Publications by authors named "Jin-A Lee"

137 Publications

Guidelines for the use and interpretation of assays for monitoring autophagy (4th edition).

Authors:
Daniel J Klionsky Amal Kamal Abdel-Aziz Sara Abdelfatah Mahmoud Abdellatif Asghar Abdoli Steffen Abel Hagai Abeliovich Marie H Abildgaard Yakubu Princely Abudu Abraham Acevedo-Arozena Iannis E Adamopoulos Khosrow Adeli Timon E Adolph Annagrazia Adornetto Elma Aflaki Galila Agam Anupam Agarwal Bharat B Aggarwal Maria Agnello Patrizia Agostinis Javed N Agrewala Alexander Agrotis Patricia V Aguilar S Tariq Ahmad Zubair M Ahmed Ulises Ahumada-Castro Sonja Aits Shu Aizawa Yunus Akkoc Tonia Akoumianaki Hafize Aysin Akpinar Ahmed M Al-Abd Lina Al-Akra Abeer Al-Gharaibeh Moulay A Alaoui-Jamali Simon Alberti Elísabet Alcocer-Gómez Cristiano Alessandri Muhammad Ali M Abdul Alim Al-Bari Saeb Aliwaini Javad Alizadeh Eugènia Almacellas Alexandru Almasan Alicia Alonso Guillermo D Alonso Nihal Altan-Bonnet Dario C Altieri Élida M C Álvarez Sara Alves Cristine Alves da Costa Mazen M Alzaharna Marialaura Amadio Consuelo Amantini Cristina Amaral Susanna Ambrosio Amal O Amer Veena Ammanathan Zhenyi An Stig U Andersen Shaida A Andrabi Magaiver Andrade-Silva Allen M Andres Sabrina Angelini David Ann Uche C Anozie Mohammad Y Ansari Pedro Antas Adam Antebi Zuriñe Antón Tahira Anwar Lionel Apetoh Nadezda Apostolova Toshiyuki Araki Yasuhiro Araki Kohei Arasaki Wagner L Araújo Jun Araya Catherine Arden Maria-Angeles Arévalo Sandro Arguelles Esperanza Arias Jyothi Arikkath Hirokazu Arimoto Aileen R Ariosa Darius Armstrong-James Laetitia Arnauné-Pelloquin Angeles Aroca Daniela S Arroyo Ivica Arsov Rubén Artero Dalia Maria Lucia Asaro Michael Aschner Milad Ashrafizadeh Osnat Ashur-Fabian Atanas G Atanasov Alicia K Au Patrick Auberger Holger W Auner Laure Aurelian Riccardo Autelli Laura Avagliano Yenniffer Ávalos Sanja Aveic Célia Alexandra Aveleira Tamar Avin-Wittenberg Yucel Aydin Scott Ayton Srinivas Ayyadevara Maria Azzopardi Misuzu Baba Jonathan M Backer Steven K Backues Dong-Hun Bae Ok-Nam Bae Soo Han Bae Eric H Baehrecke Ahruem Baek Seung-Hoon Baek Sung Hee Baek Giacinto Bagetta Agnieszka Bagniewska-Zadworna Hua Bai Jie Bai Xiyuan Bai Yidong Bai Nandadulal Bairagi Shounak Baksi Teresa Balbi Cosima T Baldari Walter Balduini Andrea Ballabio Maria Ballester Salma Balazadeh Rena Balzan Rina Bandopadhyay Sreeparna Banerjee Sulagna Banerjee Ágnes Bánréti Yan Bao Mauricio S Baptista Alessandra Baracca Cristiana Barbati Ariadna Bargiela Daniela Barilà Peter G Barlow Sami J Barmada Esther Barreiro George E Barreto Jiri Bartek Bonnie Bartel Alberto Bartolome Gaurav R Barve Suresh H Basagoudanavar Diane C Bassham Robert C Bast Alakananda Basu Henri Batoko Isabella Batten Etienne E Baulieu Bradley L Baumgarner Jagadeesh Bayry Rupert Beale Isabelle Beau Florian Beaumatin Luiz R G Bechara George R Beck Michael F Beers Jakob Begun Christian Behrends Georg M N Behrens Roberto Bei Eloy Bejarano Shai Bel Christian Behl Amine Belaid Naïma Belgareh-Touzé Cristina Bellarosa Francesca Belleudi Melissa Belló Pérez Raquel Bello-Morales Jackeline Soares de Oliveira Beltran Sebastián Beltran Doris Mangiaracina Benbrook Mykolas Bendorius Bruno A Benitez Irene Benito-Cuesta Julien Bensalem Martin W Berchtold Sabina Berezowska Daniele Bergamaschi Matteo Bergami Andreas Bergmann Laura Berliocchi Clarisse Berlioz-Torrent Amélie Bernard Lionel Berthoux Cagri G Besirli Sebastien Besteiro Virginie M Betin Rudi Beyaert Jelena S Bezbradica Kiran Bhaskar Ingrid Bhatia-Kissova Resham Bhattacharya Sujoy Bhattacharya Shalmoli Bhattacharyya Md Shenuarin Bhuiyan Sujit Kumar Bhutia Lanrong Bi Xiaolin Bi Trevor J Biden Krikor Bijian Viktor A Billes Nadine Binart Claudia Bincoletto Asa B Birgisdottir Geir Bjorkoy Gonzalo Blanco Ana Blas-Garcia Janusz Blasiak Robert Blomgran Klas Blomgren Janice S Blum Emilio Boada-Romero Mirta Boban Kathleen Boesze-Battaglia Philippe Boeuf Barry Boland Pascale Bomont Paolo Bonaldo Srinivasa Reddy Bonam Laura Bonfili Juan S Bonifacino Brian A Boone Martin D Bootman Matteo Bordi Christoph Borner Beat C Bornhauser Gautam Borthakur Jürgen Bosch Santanu Bose Luis M Botana Juan Botas Chantal M Boulanger Michael E Boulton Mathieu Bourdenx Benjamin Bourgeois Nollaig M Bourke Guilhem Bousquet Patricia Boya Peter V Bozhkov Luiz H M Bozi Tolga O Bozkurt Doug E Brackney Christian H Brandts Ralf J Braun Gerhard H Braus Roberto Bravo-Sagua José M Bravo-San Pedro Patrick Brest Marie-Agnès Bringer Alfredo Briones-Herrera V Courtney Broaddus Peter Brodersen Jeffrey L Brodsky Steven L Brody Paola G Bronson Jeff M Bronstein Carolyn N Brown Rhoderick E Brown Patricia C Brum John H Brumell Nicola Brunetti-Pierri Daniele Bruno Robert J Bryson-Richardson Cecilia Bucci Carmen Buchrieser Marta Bueno Laura Elisa Buitrago-Molina Simone Buraschi Shilpa Buch J Ross Buchan Erin M Buckingham Hikmet Budak Mauricio Budini Geert Bultynck Florin Burada Joseph R Burgoyne M Isabel Burón Victor Bustos Sabrina Büttner Elena Butturini Aaron Byrd Isabel Cabas Sandra Cabrera-Benitez Ken Cadwell Jingjing Cai Lu Cai Qian Cai Montserrat Cairó Jose A Calbet Guy A Caldwell Kim A Caldwell Jarrod A Call Riccardo Calvani Ana C Calvo Miguel Calvo-Rubio Barrera Niels Os Camara Jacques H Camonis Nadine Camougrand Michelangelo Campanella Edward M Campbell François-Xavier Campbell-Valois Silvia Campello Ilaria Campesi Juliane C Campos Olivier Camuzard Jorge Cancino Danilo Candido de Almeida Laura Canesi Isabella Caniggia Barbara Canonico Carles Cantí Bin Cao Michele Caraglia Beatriz Caramés Evie H Carchman Elena Cardenal-Muñoz Cesar Cardenas Luis Cardenas Sandra M Cardoso Jennifer S Carew Georges F Carle Gillian Carleton Silvia Carloni Didac Carmona-Gutierrez Leticia A Carneiro Oliana Carnevali Julian M Carosi Serena Carra Alice Carrier Lucie Carrier Bernadette Carroll A Brent Carter Andreia Neves Carvalho Magali Casanova Caty Casas Josefina Casas Chiara Cassioli Eliseo F Castillo Karen Castillo Sonia Castillo-Lluva Francesca Castoldi Marco Castori Ariel F Castro Margarida Castro-Caldas Javier Castro-Hernandez Susana Castro-Obregon Sergio D Catz Claudia Cavadas Federica Cavaliere Gabriella Cavallini Maria Cavinato Maria L Cayuela Paula Cebollada Rica Valentina Cecarini Francesco Cecconi Marzanna Cechowska-Pasko Simone Cenci Victòria Ceperuelo-Mallafré João J Cerqueira Janete M Cerutti Davide Cervia Vildan Bozok Cetintas Silvia Cetrullo Han-Jung Chae Andrei S Chagin Chee-Yin Chai Gopal Chakrabarti Oishee Chakrabarti Tapas Chakraborty Trinad Chakraborty Mounia Chami Georgios Chamilos David W Chan Edmond Y W Chan Edward D Chan H Y Edwin Chan Helen H Chan Hung Chan Matthew T V Chan Yau Sang Chan Partha K Chandra Chih-Peng Chang Chunmei Chang Hao-Chun Chang Kai Chang Jie Chao Tracey Chapman Nicolas Charlet-Berguerand Samrat Chatterjee Shail K Chaube Anu Chaudhary Santosh Chauhan Edward Chaum Frédéric Checler Michael E Cheetham Chang-Shi Chen Guang-Chao Chen Jian-Fu Chen Liam L Chen Leilei Chen Lin Chen Mingliang Chen Mu-Kuan Chen Ning Chen Quan Chen Ruey-Hwa Chen Shi Chen Wei Chen Weiqiang Chen Xin-Ming Chen Xiong-Wen Chen Xu Chen Yan Chen Ye-Guang Chen Yingyu Chen Yongqiang Chen Yu-Jen Chen Yue-Qin Chen Zhefan Stephen Chen Zhi Chen Zhi-Hua Chen Zhijian J Chen Zhixiang Chen Hanhua Cheng Jun Cheng Shi-Yuan Cheng Wei Cheng Xiaodong Cheng Xiu-Tang Cheng Yiyun Cheng Zhiyong Cheng Zhong Chen Heesun Cheong Jit Kong Cheong Boris V Chernyak Sara Cherry Chi Fai Randy Cheung Chun Hei Antonio Cheung King-Ho Cheung Eric Chevet Richard J Chi Alan Kwok Shing Chiang Ferdinando Chiaradonna Roberto Chiarelli Mario Chiariello Nathalia Chica Susanna Chiocca Mario Chiong Shih-Hwa Chiou Abhilash I Chiramel Valerio Chiurchiù Dong-Hyung Cho Seong-Kyu Choe Augustine M K Choi Mary E Choi Kamalika Roy Choudhury Norman S Chow Charleen T Chu Jason P Chua John Jia En Chua Hyewon Chung Kin Pan Chung Seockhoon Chung So-Hyang Chung Yuen-Li Chung Valentina Cianfanelli Iwona A Ciechomska Mariana Cifuentes Laura Cinque Sebahattin Cirak Mara Cirone Michael J Clague Robert Clarke Emilio Clementi Eliana M Coccia Patrice Codogno Ehud Cohen Mickael M Cohen Tania Colasanti Fiorella Colasuonno Robert A Colbert Anna Colell Miodrag Čolić Nuria S Coll Mark O Collins María I Colombo Daniel A Colón-Ramos Lydie Combaret Sergio Comincini Márcia R Cominetti Antonella Consiglio Andrea Conte Fabrizio Conti Viorica Raluca Contu Mark R Cookson Kevin M Coombs Isabelle Coppens Maria Tiziana Corasaniti Dale P Corkery Nils Cordes Katia Cortese Maria do Carmo Costa Sarah Costantino Paola Costelli Ana Coto-Montes Peter J Crack Jose L Crespo Alfredo Criollo Valeria Crippa Riccardo Cristofani Tamas Csizmadia Antonio Cuadrado Bing Cui Jun Cui Yixian Cui Yong Cui Emmanuel Culetto Andrea C Cumino Andrey V Cybulsky Mark J Czaja Stanislaw J Czuczwar Stefania D'Adamo Marcello D'Amelio Daniela D'Arcangelo Andrew C D'Lugos Gabriella D'Orazi James A da Silva Hormos Salimi Dafsari Ruben K Dagda Yasin Dagdas Maria Daglia Xiaoxia Dai Yun Dai Yuyuan Dai Jessica Dal Col Paul Dalhaimer Luisa Dalla Valle Tobias Dallenga Guillaume Dalmasso Markus Damme Ilaria Dando Nico P Dantuma April L Darling Hiranmoy Das Srinivasan Dasarathy Santosh K Dasari Srikanta Dash Oliver Daumke Adrian N Dauphinee Jeffrey S Davies Valeria A Dávila Roger J Davis Tanja Davis Sharadha Dayalan Naidu Francesca De Amicis Karolien De Bosscher Francesca De Felice Lucia De Franceschi Chiara De Leonibus Mayara G de Mattos Barbosa Guido R Y De Meyer Angelo De Milito Cosimo De Nunzio Clara De Palma Mauro De Santi Claudio De Virgilio Daniela De Zio Jayanta Debnath Brian J DeBosch Jean-Paul Decuypere Mark A Deehan Gianluca Deflorian James DeGregori Benjamin Dehay Gabriel Del Rio Joe R Delaney Lea M D Delbridge Elizabeth Delorme-Axford M Victoria Delpino Francesca Demarchi Vilma Dembitz Nicholas D Demers Hongbin Deng Zhiqiang Deng Joern Dengjel Paul Dent Donna Denton Melvin L DePamphilis Channing J Der Vojo Deretic Albert Descoteaux Laura Devis Sushil Devkota Olivier Devuyst Grant Dewson Mahendiran Dharmasivam Rohan Dhiman Diego di Bernardo Manlio Di Cristina Fabio Di Domenico Pietro Di Fazio Alessio Di Fonzo Giovanni Di Guardo Gianni M Di Guglielmo Luca Di Leo Chiara Di Malta Alessia Di Nardo Martina Di Rienzo Federica Di Sano George Diallinas Jiajie Diao Guillermo Diaz-Araya Inés Díaz-Laviada Jared M Dickinson Marc Diederich Mélanie Dieudé Ivan Dikic Shiping Ding Wen-Xing Ding Luciana Dini Jelena Dinić Miroslav Dinic Albena T Dinkova-Kostova Marc S Dionne Jörg H W Distler Abhinav Diwan Ian M C Dixon Mojgan Djavaheri-Mergny Ina Dobrinski Oxana Dobrovinskaya Radek Dobrowolski Renwick C J Dobson Jelena Đokić Serap Dokmeci Emre Massimo Donadelli Bo Dong Xiaonan Dong Zhiwu Dong Gerald W Dorn Ii Volker Dotsch Huan Dou Juan Dou Moataz Dowaidar Sami Dridi Liat Drucker Ailian Du Caigan Du Guangwei Du Hai-Ning Du Li-Lin Du André du Toit Shao-Bin Duan Xiaoqiong Duan Sónia P Duarte Anna Dubrovska Elaine A Dunlop Nicolas Dupont Raúl V Durán Bilikere S Dwarakanath Sergey A Dyshlovoy Darius Ebrahimi-Fakhari Leopold Eckhart Charles L Edelstein Thomas Efferth Eftekhar Eftekharpour Ludwig Eichinger Nabil Eid Tobias Eisenberg N Tony Eissa Sanaa Eissa Miriam Ejarque Abdeljabar El Andaloussi Nazira El-Hage Shahenda El-Naggar Anna Maria Eleuteri Eman S El-Shafey Mohamed Elgendy Aristides G Eliopoulos María M Elizalde Philip M Elks Hans-Peter Elsasser Eslam S Elsherbiny Brooke M Emerling N C Tolga Emre Christina H Eng Nikolai Engedal Anna-Mart Engelbrecht Agnete S T Engelsen Jorrit M Enserink Ricardo Escalante Audrey Esclatine Mafalda Escobar-Henriques Eeva-Liisa Eskelinen Lucile Espert Makandjou-Ola Eusebio Gemma Fabrias Cinzia Fabrizi Antonio Facchiano Francesco Facchiano Bengt Fadeel Claudio Fader Alex C Faesen W Douglas Fairlie Alberto Falcó Bjorn H Falkenburger Daping Fan Jie Fan Yanbo Fan Evandro F Fang Yanshan Fang Yognqi Fang Manolis Fanto Tamar Farfel-Becker Mathias Faure Gholamreza Fazeli Anthony O Fedele Arthur M Feldman Du Feng Jiachun Feng Lifeng Feng Yibin Feng Yuchen Feng Wei Feng Thais Fenz Araujo Thomas A Ferguson Álvaro F Fernández Jose C Fernandez-Checa Sonia Fernández-Veledo Alisdair R Fernie Anthony W Ferrante Alessandra Ferraresi Merari F Ferrari Julio C B Ferreira Susan Ferro-Novick Antonio Figueras Riccardo Filadi Nicoletta Filigheddu Eduardo Filippi-Chiela Giuseppe Filomeni Gian Maria Fimia Vittorio Fineschi Francesca Finetti Steven Finkbeiner Edward A Fisher Paul B Fisher Flavio Flamigni Steven J Fliesler Trude H Flo Ida Florance Oliver Florey Tullio Florio Erika Fodor Carlo Follo Edward A Fon Antonella Forlino Francesco Fornai Paola Fortini Anna Fracassi Alessandro Fraldi Brunella Franco Rodrigo Franco Flavia Franconi Lisa B Frankel Scott L Friedman Leopold F Fröhlich Gema Frühbeck Jose M Fuentes Yukio Fujiki Naonobu Fujita Yuuki Fujiwara Mitsunori Fukuda Simone Fulda Luc Furic Norihiko Furuya Carmela Fusco Michaela U Gack Lidia Gaffke Sehamuddin Galadari Alessia Galasso Maria F Galindo Sachith Gallolu Kankanamalage Lorenzo Galluzzi Vincent Galy Noor Gammoh Boyi Gan Ian G Ganley Feng Gao Hui Gao Minghui Gao Ping Gao Shou-Jiang Gao Wentao Gao Xiaobo Gao Ana Garcera Maria Noé Garcia Verónica E Garcia Francisco García-Del Portillo Vega Garcia-Escudero Aracely Garcia-Garcia Marina Garcia-Macia Diana García-Moreno Carmen Garcia-Ruiz Patricia García-Sanz Abhishek D Garg Ricardo Gargini Tina Garofalo Robert F Garry Nils C Gassen Damian Gatica Liang Ge Wanzhong Ge Ruth Geiss-Friedlander Cecilia Gelfi Pascal Genschik Ian E Gentle Valeria Gerbino Christoph Gerhardt Kyla Germain Marc Germain David A Gewirtz Elham Ghasemipour Afshar Saeid Ghavami Alessandra Ghigo Manosij Ghosh Georgios Giamas Claudia Giampietri Alexandra Giatromanolaki Gary E Gibson Spencer B Gibson Vanessa Ginet Edward Giniger Carlotta Giorgi Henrique Girao Stephen E Girardin Mridhula Giridharan Sandy Giuliano Cecilia Giulivi Sylvie Giuriato Julien Giustiniani Alexander Gluschko Veit Goder Alexander Goginashvili Jakub Golab David C Goldstone Anna Golebiewska Luciana R Gomes Rodrigo Gomez Rubén Gómez-Sánchez Maria Catalina Gomez-Puerto Raquel Gomez-Sintes Qingqiu Gong Felix M Goni Javier González-Gallego Tomas Gonzalez-Hernandez Rosa A Gonzalez-Polo Jose A Gonzalez-Reyes Patricia González-Rodríguez Ing Swie Goping Marina S Gorbatyuk Nikolai V Gorbunov Kıvanç Görgülü Roxana M Gorojod Sharon M Gorski Sandro Goruppi Cecilia Gotor Roberta A Gottlieb Illana Gozes Devrim Gozuacik Martin Graef Markus H Gräler Veronica Granatiero Daniel Grasso Joshua P Gray Douglas R Green Alexander Greenhough Stephen L Gregory Edward F Griffin Mark W Grinstaff Frederic Gros Charles Grose Angelina S Gross Florian Gruber Paolo Grumati Tilman Grune Xueyan Gu Jun-Lin Guan Carlos M Guardia Kishore Guda Flora Guerra Consuelo Guerri Prasun Guha Carlos Guillén Shashi Gujar Anna Gukovskaya Ilya Gukovsky Jan Gunst Andreas Günther Anyonya R Guntur Chuanyong Guo Chun Guo Hongqing Guo Lian-Wang Guo Ming Guo Pawan Gupta Shashi Kumar Gupta Swapnil Gupta Veer Bala Gupta Vivek Gupta Asa B Gustafsson David D Gutterman Ranjitha H B Annakaisa Haapasalo James E Haber Aleksandra Hać Shinji Hadano Anders J Hafrén Mansour Haidar Belinda S Hall Gunnel Halldén Anne Hamacher-Brady Andrea Hamann Maho Hamasaki Weidong Han Malene Hansen Phyllis I Hanson Zijian Hao Masaru Harada Ljubica Harhaji-Trajkovic Nirmala Hariharan Nigil Haroon James Harris Takafumi Hasegawa Noor Hasima Nagoor Jeffrey A Haspel Volker Haucke Wayne D Hawkins Bruce A Hay Cole M Haynes Soren B Hayrabedyan Thomas S Hays Congcong He Qin He Rong-Rong He You-Wen He Yu-Ying He Yasser Heakal Alexander M Heberle J Fielding Hejtmancik Gudmundur Vignir Helgason Vanessa Henkel Marc Herb Alexander Hergovich Anna Herman-Antosiewicz Agustín Hernández Carlos Hernandez Sergio Hernandez-Diaz Virginia Hernandez-Gea Amaury Herpin Judit Herreros Javier H Hervás Daniel Hesselson Claudio Hetz Volker T Heussler Yujiro Higuchi Sabine Hilfiker Joseph A Hill William S Hlavacek Emmanuel A Ho Idy H T Ho Philip Wing-Lok Ho Shu-Leong Ho Wan Yun Ho G Aaron Hobbs Mark Hochstrasser Peter H M Hoet Daniel Hofius Paul Hofman Annika Höhn Carina I Holmberg Jose R Hombrebueno Chang-Won Hong Yi-Ren Hong Lora V Hooper Thorsten Hoppe Rastislav Horos Yujin Hoshida I-Lun Hsin Hsin-Yun Hsu Bing Hu Dong Hu Li-Fang Hu Ming Chang Hu Ronggui Hu Wei Hu Yu-Chen Hu Zhuo-Wei Hu Fang Hua Jinlian Hua Yingqi Hua Chongmin Huan Canhua Huang Chuanshu Huang Chuanxin Huang Chunling Huang Haishan Huang Kun Huang Michael L H Huang Rui Huang Shan Huang Tianzhi Huang Xing Huang Yuxiang Jack Huang Tobias B Huber Virginie Hubert Christian A Hubner Stephanie M Hughes William E Hughes Magali Humbert Gerhard Hummer James H Hurley Sabah Hussain Salik Hussain Patrick J Hussey Martina Hutabarat Hui-Yun Hwang Seungmin Hwang Antonio Ieni Fumiyo Ikeda Yusuke Imagawa Yuzuru Imai Carol Imbriano Masaya Imoto Denise M Inman Ken Inoki Juan Iovanna Renato V Iozzo Giuseppe Ippolito Javier E Irazoqui Pablo Iribarren Mohd Ishaq Makoto Ishikawa Nestor Ishimwe Ciro Isidoro Nahed Ismail Shohreh Issazadeh-Navikas Eisuke Itakura Daisuke Ito Davor Ivankovic Saška Ivanova Anand Krishnan V Iyer José M Izquierdo Masanori Izumi Marja Jäättelä Majid Sakhi Jabir William T Jackson Nadia Jacobo-Herrera Anne-Claire Jacomin Elise Jacquin Pooja Jadiya Hartmut Jaeschke Chinnaswamy Jagannath Arjen J Jakobi Johan Jakobsson Bassam Janji Pidder Jansen-Dürr Patric J Jansson Jonathan Jantsch Sławomir Januszewski Alagie Jassey Steve Jean Hélène Jeltsch-David Pavla Jendelova Andreas Jenny Thomas E Jensen Niels Jessen Jenna L Jewell Jing Ji Lijun Jia Rui Jia Liwen Jiang Qing Jiang Richeng Jiang Teng Jiang Xuejun Jiang Yu Jiang Maria Jimenez-Sanchez Eun-Jung Jin Fengyan Jin Hongchuan Jin Li Jin Luqi Jin Meiyan Jin Si Jin Eun-Kyeong Jo Carine Joffre Terje Johansen Gail V W Johnson Simon A Johnston Eija Jokitalo Mohit Kumar Jolly Leo A B Joosten Joaquin Jordan Bertrand Joseph Dianwen Ju Jeong-Sun Ju Jingfang Ju Esmeralda Juárez Delphine Judith Gábor Juhász Youngsoo Jun Chang Hwa Jung Sung-Chul Jung Yong Keun Jung Heinz Jungbluth Johannes Jungverdorben Steffen Just Kai Kaarniranta Allen Kaasik Tomohiro Kabuta Daniel Kaganovich Alon Kahana Renate Kain Shinjo Kajimura Maria Kalamvoki Manjula Kalia Danuta S Kalinowski Nina Kaludercic Ioanna Kalvari Joanna Kaminska Vitaliy O Kaminskyy Hiromitsu Kanamori Keizo Kanasaki Chanhee Kang Rui Kang Sang Sun Kang Senthilvelrajan Kaniyappan Tomotake Kanki Thirumala-Devi Kanneganti Anumantha G Kanthasamy Arthi Kanthasamy Marc Kantorow Orsolya Kapuy Michalis V Karamouzis Md Razaul Karim Parimal Karmakar Rajesh G Katare Masaru Kato Stefan H E Kaufmann Anu Kauppinen Gur P Kaushal Susmita Kaushik Kiyoshi Kawasaki Kemal Kazan Po-Yuan Ke Damien J Keating Ursula Keber John H Kehrl Kate E Keller Christian W Keller Jongsook Kim Kemper Candia M Kenific Oliver Kepp Stephanie Kermorgant Andreas Kern Robin Ketteler Tom G Keulers Boris Khalfin Hany Khalil Bilon Khambu Shahid Y Khan Vinoth Kumar Megraj Khandelwal Rekha Khandia Widuri Kho Noopur V Khobrekar Sataree Khuansuwan Mukhran Khundadze Samuel A Killackey Dasol Kim Deok Ryong Kim Do-Hyung Kim Dong-Eun Kim Eun Young Kim Eun-Kyoung Kim Hak-Rim Kim Hee-Sik Kim Hyung-Ryong Kim Jeong Hun Kim Jin Kyung Kim Jin-Hoi Kim Joungmok Kim Ju Hwan Kim Keun Il Kim Peter K Kim Seong-Jun Kim Scot R Kimball Adi Kimchi Alec C Kimmelman Tomonori Kimura Matthew A King Kerri J Kinghorn Conan G Kinsey Vladimir Kirkin Lorrie A Kirshenbaum Sergey L Kiselev Shuji Kishi Katsuhiko Kitamoto Yasushi Kitaoka Kaio Kitazato Richard N Kitsis Josef T Kittler Ole Kjaerulff Peter S Klein Thomas Klopstock Jochen Klucken Helene Knævelsrud Roland L Knorr Ben C B Ko Fred Ko Jiunn-Liang Ko Hotaka Kobayashi Satoru Kobayashi Ina Koch Jan C Koch Ulrich Koenig Donat Kögel Young Ho Koh Masato Koike Sepp D Kohlwein Nur M Kocaturk Masaaki Komatsu Jeannette König Toru Kono Benjamin T Kopp Tamas Korcsmaros Gözde Korkmaz Viktor I Korolchuk Mónica Suárez Korsnes Ali Koskela Janaiah Kota Yaichiro Kotake Monica L Kotler Yanjun Kou Michael I Koukourakis Evangelos Koustas Attila L Kovacs Tibor Kovács Daisuke Koya Tomohiro Kozako Claudine Kraft Dimitri Krainc Helmut Krämer Anna D Krasnodembskaya Carole Kretz-Remy Guido Kroemer Nicholas T Ktistakis Kazuyuki Kuchitsu Sabine Kuenen Lars Kuerschner Thomas Kukar Ajay Kumar Ashok Kumar Deepak Kumar Dhiraj Kumar Sharad Kumar Shinji Kume Caroline Kumsta Chanakya N Kundu Mondira Kundu Ajaikumar B Kunnumakkara Lukasz Kurgan Tatiana G Kutateladze Ozlem Kutlu SeongAe Kwak Ho Jeong Kwon Taeg Kyu Kwon Yong Tae Kwon Irene Kyrmizi Albert La Spada Patrick Labonté Sylvain Ladoire Ilaria Laface Frank Lafont Diane C Lagace Vikramjit Lahiri Zhibing Lai Angela S Laird Aparna Lakkaraju Trond Lamark Sheng-Hui Lan Ane Landajuela Darius J R Lane Jon D Lane Charles H Lang Carsten Lange Ülo Langel Rupert Langer Pierre Lapaquette Jocelyn Laporte Nicholas F LaRusso Isabel Lastres-Becker Wilson Chun Yu Lau Gordon W Laurie Sergio Lavandero Betty Yuen Kwan Law Helen Ka-Wai Law Rob Layfield Weidong Le Herve Le Stunff Alexandre Y Leary Jean-Jacques Lebrun Lionel Y W Leck Jean-Philippe Leduc-Gaudet Changwook Lee Chung-Pei Lee Da-Hye Lee Edward B Lee Erinna F Lee Gyun Min Lee He-Jin Lee Heung Kyu Lee Jae Man Lee Jason S Lee Jin-A Lee Joo-Yong Lee Jun Hee Lee Michael Lee Min Goo Lee Min Jae Lee Myung-Shik Lee Sang Yoon Lee Seung-Jae Lee Stella Y Lee Sung Bae Lee Won Hee Lee Ying-Ray Lee Yong-Ho Lee Youngil Lee Christophe Lefebvre Renaud Legouis Yu L Lei Yuchen Lei Sergey Leikin Gerd Leitinger Leticia Lemus Shuilong Leng Olivia Lenoir Guido Lenz Heinz Josef Lenz Paola Lenzi Yolanda León Andréia M Leopoldino Christoph Leschczyk Stina Leskelä Elisabeth Letellier Chi-Ting Leung Po Sing Leung Jeremy S Leventhal Beth Levine Patrick A Lewis Klaus Ley Bin Li Da-Qiang Li Jianming Li Jing Li Jiong Li Ke Li Liwu Li Mei Li Min Li Min Li Ming Li Mingchuan Li Pin-Lan Li Ming-Qing Li Qing Li Sheng Li Tiangang Li Wei Li Wenming Li Xue Li Yi-Ping Li Yuan Li Zhiqiang Li Zhiyong Li Zhiyuan Li Jiqin Lian Chengyu Liang Qiangrong Liang Weicheng Liang Yongheng Liang YongTian Liang Guanghong Liao Lujian Liao Mingzhi Liao Yung-Feng Liao Mariangela Librizzi Pearl P Y Lie Mary A Lilly Hyunjung J Lim Thania R R Lima Federica Limana Chao Lin Chih-Wen Lin Dar-Shong Lin Fu-Cheng Lin Jiandie D Lin Kurt M Lin Kwang-Huei Lin Liang-Tzung Lin Pei-Hui Lin Qiong Lin Shaofeng Lin Su-Ju Lin Wenyu Lin Xueying Lin Yao-Xin Lin Yee-Shin Lin Rafael Linden Paula Lindner Shuo-Chien Ling Paul Lingor Amelia K Linnemann Yih-Cherng Liou Marta M Lipinski Saška Lipovšek Vitor A Lira Natalia Lisiak Paloma B Liton Chao Liu Ching-Hsuan Liu Chun-Feng Liu Cui Hua Liu Fang Liu Hao Liu Hsiao-Sheng Liu Hua-Feng Liu Huifang Liu Jia Liu Jing Liu Julia Liu Leyuan Liu Longhua Liu Meilian Liu Qin Liu Wei Liu Wende Liu Xiao-Hong Liu Xiaodong Liu Xingguo Liu Xu Liu Xuedong Liu Yanfen Liu Yang Liu Yang Liu Yueyang Liu Yule Liu J Andrew Livingston Gerard Lizard Jose M Lizcano Senka Ljubojevic-Holzer Matilde E LLeonart David Llobet-Navàs Alicia Llorente Chih Hung Lo Damián Lobato-Márquez Qi Long Yun Chau Long Ben Loos Julia A Loos Manuela G López Guillermo López-Doménech José Antonio López-Guerrero Ana T López-Jiménez Óscar López-Pérez Israel López-Valero Magdalena J Lorenowicz Mar Lorente Peter Lorincz Laura Lossi Sophie Lotersztajn Penny E Lovat Jonathan F Lovell Alenka Lovy Péter Lőw Guang Lu Haocheng Lu Jia-Hong Lu Jin-Jian Lu Mengji Lu Shuyan Lu Alessandro Luciani John M Lucocq Paula Ludovico Micah A Luftig Morten Luhr Diego Luis-Ravelo Julian J Lum Liany Luna-Dulcey Anders H Lund Viktor K Lund Jan D Lünemann Patrick Lüningschrör Honglin Luo Rongcan Luo Shouqing Luo Zhi Luo Claudio Luparello Bernhard Lüscher Luan Luu Alex Lyakhovich Konstantin G Lyamzaev Alf Håkon Lystad Lyubomyr Lytvynchuk Alvin C Ma Changle Ma Mengxiao Ma Ning-Fang Ma Quan-Hong Ma Xinliang Ma Yueyun Ma Zhenyi Ma Ormond A MacDougald Fernando Macian Gustavo C MacIntosh Jeffrey P MacKeigan Kay F Macleod Sandra Maday Frank Madeo Muniswamy Madesh Tobias Madl Julio Madrigal-Matute Akiko Maeda Yasuhiro Maejima Marta Magarinos Poornima Mahavadi Emiliano Maiani Kenneth Maiese Panchanan Maiti Maria Chiara Maiuri Barbara Majello Michael B Major Elena Makareeva Fayaz Malik Karthik Mallilankaraman Walter Malorni Alina Maloyan Najiba Mammadova Gene Chi Wai Man Federico Manai Joseph D Mancias Eva-Maria Mandelkow Michael A Mandell Angelo A Manfredi Masoud H Manjili Ravi Manjithaya Patricio Manque Bella B Manshian Raquel Manzano Claudia Manzoni Kai Mao Cinzia Marchese Sandrine Marchetti Anna Maria Marconi Fabrizio Marcucci Stefania Mardente Olga A Mareninova Marta Margeta Muriel Mari Sara Marinelli Oliviero Marinelli Guillermo Mariño Sofia Mariotto Richard S Marshall Mark R Marten Sascha Martens Alexandre P J Martin Katie R Martin Sara Martin Shaun Martin Adrián Martín-Segura Miguel A Martín-Acebes Inmaculada Martin-Burriel Marcos Martin-Rincon Paloma Martin-Sanz José A Martina Wim Martinet Aitor Martinez Ana Martinez Jennifer Martinez Moises Martinez Velazquez Nuria Martinez-Lopez Marta Martinez-Vicente Daniel O Martins Joilson O Martins Waleska K Martins Tania Martins-Marques Emanuele Marzetti Shashank Masaldan Celine Masclaux-Daubresse Douglas G Mashek Valentina Massa Lourdes Massieu Glenn R Masson Laura Masuelli Anatoliy I Masyuk Tetyana V Masyuk Paola Matarrese Ander Matheu Satoaki Matoba Sachiko Matsuzaki Pamela Mattar Alessandro Matte Domenico Mattoscio José L Mauriz Mario Mauthe Caroline Mauvezin Emanual Maverakis Paola Maycotte Johanna Mayer Gianluigi Mazzoccoli Cristina Mazzoni Joseph R Mazzulli Nami McCarty Christine McDonald Mitchell R McGill Sharon L McKenna BethAnn McLaughlin Fionn McLoughlin Mark A McNiven Thomas G McWilliams Fatima Mechta-Grigoriou Tania Catarina Medeiros Diego L Medina Lynn A Megeney Klara Megyeri Maryam Mehrpour Jawahar L Mehta Alfred J Meijer Annemarie H Meijer Jakob Mejlvang Alicia Meléndez Annette Melk Gonen Memisoglu Alexandrina F Mendes Delong Meng Fei Meng Tian Meng Rubem Menna-Barreto Manoj B Menon Carol Mercer Anne E Mercier Jean-Louis Mergny Adalberto Merighi Seth D Merkley Giuseppe Merla Volker Meske Ana Cecilia Mestre Shree Padma Metur Christian Meyer Hemmo Meyer Wenyi Mi Jeanne Mialet-Perez Junying Miao Lucia Micale Yasuo Miki Enrico Milan Małgorzata Milczarek Dana L Miller Samuel I Miller Silke Miller Steven W Millward Ira Milosevic Elena A Minina Hamed Mirzaei Hamid Reza Mirzaei Mehdi Mirzaei Amit Mishra Nandita Mishra Paras Kumar Mishra Maja Misirkic Marjanovic Roberta Misasi Amit Misra Gabriella Misso Claire Mitchell Geraldine Mitou Tetsuji Miura Shigeki Miyamoto Makoto Miyazaki Mitsunori Miyazaki Taiga Miyazaki Keisuke Miyazawa Noboru Mizushima Trine H Mogensen Baharia Mograbi Reza Mohammadinejad Yasir Mohamud Abhishek Mohanty Sipra Mohapatra Torsten Möhlmann Asif Mohmmed Anna Moles Kelle H Moley Maurizio Molinari Vincenzo Mollace Andreas Buch Møller Bertrand Mollereau Faustino Mollinedo Costanza Montagna Mervyn J Monteiro Andrea Montella L Ruth Montes Barbara Montico Vinod K Mony Giacomo Monzio Compagnoni Michael N Moore Mohammad A Moosavi Ana L Mora Marina Mora David Morales-Alamo Rosario Moratalla Paula I Moreira Elena Morelli Sandra Moreno Daniel Moreno-Blas Viviana Moresi Benjamin Morga Alwena H Morgan Fabrice Morin Hideaki Morishita Orson L Moritz Mariko Moriyama Yuji Moriyasu Manuela Morleo Eugenia Morselli Jose F Moruno-Manchon Jorge Moscat Serge Mostowy Elisa Motori Andrea Felinto Moura Naima Moustaid-Moussa Maria Mrakovcic Gabriel Muciño-Hernández Anupam Mukherjee Subhadip Mukhopadhyay Jean M Mulcahy Levy Victoriano Mulero Sylviane Muller Christian Münch Ashok Munjal Pura Munoz-Canoves Teresa Muñoz-Galdeano Christian Münz Tomokazu Murakawa Claudia Muratori Brona M Murphy J Patrick Murphy Aditya Murthy Timo T Myöhänen Indira U Mysorekar Jennifer Mytych Seyed Mohammad Nabavi Massimo Nabissi Péter Nagy Jihoon Nah Aimable Nahimana Ichiro Nakagawa Ken Nakamura Hitoshi Nakatogawa Shyam S Nandi Meera Nanjundan Monica Nanni Gennaro Napolitano Roberta Nardacci Masashi Narita Melissa Nassif Ilana Nathan Manabu Natsumeda Ryno J Naude Christin Naumann Olaia Naveiras Fatemeh Navid Steffan T Nawrocki Taras Y Nazarko Francesca Nazio Florentina Negoita Thomas Neill Amanda L Neisch Luca M Neri Mihai G Netea Patrick Neubert Thomas P Neufeld Dietbert Neumann Albert Neutzner Phillip T Newton Paul A Ney Ioannis P Nezis Charlene C W Ng Tzi Bun Ng Hang T T Nguyen Long T Nguyen Hong-Min Ni Clíona Ní Cheallaigh Zhenhong Ni M Celeste Nicolao Francesco Nicoli Manuel Nieto-Diaz Per Nilsson Shunbin Ning Rituraj Niranjan Hiroshi Nishimune Mireia Niso-Santano Ralph A Nixon Annalisa Nobili Clevio Nobrega Takeshi Noda Uxía Nogueira-Recalde Trevor M Nolan Ivan Nombela Ivana Novak Beatriz Novoa Takashi Nozawa Nobuyuki Nukina Carmen Nussbaum-Krammer Jesper Nylandsted Tracey R O'Donovan Seónadh M O'Leary Eyleen J O'Rourke Mary P O'Sullivan Timothy E O'Sullivan Salvatore Oddo Ina Oehme Michinaga Ogawa Eric Ogier-Denis Margret H Ogmundsdottir Besim Ogretmen Goo Taeg Oh Seon-Hee Oh Young J Oh Takashi Ohama Yohei Ohashi Masaki Ohmuraya Vasileios Oikonomou Rani Ojha Koji Okamoto Hitoshi Okazawa Masahide Oku Sara Oliván Jorge M A Oliveira Michael Ollmann James A Olzmann Shakib Omari M Bishr Omary Gizem Önal Martin Ondrej Sang-Bing Ong Sang-Ging Ong Anna Onnis Juan A Orellana Sara Orellana-Muñoz Maria Del Mar Ortega-Villaizan Xilma R Ortiz-Gonzalez Elena Ortona Heinz D Osiewacz Abdel-Hamid K Osman Rosario Osta Marisa S Otegui Kinya Otsu Christiane Ott Luisa Ottobrini Jing-Hsiung James Ou Tiago F Outeiro Inger Oynebraten Melek Ozturk Gilles Pagès Susanta Pahari Marta Pajares Utpal B Pajvani Rituraj Pal Simona Paladino Nicolas Pallet Michela Palmieri Giuseppe Palmisano Camilla Palumbo Francesco Pampaloni Lifeng Pan Qingjun Pan Wenliang Pan Xin Pan Ganna Panasyuk Rahul Pandey Udai B Pandey Vrajesh Pandya Francesco Paneni Shirley Y Pang Elisa Panzarini Daniela L Papademetrio Elena Papaleo Daniel Papinski Diana Papp Eun Chan Park Hwan Tae Park Ji-Man Park Jong-In Park Joon Tae Park Junsoo Park Sang Chul Park Sang-Youel Park Abraham H Parola Jan B Parys Adrien Pasquier Benoit Pasquier João F Passos Nunzia Pastore Hemal H Patel Daniel Patschan Sophie Pattingre Gustavo Pedraza-Alva Jose Pedraza-Chaverri Zully Pedrozo Gang Pei Jianming Pei Hadas Peled-Zehavi Joaquín M Pellegrini Joffrey Pelletier Miguel A Peñalva Di Peng Ying Peng Fabio Penna Maria Pennuto Francesca Pentimalli Cláudia Mf Pereira Gustavo J S Pereira Lilian C Pereira Luis Pereira de Almeida Nirma D Perera Ángel Pérez-Lara Ana B Perez-Oliva María Esther Pérez-Pérez Palsamy Periyasamy Andras Perl Cristiana Perrotta Ida Perrotta Richard G Pestell Morten Petersen Irina Petrache Goran Petrovski Thorsten Pfirrmann Astrid S Pfister Jennifer A Philips Huifeng Pi Anna Picca Alicia M Pickrell Sandy Picot Giovanna M Pierantoni Marina Pierdominici Philippe Pierre Valérie Pierrefite-Carle Karolina Pierzynowska Federico Pietrocola Miroslawa Pietruczuk Claudio Pignata Felipe X Pimentel-Muiños Mario Pinar Roberta O Pinheiro Ronit Pinkas-Kramarski Paolo Pinton Karolina Pircs Sujan Piya Paola Pizzo Theo S Plantinga Harald W Platta Ainhoa Plaza-Zabala Markus Plomann Egor Y Plotnikov Helene Plun-Favreau Ryszard Pluta Roger Pocock Stefanie Pöggeler Christian Pohl Marc Poirot Angelo Poletti Marisa Ponpuak Hana Popelka Blagovesta Popova Helena Porta Soledad Porte Alcon Eliana Portilla-Fernandez Martin Post Malia B Potts Joanna Poulton Ted Powers Veena Prahlad Tomasz K Prajsnar Domenico Praticò Rosaria Prencipe Muriel Priault Tassula Proikas-Cezanne Vasilis J Promponas Christopher G Proud Rosa Puertollano Luigi Puglielli Thomas Pulinilkunnil Deepika Puri Rajat Puri Julien Puyal Xiaopeng Qi Yongmei Qi Wenbin Qian Lei Qiang Yu Qiu Joe Quadrilatero Jorge Quarleri Nina Raben Hannah Rabinowich Debora Ragona Michael J Ragusa Nader Rahimi Marveh Rahmati Valeria Raia Nuno Raimundo Namakkal-Soorappan Rajasekaran Sriganesh Ramachandra Rao Abdelhaq Rami Ignacio Ramírez-Pardo David B Ramsden Felix Randow Pundi N Rangarajan Danilo Ranieri Hai Rao Lang Rao Rekha Rao Sumit Rathore J Arjuna Ratnayaka Edward A Ratovitski Palaniyandi Ravanan Gloria Ravegnini Swapan K Ray Babak Razani Vito Rebecca Fulvio Reggiori Anne Régnier-Vigouroux Andreas S Reichert David Reigada Jan H Reiling Theo Rein Siegfried Reipert Rokeya Sultana Rekha Hongmei Ren Jun Ren Weichao Ren Tristan Renault Giorgia Renga Karen Reue Kim Rewitz Bruna Ribeiro de Andrade Ramos S Amer Riazuddin Teresa M Ribeiro-Rodrigues Jean-Ehrland Ricci Romeo Ricci Victoria Riccio Des R Richardson Yasuko Rikihisa Makarand V Risbud Ruth M Risueño Konstantinos Ritis Salvatore Rizza Rosario Rizzuto Helen C Roberts Luke D Roberts Katherine J Robinson Maria Carmela Roccheri Stephane Rocchi George G Rodney Tiago Rodrigues Vagner Ramon Rodrigues Silva Amaia Rodriguez Ruth Rodriguez-Barrueco Nieves Rodriguez-Henche Humberto Rodriguez-Rocha Jeroen Roelofs Robert S Rogers Vladimir V Rogov Ana I Rojo Krzysztof Rolka Vanina Romanello Luigina Romani Alessandra Romano Patricia S Romano David Romeo-Guitart Luis C Romero Montserrat Romero Joseph C Roney Christopher Rongo Sante Roperto Mathias T Rosenfeldt Philip Rosenstiel Anne G Rosenwald Kevin A Roth Lynn Roth Steven Roth Kasper M A Rouschop Benoit D Roussel Sophie Roux Patrizia Rovere-Querini Ajit Roy Aurore Rozieres Diego Ruano David C Rubinsztein Maria P Rubtsova Klaus Ruckdeschel Christoph Ruckenstuhl Emil Rudolf Rüdiger Rudolf Alessandra Ruggieri Avnika Ashok Ruparelia Paola Rusmini Ryan R Russell Gian Luigi Russo Maria Russo Rossella Russo Oxana O Ryabaya Kevin M Ryan Kwon-Yul Ryu Maria Sabater-Arcis Ulka Sachdev Michael Sacher Carsten Sachse Abhishek Sadhu Junichi Sadoshima Nathaniel Safren Paul Saftig Antonia P Sagona Gaurav Sahay Amirhossein Sahebkar Mustafa Sahin Ozgur Sahin Sumit Sahni Nayuta Saito Shigeru Saito Tsunenori Saito Ryohei Sakai Yasuyoshi Sakai Jun-Ichi Sakamaki Kalle Saksela Gloria Salazar Anna Salazar-Degracia Ghasem H Salekdeh Ashok K Saluja Belém Sampaio-Marques Maria Cecilia Sanchez Jose A Sanchez-Alcazar Victoria Sanchez-Vera Vanessa Sancho-Shimizu J Thomas Sanderson Marco Sandri Stefano Santaguida Laura Santambrogio Magda M Santana Giorgio Santoni Alberto Sanz Pascual Sanz Shweta Saran Marco Sardiello Timothy J Sargeant Apurva Sarin Chinmoy Sarkar Sovan Sarkar Maria-Rosa Sarrias Surajit Sarkar Dipanka Tanu Sarmah Jaakko Sarparanta Aishwarya Sathyanarayan Ranganayaki Sathyanarayanan K Matthew Scaglione Francesca Scatozza Liliana Schaefer Zachary T Schafer Ulrich E Schaible Anthony H V Schapira Michael Scharl Hermann M Schatzl Catherine H Schein Wiep Scheper David Scheuring Maria Vittoria Schiaffino Monica Schiappacassi Rainer Schindl Uwe Schlattner Oliver Schmidt Roland Schmitt Stephen D Schmidt Ingo Schmitz Eran Schmukler Anja Schneider Bianca E Schneider Romana Schober Alejandra C Schoijet Micah B Schott Michael Schramm Bernd Schröder Kai Schuh Christoph Schüller Ryan J Schulze Lea Schürmanns Jens C Schwamborn Melanie Schwarten Filippo Scialo Sebastiano Sciarretta Melanie J Scott Kathleen W Scotto A Ivana Scovassi Andrea Scrima Aurora Scrivo David Sebastian Salwa Sebti Simon Sedej Laura Segatori Nava Segev Per O Seglen Iban Seiliez Ekihiro Seki Scott B Selleck Frank W Sellke Joshua T Selsby Michael Sendtner Serif Senturk Elena Seranova Consolato Sergi Ruth Serra-Moreno Hiromi Sesaki Carmine Settembre Subba Rao Gangi Setty Gianluca Sgarbi Ou Sha John J Shacka Javeed A Shah Dantong Shang Changshun Shao Feng Shao Soroush Sharbati Lisa M Sharkey Dipali Sharma Gaurav Sharma Kulbhushan Sharma Pawan Sharma Surendra Sharma Han-Ming Shen Hongtao Shen Jiangang Shen Ming Shen Weili Shen Zheni Shen Rui Sheng Zhi Sheng Zu-Hang Sheng Jianjian Shi Xiaobing Shi Ying-Hong Shi Kahori Shiba-Fukushima Jeng-Jer Shieh Yohta Shimada Shigeomi Shimizu Makoto Shimozawa Takahiro Shintani Christopher J Shoemaker Shahla Shojaei Ikuo Shoji Bhupendra V Shravage Viji Shridhar Chih-Wen Shu Hong-Bing Shu Ke Shui Arvind K Shukla Timothy E Shutt Valentina Sica Aleem Siddiqui Amanda Sierra Virginia Sierra-Torre Santiago Signorelli Payel Sil Bruno J de Andrade Silva Johnatas D Silva Eduardo Silva-Pavez Sandrine Silvente-Poirot Rachel E Simmonds Anna Katharina Simon Hans-Uwe Simon Matias Simons Anurag Singh Lalit P Singh Rajat Singh Shivendra V Singh Shrawan K Singh Sudha B Singh Sunaina Singh Surinder Pal Singh Debasish Sinha Rohit Anthony Sinha Sangita Sinha Agnieszka Sirko Kapil Sirohi Efthimios L Sivridis Panagiotis Skendros Aleksandra Skirycz Iva Slaninová Soraya S Smaili Andrei Smertenko Matthew D Smith Stefaan J Soenen Eun Jung Sohn Sophia P M Sok Giancarlo Solaini Thierry Soldati Scott A Soleimanpour Rosa M Soler Alexei Solovchenko Jason A Somarelli Avinash Sonawane Fuyong Song Hyun Kyu Song Ju-Xian Song Kunhua Song Zhiyin Song Leandro R Soria Maurizio Sorice Alexander A Soukas Sandra-Fausia Soukup Diana Sousa Nadia Sousa Paul A Spagnuolo Stephen A Spector M M Srinivas Bharath Daret St Clair Venturina Stagni Leopoldo Staiano Clint A Stalnecker Metodi V Stankov Peter B Stathopulos Katja Stefan Sven Marcel Stefan Leonidas Stefanis Joan S Steffan Alexander Steinkasserer Harald Stenmark Jared Sterneckert Craig Stevens Veronika Stoka Stephan Storch Björn Stork Flavie Strappazzon Anne Marie Strohecker Dwayne G Stupack Huanxing Su Ling-Yan Su Longxiang Su Ana M Suarez-Fontes Carlos S Subauste Selvakumar Subbian Paula V Subirada Ganapasam Sudhandiran Carolyn M Sue Xinbing Sui Corey Summers Guangchao Sun Jun Sun Kang Sun Meng-Xiang Sun Qiming Sun Yi Sun Zhongjie Sun Karen K S Sunahara Eva Sundberg Katalin Susztak Peter Sutovsky Hidekazu Suzuki Gary Sweeney J David Symons Stephen Cho Wing Sze Nathaniel J Szewczyk Anna Tabęcka-Łonczynska Claudio Tabolacci Frank Tacke Heinrich Taegtmeyer Marco Tafani Mitsuo Tagaya Haoran Tai Stephen W G Tait Yoshinori Takahashi Szabolcs Takats Priti Talwar Chit Tam Shing Yau Tam Davide Tampellini Atsushi Tamura Chong Teik Tan Eng-King Tan Ya-Qin Tan Masaki Tanaka Motomasa Tanaka Daolin Tang Jingfeng Tang Tie-Shan Tang Isei Tanida Zhipeng Tao Mohammed Taouis Lars Tatenhorst Nektarios Tavernarakis Allen Taylor Gregory A Taylor Joan M Taylor Elena Tchetina Andrew R Tee Irmgard Tegeder David Teis Natercia Teixeira Fatima Teixeira-Clerc Kumsal A Tekirdag Tewin Tencomnao Sandra Tenreiro Alexei V Tepikin Pilar S Testillano Gianluca Tettamanti Pierre-Louis Tharaux Kathrin Thedieck Arvind A Thekkinghat Stefano Thellung Josephine W Thinwa V P Thirumalaikumar Sufi Mary Thomas Paul G Thomes Andrew Thorburn Lipi Thukral Thomas Thum Michael Thumm Ling Tian Ales Tichy Andreas Till Vincent Timmerman Vladimir I Titorenko Sokol V Todi Krassimira Todorova Janne M Toivonen Luana Tomaipitinca Dhanendra Tomar Cristina Tomas-Zapico Sergej Tomić Benjamin Chun-Kit Tong Chao Tong Xin Tong Sharon A Tooze Maria L Torgersen Satoru Torii Liliana Torres-López Alicia Torriglia Christina G Towers Roberto Towns Shinya Toyokuni Vladimir Trajkovic Donatella Tramontano Quynh-Giao Tran Leonardo H Travassos Charles B Trelford Shirley Tremel Ioannis P Trougakos Betty P Tsao Mario P Tschan Hung-Fat Tse Tak Fu Tse Hitoshi Tsugawa Andrey S Tsvetkov David A Tumbarello Yasin Tumtas María J Tuñón Sandra Turcotte Boris Turk Vito Turk Bradley J Turner Richard I Tuxworth Jessica K Tyler Elena V Tyutereva Yasuo Uchiyama Aslihan Ugun-Klusek Holm H Uhlig Marzena Ułamek-Kozioł Ilya V Ulasov Midori Umekawa Christian Ungermann Rei Unno Sylvie Urbe Elisabet Uribe-Carretero Suayib Üstün Vladimir N Uversky Thomas Vaccari Maria I Vaccaro Björn F Vahsen Helin Vakifahmetoglu-Norberg Rut Valdor Maria J Valente Ayelén Valko Richard B Vallee Angela M Valverde Greet Van den Berghe Stijn van der Veen Luc Van Kaer Jorg van Loosdregt Sjoerd J L van Wijk Wim Vandenberghe Ilse Vanhorebeek Marcos A Vannier-Santos Nicola Vannini M Cristina Vanrell Chiara Vantaggiato Gabriele Varano Isabel Varela-Nieto Máté Varga M Helena Vasconcelos Somya Vats Demetrios G Vavvas Ignacio Vega-Naredo Silvia Vega-Rubin-de-Celis Guillermo Velasco Ariadna P Velázquez Tibor Vellai Edo Vellenga Francesca Velotti Mireille Verdier Panayotis Verginis Isabelle Vergne Paul Verkade Manish Verma Patrik Verstreken Tim Vervliet Jörg Vervoorts Alexandre T Vessoni Victor M Victor Michel Vidal Chiara Vidoni Otilia V Vieira Richard D Vierstra Sonia Viganó Helena Vihinen Vinoy Vijayan Miquel Vila Marçal Vilar José M Villalba Antonio Villalobo Beatriz Villarejo-Zori Francesc Villarroya Joan Villarroya Olivier Vincent Cecile Vindis Christophe Viret Maria Teresa Viscomi Dora Visnjic Ilio Vitale David J Vocadlo Olga V Voitsekhovskaja Cinzia Volonté Mattia Volta Marta Vomero Clarissa Von Haefen Marc A Vooijs Wolfgang Voos Ljubica Vucicevic Richard Wade-Martins Satoshi Waguri Kenrick A Waite Shuji Wakatsuki David W Walker Mark J Walker Simon A Walker Jochen Walter Francisco G Wandosell Bo Wang Chao-Yung Wang Chen Wang Chenran Wang Chenwei Wang Cun-Yu Wang Dong Wang Fangyang Wang Feng Wang Fengming Wang Guansong Wang Han Wang Hao Wang Hexiang Wang Hong-Gang Wang Jianrong Wang Jigang Wang Jiou Wang Jundong Wang Kui Wang Lianrong Wang Liming Wang Maggie Haitian Wang Meiqing Wang Nanbu Wang Pengwei Wang Peipei Wang Ping Wang Ping Wang Qing Jun Wang Qing Wang Qing Kenneth Wang Qiong A Wang Wen-Tao Wang Wuyang Wang Xinnan Wang Xuejun Wang Yan Wang Yanchang Wang Yanzhuang Wang Yen-Yun Wang Yihua Wang Yipeng Wang Yu Wang Yuqi Wang Zhe Wang Zhenyu Wang Zhouguang Wang Gary Warnes Verena Warnsmann Hirotaka Watada Eizo Watanabe Maxinne Watchon Anna Wawrzyńska Timothy E Weaver Grzegorz Wegrzyn Ann M Wehman Huafeng Wei Lei Wei Taotao Wei Yongjie Wei Oliver H Weiergräber Conrad C Weihl Günther Weindl Ralf Weiskirchen Alan Wells Runxia H Wen Xin Wen Antonia Werner Beatrice Weykopf Sally P Wheatley J Lindsay Whitton Alexander J Whitworth Katarzyna Wiktorska Manon E Wildenberg Tom Wileman Simon Wilkinson Dieter Willbold Brett Williams Robin S B Williams Roger L Williams Peter R Williamson Richard A Wilson Beate Winner Nathaniel J Winsor Steven S Witkin Harald Wodrich Ute Woehlbier Thomas Wollert Esther Wong Jack Ho Wong Richard W Wong Vincent Kam Wai Wong W Wei-Lynn Wong An-Guo Wu Chengbiao Wu Jian Wu Junfang Wu Kenneth K Wu Min Wu Shan-Ying Wu Shengzhou Wu Shu-Yan Wu Shufang Wu William K K Wu Xiaohong Wu Xiaoqing Wu Yao-Wen Wu Yihua Wu Ramnik J Xavier Hongguang Xia Lixin Xia Zhengyuan Xia Ge Xiang Jin Xiang Mingliang Xiang Wei Xiang Bin Xiao Guozhi Xiao Hengyi Xiao Hong-Tao Xiao Jian Xiao Lan Xiao Shi Xiao Yin Xiao Baoming Xie Chuan-Ming Xie Min Xie Yuxiang Xie Zhiping Xie Zhonglin Xie Maria Xilouri Congfeng Xu En Xu Haoxing Xu Jing Xu JinRong Xu Liang Xu Wen Wen Xu Xiulong Xu Yu Xue Sokhna M S Yakhine-Diop Masamitsu Yamaguchi Osamu Yamaguchi Ai Yamamoto Shunhei Yamashina Shengmin Yan Shian-Jang Yan Zhen Yan Yasuo Yanagi Chuanbin Yang Dun-Sheng Yang Huan Yang Huang-Tian Yang Hui Yang Jin-Ming Yang Jing Yang Jingyu Yang Ling Yang Liu Yang Ming Yang Pei-Ming Yang Qian Yang Seungwon Yang Shu Yang Shun-Fa Yang Wannian Yang Wei Yuan Yang Xiaoyong Yang Xuesong Yang Yi Yang Ying Yang Honghong Yao Shenggen Yao Xiaoqiang Yao Yong-Gang Yao Yong-Ming Yao Takahiro Yasui Meysam Yazdankhah Paul M Yen Cong Yi Xiao-Ming Yin Yanhai Yin Zhangyuan Yin Ziyi Yin Meidan Ying Zheng Ying Calvin K Yip Stephanie Pei Tung Yiu Young H Yoo Kiyotsugu Yoshida Saori R Yoshii Tamotsu Yoshimori Bahman Yousefi Boxuan Yu Haiyang Yu Jun Yu Jun Yu Li Yu Ming-Lung Yu Seong-Woon Yu Victor C Yu W Haung Yu Zhengping Yu Zhou Yu Junying Yuan Ling-Qing Yuan Shilin Yuan Shyng-Shiou F Yuan Yanggang Yuan Zengqiang Yuan Jianbo Yue Zhenyu Yue Jeanho Yun Raymond L Yung David N Zacks Gabriele Zaffagnini Vanessa O Zambelli Isabella Zanella Qun S Zang Sara Zanivan Silvia Zappavigna Pilar Zaragoza Konstantinos S Zarbalis Amir Zarebkohan Amira Zarrouk Scott O Zeitlin Jialiu Zeng Ju-Deng Zeng Eva Žerovnik Lixuan Zhan Bin Zhang Donna D Zhang Hanlin Zhang Hong Zhang Hong Zhang Honghe Zhang Huafeng Zhang Huaye Zhang Hui Zhang Hui-Ling Zhang Jianbin Zhang Jianhua Zhang Jing-Pu Zhang Kalin Y B Zhang Leshuai W Zhang Lin Zhang Lisheng Zhang Lu Zhang Luoying Zhang Menghuan Zhang Peng Zhang Sheng Zhang Wei Zhang Xiangnan Zhang Xiao-Wei Zhang Xiaolei Zhang Xiaoyan Zhang Xin Zhang Xinxin Zhang Xu Dong Zhang Yang Zhang Yanjin Zhang Yi Zhang Ying-Dong Zhang Yingmei Zhang Yuan-Yuan Zhang Yuchen Zhang Zhe Zhang Zhengguang Zhang Zhibing Zhang Zhihai Zhang Zhiyong Zhang Zili Zhang Haobin Zhao Lei Zhao Shuang Zhao Tongbiao Zhao Xiao-Fan Zhao Ying Zhao Yongchao Zhao Yongliang Zhao Yuting Zhao Guoping Zheng Kai Zheng Ling Zheng Shizhong Zheng Xi-Long Zheng Yi Zheng Zu-Guo Zheng Boris Zhivotovsky Qing Zhong Ao Zhou Ben Zhou Cefan Zhou Gang Zhou Hao Zhou Hong Zhou Hongbo Zhou Jie Zhou Jing Zhou Jing Zhou Jiyong Zhou Kailiang Zhou Rongjia Zhou Xu-Jie Zhou Yanshuang Zhou Yinghong Zhou Yubin Zhou Zheng-Yu Zhou Zhou Zhou Binglin Zhu Changlian Zhu Guo-Qing Zhu Haining Zhu Hongxin Zhu Hua Zhu Wei-Guo Zhu Yanping Zhu Yushan Zhu Haixia Zhuang Xiaohong Zhuang Katarzyna Zientara-Rytter Christine M Zimmermann Elena Ziviani Teresa Zoladek Wei-Xing Zong Dmitry B Zorov Antonio Zorzano Weiping Zou Zhen Zou Zhengzhi Zou Steven Zuryn Werner Zwerschke Beate Brand-Saberi X Charlie Dong Chandra Shekar Kenchappa Zuguo Li Yong Lin Shigeru Oshima Yueguang Rong Judith C Sluimer Christina L Stallings Chun-Kit Tong

Autophagy 2021 Feb 8:1-382. Epub 2021 Feb 8.

Hong Kong Baptist University, School of Chinese Medicine, Hong Kong, China.

In 2008, we published the first set of guidelines for standardizing research in autophagy. Since then, this topic has received increasing attention, and many scientists have entered the field. Our knowledge base and relevant new technologies have also been expanding. Thus, it is important to formulate on a regular basis updated guidelines for monitoring autophagy in different organisms. Despite numerous reviews, there continues to be confusion regarding acceptable methods to evaluate autophagy, especially in multicellular eukaryotes. Here, we present a set of guidelines for investigators to select and interpret methods to examine autophagy and related processes, and for reviewers to provide realistic and reasonable critiques of reports that are focused on these processes. These guidelines are not meant to be a dogmatic set of rules, because the appropriateness of any assay largely depends on the question being asked and the system being used. Moreover, no individual assay is perfect for every situation, calling for the use of multiple techniques to properly monitor autophagy in each experimental setting. Finally, several core components of the autophagy machinery have been implicated in distinct autophagic processes (canonical and noncanonical autophagy), implying that genetic approaches to block autophagy should rely on targeting two or more autophagy-related genes that ideally participate in distinct steps of the pathway. Along similar lines, because multiple proteins involved in autophagy also regulate other cellular pathways including apoptosis, not all of them can be used as a specific marker for autophagic responses. Here, we critically discuss current methods of assessing autophagy and the information they can, or cannot, provide. Our ultimate goal is to encourage intellectual and technical innovation in the field.
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February 2021

Protective Effects of Inflammation of Curcumae Longae Rhizoma 30% EtOH Extract on Acute Reflux Esophagitis Rats.

Biomed Res Int 2021 16;2021:8854945. Epub 2021 Jan 16.

Department of Herbology, College of Korean Medicine, Daegu Haany University, 136, Shinchendong-ro, Suseong-gu, Daegu 42158, Republic of Korea.

Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is induced by the reflux of stomach contents or gastric acid, pepsin into the esophagus for prolonged periods of time due to defection of the lower esophageal sphincter. Reflux esophagitis is a disease found in less than 50% of GERD patients. This study is aimed at evaluating the protective effect of Curcumae longae Rhizoma 30% EtOH extract (CLR) in acute reflux esophagitis (ARE) rats. CLR measured antioxidant activity through experiments. Based on the results, we performed experiments . Before 90 min ARE induction, CLR was administered orally by concentration. ARE was derived by linking the metastatic junction between pylorus and forestomach and corpus in Sprague-Dawley rats. And rats were sacrificed 5 h after surgery. We analyzed the expression of antioxidant and inflammatory-related markers by western blot and observed the production of alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), reactive oxygen species (ROS), peroxynitrite (ONOO), and thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS). The administration of CLR reduced esophagus tissue damage in rats with acute reflux esophagitis and decreased the elevated ALT, AST, ROS, ONOO, and TBARS. In addition, CLR effectively increased antioxidant-related factors and reduced inflammatory protein. Overall, these results suggest that CLR would be used as a therapeutic material in protection and treatment for ARE. Overall, CLR treatment informed that markedly ameliorated inactivation of NF-B led to the inhibition of the expressions of proinflammatory proteins. These results suggest that CLR would be used as a therapeutic material in protection and treatment for ARE.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7834798PMC
January 2021

p62/SQSTM1-droplet serves as a platform for autophagosome formation and anti-oxidative stress response.

Nat Commun 2021 01 4;12(1):16. Epub 2021 Jan 4.

Department of Physiology, Juntendo University Graduate School of Medicine, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo, 113-8421, Japan.

Autophagy contributes to the selective degradation of liquid droplets, including the P-Granule, Ape1-complex and p62/SQSTM1-body, although the molecular mechanisms and physiological relevance of selective degradation remain unclear. In this report, we describe the properties of endogenous p62-bodies, the effect of autophagosome biogenesis on these bodies, and the in vivo significance of their turnover. p62-bodies are low-liquidity gels containing ubiquitin and core autophagy-related proteins. Multiple autophagosomes form on the p62-gels, and the interaction of autophagosome-localizing Atg8-proteins with p62 directs autophagosome formation toward the p62-gel. Keap1 also reversibly translocates to the p62-gels in a p62-binding dependent fashion to activate the transcription factor Nrf2. Mice deficient for Atg8-interaction-dependent selective autophagy show that impaired turnover of p62-gels leads to Nrf2 hyperactivation in vivo. These results indicate that p62-gels are not simple substrates for autophagy but serve as platforms for both autophagosome formation and anti-oxidative stress.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-020-20185-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7782522PMC
January 2021

Deciphering the role of a membrane-targeting domain in assisting endosomal and autophagic membrane localization of a RavZ protein catalytic domain.

BMB Rep 2021 Feb;54(2):118-123

Department of Ecological Science, College of Ecology and Environment, Kyungpook National University, Sangju 37224, Korea.

The bacterial effector protein RavZ from a pathogen can impair autophagy in the host by delipidating the mammalian autophagy- related gene 8 (mATG8)-phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) on autophagic membranes. In RavZ, the membrane-targeting (MT) domain is an essential function. However, the molecular mechanism of this domain in regulating the intracellular localization of RavZ in cells is unclear. In this study, we found that the fusion of the green fluorescent protein (GFP) to the MT domain of RavZ (GFP-MT) resulted in localization primarily to the cytosol and nucleus, whereas the GFP-fused duplicated-MT domain (GFP-2xMT) localized to Rab5- or Rab7-positive endosomes. Similarly, GFP fusion to the catalytic domain (CA) of RavZ (GFP-CA) resulted in localization primarily to the cytosol and nucleus, even in autophagy-induced cells. However, by adding the MT domain to GFP-CA (GFP-CA-MT), the cooperation of MT and CA led to localization on the Rab5-positive endosomal membranes in a wortmannin-sensitive manner under nutrient-rich conditions, and to autophagic membranes in autophagy-induced cells. In autophagic membranes, GFP-CA-MT delipidated overexpressed or endogenous mATG8-PE. Furthermore, GFP-CAΔα3-MT, an α3 helix deletion within the CA domain, failed to localize to the endosomal or autophagic membranes and could not delipidate overexpressed mATG8-PE. Thus, the CA or MT domain alone is insufficient for stable membrane localization in cells, but the cooperation of MT and CA leads to localization to the endosomal and autophagic membranes. In autophagic membranes, the CA domain can delipidate mATG8-PE without requiring substrate recognition mediated by LC3-interacting region (LIR) motifs. [BMB Reports 2021; 54(2): 118-123].
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February 2021

Targeted epigenetic modulation using a DNA-based histone deacetylase inhibitor enhances cardiomyogenesis in mouse embryonic stem cells.

J Cell Physiol 2021 May 8;236(5):3946-3962. Epub 2020 Nov 8.

Department of Precision Medicine, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Suwon, Republic of Korea.

The epigenome has an essential role in orchestrating transcriptional activation and modulating key developmental processes. Previously, we developed a library of pyrrole-imidazole polyamides (PIPs) conjugated with suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA), a histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor, for the purpose of sequence-specific modification of epigenetics. Based on the gene expression profile of SAHA-PIPs and screening studies using the α-myosin heavy chain promoter-driven reporter and SAHA-PIP library, we identified that SAHA-PIP G activates cardiac-related genes. Studies in mouse ES cells showed that SAHA-PIP G could enhance the generation of spontaneous beating cells, which is consistent with upregulation of several cardiac-related genes. Moreover, ChIP-seq results confirmed that the upregulation of cardiac-related genes is highly correlated with epigenetic activation, relevant to the sequence-specific binding of SAHA-PIP G. This proof-of-concept study demonstrating the applicability of SAHA-PIP not only improves our understanding of epigenetic alterations involved in cardiomyogenesis but also provides a novel chemical-based strategy for stem cell differentiation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jcp.30140DOI Listing
May 2021

Nonmuscle myosin IIB regulates Parkin-mediated mitophagy associated with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis-linked TDP-43.

Cell Death Dis 2020 11 5;11(11):952. Epub 2020 Nov 5.

Department of Biotechnology and Biological Sciences, Hannam University, Daejeon, 34054, Republic of Korea.

C-terminal fragments of Tar DNA-binding protein 43 (TDP-43) have been identified as the major pathological protein in several neurodegenerative diseases, including amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and frontotemporal dementia (FTD). However, how they affect cellular toxicity and neurodegeneration, including the modulation process remains unknown. This study revealed that the C-terminal fragment of TDP-43 (TDP-25) was localized primarily to mitochondria and caused abnormal mitochondrial morphology, inducing Parkin-mediated mitophagy. Also, we discovered that the knockdown of selective autophagy receptors, such as TAX1BP, Optineurin, or NDP52 caused TDP-25 accumulation, indicating that TDP-25 was degraded by mitophagy. Interestingly, myosin IIB, a nonmuscle type of myosin and actin-based motor protein, is mostly colocalized to TDP-25 associated with abnormal mitochondria. In addition, myosin IIB inhibition by siRNA or blebbistatin induced mitochondrial accumulation of insoluble TDP-25 and Tom20, and reduced neuronal cell viability. Our results suggest a novel role of myosin IIB in mitochondrial degradation of toxic TDP-25. Therefore, we proposed that regulating myosin IIB activity might be a potential therapeutic target for neurodegenerative diseases associated with TDP-43 pathology.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41419-020-03165-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7645685PMC
November 2020

Protective Effects of Mycelium on the Development of Osteoarthritis after Monosodium Iodoacetate Injection.

Evid Based Complement Alternat Med 2020 15;2020:7240858. Epub 2020 Aug 15.

Department of Herbology, Korean Medicine of College, Daegu Haany University, 136, Shinchendong-ro, Suseong-gu, Deagu 42158, Republic of Korea.

Objective: The aim of this study was to identify the protective effects of mycelium (PLM) and its possible mechanisms in a model of monosodium iodoacetate- (MIA-) induced osteoarthritis (OA).

Methods: Intra-articular injection of MIA was injected to 50 L with 80 mg/mL using a 0.3 mL insulin syringe into the right knee joint. Changes in hindpaw weight-bearing distribution between the right (osteoarthritic) and left (contralateral control) legs were used as an index of joint discomfort. PLM (50, 100, and 200 mg/kg body weight) was orally administered once daily for 14 days from day 7 after MIA treatment. And then, various factors associated with inflammatory response and cartilage degeneration in cartilage tissues detected by western blotting.

Results: PLM treatment showed a concentration-dependent elevation in change in hindpaw weight-bearing distribution (HWBD). PLM200 demonstrated the capacity to significantly increase HWBD, indicating that the change in weight-bearing distribution means the reduction of spontaneous pain. Our results indicate that PLM suppressed the inflammatory factors via NF-B signaling pathway induced by p38 phosporlyation. Moreover, PLM200 exhibited a significant reduction of ROS produced by the nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase. PLM100 and PLM200 inhibited the levels of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-1, one of proteinase that degrades extracellular matrix (ECM).

Conclusions: Taken together, our results indicated that PLM has a strong chondroprotective effect through the suppression both ROS production and inflammation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2020/7240858DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7450358PMC
August 2020

Multimodal Analgesia and Discharge Opioid Requirements in Burn Patients.

J Burn Care Res 2020 09;41(5):963-966

Department of Pharmacy Services, University of California, Davis.

Analgesia in burn patients is challenging given the complexity of burn pain and prolonged need beyond hospital admission. Given the risks of opioids, the impact of multimodal analgesia postdischarge needs to be further elucidated in this population. This retrospective, single-center cohort study evaluated adult burn patients who were consecutively admitted to the burn service with at least 10% total body surface area burned and subsequently followed in the burn clinic between February 2015 and September 2018. Subjects were separated into two cohorts based on discharge pain regimens: multimodal and nonmultimodal. The primary outcome was the change in opioid requirements (measured in oral morphine equivalents) between discharge and first follow-up interval. Secondary outcomes included the classes of multimodal agents utilized and a comparison of opioid requirements between the last 24 hours of admission and discharge. A total of 152 patients were included for analysis, 76 in the multimodal cohort and 76 in the nonmultimodal cohort. The multimodal cohort was noted to have increased total body surface area burned and prolonged number of days spent in the intensive care unit at baseline; however, the multimodal cohort exhibited a more significant decrease in opioid requirements from discharge to first follow-up interval when compared with the nonmultimodal cohort (106.6 vs 75.4 mg, P = .039).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jbcr/iraa088DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7510840PMC
September 2020

Cohen Syndrome Patient iPSC-Derived Neurospheres and Forebrain-Like Glutamatergic Neurons Reveal Reduced Proliferation of Neural Progenitor Cells and Altered Expression of Synapse Genes.

J Clin Med 2020 Jun 16;9(6). Epub 2020 Jun 16.

Laboratory for Behavioral Neural Circuitry and Physiology, Department of Anatomy, Brain Science & Engineering Institute, School of Medicine, Kyungpook National University, Daegu 41944, Korea.

Cohen syndrome (CS), a rare autosomal recessive disorder, has been associated with genetic mutations in the gene, which regulates vesicle-mediated protein sorting and transport. However, the cellular mechanism underlying CS pathogenesis in patient-derived human neurons remains unknown. We identified a novel compound heterozygous mutation, due to homozygous variation of biparental origin and heterozygous variation inherited from the father, in the gene in a 20-month-old female patient. To understand the cellular pathogenic mechanisms, we generated induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) from the fibroblasts of the CS patient. The iPSCs were differentiated into forebrain-like functional glutamatergic neurons or neurospheres. Functional annotation from transcriptomic analysis using CS iPSC-derived neurons revealed that synapse-related functions were enriched among the upregulated and downregulated genes in the CS neurons, whereas processes associated with neurodevelopment were enriched in the downregulated genes. The developing CS neurospheres were small in size compared to control neurospheres, likely due to the reduced proliferation of SOX2-positive neural stem cells. Moreover, the number of SV2B-positive puncta and spine-like structures was significantly reduced in the CS neurons, suggesting synaptic dysfunction. Taking these findings together, for the first time, we report a potential cellular pathogenic mechanism which reveals the alteration of neurodevelopment-related genes and the dysregulation of synaptic function in the human induced neurons differentiated from iPSCs and neurospheres of a CS patient.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/jcm9061886DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7356975PMC
June 2020

Autophagy pathway upregulation in a human iPSC-derived neuronal model of Cohen syndrome with VPS13B missense mutations.

Mol Brain 2020 05 6;13(1):69. Epub 2020 May 6.

Department of Biological Sciences and Biotechnology, Hannam University, 1646 Yuseongdaero, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon, 34054, Korea.

Significant clinical symptoms of Cohen syndrome (CS), a rare autosomal recessive disorder, include intellectual disability, facial dysmorphism, postnatal microcephaly, retinal dystrophy, and intermittent neutropenia. CS has been associated with mutations in the VPS13B (vacuolar protein sorting 13 homolog B) gene, which regulates vesicle-mediated protein sorting and transport; however, the cellular mechanism underlying CS pathogenesis in patient-derived neurons remains uncertain. This report states that autophagic vacuoles accumulate in CS fibroblasts and the axonal terminals of CS patient-specific induced pluripotent stem cells (CS iPSC)-derived neurons; additionally, autophagic flux was significantly increased in CS-derived neurons compared to control neurons. VPS13B knockout HeLa cell lines generated using the CRISPR/Cas9 genome editing system showed significant upregulation of autophagic flux, indicating that VSP13B may be associated with autophagy in CS. Transcriptomic analysis focusing on the autophagy pathway revealed that genes associated with autophagosome organization were dysregulated in CS-derived neurons. ATG4C is a mammalian ATG4 paralog and a crucial regulatory component of the autophagosome biogenesis/recycling pathway. ATG4C was significantly upregulated in CS-derived neurons, indicating that autophagy is upregulated in CS neurons. The autophagy pathway in CS neurons may be associated with the pathophysiology exhibited in the neural network of CS patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13041-020-00611-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7203861PMC
May 2020

Perinatal risk factors of symptomatic preterm patent ductus arteriosus and secondary ligation.

Pediatr Neonatol 2020 08 6;61(4):439-446. Epub 2020 Apr 6.

Department of Pediatrics, Korea Ansan Hospital, Gyunggi-do, South Korea; Department of Pediatrics, Korea University College of Medicine, Seoul, South Korea.

Background: There has been conflicting evidence for the association between antenatal factors and the development of symptomatic patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) or failure of pharmacologic treatment, especially for maternal pregnancy-induced hypertension (PIH) or chorioamnionitis. We assessed the perinatal risk factors of symptomatic PDA in preterm infants and those of secondary ligation in infants with pharmacologic treatment for symptomatic PDA using a national cohort.

Methods: A total of 2961 infants with 22-29 weeks of gestation with symptomatic PDA or no PDA were included from the Korean Neonatal Network database. To identify significant perinatal risk factors associated with symptomatic PDA or secondary ligation, all perinatal factors were included in the univariate and multivariate generalized estimating equation analysis and final model was selected using backward elimination method based on Quasi-likelihood Information Criterion.

Results: Lower gestational age (GA), female gender, maternal PIH and surfactant use were significant risk factors of symptomatic PDA. Antenatal corticosteroid use decreased the risk of symptomatic PDA. For secondary ligation, lower GA and cesarean section were significant risk factors. Adjusted odds ratio (aOR) of PIH as a risk factor of symptomatic PDA was 1.56 [95% confidence interval 1.17-2.08]. In the subgroup analysis according to the GA, lower GA, female gender, multiple pregnancy, maternal PIH and surfactant use increased the risk of symptomatic PDA, and histologic chorioamnionitis and antenatal corticosteroid use decreased the risk of symptomatic PDA only in GA 26-29 weeks group.

Conclusion: Lower GA increased the risk of symptomatic PDA and secondary ligation. Maternal PIH and surfactant use increased the risk of symptomatic PDA; however, antenatal corticosteroid use decreased it. Close observation of the clinical symptoms of PDA is needed in preterm infants with maternal PIH.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.pedneo.2020.03.016DOI Listing
August 2020

New screening system using Twist1 promoter activity identifies dihydrorotenone as a potent drug targeting cancer-associated fibroblasts.

Sci Rep 2020 04 27;10(1):7058. Epub 2020 Apr 27.

Department of Health Science and Technology, Samsung Advanced Institute for Health Science and Technology, Sungkyunkwan University, Seoul, Republic of Korea.

Cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) are the most abundant stromal cells in tumor microenvironments. These cells strongly support tumor progression and are considered to be potent therapeutic targets. Therefore, drugs targeting CAFs have been developed, but most of them have failed in clinical trials. The discovery of additional drugs to inactivate or eliminate CAFs is thus essential. In this study, we developed a high-throughput screening system to find anti-CAF drugs using reporter cells that express Twist1 promoter-GFP. This screening system uses the activity of the Twist1 promoter as an indicator of CAF activation because Twist1 is known to be a central player in CAF activation. Using this screening system, we found that dihydrorotenone (DHR), an inhibitor of electron transfer chain complex 1 in mitochondria, can effectively deactivate CAFs. DHR-treated CAFs exhibited reduced expression of CAF-enriched markers, decreased capability of collagen gel contraction, and impaired ability to engage in tumor-promoting activities, such as facilitating the proliferation and colonization of cancer cells. Furthermore, conditioned media from DHR-treated CAFs attenuated tumor progression in mice grafted with MNK28 cells. In conclusion, DHR can be considered as a candidate drug targeting CAFs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-63996-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7184745PMC
April 2020

The Influence of the Variation in Sepsis Rate between Neonatal Intensive Care Units on Neonatal Outcomes in Very-Low-Birth-Weight Infants.

Sci Rep 2020 04 21;10(1):6687. Epub 2020 Apr 21.

Department of Pediatrics, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul, South Korea.

Sepsis is commonly known to affect neonatal outcomes. We assessed how much center-to-center variability of the sepsis rate affects the outcomes of very-low-birth-weight infants (VLBWIs). 7,493 VLBWIs registered in the Korean Neonatal Network from 2013 to 2016 were classified into three groups according to the sepsis rate: low sepsis group (LS) < 25 percentile versus intermediate sepsis group (IS) 25-75 versus high sepsis group (HS) ≥ 75. The incidence density of sepsis for the LS, IS, and HS groups were 1.17, 3.17, and 8.88 cases/1,000 person-days. After propensity score matching was done for multiple antenatal and perinatal factors, the odds ratio of death, moderate to severe bronchopulmonary dysplasia and/or death, periventricular leukomalacia, and survival without major morbidities for the HS group were 2.0 (95% confidence interval 1.4-2.8), 1.9 (1.5-2.4), 1.5 (1.1-2.3) and 0.7 (0.5-0.8) when compared with the IS group, and 2.2 (1.6-3.2), 2.3 (1.8-2.9), 2.0 (1.3-2.9), and 0.7 (0.6-0.9) when compared with the LS group. There were no significant differences in those outcomes between the LS and IS groups. Hence, nationwide quality improvements to control the sepsis rate especially in units with a high sepsis rate will be helpful to improve the outcomes of VLBWIs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-63762-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7174287PMC
April 2020

Identification of a novel Shank2 transcriptional variant in Shank2 knockout mouse model of autism spectrum disorder.

Mol Brain 2020 04 6;13(1):54. Epub 2020 Apr 6.

Department of Life and Nanopharmaceutical Sciences, Department of Oral Microbiology, School of Dentistry, Kyung Hee University, Seoul, 02447, South Korea.

Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a group of neurodevelopmental disorders that are highly heterogeneous in clinical symptoms as well as etiologies. Mutations in SHANK2 are associated with ASD and accordingly, Shank2 knockout mouse shows ASD-like behavioral phenotypes, including social deficits. Intriguingly, two lines of Shank2 knockout (KO) mouse generated by deleting different exons (exon 6-7 or exon 7) showed distinct cellular phenotypes. Previously, we compared gene expressions between Shank2 KOs lacking exon 6-7 (e6-7 KO) and KOs lacking exon 7 (e7 KO) by performing RNA-seq. In this study, we expanded transcriptomic analyses to identify novel transcriptional variants in the KO mice. We found prominent expression of a novel exon (exon 4' or e4') between the existing exons 4 and 5 in the Shank2 e6-7 KO model. Expression of the transcriptional variant harboring this novel exon was confirmed by RT-PCR and western blotting. These findings suggest that the novel variant may function as a modifier gene, which contributes to the differences between the two Shank2 mutant lines. Furthermore, our result further represents an example of genetic compensation that may lead to phenotypic heterogeneity among ASD patients with mutations in the same gene.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13041-020-00595-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7132969PMC
April 2020

LIR motifs and the membrane-targeting domain are complementary in the function of RavZ.

BMB Rep 2019 Dec;52(12):700-705

Department of Ecological Science, College of Ecology and Environment, Kyungpook National University, Sangju 37224, Korea.

The bacterial effector protein RavZ is secreted by the intracellular pathogen Legionella pneumophila and inhibits host autophagy through an irreversible deconjugation of mammalian ATG8 (mATG8) proteins from autophagosome membranes. However, the roles of the LC3 interacting region (LIR) motifs in RavZ function remain unclear. In this study, we show that a membrane-targeting (MT) domain or the LIR motifs of RavZ play major or minor roles in RavZ function. A RavZ mutant that does not bind to mATG8 delipidated all forms of mATG8-phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) as efficiently as did wild-type RavZ. However, a RavZ mutant with a deletion of the MT domain selectively delipidated mATG8-PE less efficiently than did wild-type RavZ. Taken together, our results suggest that the effects of LIR motifs and the MT domain on RavZ activity are complementary and work through independent pathways. [BMB Reports 2019; 52(12): 700-705].
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6941762PMC
December 2019

Monitoring LC3- or GABARAP-positive autophagic membranes using modified RavZ-based probes.

Sci Rep 2019 11 12;9(1):16593. Epub 2019 Nov 12.

Department of Ecological Science, College of Ecology and Environment, Kyungpook National University, 2559, Gyeongsang-daero, Sangju-si, Gyeongsangbuk-do, 37224, Republic of Korea.

Xenophagy is a selective lysosomal degradation pathway for invading pathogens in host cells. However, invading bacteria also develop survival mechanisms to inhibit host autophagy. RavZ is a protein secreted by Legionella that irreversibly delipidates mammalian autophagy-related protein 8 (mATG8) on autophagic membranes in host cells via efficient autophagic membrane targeting. In this study, we leveraged the autophagic membrane-targeting mechanism of RavZ and generated a new autophagosome probe by replacing the catalytic domain of RavZ with GFP. This probe is efficiently localized to mATG8-positive autophagic membranes via a synergistic combination between mATG8 protein-binding mediated by the LC3-interacting region (LIR) motifs and phosphoinositide-3-phosphate (PI3P) binding mediated by the membrane-targeting (MT) domain. Furthermore, the membrane association activity of this new probe with an MT domain was more efficient than that of probes with a hydrophobic domain that were previously used in LIR-based autophagosome sensors. Finally, by substituting the LIR motifs of RavZ with selective LIR motifs from Fyco1 or ULK2, we developed new probes for detecting LC3A/B- or GABARAP subfamily-positive autophagic membranes, respectively. We propose that these new RavZ-based sensors will be useful for monitoring and studying the function of mATG8-positive autophagic membranes in different cellular contexts for autophagy research.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-019-53372-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6851389PMC
November 2019

Spatial Learning and Motor Deficits in () Mutant Mouse.

Exp Neurobiol 2019 Aug;28(4):485-494

Department of Physiology, Biomedical Sciences, Neuroscience Research Institute, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul 03080, Korea.

Vacuolar protein sorting-associated protein 13B (VPS13B), also known as COH1, is one of the VPS13 family members which is involved in transmembrane transport, Golgi integrity, and neuritogenesis. Mutations in the gene are associated with Cohen syndrome and other cognitive disorders such as intellectual disabilities and autism spectrum disorder (ASD). However, the pathophysiology of VPS13B-associated cognitive deficits is unclear, in part, due to the lack of animal models. Here, we generated a exon 2 deletion mutant mouse and analyzed the behavioral phenotypes. We found that mutant mice showed reduced activity in open field test and significantly shorter latency to fall in the rotarod test, suggesting that the mutants have motor deficits. In addition, we found that mutant mice showed deficits in spatial learning in the hidden platform version of the Morris water maze. The mutant mice were normal in other behaviors such as anxiety-like behaviors, working memory and social behaviors. Our results suggest that mutant mice may recapitulate key clinical symptoms in Cohen syndrome such as intellectual disability and hypotonia. mutant mice may serve as a useful model to investigate the pathophysiology of -associated disorders.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5607/en.2019.28.4.485DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6751864PMC
August 2019

Enhancement of the stability of Mycobacterium tuberculosis recombinant antigen expressed in Escherichia coli using cell lysis additives.

Protein Expr Purif 2019 12 9;164:105453. Epub 2019 Jul 9.

Department of Research and Development, The Korean Institute of Tuberculosis, 168-5 Osongsaengmyeong 4-ro, Heungdeok-gu, Cheongju-si, Chungcheongbuk-do, 28158, Republic of Korea. Electronic address:

Background: Mycobacteria tuberculosis (Mtb), the causative agent of tuberculosis, is a slow-growing bacterium. Expression in Escherichia coli is a widely used method for large-scale production of diagnostic antigenic recombinant proteins. Expression of Mtb antigen in E. coli offers a rapid and, inexpensive alternative to conventional protein synthesis from Mtb. The addition of stabilizing additives during cell lysis or storage of Mtb antigenic protein plays a vital role in enhancing antigen stability. In this study, we evaluated the effects of additives on the stability of Mtb antigens expressed in E. coli.

Methods: Immunodominant Mtb antigens, i.e., CFP-10, Rv3872, TB7.7, and TB9.7, were cloned, and recombinant proteins overexpressed in E. coli were gradually degraded in a time-dependent manner by incubation at 37 °C. Various stabilizing additives during storage or cell lysis before protein purification were investigated by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and Western blot analysis.

Results: CFP-10 and Rv3872 were mainly expressed in soluble form. The degraded form of the expressed protein after incubation at 37 °C was easily observed after 1 week. Increased stability was observed in a solution containing glycine for recombinant CFP-10 and Rv3872. TB9.7 was stable in a solution containing trehalose or mannitol. TB7.7 was stable in a solution containing sucrose, glycine, or polyethylene glycol.

Conclusion: Recombinant Mtb antigen stabilization using chemical additives inhibited protein degradation, leading to increased antigen stability and purification efficiency.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.pep.2019.105453DOI Listing
December 2019

Novel GFP-fused protein probes for detecting phosphatidylinositol-4-phosphate in the plasma membrane.

Anim Cells Syst (Seoul) 2019 Jun 11;23(3):164-169. Epub 2019 Apr 11.

Department of Ecological Science, College of Ecology and Environment, Kyungpook National University, Sangju-si, Republic of Korea.

Phosphatidylinositol-4-phosphate (PI4P) plays a crucial role in cellular functions, including protein trafficking, and is mainly located in the cytoplasmic surface of intracellular membranes, which include the trans-Golgi network (TGN) and the plasma membrane. However, many PI4P-binding domains of membrane-associated proteins are localized only to the TGN because of the requirement of a second binding protein such as ADP-ribosylation factor 1 (ARF1) in order to be stably localized to the specific membrane. In this study, we developed new probes that were capable of detecting PI4P at the plasma membrane using the known TGN-targeting PI4P-binding domains. The PI4P-specific binding pleckstrin homology (PH) domain of various proteins including CERT, OSBP, OSH1, and FAPP1 was combined with the N-terminal moderately hydrophobic domain of the short-form of phosphodiesterase 4 (S(N30)), which aids in plasma membrane association but cannot alone facilitate this association. As a result, we found that the addition of S(N30) to the N-terminus of the GFP-fused PH domain of OSBP (S(N30)-GFP-OSBP-PH), OSH1 (S(N30)-GFP-OSH1-PH), or FAPP1 (S(N30)-GFP-FAPP1-PH) could induce plasma membrane localization, as well as retain TGN localization. The plasma membrane localization of S(N30)-GFP-FAPP1-PH is mediated by PI4P binding only, whereas those of S(N30)-GFP-OSBP-PH and S(N30)-GFP-OSH1-PH are mediated by either PI4P or PI(4,5)P binding. Taken together, we developed new probes that detect PI4P at the plasma membrane using a combination of a moderately hydrophobic domain with the known TGN-targeting PI4P-specific binding PH domain.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/19768354.2019.1599424DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6567041PMC
June 2019

Practice for preterm patent ductus arteriosus; focusing on the hemodynamic significance and the impact on the neonatal outcomes.

Authors:
Jin A Lee

Korean J Pediatr 2019 Jul 8;62(7):245-251. Epub 2019 Apr 8.

Division of Neonatology, Department of Pediatrics, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea.

Hemodynamically significant preterm patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) affects mortality; comorbidities such as necrotizing enterocolitis, intraventricular hemorrhage, and bronchopulmonary dysplasia; and adverse long-term neurodevelopmental outcomes in preterm infants, particularly in very low birth weight infants. However, recent studies have indicated that there is no consensus on the causal relationship between PDA and neonatal outcomes, the benefit of PDA treatment, the factors guiding the need for treatment, and optimal treatment strategies. Such uncertainty has resulted in wide variations in practice for treating preterm PDA between units, regions, and nations. Nowadays, there has been a paradigm shift to more conservative treatment for preterm PDA, and suggestions regarding selective management of preterm PDA considering risk factors and hemodynamic significance are increasing. Neonatologist-performed echocardiography and advances in modalities to assess hemodynamic significance such as biologic markers and near-infrared spectroscopy also help improve the efficacy of selective treatment of preterm PDA.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3345/kjp.2018.07213DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6642924PMC
July 2019

Development of GABARAP family protein-sensitive LIR-based probes for neuronal autophagy.

Mol Brain 2019 04 8;12(1):33. Epub 2019 Apr 8.

Department of Biological Sciences and Biotechnology, College of Life Sciences and Nanotechnology, Hannam University, 461-6 Jeonmin-dong, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon, 34054, Republic of Korea.

Autophagy allows for lysosomal cellular degradation of cytosolic components. In particular, neuronal autophagy is essential for cellular homeostasis and neuronal survival and is tightly regulated by several autophagy-related (ATG) proteins in post-mitotic neurons. Among these ATG proteins, the LC3/GABARAP proteins are known to regulate autophagosome biogenesis/maturation and cargo recognition. However, little is known about the role of GABARAP family proteins in neuronal autophagy despite their abundant expression in post-mitotic neurons. We have previously developed HyD (Hydrophobic Domain)-LIR (LC3-interacting region)-based autophagosome markers. In this study, to monitor GABARAP family proteins in autophagosomes of post-mitotic neurons, we improved the sensitivity of the probes for specifically detecting endogenous GABARAP family proteins by adding one more LIR motif to the LIR probes. We have tested the efficiency of two different LIRs, from ULK2 and Stbd1, in regard to their cellular localization to autophagosomes. HyD-2xLIR(ULK2)-GFP and HyD-2xLIR(Stbd1)-GFP demonstrated specific localization to GABARAP-positive autophagosomes relative to LC3B-positive autophagosomes in MEF/HeLa cells in an autophagy-dependent manner. Indeed, HyD-2xLIR(Stbd1)-GFP could efficiently detect GABARAP-positive autophagosomes in cultured cortical neurons. Our improved GABARAP-sensitive probes will contribute toward understanding the specific role of GABARAP family proteins in regard to neuronal autophagy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13041-019-0458-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6454701PMC
April 2019

Down-regulated TMED10 in Alzheimer disease induces autophagy via ATG4B activation.

Autophagy 2019 09 19;15(9):1495-1505. Epub 2019 Mar 19.

a School of Life Sciences, Kyungpook National University , Daegu , Republic of Korea.

Several studies have shown that dysfunction of macroautophagy/autophagy is associated with many human diseases, including neurodegenerative disease and cancer. To explore the molecular mechanisms of autophagy, we performed a cell-based functional screening with SH-SY5Y cells stably expressing GFP-LC3, using an siRNA library and identified TMED10 (transmembrane p24 trafficking protein 10), previously known as the γ-secretase-modulating protein, as a novel regulator of autophagy. Further investigations revealed that depletion of TMED10 induced the activation of autophagy. Interestingly, protein-protein interaction assays showed that TMED10 directly binds to ATG4B (autophagy related gene 4B cysteine peptidase), and the interaction is diminished under autophagy activation conditions such as rapamycin treatment and serum deprivation. In addition, inhibition of TMED10 significantly enhanced the proteolytic activity of ATG4B for LC3 cleavage. Importantly, the expression of TMED10 in AD (Alzheimer disease) patients was considerably decreased, and downregulation of TMED10 increased amyloid-β (Aβ) production. Treatment with Aβ increased ATG4B proteolytic activity as well as dissociation of TMED10 and ATG4B. Taken together, our results suggest that the AD-associated protein TMED10 negatively regulates autophagy by inhibiting ATG4B activity.: Aβ: amyloid-β; AD: Alzheimer disease; ATG: autophagy related; BECN1: beclin 1; BiFC: bimolecular fluorescence complementation; CD: cytosolic domain; GFP: green fluorescent protein; GLUC: luciferase; IP: immunoprecipitation; MAP1LC3/LC3: microtubule associated protein 1 light chain 3; LD: luminal domain; PD: Parkinson disease; ROS: reactive oxygen species; siRNA: small interfering RNA; SNP: single-nucleotide polymorphisms; TD: transmembrane domain; TMED10: transmembrane p24 trafficking protein 10; VC: C terminus of Venus fluorescent protein; VN: N terminus of Venus fluorescent protein.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/15548627.2019.1586249DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6693468PMC
September 2019

Multimodal Analgesia and Opioid Use in Critically Ill Trauma Patients.

J Am Coll Surg 2019 05 21;228(5):769-775.e1. Epub 2019 Feb 21.

Department of Pharmacy, University of California, Davis - Medical Center, Sacramento, CA.

Background: Opioids are the mainstay of pain management in critically ill trauma patients. However, the risks of opioid use mandate a different approach. Multimodal analgesia employs a combination of opioid and nonopioid agents using different mechanisms that have synergistic effects in treating pain. This study examines the effects of multimodal analgesia on the opioid requirements of critically ill trauma patients.

Study Design: This was a pre-post cohort study of adult trauma ICU patients before and after implementation of a multimodal pain management order set. Patients were excluded if their hospital stay was less than 5 days, head Abbreviated Injury Scale score was greater than 1, or pre-injury medications included methadone or buprenorphine. The total oral morphine equivalent (OME) dose was calculated for each 24-hour period on days 2 through 5 of admission and the last 24 hours before discharge using standardized ratios. The primary endpoint was cumulative OME doses over the second through fifth days of admission.

Results: There were 65 patients in the pre-group and 62 in the post-group. Median cumulative OME dose was significantly lower in the post-group (125.6 mg, interquartile range [IQR] 45.0 to 415.0 mg) compared with the pre-group (481.5 mg, IQR 174.8 to 881.3 mg), p < 0.001. Patients who received 3 or more multimodal agents had a lower cumulative OME dose (116.3 mg, IQR 52.5 to 496.5 mg) compared with those who were on 1 to 2 multimodal agents (363 mg, IQR 115.5 to 743 mg) or 0 multimodal agents (479 mg, IQR 185 to 736.5 mg), p = 0.024. There were no differences between pre-group and post-group mean pain scores on hospital day 5 (4.48 ± 0.34 vs 3.50 ± 0.38, p = 0.058) or at hospital discharge (3.43 ± 0.34 vs 3.56 ± 0.32, p = 0.789).

Conclusions: Implementation of a multimodal pain management strategy significantly reduced opioid use in critically ill trauma patients without compromising patient comfort.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jamcollsurg.2019.01.020DOI Listing
May 2019

Effect of early and focused benzodiazepine therapy on length of stay in severe alcohol withdrawal syndrome.

Clin Toxicol (Phila) 2019 07 7;57(7):624-627. Epub 2019 Feb 7.

b Department of Surgery , University of California, Davis Medical Center , Sacramento , CA, USA.

Current evidence supports symptom-triggered therapy for alcohol withdrawal syndrome (AWS). Early, escalating therapy with benzodiazepines (BZD) appears to decrease ICU length of stay (LOS); however, the effect on hospital LOS remains unknown. The hypothesis of this study is that focused BZD treatment in the first 24 h will decrease hospital LOS. Pre-post cohort study. Academic medical center. This study included patients with severe AWS. The pre-intervention cohort (PRE) was admitted between January and November 2015. The post-intervention cohort (POST) was admitted between April 2016 and March 2017. Severe AWS was defined as patients requiring diazepam doses of >30 mg. Focused treatment was defined as >50% of total diazepam usage within the first 24 h of recognition of AWS. In the PRE group, patients received symptom-triggered, escalating doses of diazepam and phenobarbital based on their Richmond Agitation-Sedation Scale (RASS). In the POST group, patients received a revised, time-limited course of therapy: escalating doses of BZD and phenobarbital were given during a 24-h loading phase, and all therapy was discontinued after a 72-h tapering phase. The SHOT scale was used as an adjunct to RASS to assess non-agitation symptoms of AWS and guide additional diazepam doses. The primary outcome was hospital LOS; secondary outcomes included ICU LOS, BZD use, and ventilator-free days. Five hundred thirty-two patients were treated using the AWS protocol; 113 experienced severe AWS. The PRE ( = 75) and POST ( = 38) groups were evenly matched in age, sex, history of AWS, and severity of illness. There was a substantial difference in POST patients who received focused treatment (51.3% vs. 73.7%,  = .03). The POST group had a significant decrease in hospital LOS (14.0 vs. 9.8 days,  = .03) and ICU LOS (7.4 vs. 4.4 days,  = .03). Early, focused management of severe AWS was associated with a decrease in ICU and hospital LOS.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/15563650.2018.1542701DOI Listing
July 2019

Deciphering the molecular mechanisms underlying the plasma membrane targeting of PRMT8.

BMB Rep 2019 Oct;52(10):601-606

Department of Ecological Science, College of Ecology and Environment, Kyungpook National University, Sangju 37224, Korea.

Arginine methylation plays crucial roles in many cellular functions including signal transduction, RNA transcription, and regulation of gene expression. Protein arginine methyltransferase 8 (PRMT8), a unique brain-specific protein, is localized to the plasma membrane. However, the detailed molecular mechanisms underlying PRMT8 plasma membrane targeting remain unclear. Here, we demonstrate that the N-terminal 20 amino acids of PRMT8 are sufficient for plasma membrane localization and that oligomerization enhances membrane localization. The basic amino acids, combined with myristoylation within the N-terminal 20 amino acids of PRMT8, are critical for plasma membrane targeting. We also found that substituting Gly-2 with Ala [PRMT8(G2A)] or Cys-9 with Ser [PRMT8(C9S)] induces the formation of punctate structures in the cytosol or patch-like plasma membrane localization, respectively. Impairment of PRMT8 oligomerization/dimerization by Cterminal deletion induces PRMT8 mis-localization to the mitochondria, prevents the formation of punctate structures by PRMT8(G2A), and inhibits PRMT8(C9S) patch-like plasma membrane localization. Overall, these results suggest that oligomerization/dimerization plays several roles in inducing the efficient and specific plasma membrane localization of PRMT8. [BMB Reports 2019; 52(10): 601-606].
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6827574PMC
October 2019

Discovery of Natural Compounds Promoting Cardiomyocyte Differentiation.

Stem Cells Dev 2019 01 4;28(1):13-27. Epub 2018 Dec 4.

1 Department of Molecular Cell Biology and Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Suwon, Korea.

The commitment of pluripotent stem cells to the cardiac lineage has enormous potential in regenerative medicine interventions for several cardiac diseases. Thus, it is necessary to understand and regulate this differentiation process for potential clinical application. In this study, we developed defined conditions with chemical inducers for effective cardiac lineage commitment and elucidated the mechanism for high-efficiency differentiation. First, we designed a robust reporter-based platform to screen chemical inducers of cardiac differentiation in the mouse P19 teratocarcinoma cell line. Using this system, we identified two natural alkaloids, lupinine and ursinoic acid, which enhanced cardiomyocyte differentiation of P19 cells in terms of beating colony numbers with respect to oxytocin, and confirmed their activity in mouse embryonic stem cells. By analyzing the expression of key markers, we found that this enhancement can be attributed to the early and rapid induction of the Wnt signaling pathway. We also found that these natural compounds could not only supersede the action of the Wnt3a ligand but also had a very quick response time, allowing them to act as efficient cardiac mesoderm inducers that subsequently promoted cardiomyocyte differentiation. Thus, this study offers a way to develop chemical-based differentiation strategy for high-efficiency cardiac lineage commitment, which has an advantage over currently available methods with complex medium composition and parameters. Furthermore, it also provides an opportunity to pinpoint the key molecular mechanisms pivotal to the cardiac differentiation process, which are necessary to design an efficient strategy for cardiomyocyte differentiation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/scd.2018.0153DOI Listing
January 2019

Semi-Continuous Fermentation of Onion Vinegar and Its Functional Properties.

Molecules 2017 Aug 8;22(8). Epub 2017 Aug 8.

Department of Food Science and Biotechnology, Gachon University, Seongnam 13120, Korea.

For the fermentation of vinegar using onion, acetic acid bacteria and yeast strains with high fermentation ability were screened. Among them, 1026 was selected as a starter for ethanol production and MAK88 was selected as a vinegar producer. When the two-stage fermentation of onion vinegar was performed at 28 °C, the titratable acidity reached 4.80% at 24 h of fermentation. When semi-continuous fermentation proceeded to charge-discharge consisting of three cycles, the acetic acid content reached 4.35% at 48 h of fermentation. At this stage, the fermentation efficiency, acetic acid productivity, and specific product formation rate were 76.71%, 17.73 g/(L·d), and 20.58 g/(g·h), respectively. The process in this study significantly reduced the fermentation time and simplified the vinegar production process. The content of total flavonoids and total polyphenols in onion vinegar were 104.36 and 455.41 μg/mL, respectively. The antioxidant activities of onion vinegar in terms of 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity, 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic) acid (ABTS⁺) radical scavenging activity, and reducing power were 75.33%, 98.88%, and 1.28, respectively. The nitrite scavenging abilities of onion vinegar were 95.38 at pH 1.2. The onion vinegar produced in this study showed higher organoleptic acceptability than commercial onion vinegar.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/molecules22081313DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6152228PMC
August 2017

Evaluation of Stiffness in Postmastectomy Lymphedema Using Acoustic Radiation Force Impulse Imaging: A Prospective Randomized Controlled Study for Identifying the Optimal Pneumatic Compression Pressure to Reduce Stiffness.

Lymphat Res Biol 2018 02 31;16(1):36-42. Epub 2017 Jul 31.

Department of Rehabilitation Medicine, Chungnam National University Hospital, Daejeon, South Korea .

Purpose: We aimed to assess the improvement in stiffness in patients with postmastectomy lymphedema (PMLE) after intermittent pneumatic compression (IPC) using acoustic radiation force impulse (ARFI) imaging and evaluate the effects of different IPC pressures.

Methods: We randomly assigned 45 patients with PMLE (stage II) to three groups based on the IPC pressure: 25, 35, and 45 mmHg. Patients received a single session of IPC for 30 minutes. We recorded the subcutaneous tissue thickness of the proximal upper limbs using ultrasonography and circumference of the upper limbs and stiffness using ARFI before and immediately after IPC.

Results: Arm circumference and subcutaneous tissue thickness were significantly decreased after IPC in all groups. The shear wave velocity (SWV) decreased after IPC in all groups, but significantly decreased only in the 35 mmHg group. The subcutaneous tissue thickness and SWV in the 35 mmHg group were significantly decreased compared to the other groups.

Conclusion: IPC can reduce stiffness and subcutaneous tissue thickness of the proximal upper arm in patients with PMLE. A pressure of 35 mmHg yields the largest improvement of stiffness; higher compression pressure did not yield any additional improvement.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/lrb.2016.0048DOI Listing
February 2018

Incomplete dabigatran reversal with idarucizumab.

Clin Toxicol (Phila) 2018 03 13;56(3):216-218. Epub 2017 Jul 13.

a Department of Pharmacy Services , University of California, Davis Medical Center , Sacramento , CA , USA.

Context: With increasing use of direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs), urgent reversal of these agents becomes a growing concern. Idarucizumab is a humanized monoclonal antibody fragment that specifically binds to dabigatran with higher affinity than thrombin, rapidly neutralizing its anticoagulant effect without increased risk of thrombosis.

Case Details: We describe two cases in which the recommended dose of idarucizumab was unsuccessful in completely reversing the anticoagulant effects of dabigatran. Both of these patients were noted to have supratherapeutic international normalized ratios (INRs) and high dabigatran concentrations. In the first case, an 86-year-old male underwent an emergent procedure and experienced excessive hemorrhaging refractory to blood product repletion, idarucizumab, and factor eight inhibitor bypass activity (FEIBA). In the second case, a 62-year-old female in shock was found to have elevated dabigatran concentrations despite two doses of idarucizumab, continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT), blood product repletion, and FEIBA. Both patients ultimately expired from their coagulopathies.

Discussion: These cases illustrate the potential for incomplete reversal of dabigatran with the recommended 5 g of idarucizumab and emphasize the importance of early detection of dabigatran toxicity. While direct dabigatran serum concentrations are not readily available, the INR may be a useful surrogate marker for supratherapeutic dabigatran concentrations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/15563650.2017.1349911DOI Listing
March 2018

Development of LC3/GABARAP sensors containing a LIR and a hydrophobic domain to monitor autophagy.

EMBO J 2017 04 20;36(8):1100-1116. Epub 2017 Mar 20.

Department of Biological Sciences and Biotechnology, College of Life Sciences and Nanotechnology, Hannam University, Daejeon, Korea

Macroautophagy allows for bulk degradation of cytosolic components in lysosomes. Overexpression of GFP/RFP-LC3/GABARAP is commonly used to monitor autophagosomes, a hallmark of autophagy, despite artifacts related to their overexpression. Here, we developed new sensors that detect endogenous LC3/GABARAP proteins at the autophagosome using an LC3-interacting region (LIR) and a short hydrophobic domain (HyD). Among HyD-LIR-GFP sensors harboring LIR motifs of 34 known LC3-binding proteins, HyD-LIR(TP)-GFP using the LIR motif from TP53INP2 allowed detection of all LC3/GABARAPs-positive autophagosomes. However, HyD-LIR(TP)-GFP preferentially localized to GABARAP/GABARAPL1-positive autophagosomes in a LIR-dependent manner. In contrast, HyD-LIR(Fy)-GFP using the LIR motif from FYCO1 specifically detected LC3A/B-positive autophagosomes. HyD-LIR(TP)-GFP and HyD-LIR(Fy)-GFP efficiently localized to autophagosomes in the presence of endogenous LC3/GABARAP levels and without affecting autophagic flux. Both sensors also efficiently localized to MitoTracker-positive damaged mitochondria upon mitophagy induction. HyD-LIR(TP)-GFP allowed live-imaging of dynamic autophagosomes upon autophagy induction. These novel autophagosome sensors can thus be widely used in autophagy research.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.15252/embj.201696315DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5391143PMC
April 2017