Publications by authors named "Jin-Hyun Kim"

170 Publications

Serum MicroRNA-185 Levels and Myocardial Injury in Patients with Acute ST-segment Elevation Myocardial Infarction.

Intern Med 2021 Jul 10. Epub 2021 Jul 10.

Division of Cardiology, Department of Internal Medicine, Gyeongsang National University School of Medicine and Gyeongsang National University Hospital, Republic of Korea.

Objective Human microRNA-185 (miR-185) has been reported to act as a regulator of fibrosis and angiogenesis in cancer. However, miR-185 has not been investigated in patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). We hypothesized that the changes in miR-185 levels in STEMI patients are related to the processes of myocardial healing and remodeling. Methods Between January 2011 and December 2013, 145 patients with STEMI (65.9±11.6 years old; 41 women) were enrolled. Initial and discharge serum samples collected from 20 patients with STEMI and mixed sera from 8 healthy controls were analyzed by a microarray. A quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) analysis of miR-185 was performed in all 145 patients. The correlation between the miR-185 levels and the clinical, laboratory, angiographic, and echocardiographic parameters was analyzed. Results The microarray analysis revealed a biphasic pattern in miR-185 levels, with an initial decrease followed by an increase at discharge. The miR-185 levels at discharge were significantly correlated with the troponin-I, CK-MB, and area under the curve of CK-MB levels. There was a positive correlation between the transforming growth factor-β and miR-185 levels at discharge (ρ=0.242, p=0.026). A high wall motion score index and a low ejection fraction, as measured by echocardiography, and high B-type natriuretic peptide level at one month after STEMI were related to high miR-185 levels. Conclusion Our results showed that elevated miR-185 levels at the late stage of STEMI were related to a large amount of myocardial injury and adverse remodeling.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2169/internalmedicine.7594-21DOI Listing
July 2021

Histomorphometric Evaluation of Socket Preservation Using Autogenous Tooth Biomaterial and BM-MSC in Dogs.

Scanning 2021 12;2021:6676149. Epub 2021 May 12.

Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Graduate School of Clinical Dentistry, Korea University, Seoul 08308, Republic of Korea.

This study is aimed at assessing the dimensional alterations occurring in the alveolar bone after premolar extraction in dogs with histomorphometric and histological analysis. After atraumatic premolar extraction, tooth-derived bone graft material was grafted in the extraction socket of the premolar region in the lower jaws of six dogs in two experimental groups. In the second experimental group, BM-MSCs were added together with the graft. The control was left untreated on the opposite side. After twelve weeks, all six animals were sacrificed. Differences in alveolar bone height crests lingually and buccally, and alveolar bone width at 1, 3, and 5 mm infracrestally, were examined. Histologic study revealed osteoconductive properties of tooth biomaterial. A statistically significant difference was detected between the test and control groups. In the test groups, a reduced loss of vertical and horizontal alveolar bone dimensions compared with the control group was observed. Tooth bone graft material may be considered useful for alveolar ridge preservation after tooth extraction, as it could limit the natural bone resorption process.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2021/6676149DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8137288PMC
May 2021

Development of fully automated anterior chamber cell analysis based on image software.

Sci Rep 2021 May 21;11(1):10670. Epub 2021 May 21.

Department of Ophthalmology, Gyeongsang National University Changwon Hospital, #11 Samjeongja-ro, Seongsan-gu, Changwon, 51472, Republic of Korea.

Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a noninvasive method that can quickly and accurately examine the eye at the cellular level. Several studies have used OCT for analysis of anterior chamber cells. However, these studies have several limitations. This study was performed to supplement existing reports of automated analysis of anterior chamber cell images using spectral domain OCT (SD-OCT) and to compare this method with the Standardization of Uveitis Nomenclature (SUN) grading system. We analyzed 2398 anterior segment SD-OCT images from 34 patients using code written in Python. Cell density, size, and eccentricity were measured automatically. Increases in SUN grade were associated with significant cell density increases at all stages (p < 0.001). Significant differences were observed in eccentricity in uveitis, post-surgical inflammation, and vitreous hemorrhage (p < 0.001). Anterior segment SD-OCT is reliable, fast, and accurate means of anterior chamber cell analysis. This method showed a strong correlation with the SUN grade system. Also, eccentricity could be helpful as a supplementary evaluation tool.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-89794-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8140074PMC
May 2021

Comparative Characteristics and Zoonotic Potential of Avian Pathogenic (APEC) Isolates from Chicken and Duck in South Korea.

Microorganisms 2021 Apr 27;9(5). Epub 2021 Apr 27.

Avian Disease Research Division, Animal and Plant Quarantine Agency, 177, Hyeoksin 8-ro, Gimcheon-si 39660, Gyeongsangbuk-do, Korea.

Avian pathogenic (APEC) causes colibacillosis, which is an economically important disease in the poultry industry worldwide. The present study investigated O-serogroups, phylogenetic groups, antimicrobial resistance, and the existence of virulence-associated genes (VAGs) and antimicrobial resistance genes in 125 APEC isolates between 2018 and 2019 in Korea. The phylogenetic group B2 isolates were confirmed for human-related sequence types (STs) through multi-locus sequence typing (MLST). O-serogroups O2 (12.5%) and O78 (10.3%) and phylogenetic group B1 (36.5%) and A (34.5%) were predominant in chicken and duck isolates, respectively. Out of 14 VAGs, , , , and were found significantly more in chicken isolates than duck isolates ( < 0.05). The resistance to ampicillin, ceftiofur, ceftriaxone, and gentamicin was higher in chicken isolates than duck isolates ( < 0.05). The multidrug resistance (MDR) rates of chicken and duck isolates were 77.1% and 65.5%, respectively. One isolate resistant to colistin (MIC 16 μg/mL) carried . The B2-ST95 APEC isolates possessed more than 9 VAGs, and most of them were MDR (82.4%). This report is the first to compare the characteristics of APEC isolates from chickens and ducks in Korea and to demonstrate that B2-ST95 isolates circulating in Korea have zoonotic potential and pose a public health risk.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms9050946DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8145765PMC
April 2021

Evaluation of DNA-Launched Virus-Like Particle Vaccines in an Immune Competent Mouse Model of Chikungunya Virus Infection.

Vaccines (Basel) 2021 Apr 2;9(4). Epub 2021 Apr 2.

Department of Pharmacology and Center for Lung Biology, University of South Alabama, Mobile, AL 36688, USA.

Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) infection can result in chronic and debilitating arthralgia affecting humans in tropical and subtropical regions around the world, yet there are no licensed vaccines to prevent infection. DNA launched virus like particle (VLP) vaccines represent a potentially safer alternative to traditional live-attenuated vaccines; however, fully characterized immunocompetent mouse models which appropriately include both male and female animals for preclinical evaluation of these, and other, vaccine platforms are lacking. Utilizing virus stocks engineered to express mutations reported to enhance CHIKV virulence in mice, infection of male and female immunocompetent mice was evaluated, and the resulting model utilized to assess the efficacy of candidate DNA launched CHIKV VLP vaccines. Results demonstrate the potential utility of DNA launched VLP vaccines in comparison to a live attenuated CHIKV vaccine and identify gender differences in viral RNA loads that impact interpretation of vaccine efficacy and may have important implications for future CHIKV vaccine development.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/vaccines9040345DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8067036PMC
April 2021

Cytokine Profiles of Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Patients Treated with Concurrent Chemoradiotherapy with Regards to Radiation Pneumonitis Severity.

J Clin Med 2021 Feb 11;10(4). Epub 2021 Feb 11.

Department of Radiation Oncology, Bucheon St. Mary's Hospital, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Bucheon 14647, Korea.

The immunologic aspects of radiation pneumonitis (RP) are unclear. We analyzed variations in cytokine profiles between patients with grade (Gr) 0-1 and Gr ≥ 2 RP. Fifteen patients undergoing concurrent chemoradiotherapy for non-small cell lung cancer were included. Blood samples of 9 patients with Gr 0-1 and 6 with Gr ≥ 2 RP were obtained from the Biobank. Cytokine levels were evaluated using an enzyme linked immunosorbent assay at before radiotherapy (RT) initiation, 1, 3, and 6 weeks post-RT initiation, and 1 month post-RT completion. Concentrations of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF), interleukin (IL)-6, IL-10, IL-13, IL-17, interferon (IFN)-γ, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, and transforming growth factor (TGF)-β were analyzed; none were related to the occurrence of Gr ≥ 2 RP at pre-RT initiation. At 3 weeks, relative changes in the G-CSF, IL-6, and IFN-γ levels differed significantly between the groups ( = 0.026, 0.05 and 0.026, respectively). One month post-RT completion, relative changes of IL-17 showed significant differences ( = 0.045); however, relative changes in TNF-α, IL-10, IL-13, and TGF-β, did not differ significantly. Evaluation of changes in IL-6, G-CSF, and IFN-γ at 3 weeks after RT initiation can identify patients pre-disposed to severe RP. The mechanism of variation in cytokine levels in relation to RP severity warrants further investigation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/jcm10040699DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7916898PMC
February 2021

High prevalence of a gene cluster conferring resistance to streptomycin, sulfonamide, and tetracycline in Escherichia coli isolated from indigenous wild birds.

J Gen Appl Microbiol 2021 Jun 22;67(2):81-84. Epub 2021 Jan 22.

Animal and Plant Quarantine Agency.

A total of 116 Escherichia coli isolates from cecal contents of 81 indigenous wild birds in Korea were tested for antimicrobial susceptibility. Seventy-one isolates from sparrows (Passer montanus) and one isolate from doves (Columba livia) were resistant to three antimicrobials, including streptomycin, sulfonamide, and tetracycline (SSuT). PCR and subsequent sequence analysis revealed the SSuT gene cluster region (approximately 13 kb) harboring genes encoding resistance to streptomycin (strA and strB), sulfonamide (sul2), and tetracycline (tetB, tetC, tetD, and tetR). In particular, tetracycline resistance genes were located on the transposon Tn10-like element. The SSuT element-harboring E. coli can be an important source of the transmission of antimicrobial resistance to other pathogenic bacteria. Therefore, strict sanitary measures in human and animal environments are necessary to prevent the spread of resistant bacteria through fecal residues of wild birds.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2323/jgam.2020.06.003DOI Listing
June 2021

Synergistic Tumoricidal Effects of Alpha-Lipoic Acid and Radiotherapy on Human Breast Cancer Cells via HMGB1.

Cancer Res Treat 2021 Jul 15;53(3):685-694. Epub 2020 Dec 15.

Institute of Health Science, Gyeongsang National University, Jinju, Korea.

Purpose: Radiotherapy (RT) is one of main strategies of cancer treatment. However, some cancer cells are resistant to radiation-induced cell death, including apoptosis. Therefore, alternative approaches targeting different anti-tumor mechanisms such as cell senescence are required. This study aimed to investigate the synergistic effect of alpha-lipoic acid (ALA) on radiation-induced cell death and senescence in MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer cells.

Materials And Methods: The cells were divided into four groups depending on the cell treatment (control, ALA, RT, and ALA+RT). Cells were analyzed for morphology, apoptotic cell death, mitochondrial reactive oxygen species, membrane potential, cellular senescence, and cell cycle.

Results: Our data showed that ALA significantly promoted apoptotic cell death when combined with RT, as reflected by Annexin V staining, expression of apoptosis-related factors, mitochondrial damages as well as cell morphological changes and reduction of cell numbers. In addition, ALA significantly enhanced radiation-induced cellular senescence, which was shown by increased HMGB1 expression in the cytosol fraction compared to the control, increased p53 expression compared to the control, activation of p38 as well as nuclear factor кB, and G2/M cell cycle arrest.

Conclusion: The current study is the first report showing a new mode of action (senescence induction) of ALA beyond apoptotic cell death in MDA-MB-231 cancer cells known to be resistant to RT.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4143/crt.2020.1015DOI Listing
July 2021

Paricalcitol Attenuates Contrast-Induced Acute Kidney Injury by Regulating Mitophagy and Senescence.

Oxid Med Cell Longev 2020 23;2020:7627934. Epub 2020 Nov 23.

Department of Internal Medicine, Gyeongsang National University Changwon Hospital, Changwon, Republic of Korea.

Contrast-induced acute kidney injury (CI-AKI) is the third most common cause of hospital-acquired renal failure, with an incidence of 11%. However, the disease mechanism remains unclear, and no effective treatment is available. Paricalcitol has been reported to be effective in animal models of kidney injury. We hypothesized that paricalcitol could play a renoprotective role against CI-AKI. Rats were divided into control, paricalcitol, contrast, and paricalcitol-plus-contrast groups. We used a previously published protocol to produce CI-AKI. Paricalcitol (0.3 g/kg) was administered intraperitoneally before 24 h and 30 min before indomethacin. We used HK-2 cells to evaluate the effects of paricalcitol on mitophagy and senescence. Ioversol triggered renal dysfunction, increasing blood urea nitrogen and serum creatinine. Significant tubular damage, increased 8-OHdG expression, and apoptosis were apparent. Ioversol injection induced high expression levels of the mitophagy markers Pink1, Parkin, and LC3 and the senescence markers -galactosidase and p16INK4A. Paricalcitol pretreatment prevented renal dysfunction and reduced tissue damage by reducing both mitophagy and senescence. Cellular morphological changes were found, and expression of LC3B and HMGB1 was increased by ioversol in HK-2 cells. Paricalcitol countered these effects. This study showed that mitochondria might drive injury phenotypes in CI-AKI, and that paricalcitol protects against CI-AKI by decreasing mitochondrial damage.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2020/7627934DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7704155PMC
June 2021

Exogenous pyruvate alleviates UV-induced hyperpigmentation via restraining dendrite outgrowth and Rac1 GTPase activity.

J Dermatol Sci 2021 Feb 16;101(2):101-106. Epub 2020 Nov 16.

R&D Center of LG Household and Health Care, Ltd., Seoul, Republic of Korea.

Background: Melanin is synthesized in melanocytes and transferred to keratinocytes through dendrites. Endogenous pyruvate is a key metabolite for ATP production in glycolysis, and the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle and exogenous pyruvate provide protection against oxidative stress and acidosis in the intercellular space. The function of pyruvate in the regulation of dendrite outgrowth remains to be elucidated.

Objective: We examined the effect of pyruvate on dendritic elongation and skin pigmentation METHODS: Murine B16F10 melanoma cells and human primary melanocytes were used for in vitro analysis. Melanin quantitation and histochemical staining were performed in a 3D pigmented human skin model.

Results: We demonstrated the participation of monocarboxylate transporters (MCTs) responsible for the membrane transport of pyruvate in B16F10 melanoma cells. The accumulation of pyruvate occurred in a pH-dependent manner, which was highly sensitive to a specific MCT inhibitor (α-cyano-4-hydroxycinnamic acid). α-MSH-induced morphological changes, including dendrite elongation and growth-cone-like structure, were diminished in B16F10 cells upon treatment with pyruvate. In addition, the number of dendrite branches was reduced in normal human epidermal melanocytes. As the Rho-subfamily of monomeric GTP-binding proteins modulates dendrite formation, we subsequently examined the suppression of Rac1 activation by pyruvate, but not RhoA and Cdc42. Furthermore, pyruvate showed anti-melanogenic effects against UV-induced pigmentation in reconstructed pigmented epidermis, established by co-seeding autologous melanocytes and keratinocytes, which act similar to in vivo skin tissue.

Conclusion: These results suggest that pyruvate treatment may be an alternative or additive therapeutic strategy to prevent hyperpigmentation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jdermsci.2020.11.006DOI Listing
February 2021

Dissecting seed pigmentation-associated genomic loci and genes by employing dual approaches of reference-based and k-mer-based GWAS with 438 Glycine accessions.

PLoS One 2020 1;15(12):e0243085. Epub 2020 Dec 1.

Department of Molecular Genetics, Dong-A University, Busan, Republic of Korea.

The soybean is agro-economically the most important among all cultivated legume crops, and its seed color is considered one of the most attractive factors in the selection-by-breeders. Thus, genome-wide identification of genes and loci associated with seed colors is critical for the precision breeding of crop soybeans. To dissect seed pigmentation-associated genomic loci and genes, we employed dual approaches by combining reference-based genome-wide association study (rbGWAS) and k-mer-based reference-free GWAS (rfGWAS) with 438 Glycine accessions. The dual analytical strategy allowed us to identify four major genomic loci (designated as SP1-SP4 in this study) associated with the seed colors of soybeans. The k-mer analysis enabled us to find an important recombination event that occurred between subtilisin and I-cluster B in the soybean genome, which could describe a special structural feature of ii allele within the I locus (SP3). Importantly, mapping analyses of both mRNAs and small RNAs allowed us to reveal that the subtilisin-CHS1/CHS3 chimeric transcripts generate and act as an initiator towards 'mirtron (i.e., intron-harboring miRNA precursor)'-triggered silencing of chalcone synthase (CHS) genes. Consequently, the results led us to propose a working model of 'mirtron-triggered gene silencing (MTGS)' to elucidate a long-standing puzzle in the genome-wide CHS gene silencing mechanism. In summary, our study reports four major genomic loci, lists of key genes and genome-wide variations that are associated with seed pigmentation in soybeans. In addition, we propose that the MTGS mechanism plays a crucial role in the genome-wide silencing of CHS genes, thereby suggesting a clue to currently predominant soybean cultivars with the yellow seed coat. Finally, this study will provide a broad insight into the interactions and correlations among seed color-associated genes and loci within the context of anthocyanin biosynthetic pathways.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0243085PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7707508PMC
January 2021

Impact of Dermanyssus gallinae infestation on persistent outbreaks of fowl typhoid in commercial layer chicken farms.

Poult Sci 2020 Dec 25;99(12):6533-6541. Epub 2020 Sep 25.

Animal and Plant Quarantine Agency, Gimcheon-si, Gyeongsangbuk-do, Korea. Electronic address:

Although it has rapidly decreased since the early 2000s, fowl typhoid still occurs in commercial layer chickens, causing a significant economic loss in Korea. There is growing concern about the emergence of new pathogenic strains of the causative agent, Salmonella Gallinarum, which is able to overcome vaccine immunity. It has also been suspected that the poultry red mite, Dermanyssus gallinae, which is commonly found in layer chicken farms, may be an important cause of the recurrence of fowl typhoid in the farms. This study was conducted to examine changes in the virulence of recent isolates of S. Gallinarum obtained from layer farms and estimate the potential of the disease transmission of D. gallinae in the farms. Clinical and environmental samples and mites collected from layer farms affected by fowl typhoid between 2013 and 2018 were tested for S. Gallinarum. The isolates were characterized by genotypic analyses and in vitro virulence assays with chicken-derived cell lines. Vaccine protection against recent isolates was examined in the chickens. A total of 45 isolates of S. Gallinarum were collected and there was no evidence of changes in their virulence. It has also been demonstrated that the S. Gallinarum 9R vaccine strain widely used in Korea is still effective in controlling fowl typhoid if the susceptibility of birds to the disease is not increased by stress. Salmonella Gallinarum isolated from the outer and inner parts of D. gallinae, environmental dust, and dead birds of the same farm showed the same or closely related genotypes. Consequently, the present study indicated that the horizontal transmission and environmental persistence of S. Gallinarum and the increased disease susceptibility of chickens in layer farms could be mediated by D. gallinae, causing persistent outbreaks of fowl typhoid.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.psj.2020.09.035DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7705004PMC
December 2020

High prevalence and variable fitness of fluoroquinolone-resistant avian pathogenic isolated from chickens in Korea.

Avian Pathol 2021 Apr 3;50(2):151-160. Epub 2021 Feb 3.

Avian Disease Research Division, Animal and Plant Quarantine Agency, Gimcheon-si, Korea.

Colibacillosis caused by avian pathogenic (APEC) is the most common bacterial disease in poultry, resulting in significant economic losses. Resistance to fluoroquinolones has been found to be high in APEC worldwide, which has increased concerns about risks to human health as well as poultry production. In the present study, we determined the prevalence, genetic traits, and fitness traits of fluoroquinolone-resistant APEC isolated from chickens in Korea using a total of 286 APEC isolates collected between 2014 and 2017. The APEC isolates were highly resistant to nalidixic acid (86.0%), ampicillin (71.7%), tetracycline (69.6%), and sulfisoxazole (61.2%), and 132 (46.2%) of the isolates were resistant to both enrofloxacin and ciprofloxacin. These fluoroquinolone-resistant isolates showed eight mutation combinations including single- or double-point mutations in the , , or genes. The isolates with double mutations (codons 83 and 87) in and additional mutations in and showed high-level fluoroquinolone resistance (minimum inhibitory concentrations, 16-128 µg/ml). The isolates fell into four phylogenetic groups, and groups A (47/132, 35.6%) and B1 (47/132, 36.4%) were the most predominant. Nine isolates (6.8%) belonged to group B2 and included major lineages of extraintestinal pathogenic , sequence type (ST) 95 (= 3) and ST69 (= 2). The isolates varied in their virulence-associated gene content, biofilm formation, and intramacrophage survival. Overall, fluoroquinolone-resistant APEC in poultry poses a potential risk to public health and represents a highly diverse group of the resistant bacteria that varied in their genetic and fitness traits.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/03079457.2020.1855322DOI Listing
April 2021

Therapeutic Effects of Intranasal Tofacitinib on Chronic Rhinosinusitis with Nasal Polyps in Mice.

Laryngoscope 2021 05 29;131(5):E1400-E1407. Epub 2020 Sep 29.

Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Gyeongsang National University Hospital and Gyeongsang National University College of Medicine, Jinju, Republic of Korea.

Objectives: The Janus kinase/signal transducer and activator of transcription (JAK-STAT) pathway play a key role in immune modulation, especially in the polarization of T helper cells. JAK inhibitors reduce inflammation by inhibiting the phosphorylation of STAT. We investigated whether a JAK inhibitor, tofacitinib, can reduce inflammation in a mouse model of chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps (CRSwNP).

Methods: An eosinophilic CRSwNP model was induced using 4-week-old BALB/c mice. The therapeutic effects of topical tofacitinib were compared with the effects of triamcinolone acetonide (TAC). Polyp formation and eosinophilic infiltration were assessed by histology. Levels of phosphorylated STAT (pSTAT), eosinophil cationic protein, and eotaxin were measured by immunohistochemistry. Gene expression levels of GATA-3 was measured using quantitative PCR. The production of cytokines in sinonasal tissues, including interleukin IL-4, IL-5, IL-12, and interferon-γ, were measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA).

Results: Topical tofacitinib administration significantly reduced the number of polyp-like lesions and the degree of eosinophilic infiltration, with an efficacy comparable with that of systemic TAC administration. Similarly, the levels of pSTAT6, eosinophil cationic protein, and eotaxin decreased with tofacitinib treatment. Tofacitinib decreased the gene expression level of GATA-3. Lastly, tofacitinib significantly decreased IL-4 and IL-5 production to a similar extent as that by systemic or topical TAC administration. Tofacitinib, but not TAC, significantly increased the production of interferon-γ.

Conclusion: Topical tofacitinib administration may be an effective treatment for eosinophilic CRSwNP by inhibiting phosphorylation of STATs.

Level Of Evidence: N/A. Laryngoscope, 131:E1400-E1407, 2021.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/lary.29129DOI Listing
May 2021

Protective Effects of Evogliptin on Steatohepatitis in High-Fat-Fed Mice.

Int J Mol Sci 2020 Sep 14;21(18). Epub 2020 Sep 14.

Institute of Health Sciences, Gyeongsang National University, Jinju 52727, Korea.

There are few studies on the effects of dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors on steatohepatitis. We explored whether evogliptin (Evo), a dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor, protects against steatohepatitis in a high-fat diet (HFD)-fed mice and whether these effects involve modulation of mitophagy. Adult male C57BL/J mice were divided into the normal diet (ND), HFD (45% of energy from fat) with Evo (250 mg/kg) (HFD + Evo), and HFD groups at 4 weeks of age and were sacrificed at 20 weeks of age. The HFD group showed hepatic lipid accumulation; this was decreased in the Evo + HFD group. There was an increased 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OHDG) expression in the HFD group compared to ND mice. However, 8-OHDG expression levels were significantly decreased in the HFD + Evo group. Expressions of the mitophagy markers PTEN-induced kinase 1 (PINK1), Parkin, and BNIP-3 (BCL2 Interacting Protein 3) were significantly increased in the HFD group. However, the expressions of these markers were lower in the HFD + Evo group than that in the HFD group. Phospho-Akt was upregulated and p53 was downregulated in the HFD + Evo group compared to the HFD group. Evogliptin may alleviate steatohepatitis in HFD-fed mice by ameliorating steatosis and oxidative stress and by modulating mitophagy in the liver.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms21186743DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7555947PMC
September 2020

Low Temperature Thermal Atomic Layer Deposition of Aluminum Nitride Using Hydrazine as the Nitrogen Source.

Materials (Basel) 2020 Jul 31;13(15). Epub 2020 Jul 31.

Department of Materials Science and Engineering, The University of Texas at Dallas, 800 West Campbell Road, Richardson, TX 75080, USA.

Aluminum nitride (AlN) thin films were grown using thermal atomic layer deposition in the temperature range of 175-350 °C. The thin films were deposited using trimethyl aluminum (TMA) and hydrazine (NH) as a metal precursor and nitrogen source, respectively. Highly reactive NH, compared to its conventionally used counterpart, ammonia (NH), provides a higher growth per cycle (GPC), which is approximately 2.3 times higher at a deposition temperature of 300 °C and, also exhibits a low impurity concentration in as-deposited films. Low temperature AlN films deposited at 225 °C with a capping layer had an Al to N composition ratio of 1:1.1, a close to ideal composition ratio, with a low oxygen content (7.5%) while exhibiting a GPC of 0.16 nm/cycle. We suggest that NH as a replacement for NH is a good alternative due to its stringent thermal budget.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ma13153387DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7436040PMC
July 2020

Protective Effect of Alpha-Lipoic Acid on Salivary Dysfunction in a Mouse Model of Radioiodine Therapy-Induced Sialoadenitis.

Int J Mol Sci 2020 Jun 10;21(11). Epub 2020 Jun 10.

Department of Otorhinolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, Dankook University, Cheonan 31116, Korea.

Radioiodine (RI) therapy is known to cause salivary gland (SG) dysfunction. The effects of antioxidants on RI-induced SG damage have not been well described. This study was performed to investigate the radioprotective effects of alpha lipoic acid (ALA) administered prior to RI therapy in a mouse model of RI-induced sialadenitis. Four-week-old female C57BL/6 mice were divided into four groups ( = 10 per group): group I, normal control; group II, ALA alone (100 mg/kg); group III, RI alone (0.01 mCi/g body weight, orally); and group IV, ALA + RI (ALA at 100 mg/kg, 24 h and 30 min before RI exposure at 0.01 mCi/g body weight). The animals in these groups were divided into two subgroups and euthanized at 30 or 90 days post-RI treatment. Changes in salivary Tc pertechnetate uptake and excretion were tracked by single-photon emission computed tomography. Salivary histological examinations and TUNEL assays were performed. The Tc pertechnetate excretion level recovered in the ALA treatment group. Salivary epithelial (aquaporin 5) cells of the ALA + RI group were protected from RI damage. The ALA + RI group exhibited more mucin-containing parenchyma and less fibrotic tissues than the RI only group. Fewer apoptotic cells were observed in the ALA + RI group compared to the RI only group. Pretreatment with ALA before RI therapy is potentially beneficial in protecting against RI-induced salivary dysfunction.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms21114136DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7312690PMC
June 2020

Adjunctive Cilostazol to Dual Antiplatelet Therapy to Enhance Mobilization of Endothelial Progenitor Cell in Patients with Acute Myocardial Infarction: A Randomized, Placebo-Controlled EPISODE Trial.

J Clin Med 2020 Jun 1;9(6). Epub 2020 Jun 1.

Department of Internal Medicine, School of Medicine, Gyeongsang National University, Jinju 52828, Korea.

Background: Endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) have the potential to protect against atherothrombotic event occurrences. There are no data to evaluate the impact of cilostazol on EPC levels in high-risk patients.

Methods: We conducted a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial to assess the effect of adjunctive cilostazol on EPC mobilization and platelet reactivity in patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI). Before discharge, patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) were randomly assigned to receive cilostazol SR capsule (200-mg) a day ( = 30) or placebo ( = 30) on top of dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT) with clopidogrel and aspirin. Before randomization (baseline) and at 30-day follow-up, circulating EPC levels were analyzed using flow cytometry and hemostatic measurements were evaluated by VerifyNow and thromboelastography assays. The primary endpoint was the relative change in EPC levels between baseline and 30-day.

Results: At baseline, there were similar levels of EPC counts between treatments, whereas patients with cilostazol showed higher levels of EPC counts compared with placebo after 30 days. Cilostazol versus placebo treatment displayed significantly higher changes in EPC levels between baseline and follow-up (ΔCD133/KDR: difference 216%, 95% confidence interval (CI) 44~388%, = 0.015; ΔCD34/KDR: difference 183%, 95% CI 25~342%, = 0.024). At 30-day follow-up, platelet reactivity was lower in the cilostazol group compared with the placebo group (130 ± 45 versus 169 ± 62 P2Y12 Reaction Unit, = 0.009). However, there were no significant correlations between the changes of EPC levels and platelet reactivity.

Conclusion: Adjunctive cilostazol on top of clopidogrel and aspirin versus DAPT alone is associated with increased EPC mobilization and decreased platelet reactivity in AMI patients, suggesting its pleiotropic effects against atherothrombotic events (NCT04407312).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/jcm9061678DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7356664PMC
June 2020

Erythropoietin Ameliorates Ischemia/Reperfusion-Induced Acute Kidney Injury via Inflammasome Suppression in Mice.

Int J Mol Sci 2020 May 13;21(10). Epub 2020 May 13.

Division of Nephrology, Department of Internal Medicine, College of Medicine, Gyeongsang National University and Gyeongsang National University Hospital, Jinju 52727, Korea.

Acute kidney injury (AKI) is the most common condition in hospitalized patients. As ischemia/reperfusion-induced AKI (IR-AKI) is as a major contributor to end-stage disease, an effective therapeutic intervention for IR-AKI is imperative. Erythropoietin (EPO) is a potent stimulator of erythroid progenitor cells and is significantly upregulated during hypoxia. Here, we investigated the renoprotective effects of EPO in an IR-AKI mouse model. Mice were assigned to sham, EPO only, and IR only groups, and the IR group was treated with EPO prior to injury. EPO was administered twice at 30 min prior to bilateral renal artery occlusion, and 5 min before reperfusion, with all mice sacrificed 24 h after IR-AKI. The serum was harvested for renal functional measurements. The kidneys were subjected to histological evaluation, and the biochemical changes associated with renal injury were assessed. EPO significantly attenuated the renal dysfunction associated with IR-AKI, as well as tissue injury. Apoptotic cell death and oxidative stress were significantly reduced in EPO-treated mice. Macrophage infiltration and expression of ICAM-1 and MCP-1 were also significantly reduced in EPO-treated mice. Furthermore, the expression of inflammasome-related factors (NLRP1, NLRP3, and caspase-1 cleavage), via the activation of the COX-2 and NF-B signaling pathways were significantly reduced following EPO treatment. To our knowledge, this is the first study to demonstrate that inflammasome-mediated inflammation might be a potential target of EPO as a treatment for ischemic AKI.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms21103453DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7278975PMC
May 2020

Difference in myopia progression between dominant and non-dominant eye in patients with intermittent exotropia.

Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol 2020 Jun 19;258(6):1327-1333. Epub 2020 Apr 19.

Department of Ophthalmology, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, 88, Olympic-Ro 43 Gil, Songpa-gu, Seoul, 05505, South Korea.

Objective: To investigate the difference in the rate of myopia progression between the dominant and non-dominant eye in patients with intermittent exotropia (IXT).

Methods: We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 33 patients who underwent surgery and later reoperation for IXT. We included only patients whose spherical equivalent refractive errors (SER) were ≤ - 0.50 diopter (D) in at least one eye at the time of reoperation. The main outcome measurement was the rate of myopia progression, which was defined as the mean annual change in SER between the first and second surgery. We classified patients into two groups: group A, which comprised 25 patients whose non-dominant eyes showed a faster myopia progression than their dominant eyes, and group B, which comprised the remaining 8 patients showing the opposite.

Results: Mean age of the patients at the time of the initial surgery was 5.64 years. Mean interval between the initial and second surgery was 4.45 years. Mean rate of myopia progression over the interval was - 0.37 D/year in the dominant eyes and - 0.50 D/year in the non-dominant eyes (P < 0.001). Group A had a significantly greater amount of distance deviation (31.0 vs. 25.6 PD, P = 0.020) and near deviation (30.8 vs 26.0 PD, P = 0.039) before the initial surgery and a significantly worse score of distance control (3.05 vs. 2.00, P = 0.023) before the second surgery than group B.

Conclusions: The non-dominant eyes experienced a faster myopia progression than the dominant eyes in patients with IXT. This faster myopia progression demonstrated in the non-dominant eyes was associated with clinically severe exotropia in terms of the amount of deviation and the degree of control.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00417-020-04700-0DOI Listing
June 2020

Application of carbon dioxide as a novel approach to eradicate poultry red mites.

J Vet Sci 2020 Mar;21(2):e37

Veterinary Drugs & Biologics Division, Animal and Plant Quarantine Agency (APQA), Gimcheon 39660, Korea.

Poultry red mites (PRMs), , are one of the most harmful ectoparasites of laying hens. Because of their public health impact, safe, effective methods to eradicate PRMs are greatly needed. Carbon dioxide (CO₂) was shown to eradicate phytophagous mites; however, there is no evidence that PRMs can be eradicated by CO₂. Thus, the efficacy of CO₂, applied by direct-spraying and dry ice-generated exposure, for eradicating PRMs was investigated. Both treatments eradicated > 85% of PRMs within 24 h and 100% of PRMs by 120 h of post-treatment. Therefore, these novel approaches may be useful for eradicating PRMs in clinical settings.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4142/jvs.2020.21.e37DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7113580PMC
March 2020

Alpha-Lipoic Acid Ameliorates Radiation-Induced Salivary Gland Injury by Preserving Parasympathetic Innervation in Rats.

Int J Mol Sci 2020 Mar 25;21(7). Epub 2020 Mar 25.

Department of Otorhinolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, Dankook University, Cheonan 31116, Korea.

Radiation therapy is a standard treatment for patients with head and neck cancer. However, radiation exposure to the head and neck induces salivary gland (SG) dysfunction. Alpha lipoic acid (ALA) has been reported to reduce radiation-induced toxicity in normal tissues. In this study, we investigated the effect of ALA on radiation-induced SG dysfunction. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were assigned to the following treatment groups: control, ALA only (100 mg/kg, intraperitoneally), irradiation only, and ALA administration 24 h or 30 min prior to irradiation. The neck area, including SGs, was irradiated evenly at 2 Gy/min (total dose, 18 Gy) using a photon 6 MV linear accelerator. The rats were sacrificed at 2, 6, 8, and 12 weeks after irradiation. Radiation decreased SG weight, saliva secretion, AQP5 expression, parasympathetic innervation (GFRα2 and AchE expression), regeneration potentials (Shh and Ptch expression), salivary trophic factor levels (brain-derived neurotrophic factor and neurturin), and stem cell expression (Sca-1). These features were restored by treatment with ALA. This study demonstrated that ALA can rescue radiation-induced hyposalivation by preserving parasympathetic innervation and regenerative potentials.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms21072260DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7178006PMC
March 2020

Transcriptome analyses of the ginseng root rot pathogens and to identify radicicol resistance mechanisms.

J Ginseng Res 2020 Jan 23;44(1):161-167. Epub 2018 Nov 23.

Department of Applied Biology, Dong-A University, Busan, Republic of Korea.

Background: The ascomycete fungi (Cd) and (Fs) cause ginseng root rot and significantly reduce the quality and yield of ginseng. Cd produces the secondary metabolite radicicol, which targets the molecular chaperone Hsp90. Fs is resistant to radicicol, whereas other fungal genera associated with ginseng disease are sensitive to it. Radicicol resistance mechanisms have not yet been elucidated.

Methods: Transcriptome analyses of Fs and Cd mycelia treated with or without radicicol were conducted using RNA-seq. All of the differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were functionally annotated using the transcript database. In addition, deletions of two transporter genes identified by RNA-seq were created to confirm their contributions to radicicol resistance.

Results: Treatment with radicicol resulted in upregulation of chitin synthase and cell wall integrity genes in Fs and upregulation of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide dehydrogenase and sugar transporter genes in Cd. Genes encoding an ATP-binding cassette transporter, an aflatoxin efflux pump, ammonium permease 1 (), and nitrilase were differentially expressed in both Fs and Cd. Among these four genes, only the ABC transporter was upregulated in both Fs and Cd. The aflatoxin efflux pump and were upregulated in Cd, but downregulated in Fs, whereas nitrilase was downregulated in both Fs and Cd.

Conclusion: The transcriptome analyses suggested radicicol resistance pathways, and deletions of the transporter genes indicated that they contribute to radicicol resistance.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jgr.2018.11.005DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7033362PMC
January 2020

From the Body Image to the Body Schema, From the Proximal to the Distal: Embodied Musical Activity Toward Learning Instrumental Musical Skills.

Authors:
Jin Hyun Kim

Front Psychol 2020 31;11:101. Epub 2020 Jan 31.

Department of Musicology and Media Studies, Humboldt University of Berlin, Berlin, Germany.

A recent paradigm shift in music research has allowed scholars to examine the macro- and micro-processes taking place within musical performance and underlying cognitive processes. Tying in with phenomenological theories of embodied perception and cognition, this paper focuses on bodily musical activity relevant to the acquisition of instrumental musical skills - the process of learning music. Dynamic interaction with musical instruments, accompanied by the interplay of action and passion, involves body image and body schema, whose status oscillates in different phases of the acquisition of instrumental musical skills; this interaction allows humans to direct attention from their bodily states - the proximal - to the quality of musical sounds and a unity of musical experience - the distal. It is thus argued that shaping music by means of playing a musical instrument can be conceived of as an embodied process, of understanding the forms of one's own experience as related to the musical world that is created by one's bodily activity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2020.00101DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7006021PMC
January 2020

Benchmark performance of low-cost SbSe photocathodes for unassisted solar overall water splitting.

Nat Commun 2020 Feb 13;11(1):861. Epub 2020 Feb 13.

Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Yonsei University, 50 Yonsei-ro, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul, 03722, Republic of Korea.

Determining cost-effective semiconductors exhibiting desirable properties for commercial photoelectrochemical water splitting remains a challenge. Herein, we report a SbSe semiconductor that satisfies most requirements for an ideal high-performance photoelectrode, including a small band gap and favourable cost, optoelectronic properties, processability, and photocorrosion stability. Strong anisotropy, a major issue for SbSe, is resolved by suppressing growth kinetics via close space sublimation to obtain high-quality compact thin films with favourable crystallographic orientation. The SbSe photocathode exhibits a high photocurrent density of almost 30 mA cm at 0 V against the reversible hydrogen electrode, the highest value so far. We demonstrate unassisted solar overall water splitting by combining the optimised SbSe photocathode with a BiVO photoanode, achieving a solar-to-hydrogen efficiency of 1.5% with stability over 10 h under simulated 1 sun conditions employing a broad range of solar fluxes. Low-cost SbSe can thus be an attractive breakthrough material for commercial solar fuel production.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-020-14704-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7018841PMC
February 2020

Ultrasound-activated particles as CRISPR/Cas9 delivery system for androgenic alopecia therapy.

Biomaterials 2020 02 28;232:119736. Epub 2019 Dec 28.

Lab. of NanoPharmacy, College of Pharmacy, Research Institute of Pharmaceutical Science and Technology (RIPST), Ajou Universtiy, 206 Worldcup-ro, Yeongtong-gu, Suwon, 16499, South Korea. Electronic address:

Compared to a plasmid, viral, and other delivery systems, direct Cas9/sgRNA protein delivery has several advantages such as low off-targeting effects and non-integration, but it still has limitations due to low transfer efficiency. As such, the CRISPR/Cas9 system is being developed in combination with nano-carrier technology to enhance delivery efficiency and biocompatibility. We designed a microbubble-nanoliposomal particle as a Cas9/sgRNA riboprotein complex carrier, which effectively facilitates local delivery to a specific site when agitated by ultrasound activation. In practice, we successfully transferred the protein constructs into dermal papilla cells in the hair follicle of androgenic alopecia animals by microbubble cavitation induced sonoporation of our particle. The delivered Cas9/sgRNA recognized and edited specifically the target gene with high efficiency in vitro and in vivo, thus recovering hair growth. We demonstrated the topical application of ultrasound-activated nanoparticles for androgenic alopecia therapy through the suppression of SRD5A2 protein production by CRISPR-based genomic editing.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biomaterials.2019.119736DOI Listing
February 2020

Light-Controlled Fruit Pigmentation and Flavor Volatiles in Tomato and Bell Pepper.

Antioxidants (Basel) 2019 Dec 23;9(1). Epub 2019 Dec 23.

Department of Horticultural Science, Kyungpook National University, Daegu 41566, Korea.

Light is a major environmental factor affecting the regulation of secondary metabolites, such as pigments and flavor. The Solanaceae plant family has diverse patterns of fruit metabolisms that serve as suitable models to understand the molecular basis of its regulation across species. To investigate light-dependent regulation for fruit pigmentation and volatile flavors, major fruit pigments, their biosynthetic gene expression, and volatiles were analyzed in covered fruits of tomato and bell pepper. Immature covered fruits were found to be ivory in color and no chlorophyll was detected in both plants. The total carotenoid content was found to be reduced in ripe tomato and bell pepper under cover. Naringenin chalcone decreased more than 7-fold in ripe tomato and total flavonoids decreased about 10-fold in immature and ripe pepper fruit under light deficiency. Light positively impacts fruit pigmentation in tomato and bell pepper by regulating gene expression in carotenoid and flavonoid biosynthesis, especially and , respectively. Nineteen volatile flavors were detected, and seven of these exhibited light-dependent regulations for both ripe tomato and pepper. This study will help in improving fruit quality and aid future research works to understand the molecular mechanisms regulating the influence of light-dependency on pigments and flavor volatiles.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/antiox9010014DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7023227PMC
December 2019

Clinical significance of endothelial progenitor cells in patients with liver cirrhosis with or without hepatocellular carcinoma.

Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol 2020 01;32(1):87-94

Department of Internal Medicine, Gyeongsang National University School of Medicine and Gyeongsang National University Hospital.

Background And Objective: The role of endothelial progenitor cells in patients with cirrhosis has seldom been investigated. This study was conducted to assess the clinical significance of circulating endothelial progenitor cells in patients with liver cirrhosis with or without hepatocellular carcinoma.

Methods: A blood sample was collected once from patients with cirrhosis alone (n = 34) or cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma (n = 46) and healthy controls (n = 27) for assessing levels of endothelial progenitor cells and vascular endothelial growth factor. Blood cells staining positive for CD34/CD133/KDR using flow cytometry were characterized as endothelial progenitor cells. Plasma vascular endothelial growth factor was quantified by ELISA.

Results: The levels of CD34/KDR-positive endothelial progenitor cells, CD133/KDR-positive endothelial progenitor cells, and vascular endothelial growth factor were higher in patients with cirrhosis ± hepatocellular carcinoma than in healthy controls (P = 0.017, P < 0.001 and P < 0.001, respectively). The levels of endothelial progenitor cells and vascular endothelial growth factor did not show statistical difference according to Child-Turcotte-Pugh class. There was a moderately significant correlation between vascular endothelial growth factor levels and hepatocellular carcinoma stage (ρ = 0.464, P = 0.001). Smoking, ascites, and portal vein thrombosis were independently related to lower levels of circulating CD34/KDR-positive endothelial progenitor cells, higher levels of CD133/KDR-positive endothelial progenitor cells, and higher levels of vascular endothelial growth factor, respectively (P = 0.041, P = 0.023, and P < 0.001, respectively).

Conclusion: Circulating endothelial progenitor cells and plasma vascular endothelial growth factor levels were higher in patients with liver cirrhosis ± hepatocellular carcinoma compared to healthy controls. The increase in endothelial progenitor cells and vascular endothelial growth factor may have a possible role in the development of complications, especially ascites and portal vein thrombosis, or in progression of hepatocellular carcinoma.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MEG.0000000000001484DOI Listing
January 2020

Alpha-Lipoic Acid Ameliorates Radiation-Induced Lacrimal Gland Injury through NFAT5-Dependent Signaling.

Int J Mol Sci 2019 Nov 13;20(22). Epub 2019 Nov 13.

Department of Ophthalmology, Gyeongsang National University School of medicine and Gyeongsang National University Hospital, Jinju 52727, Korea.

Dry eye syndrome related to radiation therapy is relatively common and can severely impair a patient's daily life. The nuclear factor of activated T cells 5(NFAT5) is well known for its osmoprotective effect under hyperosmolar conditions, and it also has immune-modulating functions. We investigated the role of NFAT5 and the protective effect of α-lipoic acid(ALA) on radiation-induced lacrimal gland (LG) injuries. Rats were assigned to control, ALA only, radiation only, and ALA administered prior to irradiation groups. The head and neck area, including the LG, was evenly irradiated with 2 Gy/minute using a photon 6-MV linear accelerator. NFAT5 expression was enhanced and localized in the LG tissue after irradiation and was related to cellular apoptosis. ALA had a protective effect on radiation-induced LG injury through the inhibition of NFAT5 expression and NFAT5-dependent signaling pathways. Functional radiation-induced damage of the LG and cornea was also restored with ALA treatment. NFAT5 expression and its dependent signaling pathways were deeply related to radiation-induced dry eye, and the condition was improved by ALA treatment. Our results suggest a potential role of NFAT5 and NF-κB in the proinflammatory effect in LGs and cornea, which offers a target for new therapies to treat dry eye syndrome.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms20225691DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6888725PMC
November 2019

Genotypic divergence of isolates with different growth requirements for nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide.

Avian Pathol 2020 Apr 27;49(2):153-160. Epub 2019 Nov 27.

College of Veterinary Medicine, Seoul National University, Seoul, Republic of Korea.

In 2017, for the first time in Asia, we reported the isolation of variants of with atypical NAD dependency. The present study was conducted to characterize the genotypes of 24 isolates of in Korea, including the four variants reported previously. Most of the typical isolates (19/20) showed a unique ERIC-PCR pattern with no ERIC-PCR patterns in common between the typical isolates and the variants. Furthermore, the variants shared no ERIC-PCR patterns among themselves. All the typical NAD-dependent isolates belonged to the same phylogenetic group based on both and gene sequences. The four variants were placed in several groups distinct from the typical isolates. In the phylogenetic analysis, two of the variants were not closely aligned to any other isolate although they were clearly members of the genus . The other variants were clustered together with NAD atypical isolates from geographically diverse global locations. Compared with the Modesto reference strain AY498870, all the variants lacked a TTTTT stretch at positions 182-186 in the gene and the same deletion was shown in most of the reported variants. The typical isolates and variants shared 97.3-98.2% and 95.2-97.2% nucleotide sequence similarity, for and , respectively. In addition, the similarities among variants were within 98.3-100% and 96.5-98.4% for the two genes, respectively. Our results indicate that the variants with altered NAD growth requirements were genetically different and highly divergent from the typical NAD-dependent isolates. NAD variant Korean isolates show genetic diversity, whereas typical Korean isolates do not.The Korean variants were not closely aligned to all other in the phylogeny.NAD atypical isolates from geographically diverse global locations clustered together.Almost all variants, including all Korean variants of , lack a specific fragment of the gene.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/03079457.2019.1692128DOI Listing
April 2020
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