Publications by authors named "Jin Young Oh"

74 Publications

Self-Assembled 2D Networks of Metal Oxide Nanomaterials Enabling Sub-ppm Level Breathalyzers.

ACS Sens 2021 Jul 14. Epub 2021 Jul 14.

Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Gachon University, Seong-nam, Gyeonggi 13120, Korea.

For extremely sensitive acetone sensors, here, we introduced an alcohol-assisted surfactant-free Langmuir-Blodgett process to rapidly assemble a single-layered two-dimensional (2D) network as a suitable percolation strategy of metal oxide semiconductor nanomaterials. The single-layered 2D network formation mechanism was investigated using zinc oxide (ZnO) nanobeads (NBs). Furthermore, the correlation between the response of the gas sensor and the average percolation number of the ZnO NBs, controlled by multi-stacking the 2D network, was investigated. It was inferred that a reduction in the number of percolations led to maximization of the response. Additionally, the versatility of the optimal percolation strategy was experimentally verified by confirming similar results to that achieved with ZnO NBs when utilizing different sizes, shapes, and compositions of metal oxides. Finally, the practical effectiveness of our extremely sensitive strategy was solidified by illustrating the response enhancement in a commercial exhalation diagnostic system that measures the amount of acetone in only 1 mL of exhalation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acssensors.1c00367DOI Listing
July 2021

Prognosis After Weaning from Respiratory Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation.

ASAIO J 2020 Sep/Oct;66(9):986-991

From the Division of Pulmonary, Allergy, and Critical Care Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, Pusan National University Yangsan Hospital, Yangsan, Republic of Korea.

Successful weaning from extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) does not necessarily imply patient survival. We retrospectively analyzed 441 patients with acute respiratory failure from 16 hospitals in South Korea who underwent ECMO from January 2012 to December 2015. We evaluated the clinical factors associated with mortality after successful weaning from ECMO. Of all 441 patients, 245 (55.6%) were successfully weaned from ECMO. The majority of patients were initially supported with veno-venous ECMO (86.9%). Among those, 182 patients (41.3%) were discharged from hospital. Only 165 (37.4%) were alive after 6 months. Most cases of death occurred within the first month after weaning from ECMO (65%), and the most frequent reason for death was sepsis (76.2%). In the multivariate Cox regression analysis, patient age (per 10 years) (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.34, 95% CI = 1.12-1.61; p = 0.001), sequential organ failure assessment score (HR = 1.07, 95% CI = 1.02-1.13; p = 0.010), steroid (HR = 2.38, 95% CI = 1.27-4.45; p = 0.007), interstitial lung disease (HR = 1.20, 95% CI = 1.05-1.36; p = 0.006), and ECMO duration (per day) (HR = 1.02, 95% CI = 1.01-1.04; p < 0.001) were associated with the in-hospital mortality after weaning from ECMO. Furthermore, age (per 10 years) (HR = 1.45, 95% CI = 1.24-1.71; p < 0.001), steroid (HR = 2.19, 95% CI = 1.27-3.78; p = 0.005), and interstitial lung disease (HR = 1.16, 95% CI = 1.02-1.31; p = 0.021) were significantly associated with 6 month mortality. The prognosis after weaning from respiratory ECMO might be related to baseline conditions affecting the reversibility of the primary lung disease and to acquired infections.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MAT.0000000000001107DOI Listing
March 2021

Biomechanical comparison of single-bundle versus double-bundle anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction: a meta-analysis.

Knee Surg Relat Res 2020 Mar 12;32(1):14. Epub 2020 Mar 12.

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Gyeongsang National University School of Medicine and Gyeongsang National University Hospital, 15, Jinju-daero 816 beon-gil, Jinju-si, Gyeongsangnam-do, Republic of Korea, 660-751.

Background: Of the many issues regarding surgical techniques related to anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR), single-bundle (SB) or double-bundle (DB) ACLR is one of the most debated topics. However, it is unclear which of the techniques yields better outcomes after ACLR for ACL injury. The purpose of this meta-analysis was to compare the benefits of SB versus DB ACLR in terms of biomechanical outcomes.

Methods: The electronic databases MEDLINE, Embase, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Web of Science, and Scopus were searched for relevant articles comparing the outcomes of SB-ACLR versus DB-ACLR that were published until November 2019.

Results: Seventeen biomechanical studies were included. The anterior laxity measured using the anterior drawer test showed significantly better results in DB-ACLR when compared with SB-ACLR. In addition, outcomes of the anterior tibial translation test under a simulated pivot shift presented with better results at low flexion and 30° in DB-ACLR, compared with SB-ACLR. However, there were no significant biomechanical differences between the groups in internal rotation.

Conclusions: The present study demonstrated that both techniques for ACLR are associated with restoration of normal knee kinematics. DB-ACLR is superior to SB-ACLR in terms of restoration of anteroposterior stability. However, which technique yields better improvement in internal rotation laxity, and internal rotation laxity under a simulated pivot shift at a specific angle, remains unclear.

Level Of Evidence: This is a level II meta-analysis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s43019-020-00033-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7219200PMC
March 2020

Association between thoracic fat measured using computed tomography and lung function in a population without respiratory diseases.

J Thorac Dis 2019 Dec;11(12):5300-5309

Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, Dongguk University Ilsan Hospital, Goyang, South Korea.

Background: Local fat distribution patterns and their local or systemic effects have recently attracted significant attention. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of thoracic adiposity on lung function in a population without respiratory diseases according to sex.

Methods: A total of 455 subjects (282 males and 173 females), who had undergone spirometry, and chest and abdominal computed tomography between June 2012 and June 2016 at medical healthcare center, were included. Pericardial fat, intrathoracic fat, subcutaneous thoracic fat, and both visceral and subcutaneous abdominal fat were measured by directly assessing tissue volume using computed tomography. Multiple linear regression analyses adjusted for pack-years of smoking, high-density lipoprotein, and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein were performed to evaluate the association between fat volumes and lung function.

Results: In males, intrathoracic fat and visceral abdominal fat were inversely associated with forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV) % predicted (P=0.025, P=0.010, respectively), and subcutaneous thoracic fat volumes showed a negative correlation with both FEV% and forced vital capacity (FVC) % predicted (P=0.019, P=0.045, respectively). In females, subcutaneous thoracic fat demonstrated a negative correlation with both FEV% and FVC % predicted (P=0.031 and P=0.008, respectively).

Conclusions: The influence of local thoracic fat distribution on lung function differed according to sex. Visceral fat and subcutaneous thoracic fat in males and subcutaneous fat in females were significantly associated with decreased lung function.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.21037/jtd.2019.11.54DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6988047PMC
December 2019

Stretchable self-healable semiconducting polymer film for active-matrix strain-sensing array.

Sci Adv 2019 11 8;5(11):eaav3097. Epub 2019 Nov 8.

Department of Chemical Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305-5025, USA.

Skin-like sensory devices should be stretchable and self-healable to meet the demands for future electronic skin applications. Despite recent notable advances in skin-inspired electronic materials, it remains challenging to confer these desired functionalities to an active semiconductor. Here, we report a strain-sensitive, stretchable, and autonomously self-healable semiconducting film achieved through blending of a polymer semiconductor and a self-healable elastomer, both of which are dynamically cross-linked by metal coordination. We observed that by controlling the percolation threshold of the polymer semiconductor, the blend film became strain sensitive, with a gauge factor of 5.75 × 10 at 100% strain in a stretchable transistor. The blend film is also highly stretchable (fracture strain, >1300%) and autonomously self-healable at room temperature. We proceed to demonstrate a fully integrated 5 × 5 stretchable active-matrix transistor sensor array capable of detecting strain distribution through surface deformation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/sciadv.aav3097DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6839939PMC
November 2019

Imaging findings of pneumonia: emphasis on CT findings between immunocompromised and immunocompetent patients.

Acta Radiol 2020 Jul 7;61(7):903-909. Epub 2019 Nov 7.

Department of Radiology, Veterans Health Service Medical Center, Seoul, Republic of Korea.

Background: () is a globally emerging, rare, waterborne, aerobic, gram-negative, multiple-drug-resistant organism, most commonly associated with respiratory tract infection in humans. Computed tomography (CT) findings in patients with pneumonia are rarely reported.

Purpose: To compare CT findings between immunocompromised and immunocompetent patients, and to determine characteristic imaging findings of pneumonia.

Material And Methods: CT findings of eight immunocompromised and 29 immunocompetent patients with proven pneumonia were reviewed retrospectively. Different patterns of CT abnormalities between immunocompromised and immunocompetent patients were compared by Fisher's exact test.

Results: Patchy ground-glass opacities (GGOs) were the most common CT findings, present in 36 (97.3%) of the 37 patients. Among the patients with patchy GGOs, consolidation was seen in 29 (78.4%) patients, and centrilobular nodules were noted in 15 (40.5%) patients. The transaxial distribution of the parenchymal abnormalities was predominantly randomly distributed in 30 (81.1%) cases. Regarding longitudinal plane involvement, the predominant zonal distributions were the diffuse distribution (n=23, 62.2%) and the lower lung zone (n=14, 37.8%). None of the patients showed upper lung zone predominance. The proportion of patients with parenchymal CT findings or associated findings in the immunocompromised patients was not significantly different from that of the immunocompetent patients. However, lower lung zone predominance on the longitudinal plane was significantly more common in immunocompetent patients than in immunocompromised patients (14/29 vs. 0/8, =0.015). And diffuse distribution of parenchymal abnormalities on a longitudinal plane was significantly more frequent in immunocompromised patients than in immunocompetent patients (8/8 vs. 15/29, =0.015).

Conclusion: The most common CT patterns of pneumonia in immunocompromised and immunocompetent patients were patchy GGOs and consolidation. However, in immunocompetent patients, parenchymal abnormalities were more predominately distributed in lower lung zone than in immunocompromised patients; and in immunocompromised patients, parenchymal abnormalities were more diffusely distributed than in immunocompetent patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0284185119885117DOI Listing
July 2020

Clinical outcomes of immunocompromised patients on extracorporeal membrane oxygenation support for severe acute respiratory failure.

Eur J Cardiothorac Surg 2020 04;57(4):788-795

Department of Critical Care Medicine, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul, Republic of Korea.

Objectives: There are limited data regarding extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) support in immunocompromised patients, despite an increase in ECMO use in patients with respiratory failure. The aim of this study was to investigate the clinical characteristics and outcomes of immunocompromised patients requiring ECMO support for severe acute respiratory failure.

Methods: Between January 2012 and December 2015, all consecutive adult patients with severe acute respiratory failure who underwent ECMO for respiratory support at 16 tertiary or university-affiliated hospitals in South Korea were enrolled retrospectively. The patients were divided into 2 groups based on the immunocompromised status at the time of ECMO initiation. In-hospital and 6-month mortalities were compared between the 2 groups. In addition, association of immunocompromised status with 6-month mortality was evaluated with logistic regression analysis.

Results: Among 461 patients, 118 (25.6%) were immunocompromised. Immunocompromised patients were younger and had lower haemoglobin and platelet counts than immunocompetent patients. Ventilatory parameters and the use of adjunctive/rescue therapies were similar between the 2 groups, but prone positioning was more commonly used in immunocompetent patients. Successful weaning rates from ECMO (46.6% vs 58.9%; P = 0.021) was lower and hospital mortality (66.1% vs 59.8%; P = 0.22) was higher in immunocompromised patients. In addition, immunocompromised status was associated with higher 6-month mortality (74.6% vs 64.7%, adjusted odds ratio 2.10, 95% confidence interval 1.02-4.35; P = 0.045).

Conclusions: Immunocompromised patients treated with ECMO support for severe acute respiratory failure had poorer short- and long-term prognoses than did immunocompetent patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ejcts/ezz276DOI Listing
April 2020

Value of cross-sectional area of median nerve by MRI in carpal tunnel syndrome.

Asian J Surg 2020 Jun 28;43(6):654-659. Epub 2019 Aug 28.

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Gyeongsang National University Hospital, Jinju, Republic of Korea. Electronic address:

Background: Carpal tunnel syndrome is diagnosed based on history, physical examination, and nerve conduction testing; however, there are no clear criteria for the diagnosis of carpal tunnel syndrome. Recently, studies have aimed to diagnose carpal tunnel syndrome through ultrasound or MRI. The purpose of this study was to compare and analyze the cross-sectional area of the median nerve between patients with carpal tunnel syndrome and a control group.

Methods: From July 2015 to August 2017, we retrospectively analyzed fishery and white-collar workers (164 people, 37 men, 127 women). Carpal tunnel syndrome was diagnosed on the basis of both physical examination and nerve conduction testing. A negative result in either test led to exclusion from the study.

Results: In total, 164 wrist MRI were retrieved, with 67 patients diagnosed with carpal tunnel syndrome and 97 patients allocated to the control group. The mean value of cross-sectional area at the pisiform was 18.8 mm in the MRI of the carpal tunnel syndrome patients and 12.1 mm (p-value <0.05) in the control group. The mean value of cross-sectional area at the hook of hamate was 11.70 mm and that at the control group was 11.67 mm (p-value 0.055).

Conclusion: Cross-sectional area at pisiform in MRI is a valuable factor in the diagnosis of carpal tunnel syndrome and in predicting the duration of pain.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.asjsur.2019.08.001DOI Listing
June 2020

Second Skin Enabled by Advanced Electronics.

Adv Sci (Weinh) 2019 Jun 1;6(11):1900186. Epub 2019 Apr 1.

Department of Chemical Engineering Stanford University Stanford CA 94305 USA.

Electronic second skin is touted as the next interface to expand applications of electronics for natural and seamless interactions with humans to enable smart health care, the Internet of Things, and even to amplify human sensory abilities. Thus, electronic materials are now being actively investigated to construct "second skin." Accordingly, electronic devices are desirable to have skin-like properties such as stretchability, self-healing ability, biocompatibility, and biodegradability. This work reviews recent major progress in the development of both electronic materials and devices toward the second skin. It is concluded with comments on future research directions of the field.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/advs.201900186DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6548954PMC
June 2019

Clinical outcomes of patients receiving prolonged extracorporeal membrane oxygenation for respiratory support.

Ther Adv Respir Dis 2019 Jan-Dec;13:1753466619848941

Department of Critical Care Medicine and Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Department of Medicine, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, 81 Irwon-ro, Gangnam-gu, Seoul 06351, Republic of Korea.

Background: There are limited data regarding prolonged extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) support, despite increase in ECMO use and duration in patients with respiratory failure. The objective of this study was to investigate the outcomes of severe acute respiratory failure patients supported with prolonged ECMO for more than 28 days.

Methods: Between January 2012 and December 2015, all consecutive adult patients with severe acute respiratory failure who underwent ECMO for respiratory support at 16 tertiary or university-affiliated hospitals in South Korea were enrolled retrospectively. The patients were divided into two groups: short-term group defined as ECMO for ⩽28 days and long-term group defined as ECMO for more than 28 days. In-hospital and 6-month mortalities were compared between the two groups.

Results: A total of 487 patients received ECMO support for acute respiratory failure during the study period, and the median support duration was 8 days (4-20 days). Of these patients, 411 (84.4%) received ECMO support for ⩽28 days (short-term group), and 76 (15.6%) received support for more than 28 days (long-term group). The proportion of acute exacerbation of interstitial lung disease as a cause of respiratory failure was higher in the long-term group than in the short-term group (22.4% versus 7.5%, p < 0.001), and the duration of mechanical ventilation before ECMO was longer (4 days versus 1 day, p < 0.001). The hospital mortality rate (60.8% versus 69.7%, p = 0.141) and the 6-month mortality rate (66.2% versus 74.0%, p = 0.196) were not different between the two groups. ECMO support longer than 28 days was not associated with hospital mortality in univariable and multivariable analyses.

Conclusions: Short- and long-term survival rates among patients receiving ECMO support for more than 28 days for severe acute respiratory failure were not worse than those among patients receiving ECMO for 28 days or less.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1753466619848941DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6535699PMC
November 2019

Comparison of Salbutamol Delivery Efficiency for Jet versus Mesh Nebulizer Using Mice.

Pharmaceutics 2019 Apr 19;11(4). Epub 2019 Apr 19.

Department of Medical Engineering, Dongguk University College of Medicine, Goyang-si, Gyeonggi-do 10326, Korea.

Recent reports using a breathing simulator system have suggested that mesh nebulizers provide more effective medication delivery than jet nebulizers. In this study, the performances of jet and mesh nebulizers were evaluated by comparing their aerosol drug delivery efficiencies in mice. We compared four home nebulizers: two jet nebulizers (PARI BOY SX with red and blue nozzles), a static mesh nebulizer (NE-U22), and a vibrating mesh nebulizer (NE-SM1). After mice were exposed to salbutamol aerosol, the levels of salbutamol in serum and lung were estimated by ELISA. The residual volume of salbutamol was the largest at 34.6% in PARI BOY SX, while the values for NE-U22 and NE-SM1 mesh nebulizers were each less than 1%. The salbutamol delivery efficiencies of NE-U22 and NE-SM1 were higher than that of PARI BOY SX, as the total delivered amounts of lung and serum were 39.9% and 141.7% as compared to PARI BOY SX, respectively. The delivery efficiency of the mesh nebulizer was better than that of the jet nebulizer. Although the jet nebulizer can generate smaller aerosol particles than the mesh nebulizer used in this study, the output rate of the jet nebulizer is low, resulting in lower salbutamol delivery efficiency. Therefore, clinical validation of the drug delivery efficiency according to nebulizer type is necessary to avoid overdose and reduced drug wastage.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics11040192DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6523426PMC
April 2019

Extended Use of Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation for Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome: A Retrospective Multicenter Study.

Tuberc Respir Dis (Seoul) 2019 Jul 28;82(3):251-260. Epub 2019 Feb 28.

Department of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea.

Background: Beyond its current function as a rescue therapy in acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) may be applied in ARDS patients with less severe hypoxemia to facilitate lung protective ventilation. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of extended ECMO use in ARDS patients.

Methods: This study reviewed 223 adult patients who had been admitted to the intensive care units of 11 hospitals in Korea and subsequently treated using ECMO. Among them, the 62 who required ECMO for ARDS were analyzed. The patients were divided into two groups according to pre-ECMO arterial blood gas: an extended group (n=14) and a conventional group (n=48).

Results: Baseline characteristics were not different between the groups. The median arterial carbon dioxide tension/fraction of inspired oxygen (FiO₂) ratio was higher (97 vs. 61, p<0.001) while the median FiO₂ was lower (0.8 vs. 1.0, p<0.001) in the extended compared to the conventional group. The 60-day mortality was 21% in the extended group and 54% in the conventional group (p=0.03). Multivariate analysis indicated that the extended use of ECMO was independently associated with reduced 60-day mortality (odds ratio, 0.10; 95% confidence interval, 0.02-0.64; p=0.02). Lower median peak inspiratory pressure and median dynamic driving pressure were observed in the extended group 24 hours after ECMO support.

Conclusion: Extended indications of ECMO implementation coupled with protective ventilator settings may improve the clinical outcome of patients with ARDS.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4046/trd.2018.0061DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6609526PMC
July 2019

Lung Compliance and Outcomes in Patients With Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome Receiving ECMO.

Ann Thorac Surg 2019 07 2;108(1):176-182. Epub 2019 Mar 2.

Department of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Hallym University Sacred Heart Hospital, Anyang, South Korea. Electronic address:

Background: Limited data are available regarding mechanical ventilation strategies in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome receiving extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO).

Methods: A retrospective analysis of acute respiratory distress syndrome patients on ECMO was conducted in 9 hospitals in Korea. Data on ventilator settings (pre-ECMO and 0, 4, 24, and 48 hours after ECMO) were collected. Based on the effect of the duration and intensity of mechanical ventilator on outcomes, time-weighted average values were calculated for ventilator parameters.

Results: The 56 patients included in the study had a mean age of 55.5 years. The hospital and 6-month mortality rates were 48.1% and 54.0%, respectively, with a median ECMO duration of 9.4 days. After initiation of ECMO, peak inspiratory pressure, above positive end-expiratory pressure, tidal volume, and respiration rate were reduced, while lung compliance did not change significantly. Before and during ECMO support, tidal volume and lung compliance were higher in 6-month survivors than in nonsurvivors. In Cox proportional models, both lung compliance (odds ratio, 0.961; 95% confidence interval, 0.928 to 0.995) and time-weighted average-lung compliance (odds ratio, 0.943; 95% confidence interval, 0.903 to 0.986) were significantly associated with 6-month mortality. Kaplan-Meier curves revealed that patients with higher lung compliance before ECMO had a longer survival time at the 6-month follow-up than did those with lower lung compliance.

Conclusions: Lung compliance, whether before or during ECMO, may be an important predictor of outcome in acute respiratory distress syndrome patients receiving ECMO. However, this result requires confirmation in larger clinical studies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.athoracsur.2019.01.055DOI Listing
July 2019

A pilot study of the effects of high-frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation on dysphagia in the elderly.

Neurogastroenterol Motil 2019 05 28;31(5):e13561. Epub 2019 Jan 28.

Department of Internal Medicine, Dongguk University Ilsan Hospital, Gyeonggi-do, Korea.

Background: Swallowing difficulty is common in the geriatric population and is associated with brain activity alteration with advancing age. Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) is a noninvasive approach to stimulate cortical neurons and can produce changes in cortical excitability. The objective of this study is to determine whether rTMS induces positive changes in the cortical areas and facilitates swallowing function in the elderly diagnosed with dysphagia.

Methods: Eight right-handed elderly dysphagia patients without any neurologic deficits received 5 Hz rTMS to a pharyngeal motor hot spot in the right hemisphere for 10 minutes every weekday for 2 weeks. The intensity of the stimulation was set at 90% of the thenar motor threshold of the same hemisphere. They were all subjected to 18F-labeled fluorodeoxyglucose-PET scans at swallowing before and after rTMS. Differences between each patient's active image and control images on a voxel-by-voxel basis were examined to find significant increases in metabolism using statistical parametric mapping software. Videofluoroscopic swallowing study was also conducted before and after magnetic stimulation intervention. Penetration-aspiration scale (PAS) and videofluoroscopic dysphagia scale (VDS) were compared to evaluate swallowing function.

Key Results: After 2 weeks of rTMS intervention, the VDS score was significantly reduced (from 43.6 ± 10.3 to 27.2 ± 14.5: P < 0.05), and especially pharyngeal motor function was improved. Activation was significantly increased in the bilateral primary motor cortex, premotor cortex, and right prefrontal cortex, which showed asymmetry.

Conclusions And Inferences: High-frequency rTMS positively affected the activation in cortices and swallowing function in elderly patients with dysphagia.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/nmo.13561DOI Listing
May 2019

Outcomes and clinical relevance of stool multiplex bacterial polymerase chain reaction in patients with acute diarrhea: single center experience.

Korean J Intern Med 2020 03 29;35(2):300-309. Epub 2019 Jan 29.

Department of Internal Medicine, Dongguk University Ilsan Hospital, Goyang, Korea.

Background/aims: Diagnostic stool multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) testing has attracted considerable interest, because of its high sensitivity, short turnaround time, and ability to detect multiple organisms simultaneously. This study investigates the clinical usefulness of a stool multiplex bacterial PCR in patients with acute diarrhea.

Methods: We retrospectively evaluated the stool multiplex bacterial PCR results, clinical parameters, and clinical courses of patients hospitalized because of acute diarrhea between August 2014 and November 2016.

Results: A total of 725 patients (male, 372; mean age, 30.9 ± 29.3 years) underwent stool multiplex bacterial PCR. A total of 243 pathogens were detected in 226 patients. The detection rate of multiplex PCR testing was higher than that of stool culture (32.7% vs. 3.3%, p < 0.01). Severe symptoms of acute diarrhea (bloody diarrhea, frequent diarrhea) and prescribed empirical antibiotics were significantly more common in the positive multiplex PCR group (p = 0.02, p < 0.01, p < 0.01, respectively). However, mean durations of hospital stay were similar in the 2 groups according to the multiplex PCR results (p = 0.32). In addition, Campylobacter spp., which was the most commonly detected pathogen (97/243, 39.9%), was significantly associated with frequent diarrhea and prescribed empirical antibiotics (p < 0.01), but not with duration of hospital stay (p = 0.09).

Conclusion: We concluded that stool multiplex bacterial PCR might be a useful tool for identifying bacterial etiology in patients with acute diarrhea, especially in those with Campylobacter spp. infection.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3904/kjim.2017.189DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7061005PMC
March 2020

Improvement in the survival rates of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation-supported respiratory failure patients: a multicenter retrospective study in Korean patients.

Crit Care 2019 01 3;23(1). Epub 2019 Jan 3.

Department of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, 88, Olympic-ro 43-gil, Songpa-gu, Seoul, 05505, Republic of Korea.

Background: Although the utilization of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) is increasing and its technology is evolving, only a few epidemiologic reports have described the uses and outcomes of ECMO. The aim of this study was to investigate the changes in utilization and survival rate in patients supported with ECMO for severe respiratory failure in Korea.

Methods: This was a multicenter study on consecutive patients who underwent ECMO across 16 hospitals in Korea. The records of all patients who required ECMO for acute respiratory failure between 2012 and 2015 were retrospectively reviewed, and the utilization of ECMO was analyzed over time.

Results: During the study period, 5552 patients received ECMO in Korea as a whole, and a total of 2472 patients received ECMO at the participating 16 hospitals. We analyzed 487 (19.7%) patients who received ECMO for respiratory failure. The number of ECMO procedures provided for respiratory failure increased from 104 to 153 during the study period. The in-hospital survival rate increased from 30.8% to 35.9%. The use of prone positioning increased from 6.8% to 49.0% (p < 0.001), and the use of neuromuscular blockers also increased from 28.2% to 58.2% (p < 0.001). Multiple regression analysis showed that old age (OR 1.038 (95% CI 1.022, 1.054)), use of corticosteroid (OR 2.251 (95% CI 1.153, 4.397)), continuous renal replacement therapy (OR 2.196 (95% CI 1.135, 4.247)), driving pressure (OR 1.072 (95% CI 1.031, 1.114)), and prolonged ECMO duration (OR 1.020 (95% CI 1.003, 1.038)) were associated with increased odds of mortality.

Conclusions: Utilization of ECMO and survival rates of patients who received ECMO for respiratory failure increased over time in Korea. The use of pre-ECMO prone positioning and neuromuscular blockers also increased during the same period.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13054-018-2293-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6318967PMC
January 2019

Stretchable organic optoelectronic sensorimotor synapse.

Sci Adv 2018 11 23;4(11):eaat7387. Epub 2018 Nov 23.

Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Seoul National University, Seoul 08826, Republic of Korea.

Emulation of human sensory and motor functions becomes a core technology in bioinspired electronics for next-generation electronic prosthetics and neurologically inspired robotics. An electronic synapse functionalized with an artificial sensory receptor and an artificial motor unit can be a fundamental element of bioinspired soft electronics. Here, we report an organic optoelectronic sensorimotor synapse that uses an organic optoelectronic synapse and a neuromuscular system based on a stretchable organic nanowire synaptic transistor (s-ONWST). The voltage pulses of a self-powered photodetector triggered by optical signals drive the s-ONWST, and resultant informative synaptic outputs are used not only for optical wireless communication of human-machine interfaces but also for light-interactive actuation of an artificial muscle actuator in the same way that a biological muscle fiber contracts. Our organic optoelectronic sensorimotor synapse suggests a promising strategy toward developing bioinspired soft electronics, neurologically inspired robotics, and electronic prostheses.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/sciadv.aat7387DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6251720PMC
November 2018

Obesity survival paradox in pneumonia supported with extracorporeal membrane oxygenation: Analysis of the national registry.

J Crit Care 2018 12;48:453-457

Department of Internal Medicine, Ulsan University Hospital, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Republic of Korea.

Purpose: To investigate whether the obesity survival paradox, where obesity is associated with improved survival, exists for pneumonia supported with extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO).

Materials And Methods: Between January 2014 and December 2015, 223 patients with acute respiratory failure who underwent ECMO in 11 hospitals in South Korea were enrolled retrospectively, and data relating to pneumonia cases were analyzed. Patients were divided into groups according to their pre-treatment body mass index (BMI): obese (BMI ≥ 25 kg/m) and non-obese (BMI < 25 kg/m). The BMI cut-off was adopted from the World Health Organization for Asian populations.

Results: In total, 84 patients had pneumonia: obese group, 26; non-obese group, 58 (mean BMI, 27.8 vs. 21.4, p < 0.001). Pre-ECMO parameters and rescue therapy did not differ between the groups. The rate of successful weaning from ECMO was not different between the groups (76.9% vs. 72.4%, p = 0.753), but survival-to-discharge (73.1% vs. 36.2%, p = 0.002) and 6-month survival (69.2% vs. 36.2%, p = 0.005) rates were higher in the obese group. After adjusting for age and the pre-treatment PaO/FiO ratio, low BMI was significantly associated with 6-month mortality (odds ratio 3.28, 95% confidence interval: 1.06-11.03, p = 0.044).

Conclusions: An obesity survival paradox exists in pneumonia supported with ECMO.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jcrc.2018.08.003DOI Listing
December 2018

A Disposable Photovoltaic Patch Controlling Cellular Microenvironment for Wound Healing.

Int J Mol Sci 2018 Oct 4;19(10). Epub 2018 Oct 4.

Department of BioNano Technology, Gachon University, Seongnam 13120, Korea.

Electrical stimulation (ES) is known to affect the wound healing process by modulating skin cell behaviors. However, the conventional clinical devices that can generate ES for promoting wound healing require patient hospitalization due to large-scale of the extracorporeal devices. Herein, we introduce a disposable photovoltaic patch that can be applied to skin wound sites to control cellular microenvironment for promoting wound healing by generating ES. In vitro experiment results show that exogenous ES could enhance cell migration, proliferation, expression of extracellular matrix proteins, and myoblast differentiation of fibroblasts which are critical for wound healing. Our disposable photovoltaic patches were attached to the back of skin wound induced mice. Our patch successfully provided ES, generated by photovoltaic energy harvested from the organic solar cell under visible light illumination. In vivo experiment results show that the patch promoted cutaneous wound healing via enhanced host-inductive cell proliferation, cytokine secretion, and protein synthesis which is critical for wound healing process. Unlike the current treatments for wound healing that engage passive healing processes and often are unsuccessful, our wearable photovoltaic patch can stimulate regenerative activities of endogenous cells and actively contribute to the wound healing processes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms19103025DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6213857PMC
October 2018

Effects of Polymer Coatings on Electrodeposited Lithium Metal.

J Am Chem Soc 2018 09 10;140(37):11735-11744. Epub 2018 Sep 10.

Stanford Institute for Materials and Energy Sciences , SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory , Menlo Park , California 94025 , United States.

The electrodeposition of lithium metal is a key process in next-generation, high energy density storage devices. However, the high reactivity of the lithium metal causes short cycling lifetimes and dendrite growth that can pose a serious safety issue. Recently, a number of approaches have been pursued to stabilize the lithium metal-electrolyte interface, including soft polymeric coatings that have shown the ability to enable high-rate and high-capacity lithium metal cycling, but a clear understanding of how to design and modify these coatings has not yet been established. In this work, we studied the effects of several polymers with systematically varied chemical and mechanical properties as coatings on the lithium metal anode. By examining the early stages of lithium metal deposition, we determine that the morphology of the lithium particles is strongly influenced by the chemistry of the polymer coating. We have identified polymer dielectric constant and surface energy as two key descriptors of the lithium deposit size. Low surface energy polymers were found to promote larger deposits with smaller surface areas. This may be explained by a reduced interaction between the coating and the lithium surface and thus an increase in the interfacial energy. On the other hand, high dielectric constant polymers were found to increase the exchange current and gave larger lithium deposits due to the decreased overpotentials at a fixed current density. We also observed that the thickness of the polymer coating should be optimized for each individual polymer. Furthermore, polymer reactivity was found to strongly influence the Coulombic efficiency. Overall, this work offers new fundamental insights into lithium electrodeposition processes and provides direction for the design of new polymer coatings to better stabilize the lithium metal anode.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/jacs.8b06047DOI Listing
September 2018

An integrated self-healable electronic skin system fabricated via dynamic reconstruction of a nanostructured conducting network.

Nat Nanotechnol 2018 11 20;13(11):1057-1065. Epub 2018 Aug 20.

Department of Chemical Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, CA, USA.

Electronic skin devices capable of monitoring physiological signals and displaying feedback information through closed-loop communication between the user and electronics are being considered for next-generation wearables and the 'Internet of Things'. Such devices need to be ultrathin to achieve seamless and conformal contact with the human body, to accommodate strains from repeated movement and to be comfortable to wear. Recently, self-healing chemistry has driven important advances in deformable and reconfigurable electronics, particularly with self-healable electrodes as the key enabler. Unlike polymer substrates with self-healable dynamic nature, the disrupted conducting network is unable to recover its stretchability after damage. Here, we report the observation of self-reconstruction of conducting nanostructures when in contact with a dynamically crosslinked polymer network. This, combined with the self-bonding property of self-healing polymer, allowed subsequent heterogeneous multi-component device integration of interconnects, sensors and light-emitting devices into a single multi-functional system. This first autonomous self-healable and stretchable multi-component electronic skin paves the way for future robust electronics.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41565-018-0244-6DOI Listing
November 2018

A bioinspired flexible organic artificial afferent nerve.

Science 2018 06;360(6392):998-1003

Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Seoul National University, Seoul, South Korea.

The distributed network of receptors, neurons, and synapses in the somatosensory system efficiently processes complex tactile information. We used flexible organic electronics to mimic the functions of a sensory nerve. Our artificial afferent nerve collects pressure information (1 to 80 kilopascals) from clusters of pressure sensors, converts the pressure information into action potentials (0 to 100 hertz) by using ring oscillators, and integrates the action potentials from multiple ring oscillators with a synaptic transistor. Biomimetic hierarchical structures can detect movement of an object, combine simultaneous pressure inputs, and distinguish braille characters. Furthermore, we connected our artificial afferent nerve to motor nerves to construct a hybrid bioelectronic reflex arc to actuate muscles. Our system has potential applications in neurorobotics and neuroprosthetics.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/science.aao0098DOI Listing
June 2018

Age is major factor for predicting survival in patients with acute respiratory failure on extracorporeal membrane oxygenation: a Korean multicenter study.

J Thorac Dis 2018 Mar;10(3):1406-1417

Department of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Asan Medical Center, Seoul, Republic of Korea.

Background: The proportion of elderly patients in the intensive care unit population is increasing. Although the Respiratory Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation Survival Prediction (RESP) score is widely used for survival prediction of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) patients, it is questionable whether the RESP score is applicable to older patients. The aim of this study was to investigate the applicability of the RESP score in Korean cohort.

Methods: Data were retrospectively analyzed from 209 acute respiratory failure (ARF) patients treated with ECMO from 2014 to 2015 at 11 hospitals. A comparison of outcome prediction models was conducted and multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed to identify independent risk factors for hospital mortality.

Results: In all patients, the median age was 58 (IQR, 45-65) years. Overall survival at hospital discharge was 45.9%, and veno-venous ECMO was used in 82.3% of patients. Patients older than 65 years treated with ECMO support were 51 with 31.4% of hospital survival. The PRedicting dEath for SEvere ARDS on VV-ECMO (PRESERVE) and RESP scores significantly predicted mortality in patients, with areas under the curve (AUCs) of 0.63 [95% confidence interval (CI), 0.54-0.72] and 0.66 (95% CI, 0.58-0.73), respectively. In multivariate logistic regression analysis, age is independent risk factor for hospital mortality [odds ratio 1.044 (95% CI, 1.020-1.068), P<0.001] with AUC of 0.67 (95% CI, 0.59-0.74). The RESP score was modified using reclassified age and the modified RESP score obtained AUC of 0.71 (95% CI, 0.63-0.78).

Conclusions: The RESP score is significant model for predicting outcomes in a Korean ECMO population. Elderly patients had higher mortality, and age alone showed similar discrimination ability for prediction of mortality compared to the RESP score.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.21037/jtd.2018.03.71DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5906318PMC
March 2018

Skin-Inspired Electronics: An Emerging Paradigm.

Acc Chem Res 2018 05 25;51(5):1033-1045. Epub 2018 Apr 25.

Department of Chemical Engineering , Stanford University , Stanford , California 94305 , United States.

Future electronics will take on more important roles in people's lives. They need to allow more intimate contact with human beings to enable advanced health monitoring, disease detection, medical therapies, and human-machine interfacing. However, current electronics are rigid, nondegradable and cannot self-repair, while the human body is soft, dynamic, stretchable, biodegradable, and self-healing. Therefore, it is critical to develop a new class of electronic materials that incorporate skinlike properties, including stretchability for conformable integration, minimal discomfort and suppressed invasive reactions; self-healing for long-term durability under harsh mechanical conditions; and biodegradability for reducing environmental impact and obviating the need for secondary device removal for medical implants. These demands have fueled the development of a new generation of electronic materials, primarily composed of polymers and polymer composites with both high electrical performance and skinlike properties, and consequently led to a new paradigm of electronics, termed "skin-inspired electronics". This Account covers recent important advances in skin-inspired electronics, from basic material developments to device components and proof-of-concept demonstrations for integrated bioelectronics applications. To date, stretchability has been the most prominent focus in this field. In contrast to strain-engineering approaches that extrinsically impart stretchability into inorganic electronics, intrinsically stretchable materials provide a direct route to achieve higher mechanical robustness, higher device density, and scalable fabrication. The key is the introduction of strain-dissipation mechanisms into the material design, which has been realized through molecular engineering (e.g., soft molecular segments, dynamic bonds) and physical engineering (e.g., nanoconfinement effect, geometric design). The material design concepts have led to the successful demonstrations of stretchable conductors, semiconductors, and dielectrics without sacrificing their electrical performance. Employing such materials, innovative device design coupled with fabrication method development has enabled stretchable sensors and displays as input/output components and large-scale transistor arrays for circuits and active matrixes. Strategies to incorporate self-healing into electronic materials are the second focus of this Account. To date, dynamic intermolecular interactions have been the most effective approach for imparting self-healing properties onto polymeric electronic materials, which have been utilized to fabricate self-healing sensors and actuators. Moreover, biodegradability has emerged as an important feature in skin-inspired electronics. The incorporation of degradable moieties along the polymer backbone allows for degradable conducting polymers and the use of bioderived materials has led to the demonstration of biodegradable functional devices, such as sensors and transistors. Finally, we highlight examples of skin-inspired electronics for three major applications: prosthetic e-skins, wearable electronics, and implantable electronics.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.accounts.8b00015DOI Listing
May 2018

A Herbal Formula HT051, a Combination of and , Prevents Postmenopausal Obesity in Ovariectomized Rats.

Evid Based Complement Alternat Med 2017 26;2017:8641535. Epub 2017 Dec 26.

Department of Herbal Pharmacology, College of Korean Medicine, Kyung Hee University, Seoul 130-701, Republic of Korea.

Menopause is strongly associated with an increased risk of metabolic dysfunctions due to the decline in estrogen. Here, we hypothesized that dietary HT051, containing the roots of and , has beneficial effects on ovariectomized (OVX) rats by regulating lipid metabolism. Forty-eight female Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into 4 groups: sham-operated (Sham), OVX, OVX with low-dose HT051 supplementation, and OVX with high-dose HT051 supplementation. The rats were fed with a modified AIN-93G diet or an HT051-containing modified AIN-93G diet for 8 weeks. Body weight, fat mass, and serum levels of total cholesterol, triglyceride, glucose, alanine transaminase, and aspartate transaminase decreased in HT051-fed OVX rats. Dietary HT051 supplementation significantly decreased the mRNA expression of lipogenesis-related genes, including sterol regulatory element-binding protein 1c and fatty acid synthase, and increased the mRNA expression of -oxidation-related genes, including peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor and carnitine palmitoyl transferase 1 in the liver of OVX rats. Moreover, the expression of genes involved in adipogenesis and inflammation was significantly lower in the adipose tissue of OVX rats fed with HT051 than in the OVX group. These findings suggest that HT051 may be a potential natural alternative for the management of postmenopausal metabolic dysfunctions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2017/8641535DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5758942PMC
December 2017

Tough and Water-Insensitive Self-Healing Elastomer for Robust Electronic Skin.

Adv Mater 2018 Mar 9;30(13):e1706846. Epub 2018 Feb 9.

Department of Chemical Engineering, Stanford University, 443 Via Ortega, Stanford, CA, 94305, USA.

An electronic (e-) skin is expected to experience significant wear and tear over time. Therefore, self-healing stretchable materials that are simultaneously soft and with high fracture energy, that is high tolerance of damage or small cracks without propagating, are essential requirements for the realization of robust e-skin. However, previously reported elastomers and especially self-healing polymers are mostly viscoelastic and lack high mechanical toughness. Here, a new class of polymeric material crosslinked through rationally designed multistrength hydrogen bonding interactions is reported. The resultant supramolecular network in polymer film realizes exceptional mechanical properties such as notch-insensitive high stretchability (1200%), high toughness of 12 000 J m , and autonomous self-healing even in artificial sweat. The tough self-healing materials enable the wafer-scale fabrication of robust and stretchable self-healing e-skin devices, which will provide new directions for future soft robotics and skin prosthetics.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/adma.201706846DOI Listing
March 2018

Deformable Organic Nanowire Field-Effect Transistors.

Adv Mater 2018 Feb 8;30(7). Epub 2018 Jan 8.

Department of Chemical Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, CA, 94305, USA.

Deformable electronic devices that are impervious to mechanical influence when mounted on surfaces of dynamically changing soft matters have great potential for next-generation implantable bioelectronic devices. Here, deformable field-effect transistors (FETs) composed of single organic nanowires (NWs) as the semiconductor are presented. The NWs are composed of fused thiophene diketopyrrolopyrrole based polymer semiconductor and high-molecular-weight polyethylene oxide as both the molecular binder and deformability enhancer. The obtained transistors show high field-effect mobility >8 cm V s with poly(vinylidenefluoride-co-trifluoroethylene) polymer dielectric and can easily be deformed by applied strains (both 100% tensile and compressive strains). The electrical reliability and mechanical durability of the NWs can be significantly enhanced by forming serpentine-like structures of the NWs. Remarkably, the fully deformable NW FETs withstand 3D volume changes (>1700% and reverting back to original state) of a rubber balloon with constant current output, on the surface of which it is attached. The deformable transistors can robustly operate without noticeable degradation on a mechanically dynamic soft matter surface, e.g., a pulsating balloon (pulse rate: 40 min (0.67 Hz) and 40% volume expansion) that mimics a beating heart, which underscores its potential for future biomedical applications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/adma.201704401DOI Listing
February 2018

Factors Associated with the Risk of Articular Surface Perforation during Anchor Placement for Arthroscopic Acetabular Labral Repair.

Clin Orthop Surg 2017 Dec 10;9(4):405-412. Epub 2017 Nov 10.

Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Seongnam, Korea.

Background: The purpose of this study was to evaluate factors associated with the risk of articular surface perforation during anchor placement for arthroscopic acetabular labral repair using follow-up computed tomographic arthrography (CTA).

Methods: Forty-six patients (29 males and 17 females) underwent arthroscopic labral repair using 142 suture anchors (55 large anchors and 87 small anchors). The patients were followed with CTA 1 year postoperatively. Anchor position was assessed by the insertion angle and the distance of the suture anchor tip from the articular cartilage. The incidence of malposition of suture anchors was assessed in follow-up CTA. The location and incidence of malposition were compared between two groups divided according to the diameter of suture anchor.

Results: The mean insertion angle and distance were significantly different between the groups. Of the 142 anchors, 15 (11%) were placed in the cartilage-bone transitional zone. Articular involvement was most common at the 3 o'clock position of the suture anchor (six out of 33 anchors, 18.2%). Both the insertion angle and distance showed small values in the articular involvement group.

Conclusions: The radiographic analysis of the placement of suture anchors after arthroscopic labral refixation based on follow-up CTA demonstrates that articular involvement of anchors is related to the location on the acetabular rim (clock position) and anchor diameter.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4055/cios.2017.9.4.405DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5705298PMC
December 2017

Photoactive Poly(3-hexylthiophene) Nanoweb for Optoelectrical Stimulation to Enhance Neurogenesis of Human Stem Cells.

Theranostics 2017 13;7(18):4591-4604. Epub 2017 Oct 13.

Department of Biotechnology, Yonsei University, Seoul 03722, Republic of Korea.

Optoelectrical manipulation has recently gained attention for cellular engineering; however, few material platforms can be used to efficiently regulate stem cell behaviors via optoelectrical stimulation. In this study, we developed nanoweb substrates composed of photoactive polymer poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) to enhance the neurogenesis of human fetal neural stem cells (hfNSCs) through photo-induced electrical stimulation.

Methods: The photoactive nanoweb substrates were fabricated by self-assembled one-dimensional (1D) P3HT nanostructures (nanofibrils and nanorods). The hfNSCs cultured on the P3HT nanoweb substrates were optically stimulated with a green light (539 nm) and then differentiation of hfNSCs on the substrates with light stimulation was examined. The utility of the nanoweb substrates for optogenetic application was tested with photo-responsive hfNSCs engineered by polymer nanoparticle-mediated transfection of an engineered chimeric opsin variant (C1V1)-encoding gene.

Results: The nanoweb substrates provided not only topographical stimulation for activating focal adhesion signaling of hfNSCs, but also generated optoelectrical stimulation via photochemical and charge-transfer reactions upon exposure to 539 nm wavelength light, leading to significantly enhanced neuronal differentiation of hfNSCs. The optoelectrically stimulated hfNSCs exhibited mature neuronal phenotypes with highly extended neurite formation and functional neuron-like electrophysiological features of sodium currents and action potentials. Optoelectrical stimulation with 539 nm light simultaneously activated both C1V1-modified hfNSCs and nanoweb substrates, which upregulated the expression and activation of voltage-gated ion channels in hfNSCs and further increased the effect of photoactive substrates on neuronal differentiation of hfNSCs.

Conclusion: The photoactive nanoweb substrates developed in this study may serve as platforms for producing stem cell therapeutics with enhanced neurogenesis and neuromodulation via optoelectrical control of stem cells.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7150/thno.20169DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5695151PMC
July 2018

Trends in the incidence of tooth extraction due to periodontal disease: results of a 12-year longitudinal cohort study in South Korea.

J Periodontal Implant Sci 2017 Oct 30;47(5):264-272. Epub 2017 Oct 30.

Department of Periodontology, Research Institute for Periodontal Regeneration, Yonsei University College of Dentistry, Seoul, Korea.

Purpose: This study evaluated trends in tooth extraction due to acute and chronic periodontal disease (PD) using data from the National Health Insurance Service-National Sample Cohort for 2002-2013.

Methods: A random sample of 1,025,340 individuals was selected as a representative sample of the population, and a database (DB) of diagnostic and prescription codes was followed up for 12 years. We used multivariate logistic regression analysis to assess the incidence of total extraction (TE), extraction due to periodontal disease (EPD), and immediate extraction due to periodontal disease (IEPD) according to sociodemographic factors (sex, age, household income, health status, and area of residence).

Results: The incidence of tooth extraction was found to be increasing, and at a higher rate for TE in PD patients. In 2002, 50.6% of cases of TE were caused by PD, and this increased to 70.8% in 2013, while the number of cases of IEPD increased from 42.8% to 54.9% over the same period. The incidence rates of extraction due to acute and chronic PD increased monotonically. We found that the incidence rates of TE, EPD, and IEPD were all 2-fold higher among patients with high income levels and those who were not beneficiaries of health insurance.

Conclusions: The rates of TE, EPD, and IEPD have been steadily increasing despite dental healthcare policies to expand public health insurance coverage, increasing the accessibility of dental clinics. Moreover, the effects of these policies were found to vary with both income and education levels. Consistent patient follow-up is required to observe changes in trends regarding tooth extraction according to changes in dental healthcare policies, and meticulous studies of such changes will ensure optimal policy reviews and revisions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5051/jpis.2017.47.5.264DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5663665PMC
October 2017
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