1990 to 46,490 in 2017. The middle SDI quintile showed the highest number of myocarditis-related deaths. On the contrary, the global age-standardized death rate (ASDR) decreased with an overall EAPC of -1.4 [95% uncertainty interval (UI) = -1.8 to -1.0]. Similar to ASDR, the global age-standardized DALY rate also declined, with an EAPC of -1.50 (95% UI = -2.30 to -0.8) from 1990 to 2017. However, there was a 12.1% increase in the number of DALYs in the past 28 years; the middle SDI and low-middle SDI quintiles contributed the most to the DALY number in 2017. We also observed significant positive correlations between the EPAC of age-standardized rate and HDI for both death and DALY in 2017. Globally, the ASIR, ASDR, and age-standardized DALY rate of myocarditis decreased slightly from 1990 to 2017. The middle SDI quintile had the highest level of ASIR, ASDR, and age-standardized DALY rate, indicating that targeted control should be developed to reduce the myocarditis burden especially based on the regional socioeconomic status. Our findings also provide a platform for further investigation into the myocarditis burden in the era of COVID-19.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fcvm.2021.692990DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8284556PMC
July 2021
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