Publications by authors named "Jin-Soo Park"

97 Publications

Natural photosensitizers from Tripterygium wilfordii and their antimicrobial photodynamic therapeutic effects in a Caenorhabditis elegans model.

J Photochem Photobiol B 2021 May 29;218:112184. Epub 2021 Mar 29.

Natural Product Informatics Research Center, Gangneung Institute of Natural Products, Korea Institute of Science and Technology, Gangwon-do 25451, Republic of Korea; Division of Bio-Medical Science & Technology, KIST School, University of Science and Technology (UST), Gangneung, Gangwon-do 25451, Republic of Korea. Electronic address:

Tripterygium wilfordii Hook. f. is a traditional medicinal plant and has long been used in East Asia to treat many diseases. However, the extract and active components have never been investigated as potential photosensitizers for photodynamic treatment to kill pathogenic microorganisms. Here, the antimicrobial photodynamic treatment (APDT) effects of the extract, fractions, and compounds of T. wilfordii were evaluated in vitro and in vivo. Ethanolic extract (TWE) and the photosensitizer-enriched fraction (TW-F5) were prepared from dried T. wilfordii. Six active compounds were isolated from TW-F5 by semipreparative high-performance liquid chromatography, and their chemical structures were characterized through spectroscopic and spectrometric analysis. The singlet oxygen from extracts, fractions, and compounds was measured by using the imidazole-N,N-dimethyl-4-nitrosoaniline method. These extracts, fractions, and compounds were used as photosensitizers for the inactivation of bacteria and fungi by red light at 660 nm. The in vitro APDT effects were also evaluated in the model animal Caenorhabditis elegans. APDT with TWE showed effective antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), and Candida albicans. TW-F5, consisting of six pheophorbide compounds, also showed strong APDT activity. The photosensitizers were taken up into the bacterial cells and induced intracellular ROS production by APDT. TWE and TW-F5 also induced a strong APDT effect in vitro against skin pathogens, including Staphylococcus epidermidis and Streptococcus pyogenes. We evaluated the APDT effects of TWE and TW-F5 in C. elegans infected with various pathogens and found that PDT effectively controlled pathogenic bacteria without strong side effects. APDT reversed the growth retardation of worms induced by pathogen infection and decreased the viable pathogenic bacterial numbers associated with C. elegans. Finally, APDT with TWE increased the survivability of C. elegans infected with S. pyogenes. In summary, TWE and TW-F5 were found to be effective antimicrobial photosensitizers in PDT.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jphotobiol.2021.112184DOI Listing
May 2021

Modified Reflux Scintigraphy Detects Pulmonary Microaspiration in Severe Gastro-Esophageal and Laryngopharyngeal Reflux Disease.

Lung 2021 04 9;199(2):139-145. Epub 2021 Mar 9.

Department of Surgery, Concord Repatriation General Hospital, Sydney, NSW, Australia.

Introduction: Previously described methodologies for detecting laryngopharyngeal reflux (LPR) have limitations. Symptoms alone are non-diagnostic, and pH-impedance studies have poor sensitivity. Pulmonary micro-aspiration is under-recognised in LPR and gastro-esophageal reflux disease (GERD). The present study aimed to describe the results of a modified technique for scintigraphic reflux studies in two groups with severe reflux: those with typical reflux symptoms and those with laryngopharyngeal manifestations of reflux.

Methods: A prospective database of severely symptomatic, treatment-resistant reflux patients was grouped based upon predominant symptom profile of typical GERD or LPR. All patients underwent reflux scintigraphy. Results were obtained for early scintigraphic reflux contamination of the pharynx and proximal esophagus, and delayed contamination of the pharynx and lungs after 2 h.

Results: 187 patients were studied (82 GERD, 105 LPR). The LPR patients were predominantly female (70.5% vs. 56.1%; p = 0.042) and older than the GERD group (median age 60 years vs. 55.5 years; p = 0.002). Early scintigraphic reflux was seen at the pharynx in 89.2% (GERD 87.7%, LPR 90.4%; p = 0.133), and at the proximal esophagus in 89.7% (GERD 88.9%, LPR 90.4%; p = 0.147). Delayed contamination of the pharynx was seen in 95.2% (GERD 93.9%, LPR 96.2%; p = 0.468). Delayed pulmonary aspiration was seen in 46% (GERD 36.6%, LPR 53.3%; p = 0.023).

Conclusion: Reflux scintigraphy demonstrated a high rate of reflux-related pulmonary aspiration. Contamination of the proximal esophagus and pharynx was observed frequently in both groups of severe disease. The likelihood of pulmonary aspiration and potential pulmonary disease needs to be entertained in severe GERD and LPR.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00408-021-00432-yDOI Listing
April 2021

A new diagnostic paradigm for laryngopharyngeal reflux disease: correlation of impedance-pH monitoring and digital reflux scintigraphy results.

Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol 2021 Feb 13. Epub 2021 Feb 13.

Department of Surgery, Concord Repatriation General Hospital, Sydney, NSW, Australia.

Purpose: No gold-standard investigation exists for laryngopharyngeal reflux (LPR). Multichannel intraluminal impedance (MII)-pH testing has uncertain utility in LPR. Meanwhile, reflux scintigraphy allows immediate and delayed visualisation of tracer reflux in the esophagus, pharynx, and lungs. The present study aimed to correlate MII-pH and scintigraphic reflux results in patients with primary LPR.

Methods: Consecutive patients with LPR underwent MII-pH and scintigraphic reflux studies. Abnormal values for MII-pH results were defined from existing literature. MII-pH and scintigraphic data were correlated.

Results: 105 patients with LPR [31 males (29.5%), median age 60 years (range 20-87)] were studied. Immediate scintigraphic reflux was seen in the pharynx in 94 (90.4%), and in the proximal esophagus in 94 (90.4%). Delayed scintigraphic contamination of the pharynx was seen in 101 patients (96.2%) and in the lungs of 56 patients (53.3%). For MII-pH, abnormally frequent reflux was seen in the distal esophagus in 12.4%, proximal esophagus in 25.7%, and in the pharynx in 82.9%. Patients with poor scintigraphic clearance had higher Demeester scores (p = 0.043), more proximal reflux episodes (p = 0.046), more distal acid reflux episodes (p = 0.023), and more prolonged bolus clearance times (p = 0.002).

Conclusion: Reflux scintigraphy has a high yield in LPR patients. Scintigraphic time-activity curves correlated with validated MII-pH results. A high rate of pulmonary microaspiration was found in LPR patients. This study demonstrated a high level of pharyngeal contamination by scintigraphy and MII-pH, which supports the use of digital reflux scintigraphy in diagnosing LPR.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00405-021-06658-zDOI Listing
February 2021

Light-absorption enhancement of black carbon in the Asian outflow inferred from airborne SP2 and in-situ measurements during KORUS-AQ.

Sci Total Environ 2021 Jun 1;773:145531. Epub 2021 Feb 1.

School of Earth and Environmental Sciences, Seoul National University, Seoul 08826, Republic of Korea. Electronic address:

We investigated the changes in the size distribution, coating thickness, and mass absorption cross-section (MAC) of black carbon (BC) with aging and estimated the light absorption enhancement (E) in the Asian outflow from airborne in-situ measurements during 2016 KORUS-AQ campaign. The BC number concentration decreased, but mass mean diameter increased with increasing altitude in the West Coast (WC) and Seoul Metropolitan Area (SMA), reflecting the contrast between freshly emitted BC-containing particles at the surface and more aged aerosol associated with aggregation during vertical mixing and transport. Contradistinctively, BC number and mass size distributions were relatively invariant with altitude over the Yellow Sea (YS) because sufficiently aged BC from eastern China were horizontally transported to all altitudes over the YS, and there are no significant sources at the surface. The averaged inferred MAC of refractory BC in three regions reflecting differences in their size distributions increased to 9.8 ± 1.0 m g (YS), 9.3 ± 0.9 m g (WC), and 8.2 ± 0.9 m g (SMA) as BC coating thickness increased from 20 nm to 120 nm. The absorption coefficient of BC calculated from the coating thickness and MAC were highly correlated with the filter-based absorption measurements with the slope of 1.16 and R of 0.96 at 550 nm, revealing that the thickly coated BC had a large MAC and absorption coefficient. The E due to the inferred coatings was estimated as 1.0-1.6, which was about 30% lower than those from climate models and laboratory experiments, suggesting that the increase in the BC absorption by the coatings in the Asian outflow is not as large as calculated in the previous studies. Organics contributed to the largest E accounting for 69% (YS), 61% (WC), and 64% (SMA). This implies that organics are largely responsible for the lensing effect of BC rather than sulfates in the Asian outflow.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2021.145531DOI Listing
June 2021

Does age affect oesophagectomy survival: a cohort study.

ANZ J Surg 2021 01 28;91(1-2):E14-E19. Epub 2020 Dec 28.

Department of Surgery, Concord Repatriation General Hospital, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia.

Background: Curative oesophagectomy for oesophageal cancer is associated with considerable potential mortality. Surgeons are increasingly treating older patients presenting with oesophageal cancer as the population ages. The question remains as to the survival in an older population group, many of whom are not fit for combined multimodal therapy. This study aimed to assess the effect of age on overall survival and disease-free survival in patients undergoing curative oesophagectomy for cancer.

Methods: Patient data were analysed from a prospectively maintained database. Demographic, surgical and survival outcomes were compared between groups according to age less than 75 years or 75 and older.

Results: Oesophagectomy was performed in 351 patients between 1990 and 2019 (283 patients <75 years, 68 patients ≥75 years). There was a higher rate of neoadjuvant chemotherapy in the younger group (37.7% versus 7.4%; P < 0.001). The 30-day mortality between younger and older groups was similar (2.5% and 2.9%; P = 0.827). There was no statistical difference in 5-year survival rates (50.3% versus 38.6%; P = 0.082) or median survival (22.6 versus 19.3 months; P = 0.053) between groups. There was no statistical difference in 5-year disease-free survival (45.1% and 35.7%; P = 0.180).

Conclusion: Overall survival, disease-free survival and 30-day mortality rates in patients aged 75 years and older were not statistically different to their younger counterparts. On the basis of these results, older patients should not be precluded from consideration of potentially curative oesophagectomy on age alone, providing surgery may be performed at reasonable risk.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/ans.16519DOI Listing
January 2021

Nardostachin from exerts anti‑neuroinflammatory effects through TLR4/MyD88‑related suppression of the NF‑κB and JNK MAPK signaling pathways in lipopolysaccharide‑induced BV2 and primary microglial cells.

Mol Med Rep 2021 01 25;23(1). Epub 2020 Nov 25.

College of Pharmacy, Wonkwang University, Iksan, Jeollabuk‑do 54538, Republic of Korea.

Through searching for anti‑neuroinflammatory metabolites from extracts, nardostachin was revealed to exert anti‑neuroinflammatory effects against lipopolysaccharide (LPS)‑induced overproduction of nitric oxide and prostaglandin E2 in BV2 and rat primary microglial cells. Furthermore, nardostachin inhibited the production of inducible nitric oxide synthase and cyclooxygenase‑2 as well as pro‑inflammatory cytokines, including interleukin (IL)‑1β, IL‑6, IL‑12 and tumor necrosis factor‑α in LPS‑stimulated BV2 and rat primary microglial cells. In a mechanistic study, nardostachin exhibited inhibitory activity on the nuclear factor (NF)‑κB signaling pathway in LPS‑stimulated BV2 and rat primary microglial cells by repressing IκB‑α phosphorylation and blocking NF‑κB translocation. Furthermore, nardostachin exhibited inhibitory effects on LPS‑induced phosphorylation of c‑Jun N‑terminal kinase (JNK) mitogen‑activated protein kinase (MAPK). Additionally, nardostachin repressed protein expression of Toll‑like receptor 4 (TLR4) and myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88) in LPS‑induced BV2 and rat primary microglial cells. These results suggested that nardostachin exerts anti‑neuroinflammatory effects on LPS‑induced BV2 and rat primary microglial cells by suppressing the TLR4‑MyD88‑NF‑κB and JNK MAPK pathways.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3892/mmr.2020.11720DOI Listing
January 2021

Aging-related changes in the gene expression profile of human lungs.

Aging (Albany NY) 2020 11 9;12(21):21391-21403. Epub 2020 Nov 9.

Department of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, and Clinical Research Center for Chronic Obstructive Airway Diseases, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul 05535, Republic of Korea.

Aging is a multifactorial process that leads to molecular and cellular changes, contributing to the susceptibility of most lung diseases. However, the molecular and genetic mechanism of lung aging remains poorly understood. Here, we performed RNA-seq transcriptome analysis of the lung tissues of 68 subjects and analyzed their gene expression profile to evaluate candidate genes related to lung aging. The subjects were classified into two groups (Younger group and Older group) based on their age. Lung tissues were obtained from surgically resected specimens, processed, and analyzed with RNA-seq. The median age of the subjects was 45 years in the Younger group and 74 years in the Older group. Around 71% and 53% of the subjects were female in the Younger and Older groups, respectively. After gene quality control and filtering, differentially expressed gene analysis showed that and were upregulated in the Younger group, whereas and were upregulated in the Older group. Multivariate analysis with adjustment for covariates showed that was a risk factor for lung aging. Our study identified differences in the gene expression of the lungs of older subjects compared with younger subjects. These findings may have implications in lung aging.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.18632/aging.103885DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7695411PMC
November 2020

7-Acetoxycoumarin Inhibits LPS-Induced Inflammatory Cytokine Synthesis by IκBα Degradation and MAPK Activation in Macrophage Cells.

Molecules 2020 Jul 8;25(14). Epub 2020 Jul 8.

Department of Pharmaceutical Engineering & Biotechnology, Sunmoon University, Chungnam 31460, Korea.

Acetylation involves the chemical introduction of an acetyl group in place of an active hydrogen group into a compound. In this study, we synthesized 7-acetoxycoumarin (7AC) from acetylation of umbelliferone (UMB). We examined the anti-inflammatory properties of 7AC in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-treated RAW 264.7 macrophage cells. The anti-inflammatory activity of 7AC on viability of treated cells was assessed by measuring the level of expression of NO, PGE and pro-inflammatory cytokines, namely interleukin-1β (IL-1β), interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) in 7AC-treated RAW 264.7 macrophages. The 7AC was nontoxic to cells and inhibited the production of cytokines in a concentration-dependent manner. In addition, its treatment suppressed the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines in a dose-dependent manner and concomitantly decreased the protein and mRNA expressions of inducible NO synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2). Moreover, the levels of the phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) family proteins such as extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), c-Jun -terminal kinase (JNK), p38 and nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) were reduced by 7AC. In conclusion, we generated an anti-inflammatory compound through acetylation and demonstrated its efficacy in cell-based in vitro assays.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/molecules25143124DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7397006PMC
July 2020

Antimicrobial Biophotonic Treatment of Ampicillin-Resistant with Hypericin and Ampicillin Cotreatment Followed by Orange Light.

Pharmaceutics 2019 Dec 1;11(12). Epub 2019 Dec 1.

Natural Products Informatics Research Center, Gangneung Institute of Natural Products, Korea Institute of Science and Technology, Gangwon-do 25451, Korea.

Bacterial antibiotic resistance is an alarming global issue that requires alternative antimicrobial methods to which there is no resistance. Antimicrobial photodynamic therapy (APDT) is a well-known method to combat this problem for many pathogens, especially Gram-positive bacteria and fungi. Hypericin and orange light APDT efficiently kill , methicillin-resistant (MRSA), and the yeast . Although Gram-positive bacteria and many fungi are readily killed with APDT, Gram-negative bacteria are difficult to kill due to their different cell wall structures. is one of the most important opportunistic, life-threatening Gram-negative pathogens. However, it cannot be killed successfully by hypericin and orange light APDT. is ampicillin resistant, but we hypothesized that ampicillin could still damage the cell wall, which can promote photosensitizer uptake into Gram-negative cells. Using hypericin and ampicillin cotreatment followed by orange light, a significant reduction (3.4 log) in PAO1 was achieved. PAO1 inactivation and gut permeability improvement by APDT were successfully shown in a model.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics11120641DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6956302PMC
December 2019

Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Formononetin 7--phosphate, a Novel Biorenovation Product, on LPS-Stimulated RAW 264.7 Macrophage Cells.

Molecules 2019 Oct 30;24(21). Epub 2019 Oct 30.

Department of Pharmaceutical Engineering & Biotechnology, Sunmoon University, Chungnam 31460, Korea.

Biorenovation is a microbial enzyme-catalyzed structural modification of organic compounds with the potential benefits of reduced toxicity and improved biological properties relative to their precursor compounds. In this study, we synthesized a novel compound verified as formononetin 7--phosphate (FMP) from formononetin (FM) using microbial biotransformation. We further compared the anti-inflammatory properties of FMP to FM in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-treated RAW264.7 macrophage cells. We observed that cell viabilities and inhibitory effects on LPS-induced nitric oxide (NO) production were greater in FMP-treated RAW 264.7 cells than in their FM-treated counterparts. In addition, FMP treatment suppressed the production of proinflammatory cytokines such as prostaglandin-E (PGE), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and interleukin-1β (IL-1β) in a dose-dependent manner and concomitantly decreased the mRNA expression of inducible NO synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2). We also found that FMP exerted its anti-inflammatory effects through the downregulation of the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), c-Jun -terminal kinase (JNK), and nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) signaling pathways. In conclusion, we generated a novel anti-inflammatory compound using biorenovation and demonstrated its efficacy in cell-based in vitro assays.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/molecules24213910DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6864718PMC
October 2019

Comparison of Short-Term Associations between PM Components and Mortality across Six Major Cities in South Korea.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2019 08 11;16(16). Epub 2019 Aug 11.

Department of Public Health Sciences, Graduate School of Public Health, Seoul National University, Seoul 08826, Korea.

Association between short-term exposure to fine particulate matter (PM) and mortality or morbidity varies geographically, and this variation could be due to different chemical composition affected by local sources. However, there have been only a few Asian studies possibly due to limited monitoring data. Using nationwide regulatory monitoring data of PM chemical components in South Korea, we aimed to compare the associations between daily exposure to PM components and mortality across six major cities. We obtained daily 24-h concentrations of PM and 11 PM components measured from 2013 to 2015 at single sites located in residential areas. We used death certificate data to compute the daily counts of nonaccidental, cardiovascular, and respiratory deaths. Using the generalized additive model, we estimated relative risks of daily mortality for an interquartile range increase in each pollutant concentration, while controlling for a longer-term time trend and meteorology. While elemental carbon was consistently associated with nonaccidental mortality across all cities, nickel and vanadium were strongly associated with respiratory or cardiovascular mortality in Busan and Ulsan, two large port cities. Our study shows that PM components responsible for PM-associated mortality differed across cities depending on the dominant pollution sources, such as traffic and oil combustion.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16162872DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6720204PMC
August 2019

New preaustinoids from a marine-derived fungal strain Penicillium sp. SF-5497 and their inhibitory effects against PTP1B activity.

J Antibiot (Tokyo) 2019 08 24;72(8):629-633. Epub 2019 Apr 24.

College of Pharmacy, Wonkwang University, Iksan, 54538, Republic of Korea.

Chemical investigation of the marine-derived fungal isolate Penicillium sp. SF-5497 resulted in the isolation of two new preaustinoid-related meroterpenoids, named preaustinoid A6 (1) and preaustinoid A7 (2), along with three known metabolites (3-5). Their structures were elucidated by extensive spectroscopic analyses, such as 1D and 2D NMR and MS data. Among these, compounds 1 and 3 inhibited PTP1B activity in a dose-dependent manner, with IC values of 17.6 and 58.4 µM, respectively. Furthermore, kinetic analyses indicated that compound 1 inhibited PTP1B in a noncompetitive manner, with the K value of 17.0 µM.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41429-019-0187-7DOI Listing
August 2019

Effect of esmolol and lidocaine on agitation in awake phase of anesthesia among children: a double-blind, randomized clinical study.

Chin Med J (Engl) 2019 Apr;132(7):757-764

Department of Anesthesiology and Pain Medicine, Soonchunhyang University Hospital Cheonan, 31, Soonchunhyang 6-gil, Dongnam-gu, Cheonan-si, Chungcheongnam-do 330-721, Korea.

Background: Sevoflurane is widely used to anesthetize children because of its rapid action with minimal irritation of the airways. However, there is a high risk of agitation after emergence from anesthesia. Strabismus surgery, in particular, can trigger agitation because patients have their eyes covered in the postoperative period. The aim of this study was to determine whether or not esmolol and lidocaine could decrease emergence agitation in children.

Methods: Eighty-four patients aged 3 to 9 years undergoing strabismus surgery were randomly assigned to a control group (saline only), a group that received intravenous lidocaine 1.5 mg/kg, and a group that received intravenous esmolol 0.5 mg/kg and lidocaine 1.5 mg/kg. Agitation was measured using the objective pain score, Cole 5-point score, and Richmond Agitation Sedation Scale score at the end of surgery, on arrival in the recovery room, and 10 and 30 min after arrival.

Results: The group that received the combination of esmolol and lidocaine showed lower OPS and RASS scores than the other two groups when patients awoke from anesthesia (OPS = 0 (0-4), RASS = -4 [(-5)-1]) and were transferred to the recovery room (OPS = 0 (0-8), RASS = -1 [(-5)-3]) (P < 0.05). There was no significant difference in the severity of agitation among the three groups at other time points (P > 0.05).

Conclusions: When pediatric strabismus surgery is accompanied by sevoflurane anesthesia, an intravenous injection of esmolol and lidocaine could alleviate agitation until arrival in the recovery room.

Trial Registration: Clinical Research Information Service, No. KCT0002925; https://cris.nih.go.kr/cris/en/search/search_result_st01.jsp?seq=11532.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/CM9.0000000000000141DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6595862PMC
April 2019

Endoscopic Rescue Technique for Iatrogenic Sacroiliac Joint Syndrome caused by Sextant Percutaneous Pedicle Screw Fixation System : A Case Report.

World Neurosurg 2019 Jan 25. Epub 2019 Jan 25.

Department of Neurosurgery, Good Doctor Teun Teun Hospital, Anyang, Korea. Electronic address:

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.wneu.2019.01.073DOI Listing
January 2019

Therapeutic Feasibility of Full Endoscopic Decompression in One- to Three-Level Lumbar Canal Stenosis via a Single Skin Port Using a New Endoscopic System, Percutaneous Stenoscopic Lumbar Decompression.

Asian Spine J 2019 Apr 27;13(2):272-282. Epub 2018 Nov 27.

Department of Neurosurgery, Good Doctor Teun Teun Hospital, Anyang, Korea.

Study Design: This retrospective study involved 450 consecutive cases of degenerative lumbar stenosis treated with percutaneous stenoscopic lumbar decompression (PSLD).

Purpose: We determined the feasibility of PSLD for lumbar stenosis at single and multiple levels (minimum 1-year follow-up) by image analysis to observe postoperative widening of the vertebral canal in the area.

Overview Of Literature: The decision not to perform an endoscopic decompression might be due to the surgeon being uncomfortable with conventional microscopic decompression or unfamiliar with endoscopic techniques or the unavailability of relevant surgical tools to completely decompress the spinal stenosis.

Methods: The decompressed canal was compared between preoperative controls and postoperative treated cases. Data on operative results, including length of stay, operative time, and surgical complications, were analyzed. Patients were assessed clinically on the basis of the Visual Analog Scale (VAS) score for the back and legs and using the Oswestry Disability Index (ODI).

Results: Postoperative magnetic resonance imaging revealed that PSLD increased the canal cross-sectional area by 52.0% compared with the preoperative area at the index segment (p<0.001) and demonstrated minimal damage to the normal soft tissues including muscles and the extent of removed normal bony tissues. Mean improvements in VAS score and ODI were 4.0 (p<0.001) and 40% (p<0.001), respectively.

Conclusions: PSLD could be an alternative to microscopic or microendoscopic decompression with various advantages in the surgical management of lumbar stenosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.31616/asj.2018.0228DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6454282PMC
April 2019

Effective removal of emerging dissolved cyanotoxins from water using hybrid photocatalytic composites.

Water Res 2019 02 13;149:421-431. Epub 2018 Nov 13.

Department of Green Chemical Engineering, College of Engineering, Sangmyung University, Cheonan, Chungnam Province, 31066, Republic of Korea. Electronic address:

Harmful algal blooms are occurring more frequently in fresh water throughout the world. Certain cyanobacteria can produce and release potent toxic compounds, known as cyanotoxins, such as microcystins, cylindrospermopsin, saxitoxin, and anatoxin-a, and as such they have become a human and environmental health concern. Hybrid photocatalytic composites (HPCs) comprising carbon nanotubes on the surface of TiO nanotubes were designed in this study. The HPCs have a selective adsorption capacity to cyanotoxins and provide photocatalytic activity to produce reactive oxygen species for the degradation of cyanotoxins. HPCs with 5.2 mg carbon nanotubes/cm showed an excellent removal efficiency of microcystins-LR (>95%) at 55.6 L/m/hr/bar. The HPCs more efficiently removed the relatively larger and more hydrophobic cyanotoxins (i.e., microcystin-LR) than the relatively smaller and more hydrophilic compounds, such as cylindrospermopsin, saxitoxin, and anatoxin-a. With a further increased in the carbon nanotube content to 8.6 mg/cm, the adsorption capacity of the HPCs for cyanotoxins increased to 70.6% for MC-LR. However, there was significant decrease in the photocatalytic activity of the HPCs for production of reactive oxygen species, and consequently a decrease in the degradation of cyanotoxins. It is considered that this device could be used to provide complete rejection of particles and pathogens, and also to significantly reduce trace organic compounds and harmful algal toxins in emergency water supplies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.watres.2018.11.016DOI Listing
February 2019

Potential Therapeutic Strategy in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Using Pioglitazone-Augmented Wharton's Jelly-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells.

Tuberc Respir Dis (Seoul) 2019 Apr 28;82(2):158-165. Epub 2018 Sep 28.

Asan Institute for Life Sciences, Seoul, Korea.

Background: A recent study reported that mesenchymal stem cells possess potential cellular therapeutic properties for treating patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, which is characterized by emphysema. We examined the potential therapeutic effect of Wharton's Jelly-derived mesenchymal stem cells (WJMSCs), following pretreatment with pioglitazone, in lung regeneration mouse emphysema models.

Methods: We used two mouse emphysema models, an elastase-induced model and a cigarette smoke-induced model. We intravenously injected WJMSCs (1×10⁴/mouse) to mice, pretreated or not, with pioglitazone for 7 days. We measured the emphysema severity by mean linear intercepts (MLI) analysis using lung histology.

Results: Pioglitazone pretreated WJMSCs (pioWJMSCs) were associated with greater lung regeneration than non-augmented WJMSCs in the two mouse emphysema models. In the elastase-induced emphysema model, the MLIs were 59.02±2.42 μm (n=6), 72.80±2.87 μm (n=6), for pioWJMSCs injected mice, and non-augmented WJMSCs injected mice, respectively (p<0.01). Both pioWJMSCs and non-augmented WJMSCs showed regenerative effects in the cigarette smoke emphysema model (MLIs were 41.25±0.98 [n=6] for WJMSCs and38.97±0.61 μm [n=6] for pioWJMSCs) compared to smoking control mice (51.65±1.36 μm, n=6). The mean improvement of MLI appeared numerically better in pioWJMSCs than in non-augmented WJMSCs injected mice, but the difference did not reach the level of statistical significance (p=0.071).

Conclusion: PioWJMSCs may produce greater lung regeneration, compared to non-augmented WJMSCs, in a mouse emphysema model.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4046/trd.2018.0044DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6435932PMC
April 2019

Double-Layer TachoSil Packing for Management of Incidental Durotomy During Percutaneous Stenoscopic Lumbar Decompression.

World Neurosurg 2018 Dec 18;120:448-456. Epub 2018 Sep 18.

Department of Neurosurgery, Good Doctor Teun Teun Hospital, Anyang, Korea. Electronic address:

Background: Incidental durotomy (ID) during surgery for lumbar herniated disks or lumbar spinal stenosis is a serious complication that requires immediate recognition and repair. The incidence of ID during percutaneous endoscopic lumbar decompression has increased along with the demand for endoscopic spinal surgery. The management of ID during endoscopic surgery is more complicated and difficult than management during open surgery. A hemostatic agent, TachoSil (Nycomed, Linz, Austria), is used for control of local bleeding in several types of surgery, but its use in dural repair in endoscopic spinal surgery has not been described.

Case Description: We present 3 cases in which the double-layer TachoSil packing technique was used in the management of ID during percutaneous stenoscopic lumbar decompression.

Conclusions: This case report reconfirms the efficacy and utility of TachoSil for IDs that occur during endoscopic spinal surgery and minimally invasive surgery. To our knowledge, this is the first report on the use and effectiveness of TachoSil for managing IDs during endoscopic spinal surgery. We hope that other surgeons will find this technique helpful in managing IDs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.wneu.2018.09.040DOI Listing
December 2018

Isolation of Novel Sesquiterpeniods and Anti-neuroinflammatory Metabolites from .

Molecules 2018 Sep 17;23(9). Epub 2018 Sep 17.

College of Pharmacy, Wonkwang University, Iksan 54538, Korea.

contains various types of sesquiterpenoids that may play an important role in the potency of plant's anti-inflammatory effects, depending on their structure. In this study, five new sesquiterpenoids, namely kanshone L (), kanshone M (), 7-methoxydesoxo-narchinol (), kanshone N (), and nardosdaucanol (), were isolated along with four known terpenoids (kanshone D (), nardosinanone G (), narchinol A (), and nardoaristolone B ()) from the rhizomes and roots of . Their structures were determined by analyzing 1D and 2D NMR and MS data. Among the nine sesquiterpenoids, compounds , , and were shown to possess dose-dependent inhibitory effects against lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated nitric oxide (NO) production in BV2 microglial cells. Furthermore, compounds , , and exhibited anti-neuroinflammatory effects by inhibiting the production of pro-inflammatory mediators, including prostaglandin E₂ (PGE₂), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) proteins, as well as pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-12 and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), in LPS-stimulated BV2 microglial cells. Moreover, these compounds were shown to inhibit the activation of the NF-κB signaling pathway in LPS-stimulated BV2 microglial cells by suppressing the phosphorylation of IκB-α and blocking NF-κB translocation. In conclusion, five new and four known sesquiterpenoids were isolated from , and compounds , , and exhibited anti-neuroinflammatory effects in LPS-stimulated BV2 microglial cells through inhibiting of NF-κB signaling pathway.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/molecules23092367DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6225174PMC
September 2018

Effects of fermented milk treatment on microbial population and metabolomic outcomes in a three-stage semi-continuous culture system.

Food Chem 2018 Oct 23;263:216-224. Epub 2018 Apr 23.

Systems Biotechnology Research Center, KIST Gangneung Institute of Natural Products, Gangneung 25451, Republic of Korea. Electronic address:

We investigated the impact of a fermented milk product on gut microbiota and their metabolism in 3 different conditions of the colon with a systemic viewpoint. An in vitro semi-continuous anaerobic cultivation was used to assess the colon compartment-specific influence of fermented milk, followed by a multiomics approach combining 16S rDNA amplicon sequencing and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. The microbiome profiling and metabolomic features were significantly different across three colon compartments and after fermented milk treatment. Integrative correlation analysis indicated that the alteration of butyrate-producing microbiota (Veillonella, Roseburia, Lachnospira, and Coprococcus) and some primary metabolites (butyrate, ethanol, lactate, and isobutyrate) in the treatment group had a strong association with the fermented milk microorganisms. Our findings suggested that fermented milk treatment significantly affected microbial population in an in vitro cultivation system as well as the colonic metabolome in different ways in each of colon compartment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2018.04.095DOI Listing
October 2018

Female non-smokers' environmental tobacco smoking exposure by public transportation mode.

Ann Occup Environ Med 2018 19;30:24. Epub 2018 Apr 19.

1Department of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Kyung Hee University Hospital, Seoul, South Korea.

Background: This study aimed to analyze environmental tobacco smoking exposure in female nonsmokers by public transportation mode using representative data of Koreans.

Methods: Data from the Second Korean National Environmental Health Survey (2012-2014) were analyzed. Urine cotinine was analyzed by public transport behavior, secondhand smoke exposure, socioeconomic factors, and health-related factors. Participants were 1322 adult females; those with the top 75% urine cotinine concentrations were assigned to the high exposure group. A logistic regression analysis was performed considering appropriate weights and stratification according to the sample design of the Second Korean National Environmental Health Survey.

Results: The geometric mean of urine cotinine concentrations differed according to public transportation modes: subway (1.66 μg/g creatinine) bus (1.77 μg/g creatinine), and taxi (1.94 μg/g creatinine). The odds ratio [OR] was calculated for the high exposure group. The OR of the taxi (2.39; 95% confidence interval, 1.00-5.69) was statistically significantly higher than the subway value (reference), and marginally significant after adjusted with life style, sociodemographic factors and involuntary smoking frequency (2.42, 95% confidence interval, 0.97-6.04).

Conclusions: The odds ratio of passengers who mainly used taxis was marginally significantly higher than those of passengers who used subways and buses after adjusted with life style and sociodemographic factors. Implementation of supplementary measures and further studies on exposure to environmental tobacco smoking in taxis are warranted.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s40557-018-0239-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5907694PMC
April 2018

Metastatic Melanoma to the Colon, Rectum, and Anus: A 50-Year Experience.

Ann Surg Oncol 2018 Aug 24;25(8):2178-2183. Epub 2018 Apr 24.

Department of Colorectal Surgery, Royal Prince Alfred Hospital, Sydney, NSW, Australia.

Background: Melanoma metastatic to the large bowel (colon, rectum, and anus) is rarely diagnosed, with more than 95% of large bowel metastases identified post-mortem. The incidence, natural history, and survival rates of patients with large bowel melanoma metastases are poorly documented in the literature.

Objective: This study aimed to identify the incidence, clinical characteristics, and survival of patients with large bowel melanoma metastases.

Methods: A review was undertaken of all patients with melanoma treated over a 50-year period (1964-2014) at a tertiary referral center. Cases selected for study were those diagnosed with melanoma metastases in the colon, rectum, and anus. Primary colorectal and anal melanomas were excluded. Data were retrieved relating to patient demographics, clinical features, and survival.

Results: Of 38,279 patients with primary melanoma, 106 patients (0.3%, mean age 51.0 years [standard deviation 16.3], 64 males) developed large bowel metastases. The median interval between diagnosis of primary melanoma and large bowel metastasis was 62.8 months (range 1-476). The most common symptom was rectal bleeding (29.2%), and the large bowel was the sole site of metastasis in 47.2% of patients. Median survival from diagnosis of large bowel metastasis was 31.7 months (range 1-315), and overall survival at 1, 2, and 5 years was 68.1, 45.9, and 26.5%, respectively.

Conclusion: Our study provides insights into melanoma metastatic to the colon, rectum, and anus, which had an incidence of 0.3%. There are potentially long intervals between diagnosis of primary melanoma and large bowel metastasis. The most common symptom was rectal bleeding, although some patients were asymptomatic.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1245/s10434-018-6451-4DOI Listing
August 2018

Nardosinone-Type Sesquiterpenes from the Hexane Fraction of Nardostachys jatamansi Attenuate NF-κB and MAPK Signaling Pathways in Lipopolysaccharide-Stimulated BV2 Microglial Cells.

Inflammation 2018 Aug;41(4):1215-1228

College of Pharmacy, Wonkwang University, Iksan, 54538, Republic of Korea.

Four nardosinone-type sesquiterpenes, nardosinone, isonardosinone, kanshone E, and kanshone B, were isolated from the hexane fraction of Nardostachys jatamansi (Valerianaceae) methanol extract. The structures of these compounds were mainly established by analyzing the data obtained from nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy and mass spectrometry (MS). In this study, we investigated their anti-neuroinflammatory effects in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced BV2 microglial cells. The results showed that nardosinone-type sesquiterpenes inhibited the production of pro-inflammatory mediators, such as nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandin E (PGE) in LPS-induced BV2 microglial cells. These inhibitory effects were correlated with the downregulation of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2). Moreover, these sesquiterpenes also attenuated the mRNA expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines including interleukin-1β (IL-1β), IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) in LPS-induced BV2 microglial cells. During the evaluation of the signaling pathways involved in these anti-neuroinflammatory effects, western blot analysis and DNA-binding activity assay revealed that the suppression of inflammatory reaction by these sesquiterpenes was mediated by the inactivation of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) pathway. These sesquiterpenes also suppressed the phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathways in LPS-stimulated BV2 microglial cells. Taken together, these four nardosinone-type sesquiterpenes inhibited NF-κB- and MAPK-mediated inflammatory pathways, demonstrating their potential role in the treatment of neuroinflammation conditions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10753-018-0768-9DOI Listing
August 2018

New Naphthoquinone Terpenoids from Marine Actinobacterium, Streptomyces sp. CNQ-509.

Mar Drugs 2018 Mar 12;16(3). Epub 2018 Mar 12.

Natural Constituents Research Center, Korea Institute of Science and Technology (KIST), Gangneung, Gangwon-do 25451, Korea.

A member of the marine streptomycete clade MAR4, sp. CNQ-509, has genetic potential for the biosynthesis of hybrid isoprenoids and produces several meroterpenoids such as naphterpin, nitropyrrolin and marinophenazine. Our research on the strain CNQ-509 led to the isolation of two new naphterpin derivatives ( and ) comprised of naphthoquinone and geranyl moieties along with the known terpenoid, debromomarinone. The two-dimensional structure of these compounds was determined through spectral data analysis using data from NMR, MS and UV spectroscopy. Furthermore, the full structures of and including absolute configurations were unequivocally established by a combination of NMR experiments and chemical modifications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/md16030090DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5867634PMC
March 2018

Furanoaustinol and 7-acetoxydehydroaustinol: new meroterpenoids from a marine-derived fungal strain Penicillium sp. SF-5497.

J Antibiot (Tokyo) 2018 06 20;71(6):557-563. Epub 2018 Feb 20.

College of Pharmacy, Wonkwang University, Iksan, 54538, Republic of Korea.

Two new meroterpenoid-type fungal metabolites, furanoaustinol (1) and 7-acetoxydehydroaustinol (2), were isolated from the ethyl acetate extract of a marine-derived fungal strain Penicillium sp. SF-5497, along with eight (3-10) known meroterpenoids. Their structures were elucidated mainly based on the analysis of their NMR (1D and 2D) and MS data. Particularly, the novel meroterpenoid, furanoaustinol (1), belonging to the austin group, was identified to possess an unprecedented hexacyclic ring system. Biological evaluation of these compounds revealed that furanoaustinol (1) weakly inhibited the activity of protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B in a dose-dependent manner with an IC value of 77.2 μM. In addition, 7-acetoxydehydroaustinol (2) and four other known meroterpenoids (5, 7, 9, and 10) weakly suppressed the overproduction of nitric oxide in lipopolysaccharide-challenged BV2 microglial cells with IC values of 61.0, 30.1, 58.3, 37.6, and 40.2 μM, respectively.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41429-018-0034-2DOI Listing
June 2018

Continuous Preparation of Water-Dispersible Magnetite Nanoparticles by Electrochemical Synthesis.

J Nanosci Nanotechnol 2018 Aug;18(8):5721-5725

Department of Green Chemical Engineering, College of Engineering, Sangmyung University, 31 Sangmyungdae-gil, Dongnam-gu, Cheonan 31066, Republic of Korea.

Highly water-dispersible magnetic nanoparticles were synthesized by convenient electrochemical techniques using a continuous flow reactor. The surface properties of the magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) were modified with hydrophilic organic ligands during the electrochemical synthesis process to control the degree of dispersion in water. The kind of hydrophilic low-molecular weight polymers or surfactants influenced the sizes of the particles ranged between 25-40 nm (in diameter) and their size distribution. Chitosan-modified MNPs exhibited the most uniform particle size distribution among the MNPs synthesized in this study as well as excellent dispersion stability and magnetic properties in water after the crosslinking of the amino groups in chitosan. Especially, the dispersion stability of the MNPs in water was systematically investigated via a light scattering analysis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1166/jnn.2018.15398DOI Listing
August 2018

Nanocomposite Membranes Comprising Crosslinked Polymer Blends of Poly(vinyl alcohol)/Poly(styrene sulfonic acid--maleic acid) and Fumed Silica Nanoparticles.

J Nanosci Nanotechnol 2018 Mar;18(3):1657-1664

Department of Environmental Engineering, Sangmyung University, 31 Sangmyungdae-gil, Dongnam-gu, Cheonan-si, Chungnam 31066, Republic of Korea.

Nanocomposite polymer electrolyte membranes comprising a crosslinked polymer blend of poly(vinyl alcohol)/poly(styrene sulfonic acid-co-maleic acid) (PVA/PSSA-co-MA) and fumed silica nanoparticles were prepared for direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC) applications. Silica nanoparticles could be incorporated well uniformly in the completely miscible system, which can form a three-dimensional network structure to achieve the enhancement of mechanical properties as well as the additional reduction of methanol permeability. The optimized proton conductivities and methanol permeability of the PVA/PSSA-co-MA membrane with silica nanoparticles of 10 wt.% were 0.0482 S cm-1 at room temperature and 5.78 × 10-7 cm2 s-1 at the methanol concentration of 40% (w/w), respectively.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1166/jnn.2018.14213DOI Listing
March 2018

Amyloid Beta Detection by Faradaic Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy Using Interdigitated Microelectrodes.

Sensors (Basel) 2018 Feb 1;18(2). Epub 2018 Feb 1.

Center for BioMicrosystems, Korea Institute of Science and Technology (KIST), Seoul 02792, Korea.

Faradaic electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (f-EIS) in the presence of redox reagent, e.g., [Fe(CN)₆], is widely used in biosensors owing to its high sensitivity. However, in sensors detecting amyloid beta (Aβ), the redox reagent can cause the aggregation of Aβ, which is a disturbance factor in accurate detection. Here, we propose an interdigitated microelectrode (IME) based f-EIS technique that can alleviate the aggregation of Aβ and achieve high sensitivity by buffer control. The proposed method was verified by analyzing three different EIS-based sensors: non-faradaic EIS (nf-EIS), f-EIS, and the proposed f-EIS with buffer control. We analyzed the equivalent circuits of nf-EIS and f-EIS sensors. The dominant factors of sensitivity were analyzed, and the impedance change rates via Aβ reaction was compared. We measured the sensitivity of the IME sensors based on nf-EIS, f-EIS, and the proposed f-EIS. The results demonstrate that the proposed EIS-based IME sensor can detect Aβ with a sensitivity of 7.40-fold and 10.93-fold higher than the nf-EIS and the f-EIS sensors, respectively.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/s18020426DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5855898PMC
February 2018

Relationship between dietary factors and bisphenol a exposure: the second Korean National Environmental Health Survey (KoNEHS 2012-2014).

Ann Occup Environ Med 2017 18;29:42. Epub 2017 Oct 18.

Department of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Kyung Hee University Hospital, Seoul, South Korea.

Background: This study was aimed at finding out the exposure level of bisphenol A (BPA), a well-known endocrine disruptor, in relation to dietary factors using a data representing the Korean general population.

Methods: This study was performed on 5402 adults aged 19 years and older based on the Second Korean National Environmental Health Survey (KoNEHS 2012-2014). The data analyzed urinary BPA concentration in relation to socio-demographic variables, health behavior-related variables, and dietary factor-related variables. Odds ratio (OR) was calculated through a logistic regression analysis after dividing the participants into high BPA exposure group and low BPA exposure group based on the top 75 percentile concentration. The logistic regression analysis was carried out considering the appropriate sample weight, stratification, and clustering of the second KoNEHS sample design.

Results: The group drinking bottled water at home and the group using zip-top bags/plastic bags showed significantly higher urinary BPA concentration in female. OR tends to increase as the intake frequency of frozen food increased and OR of frozen food consumption of more than once a week was 1.48 (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.02-2.24) for male and the group drinking bottled water showed significantly higher OR of 1.45 (95% CI 1.06-2.17) after adjusting the related factors for female.

Conclusions: BPA levels were high in female using bottled water and in male consuming frozen food, and therefore bottled water and frozen food need to be avoided to reduce BPA levels.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s40557-017-0200-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5646104PMC
October 2017

Gordonic Acid, a Polyketide Glycoside Derived from Bacterial Coculture of Streptomyces and Gordonia Species.

J Nat Prod 2017 09 28;80(9):2542-2546. Epub 2017 Aug 28.

Natural Constituents Research Center, Korea Institute of Science and Technology (KIST) , Gangneung, Gangwon-do 25451, Republic of Korea.

Despite numerous efforts to discover novel bioactive products from microorganisms, previously reported compounds are repetitively reisolated. A new polyketide glycoside, gordonic acid (1), isolated from the mixed culture of two Gram-positive bacteria, Gordonia sp. KMC005 and Streptomyces tendae KMC006, is reported. The structure of 1 was characterized as an acyclic polyene polyketide substituted with a β-d-digitoxopyranose through NMR, HR-ESI-QTOF-MS, IR, and UV spectral data. The stereochemistry for 1 was determined by Mosher's method followed by 2D NOESY analysis and by NMR chemical shift calculations supported by DP4 analysis. Gordonic acid (1) showed weak activity against Micrococcus luteus and Enterococcus hirae.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.jnatprod.7b00293DOI Listing
September 2017