Publications by authors named "Jin Ye"

496 Publications

A novel risk score for the prediction of airway management in patients with deep neck space abscess: a multicenter retrospective cohort study.

J Intensive Care 2021 May 20;9(1):41. Epub 2021 May 20.

Otorhinolaryngology Hospital, The First Affiliated Hospital, Sun Yat-Sen University, No. 58 Zhongshan 2nd Road, Guangzhou, Guangdong, People's Republic of China.

Background: Airway management, including noninvasive endotracheal intubation or invasive tracheostomy, is an essential treatment strategy for patients with deep neck space abscess (DNSA) to reverse acute hypoxia, which aids in avoiding acute cerebral hypoxia and cardiac arrest. This study aimed to develop and validate a novel risk score to predict the need for airway management in patients with DNSA.

Methods: Patients with DNSA admitted to 9 hospitals in Guangdong Province between January 1, 2015, and December 31, 2020, were included. The cohort was divided into the training and validation cohorts. The risk score was developed using the least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (LASSO) and logistic regression models in the training cohort. The external validity and diagnostic ability were assessed in the validation cohort.

Results: A total of 440 DNSA patients were included, of which 363 (60 required airway management) entered into the training cohort and 77 (13 required airway management) entered into the validation cohort. The risk score included 7 independent predictors (p < 0.05): multispace involvement (odd ratio [OR] 6.42, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.79-23.07, p < 0.001), gas formation (OR 4.95, 95% CI 2.04-12.00, p < 0.001), dyspnea (OR 10.35, 95% CI 3.47-30.89, p < 0.001), primary region of infection, neutrophil percentage (OR 1.10, 95% CI 1.02-1.18, p = 0.015), platelet count to lymphocyte count ratio (OR 1.01, 95% CI 1.00-1.01, p = 0.010), and albumin level (OR 0.86, 95% CI 0.80-0.92, p < 0.001). Internal validation showed good discrimination, with an area under the curve (AUC) of 0.951 (95% CI 0.924-0.971), and good calibration (Hosmer-Lemeshow [HL] test, p = 0.821). Application of the clinical risk score in the validation cohort also revealed good discrimination (AUC 0.947, 95% CI 0.871-0.985) and calibration (HL test, p = 0.618). Decision curve analyses in both cohorts demonstrated that patients could benefit from this risk score. The score has been transformed into an online calculator that is freely available to the public.

Conclusions: The risk score may help predict a patient's risk of requiring airway management, thus advancing patient safety and supporting appropriate treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s40560-021-00554-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8139013PMC
May 2021

Predictive Model of Ursodeoxycholic Acid Treatment Response in Primary Biliary Cholangitis.

J Clin Transl Hepatol 2021 Apr 4;9(2):187-193. Epub 2021 Mar 4.

Division of Gastroenterology, Union Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, Hubei, China.

Background And Aims: Although ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) treatment in primary biliary cholangitis is effective in many patients, there are still many people who respond poorly to it. Identifying and intervening these patients early is important. Therefore, exploring the risk factors and proposing a predictor index to predict the UDCA treatment nonresponse earlier among primary biliary cholangitis patients were the aims of this research.

Methods: A total of 135 primary biliary cholangitis patients treated with UDCA (13-15 mg/kg/d) were enrolled in this retrospective study. The response to treatment was evaluated based on Paris I criteria. The univariate and logistic multivariate regression analyses were adopted to determine the independent risk factors and propose a predictor index. Receiver operating characteristic curve was used to evaluate the predictive ability of the predictor index.

Results: Total bilirubin, albumin, globulin, immunoglobin M, and aspartate aminotransferase-to-platelet ratio index were the five independent risk factors associating with early biochemical nonresponse to UDCA treatment. Based on these factors, we established a predictor index with the predictive value being 0.886 (sensitivity: 82.80%, specificity: 84.40%).

Conclusions: We developed a predictor index that had an accurate prediction of the early biochemical nonresponse to UDCA treatment, which is expected to provide valuable information for the high-risk group before treatment begins.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.14218/JCTH.2020.00127DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8111104PMC
April 2021

A lysine-cysteine redox switch with an NOS bridge regulates enzyme function.

Nature 2021 May 5;593(7859):460-464. Epub 2021 May 5.

Department of Molecular Enzymology, Göttingen Center of Molecular Biosciences, Georg August University Göttingen, Göttingen, Germany.

Disulfide bonds between cysteine residues are important post-translational modifications in proteins that have critical roles for protein structure and stability, as redox-active catalytic groups in enzymes or allosteric redox switches that govern protein function. In addition to forming disulfide bridges, cysteine residues are susceptible to oxidation by reactive oxygen species, and are thus central not only to the scavenging of these but also to cellular signalling and communication in biological as well as pathological contexts. Oxidized cysteine species are highly reactive and may form covalent conjugates with, for example, tyrosines in the active sites of some redox enzymes. However, to our knowledge, regulatory switches with covalent crosslinks other than disulfides have not previously been demonstrated. Here we report the discovery of a covalent crosslink between a cysteine and a lysine residue with a NOS bridge that serves as an allosteric redox switch in the transaldolase enzyme of Neisseria gonorrhoeae, the pathogen that causes gonorrhoea. X-ray structure analysis of the protein in the oxidized and reduced state reveals a loaded-spring mechanism that involves a structural relaxation upon redox activation, which is propagated from the allosteric redox switch at the protein surface to the active site in the protein interior. This relaxation leads to a reconfiguration of key catalytic residues and elicits an increase in enzymatic activity of several orders of magnitude. The redox switch is highly conserved in related transaldolases from other members of the Neisseriaceae; for example, it is present in the transaldolase of Neisseria meningitides (a pathogen that is the primary cause of meningitis and septicaemia in children). We surveyed the Protein Data Bank and found that the NOS bridge exists in diverse protein families across all domains of life (including Homo sapiens) and that it is often located at catalytic or regulatory hotspots. Our findings will inform strategies for the design of proteins and peptides, as well as the development of new classes of drugs and antibodies that target the lysine-cysteine redox switch.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41586-021-03513-3DOI Listing
May 2021

Surrogate broodstock to enhance biotechnology research and applications in aquaculture.

Biotechnol Adv 2021 Jul-Aug;49:107756. Epub 2021 Apr 22.

The Roslin Institute, University of Edinburgh, Easter Bush Campus, Roslin EH25 9RG, UK. Electronic address:

Aquaculture is playing an increasingly important role in meeting global demands for seafood, particularly in low and middle income countries. Genetic improvement of aquaculture species has major untapped potential to help achieve this, with selective breeding and genome editing offering exciting avenues to expedite this process. However, limitations to these breeding and editing approaches include long generation intervals of many fish species, alongside both technical and regulatory barriers to the application of genome editing in commercial production. Surrogate broodstock technology facilitates the production of donor-derived gametes in surrogate parents, and comprises transplantation of germ cells of donors into sterilised recipients. There are many successful examples of intra- and inter-species germ cell transfer and production of viable offspring in finfish, and this leads to new opportunities to address the aforementioned limitations. Firstly, surrogate broodstock technology raises the opportunity to improve genome editing via the use of cultured germ cells, to reduce mosaicism and potentially enable in vivo CRISPR screens in the progeny of surrogate parents. Secondly, the technology has pertinent applications in preservation of aquatic genetic resources, and in facilitating breeding of high-value species which are otherwise difficult to rear in captivity. Thirdly, it holds potential to drastically reduce the effective generation interval in aquaculture breeding programmes, expediting the rate of genetic gain. Finally, it provides new opportunities for dissemination of tailored, potentially genome edited, production animals of high genetic merit for farming. This review focuses on the state-of-the-art of surrogate broodstock technology, and discusses the next steps for its applications in research and production. The integration and synergy of genomics, genome editing, and reproductive technologies have exceptional potential to expedite genetic gain in aquaculture species in the coming decades.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biotechadv.2021.107756DOI Listing
April 2021

Nucleolin Promotes IRES-Driven Translation of Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus by Supporting the Assembly of Translation Initiation Complexes.

J Virol 2021 Jun 10;95(13):e0023821. Epub 2021 Jun 10.

State Key Laboratory of Veterinary Etiological Biology, OIE/China National Foot-and-Mouth Disease Reference Laboratory, Lanzhou Veterinary Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Lanzhou, Gansu, People's Republic of China.

Nucleolin (NCL), a stress-responsive RNA-binding protein, has been implicated in the translation of internal ribosome entry site (IRES)-containing mRNAs, which encode proteins involved in cell proliferation, carcinogenesis, and viral infection (type I IRESs). However, the details of the mechanisms by which NCL participates in IRES-driven translation have not hitherto been described. Here, we identified NCL as a protein that interacts with the IRES of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV), which is a type II IRES. We also mapped the interactive regions within FMDV IRES and NCL . We found that NCL serves as a substantial regulator of FMDV IRES-driven translation but not of bulk cellular or vesicular stomatitis virus cap-dependent translation. NCL also modulates the translation of and infection by Seneca Valley virus (type III-like IRES) and classical swine fever virus (type III IRES), which suggests that its function is conserved in unrelated IRES-containing viruses. We also show that NCL affects viral replication by directly regulating the production of viral proteins and indirectly regulating FMDV RNA synthesis. Importantly, we observed that the cytoplasmic relocalization of NCL during FMDV infection is a substantial step for viral IRES-driven translation and that NCL specifically promotes the initiation phase of the translation process by recruiting translation initiation complexes to viral IRES. Finally, the functional importance of NCL in FMDV pathogenicity was confirmed . Taken together, our findings demonstrate a specific function for NCL in selective mRNA translation and identify a target for the development of a broad-spectrum class of antiviral interventions. FMDV usurps the cellular translation machinery to initiate viral protein synthesis via a mechanism driven by IRES elements. It allows the virus to shut down bulk cellular translation, while providing an advantage for its own gene expression. With limited coding capacity in its own genome, FMDV has evolved a mechanism to hijack host proteins to promote the recruitment of the host translation machinery, a process that is still not well understood. Here, we identified nucleolin (NCL) as a positive regulator of the IRES-driven translation of FMDV. Our study supports a model in which NCL relocalizes from the nucleus to the cytoplasm during the course of FMDV infection, where the cytoplasmic NCL promotes FMDV IRES-driven translation by bridging the translation initiation complexes with viral IRES. Our study demonstrates a previously uncharacterized role of NCL in the translation initiation of IRES-containing viruses, with important implications for the development of broad antiviral interventions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/JVI.00238-21DOI Listing
June 2021

In vitro and in vivo evaluation of a water-in-oil microemulsion of platycodin D.

Arch Pharm (Weinheim) 2021 Apr 12:e2000497. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

Department of Pharmacy, Jiangsu Ocean University, Lianyungang, Jiangsu, China.

Platycodin D (PD) is the active metabolite of Platycodon grandiflorum. The main purpose of this study was to develop and evaluate a water-in-oil (W/O) microemulsion formulation of PD (PD-ME). The PD-ME was successfully prepared by the water titration method at K  = 2, to draw the pseudoternary phase diagrams. Physical characterization including the particle size, pH, refractive index, average viscosity, and polydispersity index (PDI) was performed. The in vivo characteristics were evaluated by intestinal permeability and pharmacokinetic studies. The optimized microemulsion formulation consisted of 100 mg/ml PD aqueous solution, soybean phospholipids, ethanol, and oleic acid (27:39:19:15, w/w). The average viscosity, pH, droplet size, PDI, and zeta potential of the PD-ME were 78.65 ± 0.13 cPa•s, 5.70 ± 0.05, 30.46 ± 0.20 nm, 0.33 ± 0.00, and -3.13 mV, respectively. The drug concentration of the PD-ME was 26.3 ± 0.6 mg/ml. The PD-ME showed significantly higher apparent permeability coefficients than PD (p < .01). The pharmacokinetic studies showed that the PD-ME had significantly higher values of T (2.26-fold), AUC (area under the curve; 1.65-fold), and MRT (1.58-fold) than PD (p < .01). It can be seen that W/O ME presents a strategy with great promise for enhancing the intestinal permeability and better oral absorption of drugs with high polarity and poor permeability.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ardp.202000497DOI Listing
April 2021

CDR1as regulated by hnRNPM maintains stemness of periodontal ligament stem cells via miR-7/KLF4.

J Cell Mol Med 2021 May 9;25(9):4501-4515. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Department of Orthodontics, School and Hospital of Stomatology, Shandong University & Shandong Provincial Key Laboratory of Oral Tissue Regeneration & Shandong Engineering Laboratory for Dental Materials and Oral Tissue Regeneration, Jinan, China.

CDR1as is a well-identified circular RNA with regulatory roles in a variety of physiological processes. However, the effects of CDR1as on stemness of periodontal ligament stem cells (PDLSCs) and the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. In this study, we detect CDR1as in human PDLSCs, and subsequently demonstrate that CDR1as maintains PDLSC stemness. Knockdown of CDR1as decreases the expression levels of stemness-related genes and impairs the cell's multi-differentiation and cell migration abilities, while overexpression of CDR1as increases the expression levels of stemness-related genes and enhances these abilities. Furthermore, our results indicate that the RNA-binding protein hnRNPM directly interacts with CDR1as and regulates its expression in PDLSCs. In addition, we show that CDR1as promotes the expression of stemness-related genes in PDLSCs by inhibiting miR-7-mediated suppression of KLF4 expression. Collectively, our results demonstrate that CDR1as participates in the molecular circuitry that regulates PDLSC stemness.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jcmm.16541DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8093972PMC
May 2021

The genetic feature and virulence determinant of highly virulent community-associated MRSA ST338-SCCmec Vb in China.

Emerg Microbes Infect 2021 Dec;10(1):1052-1064

State Key Laboratory for Diagnosis and Treatment of Infectious Diseases, National Clinical Research Center for Infectious Diseases, Collaborative Innovation Center for Diagnosis and Treatment of Infectious Diseases, The First Affiliated Hospital, Zhejiang University School of Medicine, Hangzhou, People's Republic of China.

ST59 is the predominant pathotype of community-associated methicillin-resistant (CA-MRSA) in China. As a variant of ST59, there is relatively little known about the detailed information of ST338. To address this issue, here, we described thirteen ST338 CA-MRSA strains isolated from severe bloodstream infection cases, and focused on their epidemiology, genetic features and virulence potential. Phylogenetic analysis showed the earliest isolated strain of this study is likely a predecessor of recent ST338 lineage (after year of 2014). Furthermore, the phylogenetic reconstruction and time estimation suggested that ST338 evolved from ST59 in 1991. Notably, the carrying patten of virulence factors of all ST338 strains were similar, and the genomic islands νSaα, νSaγ and SaPI and the core virulence factors like and were detected in ST338 isolates. However, all ST338 isolates lacked some adhesion factors such as , , , and . Additionally, among these ST338 strains, one PVL-negative ST338 isolate was detected. Experiment on mice nose and human alveolar epithelial cell showed that the nasal colonization ability of ST338 was weaker than that of CA-MRSA MW2. In a mouse bloodstream infection model and skin infection model, PVL+ and PVL- strains had the similar virulence, which was dependent on upregulation of toxin genes rather than the presence of mobile genetic elements such as ΦSa2 carrying PVL. Our findings provide important insight into the epidemiology and pathogenicity of the novel and highly virulent ST338-SCC Vb clone.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/22221751.2021.1914516DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8183566PMC
December 2021

Online Distributed IoT Security Monitoring with Multidimensional Streaming Big Data.

IEEE Internet Things J 2020 May 27;7(5):4387-4394. Epub 2019 Dec 27.

Center for Cyber-Physical Systems, University of Georgia, Athens, GA 30602, USA.

Internet of Things (IoT) enables extensive connections between cyber and physical "things". Nevertheless, the streaming data among IoT sensors bring "big data" issues, for example, large data volumes, data redundancy, lack of scalability and so on. Under "big data" circumstances, IoT system monitoring becomes a challenge. Furthermore, cyberattacks which threaten IoT security are hard to be detected. In this paper, we propose an online distributed IoT security monitoring algorithm (ODIS). An advanced influential point selection operation extracts important information from multidimensional time series data across distributed sensor nodes based on the spatial and temporal data dependence structure. Then, an accurate data structure model is constructed to capture the IoT system behaviors. Next, hypothesis testing is carried out to quantify the uncertainty of the monitoring tasks. Besides, the distributed system architecture solves the scalability issue. Using a real sensor network testbed, we commit cyberattacks to an IoT system with different patterns and strengths. The proposed ODIS algorithm demonstrates promising detection and monitoring performances.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/jiot.2019.2962788DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7977621PMC
May 2020

A Comprehensive Analysis of Genomics and Metagenomics in a Heterozygote Familial Hypercholesterolemia Family.

Front Cell Infect Microbiol 2021 2;11:605954. Epub 2021 Mar 2.

State Key Laboratory of Microbial Metabolism, School of Life Sciences and Biotechnology, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai, China.

Familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) is an inherited rare disease leading to markedly elevated low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels and increased risk for cardiovascular event. Gut microbiota has been implicated as a pivotal contributing factor in hyperlipidemia, however, its role in FH remains elusive. We performed whole-exome and metagenomics sequencing on a family with 22 members in which myocardial infarctions occurred at a young age with unclear etiology. We confirmed the missense mutation of c.1723C>T accounted for the abnormal cholesterol metabolism in the family through co-segregation analysis. In addition, was found elevated and strongly associated with LDL-C level in FH family members with mutation of c.1723C>T compared to unaffected members with hyperlipidemia. Overall, our work suggests that whole-exome sequencing can facilitate identification of disease-causing variants and enable preventive treatment of FH. Our metagenomics analysis provides early insights into potential contributions of host-microbe interactions in genetic and common hypercholesterolemia.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fcimb.2021.605954DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7966959PMC
June 2021

Quantitative CT assessment by histogram and volume ratio in pyrrolizidines alkaloids-induced hepatic sinusoidal obstruction syndrome.

Eur J Radiol 2021 May 6;138:109632. Epub 2021 Mar 6.

Department of Radiology, Union Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, 430022, China. Electronic address:

Objective: To quantitatively assess hypoattenuation volume ratio and hepatic parenchymal hypoattenuation on contrast enhanced computed tomography (CECT) in patients with pyrrolizidines alkaloids (PAs)-induced hepatic sinusoidal obstruction syndrome (HSOS), and evaluate the correlations of the CT-based quantitative values with clinical factors.

Methods: Thirty-five patients with PAs-induced HSOS who underwent CECT were retrospectively enrolled. The ratio of hypoattenuation volume to total liver volume, and changes in damaged area-to-normal liver density ratio (ΔDR) derived from histogram on portal venous phase were quantitatively measured. Heterogeneous hypoattenuation (CT score) scored by hypoattenuation volume ratio and ΔDR were calculated. The correlation between imaging findings and clinical factors was analyzed using Pearson correlation test.

Results: Liver function tests were abnormal in most patients, the mean Hounsfield unit (HU) of damaged area (58.68 ± 17.3) was significantly lower (P < 0.001) than the corresponding normal liver (82.27 ± 23.97). Heterogeneous hypoattenuation were mild in 13 patients (37 %), moderate in 16 patients (46 %), and severe in 6 patients (17 %). ΔDR derived from histogram was positively correlated (weakly to moderately) with total bilirubin (r = 0.341, P = 0.045), direct bilirubin (r = 0.385, P = 0.022), and alkaline phosphatase (r = 0.491, P = 0.003), while such correlation was not observed in hypoattenuation volume ratio. The severity of heterogeneous hypoattenuation scored by hypoattenuation volume ratio and ΔDR was positively correlated (weakly) with prothrombin time (r = 0.357, P = 0.035), international normalized ratio (r = 0.363, P = 0.032), alkaline phosphatase (r = 0.359, P = 0.034), and model for end-stage liver disease (MELD) score (r = 0.347, P = 0.041).

Conclusion: Heterogeneous hypoattenuation scored by volume ratio and ΔDR on CECT provides a non-invasive approach in evaluating the severity of PAs-induced HSOS.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejrad.2021.109632DOI Listing
May 2021

Combining culturing and 16S rDNA sequencing to reveal seasonal and room variations of household airborne bacteria and correlative environmental factors in nanjing, southeast china.

Indoor Air 2021 Mar 2. Epub 2021 Mar 2.

School of Energy and Environment, Southeast University, Nanjing, China.

Exposure to bioaerosols poses important health effects on occupants. To elucidate seasonal and room variations of household airborne bacteria, this study investigated 30 residential homes during summer and winter throughout Nanjing, Southeast China, with a humid subtropical climate. Culturing and 16S rDNA sequencing methods were combined in this study. Results showed that the community structure and composition in the same season but different homes show similarity, however, they in the same home but in different seasons show a huge difference, with Sphingomonas (25.3%), Clostridium (14.8%), and Pseudomonas (7.6%) being the dominant bacteria in summer, and Pseudomonas (57.1%) was dominant bacteria in winter. Culturable concentrations of bacteria were also significantly higher in summer (854 ± 425 CFU/m ) than in winter (231 ± 175 CFU/m ), but difference by home or room was relatively minor. More than 80% of culturable bacteria (<4.7 μm) could penetrate into lower respiratory tract. The seasonal variations of bacterial community and concentrations were closely associated with seasonal variations of temperature, humidity, and PM . Higher concentrations and larger sizes were observed in the bathroom and kitchen, typically with higher humidity than other rooms.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/ina.12807DOI Listing
March 2021

Peroxidase- and UV-triggered oxidase mimetic activities of the UiO-66-NH/chitosan composite membrane for antibacterial properties.

Biomater Sci 2021 Apr 17;9(7):2647-2657. Epub 2021 Feb 17.

The Second Hospital of Tianjin Medical University, Tianjin, China.

In this study, UiO-66-NH metal-organic framework (MOF) nanoparticles with peroxidase and oxidase mimetic activities were incorporated into a chitosan (CS) matrix by a simple and environmentally friendly method. The UiO-66-NH/CS composite membrane possesses the peroxidase mimicking activity in the presence of traces of HO, thus resulting in good antibacterial properties. Intriguingly, 30 min of UV pre-irradiation of the UiO-66-NH/CS composite membrane, in the absence of HO, still leads to a good antibacterial activity. This was attributed to the oxidase mimetic activity and the peroxidase mimicking activity of UiO-66-NH. In such a way, the side effects of direct exposure to UV irradiation and HO can be avoided for wound-healing treatments. The antibacterial mechanism was further proved by antibacterial experiments, TMB·2HCl color development experiments, reactive oxygen species generation tests and electron spin resonance tests. As a potential medical antibacterial dressing, in vitro membranes were also investigated.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d0bm01960gDOI Listing
April 2021

MicroRNA-23a reduces lipopolysaccharide-induced cellular apoptosis and inflammatory cytokine production through Rho-associated kinase 1/sirtuin-1/nuclear factor-kappa B crosstalk.

Chin Med J (Engl) 2021 Feb 3;134(7):829-839. Epub 2021 Feb 3.

Department of Emergency Medicine, South Campus of the Sixth People's Hospital Affiliated to Shanghai Jiaotong University, Shanghai 201499, China.

Background: MicroRNAs are closely associated with the progression and outcomes of multiple human diseases, including sepsis. In this study, we examined the role of miR-23a in septic injury.

Methods: Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) was used to induce sepsis in a rat model and H9C2 and HK-2 cells. miR-23a expression was evaluated in rat myocardial and kidney tissues, as well as H9C2 and HK-2 cells. A miR-23a mimic was introduced into cells to identify the role of miR-23a in cell viability, apoptosis, and the secretion of inflammatory cytokines. Furthermore, the effect of Rho-associated kinase 1 (ROCK1), a miR-23a target, on cell damage was evaluated, and molecules involved in the underlying mechanism were identified.

Results: In the rat model, miR-23a was poorly expressed in myocardial (sham vs. sepsis 1.00 ± 0.06 vs. 0.27 ± 0.03, P < 0.01) and kidney tissues (sham vs. sepsis 0.27 ± 0.03 vs. 1.00 ± 0.06, P < 0.01). Artificial overexpression of miR-23a resulted in increased proliferative activity (DNA replication rate: Control vs. LPS vs. LPS + Mock vs. LPS + miR-23a: H9C2 cells: 34.13 ± 3.12 vs. 12.94 ± 1.21 vs. 13.31 ± 1.43 vs. 22.94 ± 2.26, P < 0.05; HK-2 cells: 15.17 ± 1.43 vs. 34.52 ± 3.46 vs. 35.19 ± 3.12 vs. 19.87 ± 1.52, P < 0.05), decreased cell apoptosis (Control vs. LPS vs. LPS + Mock vs. LPS + miR-23a: H9C2 cells: 11.39 ± 1.04 vs. 32.57 ± 2.29 vs. 33.08 ± 3.12 vs. 21.63 ± 2.35, P < 0.05; HK-2 cells: 15.17 ± 1.43 vs. 34.52 ± 3.46 vs. 35.19 ± 3.12 vs. 19.87 ± 1.52, P < 0.05), and decreased production of inflammatory cytokines, including interleukin-6 (Control vs. LPS vs. LPS + Mock vs. LPS + miR-23a: H9C2 cells: 59.61 ± 5.14 vs. 113.54 ± 12.30 vs. 116.51 ± 10.69 vs. 87.69 ± 2.97 ng/mL; P < 0.05, F = 12.67, HK-2 cells: 68.12 ± 6.44 vs. 139.65 ± 16.62 vs. 143.51 ± 13.64 vs. 100.82 ± 9.74 ng/mL, P < 0.05, F = 9.83) and tumor necrosis factor-α (Control vs. LPS vs. LPS + Mock vs. LPS + miR-23a: H9C2 cells: 103.20 ± 10.31 vs. 169.67 ± 18.84 vs. 173.61 ± 15.91 vs. 133.36 ± 12.32 ng/mL, P < 0.05, F = 12.67, HK-2 cells: 132.51 ± 13.37 vs. 187.47 ± 16.74 vs. 143.51 ± 13.64 vs. 155.79 ± 15.31 ng/mL, P < 0.05, F = 9.83) in cells. However, ROCK1 was identified as a miR-23a target, and further up-regulation of ROCK1 mitigated the protective function of miR-23a in LPS-treated H9C2 and HK-2 cells. Moreover, ROCK1 suppressed sirtuin-1 (SIRT1) expression to promote the phosphorylation of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) p65, indicating the possible involvement of this signaling pathway in miR-23a-mediated events.

Conclusion: Our results indicate that miR-23a could suppress LPS-induced cell damage and inflammatory cytokine secretion by binding to ROCK1, mediated through the potential participation of the SIRT1/NF-κB signaling pathway.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/CM9.0000000000001369DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8104237PMC
February 2021

Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus Capsid Protein VP1 Antagonizes TPL2-Mediated Activation of the IRF3/IFN-β Signaling Pathway to Facilitate the Virus Replication.

Front Immunol 2020 8;11:580334. Epub 2021 Jan 8.

State Key Laboratory of Veterinary Etiological Biology, National Foot-and-Mouth Disease Reference Laboratory, Lanzhou Veterinary Research Institute of Chinese Academy of Agriculture Science, Lanzhou, China.

Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is a severe, highly contagious viral disease of cloven-hoofed animals. In order to establish an infection, the FMD virus (FMDV) needs to counteract host antiviral responses. Tumor progression locus 2 (TPL2), a mitogen-activated protein kinase, can regulate innate and adaptive immunity; however, its exact mechanisms underlying TPL2-mediated regulation of the pathogenesis of FMDV infection remain unknown. In this study, we confirmed that TPL2 could inhibit FMDV replication and . The virus replication increased in -deficient suckling mice in association with reduced expression of interferon-stimulated genes interferon-α (IFN-α) and myxovirus resistance (MX2) and significantly reduced expression of C-X-C motif chemokine ligand 10 (CXCL10), interferon regulatory factor 3 (IRF3), and IRF7, while the phosphorylation of IRF3 was not detected. Moreover, the interactions between TPL2 and VP1 were also confirmed. The overexpression of TPL2 promoted IRF3-mediated dose-dependent activation of the IFN-β signaling pathway in association with interactions between IRF3 and TPL2. VP1 also inhibited phosphorylation of TPL2 at Thr290, while Thr290 resulted as the key functional site associated with the TPL2-mediated antiviral response. Taken together, this study indicated that FMDV capsid protein VP1 antagonizes TPL2-mediated activation of the IRF3/IFN-β signaling pathway for immune escape and facilitated virus replication.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2020.580334DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7821752PMC
January 2021

Effects of energy supplements on the differentiation of skeletal muscle satellite cells.

Food Sci Nutr 2021 Jan 13;9(1):357-366. Epub 2020 Dec 13.

College of Food Science and Engineering Inner Mongolia Agriculture University Hohhot China.

To investigate the effects of the activator of AMPK and high glucose on the differentiation of mouse SMSCs, primary SMSCs were isolated from mouse extensor digitorum longus muscle and grown to near confluence (80%). Postconfluent cells were cultured in a growth medium with different inductors: AICAR, glucose, and AICAR mixed with glucose. The specific protein expressions of SMSCs, myoblasts, adipocytes, and brown adipocytes were analyzed on days 0, 3, 5, 7, and 10. The results showed treatment with AICAR in SMSCs markedly activated AMPK phosphorylation ( < .05) and increased protein expression of Pax7 and MyoD ( < .05), high concentrations of intracellular glucose upregulated UCP-1 protein expression and enhanced lipid accumulation ( < .05), the cowork of AICAR and glucose affected a decrease on MyoD, PPARg, and UCP-1 expression ( < .05) and an increase on Pax7. The present study indicated that the certain energy supplements influence the direction of SMSC differentiation which may contribution on the structure of muscle and meat quality, sequentially.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/fsn3.2001DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7802567PMC
January 2021

Structural basis of GABARAP-mediated GABA receptor trafficking and functions on GABAergic synaptic transmission.

Nat Commun 2021 01 12;12(1):297. Epub 2021 Jan 12.

MOE Key Laboratory for Membraneless Organelles & Cellular Dynamics, Hefei National Laboratory for Physical Sciences at the Microscale, School of Life Sciences, Division of Life Sciences and Medicine, University of Science and Technology of China, 230027, Hefei, P.R. China.

GABA receptors (GABARs) are the primary fast inhibitory ion channels in the central nervous system. Dysfunction of trafficking and localization of GABARs to cell membranes is clinically associated with severe psychiatric disorders in humans. The GABARAP protein is known to support the stability of GABARs in synapses, but the underlying molecular mechanisms remain to be elucidated. Here, we show that GABARAP/GABARAPL1 directly binds to a previously unappreciated region in the γ2 subunit of GABAR. We demonstrate that GABARAP functions to stabilize GABARs via promoting its trafficking pathway instead of blocking receptor endocytosis. The GABARAPL1-γ2-GABAR crystal structure reveals the mechanisms underlying the complex formation. We provide evidence showing that phosphorylation of γ2-GABAR differentially modulate the receptor's binding to GABARAP and the clathrin adaptor protein AP2. Finally, we demonstrate that GABAergic synaptic currents are reduced upon specific blockage of the GABARAP-GABAR complex formation. Collectively, our results reveal that GABARAP/GABARAPL1, but not other members of the Atg8 family proteins, specifically regulates synaptic localization of GABARs via modulating the trafficking of the receptor.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-020-20624-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7803741PMC
January 2021

Identification of Hub Genes Associated With Development and Microenvironment of Hepatocellular Carcinoma by Weighted Gene Co-expression Network Analysis and Differential Gene Expression Analysis.

Front Genet 2020 22;11:615308. Epub 2020 Dec 22.

Department of Hepatic Surgery, The First Affiliated Hospital of Harbin Medical University, Harbin, China.

A further understanding of the molecular mechanism of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is necessary to predict a patient's prognosis and develop new targeted gene drugs. This study aims to identify essential genes related to HCC. We used the Weighted Gene Co-expression Network Analysis (WGCNA) and differential gene expression analysis to analyze the gene expression profile of GSE45114 in the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) database and The Cancer Genome Atlas database (TCGA). A total of 37 overlapping genes were extracted from four groups of results. Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway and Gene Ontology (GO) enrichment analyses were performed on the 37 overlapping genes. Then, we used the STRING database to map the protein interaction (PPI) network of 37 overlapping genes. Ten hub genes were screened according to the Maximal Clique Centrality (MCC) score using the Cytohubba plugin of Cytoscape (including FOS, EGR1, EPHA2, DUSP1, IGFBP3, SOCS2, ID1, DUSP6, MT1G, and MT1H). Most hub genes show a significant association with immune infiltration types and tumor stemness of microenvironment in HCC. According to Univariate Cox regression analysis and Kaplan-Meier survival estimation, SOCS2 was positively correlated with overall survival (OS), and IGFBP3 was negatively correlated with OS. Moreover, the expression of IGFBP3 increased with the increase of the clinical stage, while the expression of SOCS2 decreased with the increase of the clinical stage. In conclusion, our findings suggest that SOCS2 and IGFBP3 may play an essential role in the development of HCC and may serve as a potential biomarker for future diagnosis and treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fgene.2020.615308DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7783465PMC
December 2020

Prediction of Postoperative Ileus in Patients With Colorectal Cancer by Preoperative Gut Microbiota.

Front Oncol 2020 25;10:526009. Epub 2020 Nov 25.

Department of Oncological and Laparoscopic Surgery, The First Affiliated Hospital of Harbin Medical University, Harbin, China.

Background: Ileus and postoperative ileus (POI) are common complications of colorectal cancer (CRC). However, little is known about the gut microbiota associated with ileus.

Method: Differences in gut microbiota were evaluated by 16S rRNA gene sequencing. We characterized the gut microbiota in 85 CRC patients (cohort 1) and detected differences, and an independent cohort composed of 38 CRC patients (cohort 2) was used to evaluate the results.

Results: The gut microbiota of CRC patients with and without ileus exhibited large differences in alpha- and beta-diversities and bacterial taxa. The Firmicutes-to-Bacteroidetes ratio and microbial dysbiosis index (MDI) showed greater dysbiosis among ileus patients than among those without ileus. According to the location of CRC, the difference in gut microbiota between patients with and without ileus was more obvious in those with distal CRC than in those with proximal CRC. Finally, was significantly reduced in the postoperative perioperative period in patients with ileus. Thus, we used as a biomarker for predicting perioperative or POI: the AUC value was 0.74 for perioperative ileus and 0.67 for POI that appeared at 6 months after hospital discharge. The predictive power was evaluated in Cohort 2, with an AUC value of 0.79.

Conclusion: These findings regarding difference of gut microbiota in postoperative CRC patients may provide a theoretical basis for the use of microbiota as biomarkers for the prediction of POI.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fonc.2020.526009DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7724052PMC
November 2020

The DDX23 Negatively Regulates Translation and Replication of Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus and Is Degraded by 3C Proteinase.

Viruses 2020 11 25;12(12). Epub 2020 Nov 25.

State Key Laboratory of Veterinary Etiological Biology, O.I.E./China National Foot-and-Mouth Disease Reference Laboratory, Lanzhou Veterinary Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Lanzhou 730046, China.

DEAD-box helicase 23 (DDX23) is a host nuclear helicase, which is a part of the spliceosomal complex and involved in pre-mRNA splicing. To investigate whether DDX23, an internal ribosomal entry sites transacting factor (ITAF) affects foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) replication and translation through internal ribosome entry site (IRES)-dependent manner. For this, we utilized a pull-down assay, Western blotting, quantitative real-time PCR, confocal microscopy, overexpression and small interfering RNA knockdown, as well as the median tissue culture infective dose. Our findings showed that FMDV infection inhibited DDX23 expression and the overexpression of DDX23 reduced viral replication, however, CRISPR Cas9 knockout/small interfering RNA knockdown increased FMDV replication. FMDV IRES domain III and IV interacted with DDX23, whereas DDX23 interacted with FMDV 3C proteinase and significantly degraded. The enzymatic activity of FMDV 3C proteinase degraded DDX23, whereas FMDV degraded DDX23 via the lysosomal pathway. Additionally, IRES-driven translation was suppressed in DDX23-overexpressing cells, and was enhanced in DDX23 knocked down. Collectively, our results demonstrated that DDX23 negatively affects FMDV IRES-dependent translation, which could be a useful target for the design of antiviral drugs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/v12121348DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7760909PMC
November 2020

Isolated IgG4-related sclerosing cholangitis with normal serum IgG4 levels-A case report.

Clin Case Rep 2020 Nov 3;8(11):2186-2190. Epub 2020 Jul 3.

Division of Gastroenterology Union Hospital Tongji Medical College Huazhong University of Science and Technology Wuhan China.

The isolated IgG4-SC that absent from AIP is quite rare and difficult to diagnose. We presented a case of isolated IgG4-SC with the normal serum IgG4 which was hard to differentiate with cholangiocarcinoma. Under such circumstances, liver pathology has a pivotal role in the diagnosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ccr3.3083DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7669420PMC
November 2020

Single cell sequencing reveals cell populations that predict primary resistance to imatinib in chronic myeloid leukemia.

Aging (Albany NY) 2020 11 23;12(24):25337-25355. Epub 2020 Nov 23.

State Key Lab of Molecular Oncology, National Cancer Center/National Clinical Research Center for Cancer/Cancer Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing 100021, China.

The treatment of chronic myeloid leukemia (CML), a disease caused by t(9;22)(q34;q11) reciprocal translocation, has advanced largely through the use of targeted tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs). To identify molecular differences that might distinguish TKI responders from non-responders, we performed single cell RNA sequencing on cells (n = 41,723 cells) obtained from the peripheral blood of four CML patients at different stages of treatment to generate single cell expression profiles. Analysis of our single cell expression profiles in conjunction with those previously obtained from the bone marrow of additional CML patients and healthy donors (total = 69,263 cells) demonstrated that imatinib treatment significantly altered leukocyte population compositions in both responders and non-responders, and affected the expression profiles of multiple cell populations, including non-neoplastic cell types. Notably, in imatinib poor-responders, patient-specific pre-treatment unique stem/progenitor cells became enriched in peripheral blood compared to the responders. These results indicate that resistance to TKIs might be intrinsic in some CML patients rather than acquired, and that non-neoplastic immune cell types may also play vital roles in dispersing the responsiveness of patients to TKIs. Furthermore, these results demonstrated the potential utility of peripheral blood as a diagnostic tool in the TKI sensitivity of CML patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.18632/aging.104136DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7803567PMC
November 2020

Comparative Analysis of Virulence and Toxin Expression of Vancomycin-Intermediate and Vancomycin-Sensitive Strains.

Front Microbiol 2020 30;11:596942. Epub 2020 Oct 30.

State Key Laboratory for Diagnosis and Treatment of Infectious Diseases, National Clinical Research Center for Infectious Diseases, Collaborative Innovation Center for Diagnosis and Treatment of Infectious Diseases, The First Affiliated Hospital, Zhejiang University School of Medicine, Hangzhou, China.

Previous studies on vancomycin-intermediate (VISA) have mainly focused on drug resistance, the evolution of differences in virulence between VISA and vancomycin-sensitive (VSSA) requires further investigation. To address this issue, in this study, we compared the virulence and toxin profiles of pair groups of VISA and VSSA strains, including a series of vancomycin-resistant induced S. aureus strains-SA0534, SA0534-V8, and SA0534-V16. We established a mouse skin infection model to evaluate the invasive capacity of VISA strains, and found that although mice infected with VISA had smaller-sized abscesses than those infected with VSSA, the abscesses persisted for a longer period (up to 9 days). Infection with VISA strains was associated with a lower mortality rate in larvae compared to infection with VSSA strains (≥ 40% vs. ≤ 3% survival at 28 h). Additionally, VISA were more effective in colonizing the nasal passage of mice than VSSA, and experiments showed that while VISA strains were less virulent they showed enhanced intracellular survival compared to VSSA strains. RNA sequencing of VISA strains revealed significant differences in the expression levels of the , , , , , and genes and suggested that platelet activation is only weakly induced by VISA. Collectively, our findings indicate that VISA is less virulent than VSSA but has a greater capacity to colonize human hosts and evade destruction by the host innate immune system, resulting in persistent and chronic infection.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2020.596942DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7661696PMC
October 2020

Characterization of highly virulent community-associated methicillin-resistant ST9-SCC XII causing bloodstream infection in China.

Emerg Microbes Infect 2020 Dec;9(1):2526-2535

State Key Laboratory for Diagnosis and Treatment of Infectious Diseases, National Clinical Research Center for Infectious Diseases, Collaborative Innovation Center for Diagnosis and Treatment of Infectious Diseases, First Affiliated Hospital, Zhejiang University School of Medicine, Hangzhou, China.

Previous studies have shown that livestock (LA)-MRSA ST398 evolved from a human-adapted methicillin-susceptible (MSSA) clone. However, detailed information regarding ST9 is still unclear. Here, we characterized a community-associated methicillin-resistant (CA-MRSA) ST9-SCC XII isolate that has not been previously reported to cause serious disease in China. We obtained whole-genome sequences of one ST9-t899-XII isolate-ZY462471-from a patient with bloodstream infection without livestock contact. The antibiotic susceptibilities of ZY462471 were determined and the clinical information was extracted from medical notes and compared with twenty-seven previously sequenced genomes. Phylogenetic reconstruction was performed to investigate the probable host evolutionary origins of ZY462471, and the difference in resistome and virulence factors were investigated. Virulence assay was performed to evaluate the high virulence potential of ZY462471 and compare the virulence between the closest ST9 MSSA neighbours. Clinical data suggested that ZY462471 is a CA-MRSA. Phylogenetic analysis showed a much closer relationship of ZY462471 with human-associated MSSA ST9 isolates than other LA-MRSA ST9 isolates, suggesting that ZY462471 probably evolved from ST9 MSSA predecessors by acquiring an SCC cassette. Importantly, virulence assays indicated that ZY462471 was highly virulent and compared with the MSSA ST9 predecessors, ZY462471 did not show attenuated virulence. Finally, we found that ZY462471 harboured an immune evasion cluster (IEC)-carrying βC-Φ, which is typically found in human clinical rather than LA-MRSA isolates, suggesting that ZY4762471 obtained the IEC-carrying βC-Φs from human clinical strains. Considering its high virulence potential, this strain should be monitored to prevent more widespread dissemination.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/22221751.2020.1848354DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7717876PMC
December 2020

[Promotion of self-nucleic acid fragments on the assembly of foot-and-mouth disease virus-like particles].

Sheng Wu Gong Cheng Xue Bao 2020 Oct;36(10):2076-2082

National Foot and Mouth Disease Reference Laboratory, State Key Laboratory of Veterinary Etiological Biology, Lanzhou Veterinary Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Lanzhou 730046, Gansu, China.

The special nucleic acid fragments, 5' untranslated region (5' UTR) and internal ribosome entry site (IRES) of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV), which interact with the capsid proteins, were selected as scaffolds to investigate the assembly efficiency of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) virus-like particles (VLPs). The assembled product was characterized by evaluation of particle size, surface potential, gel retardation assay, nuclease digestion experiments, size-exclusion chromatography, transmission electron microscopy and circular dichroism analysis. The results confirmed that the 5' UTR and IRES of FMDV co-assembled with the FMD VLPs and facilitated the assembly efficiency of FMD-VLPs. It demonstrates that the assembly efficiency of 75S particles of VLPs-5'UTR was significantly higher than those of the VLPs (P<0.001) and VLPs-IRES group (P<0.01). Comparatively the assembly efficiency of 12S particles of VLPs-IRES was significantly higher than those of the VLPs (P<0.000 1) and VLPs-5'UTR (P<0.000 1). It showed that the 5' UTR represented more effective in facilitating the assembly of VLPs. This study proposes an optimized strategy for improving the assembly efficiency of VLPs for the development of VLPs vaccine.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.13345/j.cjb.200084DOI Listing
October 2020

Development and validation of a rapid and efficient method for simultaneous determination of mycotoxins in coix seed using one-step extraction and UHPLC-HRMS.

Food Addit Contam Part A Chem Anal Control Expo Risk Assess 2021 Jan 9;38(1):148-159. Epub 2020 Nov 9.

Academy of National Food and Strategic Reserves Administration, Institute of Grain and Oil Quality and Safety , Beijing, China.

Coix seed is an important food and traditional Chinese medicine in China and other Asian countries. Notably, coix seed is currently being used as a traditional medicine for the treatment of COVID-19 in China. However, coix seeds are generally contaminated by mycotoxins, and this risk cannot be ignored. In this paper, we developed a method that involves direct extraction and UHPLC-HRMS analysis for the simultaneous detection of 24 mycotoxins in coix seeds. UHPLC-HRMS instrument and data acquisition parameters, and the sample pretreatment were optimised. One-step extraction showed several advantages compared to the three commercial solid-phase extraction clean-up methods, including ease of use, reduced time of sample preparation, low cost, good recovery, and acceptable matrix effect. The method validation results indicate that all mycotoxins have good linearity and sensitivity. Recoveries were between 74.2-101.1%, and RSD ranged from 0.1-5.8%. The LOQs for 24 mycotoxins were in the range of 0.5-100 µg/kg. To survey the contamination levels of these mycotoxins in commercial coix seeds, more than 70 samples were collected from Chinese markets and were analysed using the newly developed method. Zearalenone (positive ratio: 98.7%, range:1.1-1562 µg/kg), deoxynivalenol (positive ratio: 87%, range: 8.4-382.5 µg/kg), nivalenol (positive ratio: 85.7%, range: 26.8-828.2 µg/kg), fumonisin B (positive ratio: 84.4%, range:2.5-314.5 µg/kg), fumonisin B (positive ratio: 75.3%, range:1.6-72.8 µg/kg), fumonisin B (positive ratio: 48%, range:1.0-203.6 µg/kg), aflatoxin B (positive ratio: 29.9%, range: 0.39-14.7 µg/kg), sterigmatocystin (positive ratio: 29.9%, range: 1.4-51.6 µg/kg), and tenuazonic acid (positive ratio: 19.5%, range 36.1-105.7 µg/kg) were the most frequent mycotoxin contaminants. These results highlight the importance of routine monitoring and control of mycotoxins in coix seeds.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/19440049.2020.1833089DOI Listing
January 2021

Systematic review and meta-analysis of risk factor for postoperative delirium following spinal surgery.

J Orthop Surg Res 2020 Nov 5;15(1):509. Epub 2020 Nov 5.

Department of Orthopedics, Huai An Hospital of Huai An City, No. 161, Zhenhuailou East Road, Huai'an District, Huai'an City, Jiangsu Province, 223200, China.

Background: Postoperative delirium is a common psychiatric disorder among patients who undergo spinal surgery. The purpose of current meta-analysis was to assess the potential risk factors related to delirium in spinal surgery.

Methods: We searched the following databases: PubMed, EMBASE, the Cochrane Library, and Web of Science, from inception to July 2020. Two reviewers independently assessed the quality of the included studies using the previously described Newcastle-Ottawa Scale (NOS). We included spinal surgery patients who suffered with delirium or not. Stata 12.0 was used for meta-analysis.

Results: Thirteen trial studies that met our inclusion criteria were incorporated into the meta-analysis. Postoperative delirium was associated with an increase of the duration of hospital stay (P = 0.044) and increased perioperative readmission rate (P = 0.013) and economic costs (P = 0.002). This meta-analysis demonstrates that there were twenty-two risk factors: general characteristic: old age, female patients, history of surgery, diabetes mellitus, hypertension; preoperative data: low hematocrit, low hemoglobin, low albumin, low sodium, depression; operative data: operating time, total blood loss; postoperative data: low sodium, low hemoglobin, low hematocrit, low albumin, fever, low potassium, blood sugar, and visual analog scale (VAS).

Conclusions: Delirium not only prolongs the length of hospital stay, but also increases readmission rate and the economic costs. Several risk factors including old age, female patients, history of surgery, diabetes mellitus, low hematocrit, low hemoglobin, low albumin, low sodium, depression; operative data: operating time, total blood loss, low sodium, low hemoglobin, low hematocrit, low albumin, fever, low potassium, blood sugar, and VAS were significant predictors for postoperative delirium after spinal surgery.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13018-020-02035-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7643448PMC
November 2020

High-Dietary Fiber Intake Alleviates Antenatal Obesity-Induced Postpartum Depression: Roles of Gut Microbiota and Microbial Metabolite Short-chain Fatty Acid Involved.

J Agric Food Chem 2020 Nov 5;68(47):13697-13710. Epub 2020 Nov 5.

Laboratory of Functional Chemistry and Nutrition of Food, College of Food Science and Engineering, Northwest A&F University, Yangling, Xianyang, Shaanxi 712100, China.

Antenatal obesity increases the risk of postpartum depression. Previous research found that dietary fiber supplementation could alleviate mental behavioral disorders. The present study aims to uncover the effects of high-dietary fiber intake on high-fat diet (HFD)-induced depressive-like behaviors and its underlying mechanism. Female C57BL6/J mice were fed with HFD to establish an antenatal obese model. A high-dietary fiber intake (inulin, 0.037 g/kcal) significantly attenuated cognitive deficits and depressive-like behaviors in the maternal mice after the offspring weaning. High-dietary fiber intake upregulated the expression of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) and norepinephrine (NE) and suppressed neuroinflammation. Furthermore, high-dietary fiber intake restructured the gut microbiome and elevated the formation of short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs). Correlation analysis indicated that the increase in microbes such as and S24-7, and SCFAs' levels were positively correlated with behavioral improvements. In conclusion, high-dietary fiber intake is a promising nutritional intervention strategy to prevent antenatal obesity-induced behavioral disorders via a microbiota-gut-brain axis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.jafc.0c04290DOI Listing
November 2020

Effects of supplementation on oxidative stability of Cashmere goat.

Food Sci Nutr 2020 Oct 1;8(10):5550-5556. Epub 2020 Sep 1.

College of Food Science and Engineering Inner Mongolia Agricultural University Hohhot China.

(AM) provides a rich source of polysaccharides that can act as powerful antioxidants, but their potential as feed ingredients in the lamb industry still rarely exploited. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of dietary supplementation on oxidative stability of goat muscles. Longissimus dorsi (LD) muscles from two groups of Cashmere goat (basal diet, C group; basal diet supplemented with 1% root, AM group) were evaluated for lipid oxidation, myoglobin oxidation, activity of antioxidant enzymes, and antioxidant capacity. The results showed that color parameters in Cashmere goat of two feeding conditions were no significant difference ( > .05). In AM group, myoglobin (Mb) content was higher than C, while metmyoglobin (MMb) ( < .05) and malondialdehyde (MDA) ( < .01) were lower. Additionally supplementation had a significant effect on superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) ( < .001). In whole, the AM group goats presented a relatively higher antioxidant capacity than C. Especially, RSA and CUPRAC values of AM group goats had significantly higher than C ( < .05). Consequently, the AM group goats ingested abundant which enhanced the antioxidant capacity. Thus, it can eliminate free radicals and effectively inhibit oxidation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/fsn3.1786DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7590321PMC
October 2020

Coral-Associated Viral Assemblages From the Central Red Sea Align With Host Species and Contribute to Holobiont Genetic Diversity.

Front Microbiol 2020 30;11:572534. Epub 2020 Sep 30.

Department of Biology, University of Konstanz, Konstanz, Germany.

Coral reefs are highly diverse marine ecosystems increasingly threatened on a global scale. The foundation species of reef ecosystems are stony corals that depend on their symbiotic microalgae and bacteria for aspects of their metabolism, immunity, and environmental adaptation. Conversely, the function of viruses in coral biology is less well understood, and we are missing an understanding of the diversity and function of coral viruses, particularly in understudied regions such as the Red Sea. Here we characterized coral-associated viruses using a large metagenomic and metatranscriptomic survey across 101 cnidarian samples from the central Red Sea. While DNA and RNA viral composition was different across coral hosts, biological traits such as coral life history strategy correlated with patterns of viral diversity. Coral holobionts were broadly associated with and that presumably infect protists and algal cells, respectively. Further, presumably target members of the bacterial phyla Actinobacteria, Firmicutes, and Proteobacteria, whereas and might infect the coral host. Genes involved in bacterial virulence and auxiliary metabolic genes were common among the viral sequences, corroborating a contribution of viruses to the holobiont's genetic diversity. Our work provides a first insight into Red Sea coral DNA and RNA viral assemblages and reveals that viral diversity is consistent with global coral virome patterns.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2020.572534DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7561429PMC
September 2020