Publications by authors named "Jin Xie"

396 Publications

From Handcrafted to Deep Features for Pedestrian Detection: A Survey.

IEEE Trans Pattern Anal Mach Intell 2021 Apr 30;PP. Epub 2021 Apr 30.

Pedestrian detection is an important but challenging problem in computer vision, especially in human-centric tasks. Over the past decade, significant improvement has been witnessed with the help of handcrafted features and deep features. Here we present a comprehensive survey on recent advances in pedestrian detection. First, we provide a detailed review of single-spectral pedestrian detection that includes handcrafted features based methods and deep features based approaches. For handcrafted features based methods, we present an extensive review of approaches and find that handcrafted features with large freedom degrees in shape and space have better performance. In the case of deep features based approaches, we split them into pure CNN based methods and those employing both handcrafted and CNN based features. We give the statistical analysis and tendency of these methods, where feature enhanced, part-aware, and post-processing methods have attracted main attention. In addition to single-spectral pedestrian detection, we also review multi-spectral pedestrian detection, which provides more robust features for illumination variance. Furthermore, we introduce some related datasets and evaluation metrics, and a deep experimental analysis. We conclude this survey by emphasizing open problems that need to be addressed and highlighting various future directions. Researchers can track an up-to-date list at \url{https://github.com/JialeCao001/PedSurvey}.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/TPAMI.2021.3076733DOI Listing
April 2021

Effect and Safety of Penetrating Moxibustion in Treatment of Migraine without Aura: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

Chin J Integr Med 2021 Apr 21. Epub 2021 Apr 21.

College of Acupuncture and Tuina, Henan University of Chinese Medicine, Zhengzhou, 450008, China.

Objective: To observe the clinical effect of penetrating moxibustion on migraine without aura (MO) patients.

Methods: Totally 60 MO patients from the Acupuncture Clinic of the Third Affiliated Hospital of Henan University of Chinese Medicine were collected from November 2015 to February 2017. All patients were assigned to a treatment group and a control group using a random number table, 30 cases in each group. The treatment group was treated with penetrating moxibustion, and the control group was treated with mild moxibustion, thrice a week for 4 consecutive weeks. The total effective rate, Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) scores, headache intensity, and Migraine Specific Quality of Life Questionnaire (MSQ) scores of patients after treatment were compared between the two groups. The moxibustion sensation and reaction after moxibustion were observed, and the adverse reactions were evaluated. All patients were followed up at 4 and 16 weeks after treatment.

Results: The total effective rate of the treatment group was significantly higher than that of the control group (93.33% vs. 80.00%, P<0.05). The improvement of VAS scores, headache intensity, and the role restrictive and role preventive scores in MSQ in the treatment group was better than those in the control group (P<0.05). The person-time of moxibustion sensations of itching, numbness and cold as well as flushing and sweating after moxibustion in the treatment group was all significantly higher than that in the control group (P<0.01). There was no significant difference in safety evaluation between the two groups (P>0.05).

Conclusions: Penetrating moxibustion can significantly relieve pain and improve quality of life of MO patients. After penetrating moxibustion, flushing and sweating of patients were obvious, and the curative effect was superior to the mild moxibustion.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11655-021-3327-4DOI Listing
April 2021

Intracisternal administration of tanshinone IIA-loaded nanoparticles leads to reduced tissue injury and functional deficits in a porcine model of ischemic stroke.

IBRO Neurosci Rep 2021 Jun 5;10:18-30. Epub 2021 Jan 5.

Regenerative Bioscience Center, University of Georgia, Athens, GA 30602, United States.

Background: The absolute number of new stroke patients is annually increasing and there still remains only a few Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved treatments with significant limitations available to patients. Tanshinone IIA (Tan IIA) is a promising potential therapeutic for ischemic stroke that has shown success in pre-clinical rodent studies but lead to inconsistent efficacy results in human patients. The physical properties of Tan-IIA, including short half-life and low solubility, suggests that Poly (lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) nanoparticle-assisted delivery may lead to improve bioavailability and therapeutic efficacy. The objective of this study was to develop Tan IIA-loaded nanoparticles (Tan IIA-NPs) and to evaluate their therapeutic effects on cerebral pathological changes and consequent motor function deficits in a pig ischemic stroke model.

Results: Tan IIA-NP treated neural stem cells showed a reduction in SOD activity in in vitro assays demonstrating antioxidative effects. Ischemic stroke pigs treated with Tan IIA-NPs showed reduced hemispheric swelling when compared to vehicle only treated pigs (7.85 ± 1.41 vs. 16.83 ± 0.62%), consequent midline shift (MLS) (1.72 ± 0.07 vs. 2.91 ± 0.36 mm), and ischemic lesion volumes (9.54 ± 5.06 vs. 12.01 ± 0.17 cm) when compared to vehicle-only treated pigs. Treatment also lead to lower reductions in diffusivity (-37.30 ± 3.67 vs. -46.33 ± 0.73%) and white matter integrity (-19.66 ± 5.58 vs. -30.11 ± 1.19%) as well as reduced hemorrhage (0.85 ± 0.15 vs 2.91 ± 0.84 cm) 24 h post-ischemic stroke. In addition, Tan IIA-NPs led to a reduced percentage of circulating band neutrophils at 12 (7.75 ± 1.93 vs. 14.00 ± 1.73%) and 24 (4.25 ± 0.48 vs 5.75 ± 0.85%) hours post-stroke suggesting a mitigated inflammatory response. Moreover, spatiotemporal gait deficits including cadence, cycle time, step time, swing percent of cycle, stride length, and changes in relative mean pressure were less severe post-stroke in Tan IIA-NP treated pigs relative to control pigs.

Conclusion: The findings of this proof of concept study strongly suggest that administration of Tan IIA-NPs in the acute phase post-stroke mitigates neural injury likely through limiting free radical formation, thus leading to less severe gait deficits in a translational pig ischemic stroke model. With stroke as one of the leading causes of functional disability in the United States, and gait deficits being a major component, these promising results suggest that acute Tan IIA-NP administration may improve functional outcomes and the quality of life of many future stroke patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ibneur.2020.11.003DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8019951PMC
June 2021

Flexible/Bendable Acoustofluidics Based on Thin-Film Surface Acoustic Waves on Thin Aluminum Sheets.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2021 Apr 4;13(14):16978-16986. Epub 2021 Apr 4.

Faculty of Engineering and Environment, University of Northumbria, Tyne NE1 8ST, U.K.

In this paper, we explore the acoustofluidic performance of zinc oxide (ZnO) thin-film surface acoustic wave (SAW) devices fabricated on flexible and bendable thin aluminum (Al) foils/sheets with thicknesses from 50 to 1500 μm. Directional transport of fluids along these flexible/bendable surfaces offers potential applications for the next generation of microfluidic systems, wearable biosensors and soft robotic control. Theoretical calculations indicate that bending under strain levels up to 3000 με causes a small frequency shift and amplitude change (<0.3%) without degrading the acoustofluidic performance. Through systematic investigation of the effects of the Al sheet thickness on the microfluidic actuation performance for the bent devices, we identify the optimum thickness range to both maintain efficient microfluidic actuation and enable significant deformation of the substrate, providing a guide to design such devices. Finally, we demonstrate efficient liquid transportation across a wide range of substrate geometries including inclined, curved, vertical, inverted, and lateral positioned surfaces using a 200 μm thick Al sheet SAW device.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsami.0c22576DOI Listing
April 2021

Identification of 11 candidate structured noncoding RNA motifs in humans by comparative genomics.

BMC Genomics 2021 Mar 9;22(1):164. Epub 2021 Mar 9.

Medical School, Molecular Medicine Engineering and Research Center of Ministry of Education, Key Laboratory of Precision Medicine and Molecular Diagnosis of Fujian Universities, Institute of Genomics, School of Biomedical Sciences, Huaqiao University, Xiamen, 361021, P. R. China.

Background: Only 1.5% of the human genome encodes proteins, while large part of the remaining encodes noncoding RNAs (ncRNA). Many ncRNAs form structures and perform many important functions. Accurately identifying structured ncRNAs in the human genome and discovering their biological functions remain a major challenge.

Results: Here, we have established a pipeline (CM-line) with the following features for analyzing the large genomes of humans and other animals. First, we selected species with larger genetic distances to facilitate the discovery of covariations and compatible mutations. Second, we used CMfinder, which can generate useful alignments even with low sequence conservation. Third, we removed repetitive sequences and known structured ncRNAs to reduce the workload of CMfinder. Fourth, we used Infernal to find more representatives and refine the structure. We reported 11 classes of structured ncRNA candidates with significant covariations in humans. Functional analysis showed that these ncRNAs may have variable functions. Some may regulate circadian clock genes through poly (A) signals (PAS); some may regulate the elongation factor (EEF1A) and the T-cell receptor signaling pathway by cooperating with RNA binding proteins.

Conclusions: By searching for important features of RNA structure from large genomes, the CM-line has revealed the existence of a variety of novel structured ncRNAs. Functional analysis suggests that some newly discovered ncRNA motifs may have biological functions. The pipeline we have established for the discovery of structured ncRNAs and the identification of their functions can also be applied to analyze other large genomes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12864-021-07474-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7941889PMC
March 2021

A direct solvent-free conversion approach to prepare mixed-metal metal-organic frameworks from doped metal oxides.

Chem Commun (Camb) 2021 Apr 12;57(29):3587-3590. Epub 2021 Mar 12.

School of Physical Science and Technology, ShanghaiTech University, Shanghai 201210, China.

We propose a novel strategy to introduce platinum into the metal nodes of ZIF-8 by preloading Pt as a dopant in ZnO (Pt-ZnO) and then convert it to Pt doped ZIF-8 (Pt-ZIF-8) through a chemical vapor deposition (CVD) approach. The solvent-free conversion of Pt-ZnO to Pt-ZIF-8 allows the Pt dopant in ZnO to coordinate with organic linkers directly without the formation of Pt nanoparticles, which is a general issue of many methods. This general synthesis strategy may facilitate the discovery of MMOFs that have not been reported previously.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d1cc00671aDOI Listing
April 2021

Non-Solvating and Low-Dielectricity Cosolvent for Anion-Derived Solid Electrolyte Interphases in Lithium Metal Batteries.

Angew Chem Int Ed Engl 2021 May 8;60(20):11442-11447. Epub 2021 Apr 8.

School of Materials Science and Engineering, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing, 100081, P. R. China.

Lithium (Li) metal anodes hold great promise for next-generation high-energy-density batteries, while the insufficient fundamental understanding of the complex solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) is the major obstacle for the full demonstration of their potential in working batteries. The characteristics of SEI highly depend on the inner solvation structure of lithium ions (Li ). Herein, we clarify the critical significance of cosolvent properties on both Li solvation structure and the SEI formation on working Li metal anodes. Non-solvating and low-dielectricity (NL) cosolvents intrinsically enhance the interaction between anion and Li by affording a low dielectric environment. The abundant positively charged anion-cation aggregates generated as the introduction of NL cosolvents are preferentially brought to the negatively charged Li anode surface, inducing an anion-derived inorganic-rich SEI. A solvent diagram is further built to illustrate that a solvent with both proper relative binding energy toward Li and dielectric constant is suitable as NL cosolvent.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/anie.202101627DOI Listing
May 2021

Multiplexed labeling of cellular proteins with split fluorescent protein tags.

Commun Biol 2021 Feb 26;4(1):257. Epub 2021 Feb 26.

Department of Cellular Biology, University of Georgia, Athens, GA, USA.

Self-complementing split fluorescent proteins (split FP) have become an important labeling tool in live-cell protein imaging. However, current split FP systems to label multiple proteins in single cells have a fundamental limitation in the number of proteins that can be simultaneously labeled. Here, we describe an approach to expand the number of orthogonal split FP systems with spectrally distinct colors. By combining rational design and cycles of directed evolution, we expand the spectral color palette of FP. We also circularly permutate GFP and synthesize the β-strand 7, 8, or 10 system. These split GFP pairs are not only capable of labeling proteins but are also orthogonal to the current FP pairs, offering multiplexed labeling of cellular proteins. Our multiplexing approach, using the new orthogonal split FP systems, demonstrates simultaneous imaging of four distinct proteins in single cells; the resulting images reveal nuclear localization of focal adhesion protein Zyxin.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s42003-021-01780-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7910571PMC
February 2021

Using Carboxymethyl Cellulose as the Additive With Enzyme-Catalyzed Carboxylated Starch to Prepare the Film With Enhanced Mechanical and Hydrophobic Properties.

Front Bioeng Biotechnol 2021 2;9:638546. Epub 2021 Feb 2.

The Key Laboratory of State Forestry and Grassland Administration on Highly-Efficient Utilization of Forestry Biomass Resources in Southwest China, Southwest Forestry University, Kunming, China.

Carboxymethyl cellulose, a hydrophobic derivative from cellulose that can be prepared from different biomass, has been widely applied in food, medicine, chemical, and other industries. In this work, carboxymethyl cellulose was used as the additive to improve the hydrophobicity and strength of carboxylated starch film, which is prepared from starch catalyzed by bio-α-amylase. This study investigated the effects of different bio-α-amylase dosages (starch 0.5%, starch 1%) and different activation times (10, 30 min) on starch to prepare the carboxylated starch. The effects of different carboxymethyl cellulose content on the carboxylated starch film were investigated by analysis viscosity, fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis, differential scanning calorimetry, x-ray powder diffraction, scanning electron microscope, and contact angle. The results showed that preparing carboxylated starch using activated starch increased the carboxyl content, which could improve the effectiveness of the activated enzyme compared to prolonging the activation time. The carboxyl starch prepared by enzyme catalysis had a lower gelatinization temperature, and enzyme activation destroyed the crystallization area of the starch, thus facilitating the carboxylation reaction. The addition of 15% carboxymethyl cellulose improved the mechanical properties of the prepared film with maximum tensile strength of 44.8 MPa. Carboxymethyl cellulose effectively improved the hydrophobicity of the starch film with the addition amount of 10-30%, while hydrophobic property was stable at 66.8° when the addition amount was exceeded to 35%. In this work, it can be found that carboxymethyl cellulose improve the mechanical and hydrophobic properties of starch film, laying the foundation for the application of carboxylated starch materials.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fbioe.2021.638546DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7884610PMC
February 2021

Correction to "Interplay of Nanoparticle Rigidity and Its Translocation Ability through Cell Membrane".

J Phys Chem B 2021 Feb 27;125(5):1529. Epub 2021 Jan 27.

College of Engineering, University of Georgia, Athens, Georgia 30602, United States.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.jpcb.1c00448DOI Listing
February 2021

Tomentosin inhibits cell proliferation and induces apoptosis in MOLT-4 leukemia cancer cells through the inhibition of mTOR/PI3K/Akt signaling pathway.

J Biochem Mol Toxicol 2021 Apr 27;35(4):e22719. Epub 2021 Jan 27.

Chronic Disease Management Office, Jinan Central Hospital Affiliated to Shandong University, Jinan City, Shandong, China.

Leukemia is amongst the cancers accountable for substantial mortality around the world. Tomentosin is a bioactive compound with a pharmacological significance, and its anticancer property against human leukemia MOLT-4 cell line has never been reported. Hence, the objective of this study was to explore the anticancer activity of tomentosin in MOLT-4 human leukemia cells. In the current investigation, the cytotoxic effects of tomentosin ensuing potent toxicity (IC : 10 µM) in MOLT-4 cells after incubation at 24 h have been presented. Furthermore, tomentosin triggered intracellular reactive oxygen species production and showed the induction of intrinsic/mitochondrial pathways in treated MOLT-4 cells, revealing a significant cytotoxicity activity. Also, fluorescent microscopic studies using acridine orange/ethidium bromide and propidium iodide staining confirmed the occurrence of apoptosis in tomentosin-treated MOLT-4 cells. Quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction presented a negative regulation of cyclin D1 and BcL-2 expression and a positive regulated BAX and caspase-3 messenger RNA expression in tomentosin-treated MOLT-4 cells. Tomentosin further inhibited the inflammatory transcription factors such as nuclear factor κB (NF-κB), tumor necrosis factor α, interleukin 1β (IL-1β), and IL-6. Additionally, inhibition of the m-TOR/PI3K/AKT protein expression by tomentosin in MOLT-4 cells was confirmed. Overall, these findings lead to a conclusion that tomentosin induces apoptosis in MOLT-4 cells through caspase-facilitated proapoptotic pathway, and inhibition of the NF-κB-stimulated Bcl-2 facilitated the antiapoptotic pathway.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jbt.22719DOI Listing
April 2021

Light in Gold Catalysis.

Chem Rev 2021 Jan 25. Epub 2021 Jan 25.

State Key Laboratory of Coordination Chemistry, Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Advanced Organic Materials, Chemistry and Biomedicine Innovation Center (ChemBIC), School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210023, China.

Within the wide family of gold-catalyzed reactions, gold photocatalysis intrinsically features unique elementary steps. When gold catalysis meets photocatalysis, a valence change of the gold center can easily be achieved via electron transfer and radical addition, avoiding the use of stoichiometric sacrificial external oxidants. The excellent compatibility of radicals with gold catalysts opens the door to a series of important organic transformations, including redox-neutral C-C and C-X coupling, C-H activation, and formal radical-radical cross-coupling. The photocatalysis with gold complexes nicely complements the existing photoredox catalysis strategies and also opens a new avenue for gold chemistry. This review covers the achieved transformations for both mononuclear gold(I) catalysts (with and without a photosensitizer) and dinuclear gold(I) photocatalysts. Various fascinating methodologies, their value for organic chemists, and the current mechanistic understanding are discussed. The most recent examples also demonstrate the feasibility of both, mononuclear and dinuclear gold(I) complexes to participate in excited state energy transfer (EnT), rather than electron transfer. The rare applications of gold(III) photocatalysts, both homogeneous and heterogeneous, are also summarized.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.chemrev.0c00841DOI Listing
January 2021

Nose-to-Brain Delivery by Nanosuspensions-Based in situ Gel for Breviscapine.

Int J Nanomedicine 2020 23;15:10435-10451. Epub 2020 Dec 23.

Key Laboratory of Modern Preparation of TCM, Ministry of Education, Jiangxi University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Nanchang 330004, People's Republic of China.

Purpose: Nose-to-brain drug delivery is an effective approach for poorly soluble drugs to bypass the blood-brain barrier. A new drug intranasal delivery system, a nanosuspension-based in situ gel, was developed and evaluated to improve the solubility and bioavailability of the drug and to prolong its retention time in the nasal cavity.

Materials And Methods: Breviscapine (BRE) was chosen as the model drug. BRE nanosuspensions (BRE-NS) were converted into BRE nanosuspension powders (BRE-NP). A BRE nanosuspension in situ gelling system (BRE-NG) was prepared by mixing BRE-NP and 0.5% gellan gum (m/v). First, the BRE-NP were evaluated in terms of particle size and by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Subsequently, the critical ionic concentration of the gellan gum phase transition, influence of the deacetylated gellan gum (DGG) concentration on the expansion coefficient (S%), water-holding capacity, rheological properties and in vitro release behaviour of the BRE-NG were investigated. The pharmacokinetics and brain distribution of the BRE-NG after intranasal administration were compared with those of the intravenously injected BRE-NP nanosuspensions in rats.

Results: The rheology results demonstrated that BRE-NG was a non-Newtonian fluid with good spreadability and bioadhesion performance. Moreover, the absolute bioavailability estimated for BRE-NG after intranasal administration was 57.12%. The drug targeting efficiency (DTE%) of BRE in the cerebrum, cerebellum and olfactory bulb was 4006, 999 and 3290, respectively. The nose-to-brain direct transport percentage (DTP%) of the cerebrum, cerebellum and olfactory bulb was 0.975, 0.950 and 0.970, respectively.

Conclusion: It was concluded that the in situ gel significantly increased the drug retention time at the administration site. Therefore, the nanosuspension-based in situ gel could be a convenient and effective intranasal formulation for the administration of BRE.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/IJN.S265659DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7767747PMC
February 2021

Factors attracting Pediatric Dentists to Associateship Agreements.

J Dent Child (Chic) 2020 Sep;87(3):126-131

Dr.Leary is an associate professor, Department of Pediatric Dentistry, College of Dentistry and Dental Clinics, University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa, USA.

To evaluate the satisfaction of pediatric dentists in associateship agreements. Associateship agreements were deemed satisfactory if a dentist would recommend the employment experience to a colleague.
A web-based survey was administered to 6,587 pediatric dentists and pediatric dental residents in the United States in 2018. Attributes of associateships that affected dentists' decisions to join or leave a practice were examined with descriptive statistics. Logistic regression was used to identify significant associations between demographic characteristics and satisfaction with previous associateship agreements.
The survey had an adjusted response rate of 13.2 percent. A total of 405 respondents reported previous experience as an associate in a pediatric dental practice; 62.0 percent of these individuals recommended their previous associateship to a colleague. Males were significantly more likely to recommend their previous associateship than females (odds ratio=1.85, 95 percent confidence interval=1.16 to 2.95). Income was the most frequently selected attribute that attracted dentists to an associateship (51.1 percent); 34.6 percent identified practice treatment philosophy as a primary reason for leaving an associateship agreement.
Nearly two-thirds of pediatric dentists who worked as an associate would recommend the experience to a colleague. Many dentists viewed these as positive career opportunities, even if the associateship did not culminate in buy-in or buy-out.
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September 2020

Nose-to-brain delivery of drug nanocrystals by using Ca responsive deacetylated gellan gum based in situ-nanogel.

Int J Pharm 2021 Feb 17;594:120182. Epub 2020 Dec 17.

Institute of Chinese Materia Medica, Shanghai University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, 1200 Cailun Road, Shanghai 201203, China. Electronic address:

The objective of this study is to use a carbohydrate polymer deacetylated gellan gum (DGG) as matrix to design nanocrystals based intranasal in situ gel (IG) for nose-to -brain delivery of drug. The harmine nanocrystals (HAR-NC) as model drug were prepared by coupling homogenization and spray-drying technology. The HAR-NC was redispersed in the (DGG) solutions and formed the ionic-triggered harmine nanocrystals based in situ gel (HAR-NC-IG). The crystal state of HAR remained unchanged during the homogenization and spray-drying. And the HAR-NC-IG with 0.5% DGG exhibited excellent in situ-gelation ability, water retention property and in vitro release behavior. The bioavailability in brain of intranasal HAR-NC-IG were 25-fold higher than that of oral HAR-NC, which could be attributed to nanosizing effect of HAR-NC and bioadhesive property of DGG triggered by nasal fluid. And the HAR-NC-IG could significantly inhibit the expression of acetylcholinesterase (AchE) and increase the content of acetylcholin (ACh) in brain compared with those of reference formulations (p < 0.01). The DGG based nanocrystals-in situ gel was a promising carrier for nose-to-brain delivery of poorly soluble drug, which could prolong the residence time and improve the bioavailability of poorly soluble drugs in brain.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijpharm.2020.120182DOI Listing
February 2021

Manganese-catalysed divergent silylation of alkenes.

Nat Chem 2021 02 14;13(2):182-190. Epub 2020 Dec 14.

State Key Laboratory of Coordination Chemistry, Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Advanced Organic Materials, Chemistry and Biomedicine Innovation Center (ChemBIC), School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Nanjing University, Nanjing, China.

Transition-metal-catalysed, redox-neutral dehydrosilylation of alkenes is a long-standing challenge in organic synthesis, with current methods suffering from low selectivity and narrow scope. In this study, we report a general and simple method for the manganese-catalysed dehydrosilylation and hydrosilylation of alkenes, with Mn(CO) as a catalyst precursor, by using a ligand-tuned metalloradical reactivity strategy. This enables versatility and controllable selectivity with a 1:1 ratio of alkenes and silanes, and the synthetic robustness and practicality of this method are demonstrated using complex alkenes and light olefins. The selectivity of the reaction has been studied using density functional theory calculations, showing the use of an PrPNP ligand to favour dehydrosilylation, while a JackiePhos ligand favours hydrosilylation. The reaction is redox-neutral and atom-economical, exhibits a broad substrate scope and excellent functional group tolerance, and is suitable for various synthetic applications on a gram scale.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41557-020-00589-8DOI Listing
February 2021

Dinuclear gold catalysis.

Chem Soc Rev 2021 Feb;50(3):1874-1912

State Key Laboratory of Coordination Chemistry, Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Advanced Organic Materials, Chemistry and Biomedicine Innovation Center (ChemBIC), School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210023, China. and Advanced Catalytic Engineering Research Center of the Ministry of Education, Hunan University, Changsha 410082, China.

Gold chemistry has developed extensively in the past decade, and a dozen good reviews have been presented discussing this progress. Few however have paid close attention to the progress in organic synthesis of dinuclear gold-catalysis. A dinuclear gold catalyst is defined here as a gold complex with two gold centers linked by a bidentate ligand. With theoretical analysis and some representative studies in recent years, this comprehensive review highlights the particular properties of dinuclear gold-complexes, especially aurophilic interactions, and systematically summarizes the recent achievements of dinuclear gold-catalyzed coupling reactions, asymmetric catalysis, and photocatalysis, where dinuclear gold catalysts tend to show a greater advantage than the mononuclear gold catalysts.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d0cs00254bDOI Listing
February 2021

Mask-Guided Attention Network and Occlusion-Sensitive Hard Example Mining for Occluded Pedestrian Detection.

IEEE Trans Image Process 2021 26;30:3872-3884. Epub 2021 Mar 26.

Pedestrian detection relying on deep convolution neural networks has made significant progress. Though promising results have been achieved on standard pedestrians, the performance on heavily occluded pedestrians remains far from satisfactory. The main culprits are intra-class occlusions involving other pedestrians and inter-class occlusions caused by other objects, such as cars and bicycles. These result in a multitude of occlusion patterns. We propose an approach for occluded pedestrian detection with the following contributions. First, we introduce a novel mask-guided attention network that fits naturally into popular pedestrian detection pipelines. Our attention network emphasizes on visible pedestrian regions while suppressing the occluded ones by modulating full body features. Second, we propose the occlusion-sensitive hard example mining method and occlusion-sensitive loss that mines hard samples according to the occlusion level and assigns higher weights to the detection errors occurring at highly occluded pedestrians. Third, we empirically demonstrate that weak box-based segmentation annotations provide reasonable approximation to their dense pixel-wise counterparts. Experiments are performed on CityPersons, Caltech and ETH datasets. Our approach sets a new state-of-the-art on all three datasets. Our approach obtains an absolute gain of 10.3% in log-average miss rate, compared with the best reported results on the heavily occluded HO pedestrian set of the CityPersons test set. Code and models are available at: https://github.com/Leotju/MGAN.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/TIP.2020.3040854DOI Listing
March 2021

Simultaneous Enhancement of Interfacial Stability and Kinetics of Single-Crystal LiNiMnCoO through Optimized Surface Coating and Doping.

Nano Lett 2020 Dec 25;20(12):8832-8840. Epub 2020 Nov 25.

School of Physical Science and Technology, ShanghaiTech University, Shanghai 201210, China.

Balancing interfacial stability and Li transfer kinetics through surface engineering is a key challenge in developing high-performance battery materials. Although conformal coating enabled by atomic layer deposition (ALD) has shown great promise in controlling impedance increase upon cycling by minimizing side reactions at the electrode-electrolyte interface, the coating layer itself usually exhibits poor Li conductivity and impedes surface charge transfer. In this work, we have shown that by carefully controlling postannealing temperature of an ultrathin ZrO film prepared by ALD, Zr surface doping could be achieved for Ni-rich layered oxides to accelerate the charge transfer yet provide sufficient protection. Using single-crystal LiNiMnCoO as a model material, we have shown that surface Zr doping combined with ZrO coating can enhance both the cycle performance and rate capability during high-voltage operation. Surface doping via controllable postannealing of ALD surface coating layer reveals an attractive path toward developing stable and Li-conductive interfaces for single-crystal battery materials.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.nanolett.0c03778DOI Listing
December 2020

Theoretical and Experimental Study on Hot-Embossing of Glass-Microprism Array without Online Cooling Process.

Micromachines (Basel) 2020 Oct 31;11(11). Epub 2020 Oct 31.

School of Mechanical and Automotive Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510640, China.

Optical glass-microprism arrays are generally embossed at high temperatures, so an online cooling process is needed to remove thermal stress, but this make the cycle long and its equipment expensive. Therefore, the hot-embossing of a glass-microprism array at a low strain rate with reasonable embossing parameters was studied, aiming at reducing thermal stress and realizing its rapid microforming without online cooling process. First, the flow-field, strain-rate, and deformation behavior of glass microforming were simulated. Then, the low-cost microforming control device was designed, and the silicon carbide (SiC) die-core microgroove array was microground by the grinding-wheel microtip. Lastly, the effect of the process parameters on forming rate was studied. Results showed that the appropriate embossing parameters led to a low strain rate; then, the trapezoidal glass-microprism array could be formed without an online cooling process. The standard deviation of the theoretical and experimental forming rates was only 7%, and forming rate increased with increasing embossing temperature, embossing force, and holding duration, but cracks and adhesion occurred at a high embossing temperature and embossing force. The highest experimental forming rate reached 66.56% with embossing temperature of 630 °C, embossing force of 0.335 N, and holding duration of 12 min.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/mi11110984DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7692315PMC
October 2020

TJU-DHD: A Diverse High-Resolution Dataset for Object Detection.

IEEE Trans Image Process 2021 18;30:207-219. Epub 2020 Nov 18.

Vehicles, pedestrians, and riders are the most important and interesting objects for the perception modules of self-driving vehicles and video surveillance. However, the state-of-the-art performance of detecting such important objects (esp. small objects) is far from satisfying the demand of practical systems. Large-scale, rich-diversity, and high-resolution datasets play an important role in developing better object detection methods to satisfy the demand. Existing public large-scale datasets such as MS COCO collected from websites do not focus on the specific scenarios. Moreover, the popular datasets (e.g., KITTI and Citypersons) collected from the specific scenarios are limited in the number of images and instances, the resolution, and the diversity. To attempt to solve the problem, we build a diverse high-resolution dataset (called TJU-DHD). The dataset contains 115354 high-resolution images (52% images have a resolution of 1624×1200 pixels and 48% images have a resolution of at least 2, 560×1.440 pixels) and 709 330 labeled objects in total with a large variance in scale and appearance. Meanwhile, the dataset has a rich diversity in season variance, illumination variance, and weather variance. In addition, a new diverse pedestrian dataset is further built. With the four different detectors (i.e., the one-stage RetinaNet, anchor-free FCOS, two-stage FPN, and Cascade R-CNN), experiments about object detection and pedestrian detection are conducted. We hope that the newly built dataset can help promote the research on object detection and pedestrian detection in these two scenes. The dataset is available at https://github.com/tjubiit/TJU-DHD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/TIP.2020.3034487DOI Listing
November 2020

Ultrafast Optical Modulation of Harmonic Generation in Two-Dimensional Materials.

Nano Lett 2020 Nov 28;20(11):8053-8058. Epub 2020 Oct 28.

State Key Laboratory for Mesoscopic Physics, Academy for Advanced Interdisciplinary Studies, School of Physics, Peking University, Beijing 100871, China.

The modulation of optical harmonic generation in two-dimensional (2D) materials is of paramount importance in nanophotonic and nano-optoelectronic devices for their applications in optical switching and communication. However, an effective route with ultrafast modulation speed, ultrahigh modulation depth, and broad operation wavelength range is awaiting a full exploration. Here, we report that an optical pump can dynamically modulate the third harmonic generation (THG) of a graphene monolayer with a relative modulation depth above 90% at a time scale of 2.5 ps for a broad frequency ranging from near-infrared to ultraviolet. Our observation, together with the real-time, time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) simulations, reveals that this modulation process stems from nonlinear dynamics of the photoexcited carriers in graphene. The superior performance of the nonlinear all-optical modulator based on 2D materials paves the way for its potential applications including nanolasers and optical communication circuits.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.nanolett.0c02972DOI Listing
November 2020

Genome survey sequencing of Atractylodes lancea and identification of its SSR markers.

Biosci Rep 2020 10;40(10)

College of Pharmacy, Anhui University of Chinese Medicine, Hefei 230012, China.

Atractylodes lancea (Thunb.) DC. is a traditional Chinese medicine rich in sesquiterpenes that has been widely used in China and Japan for the treatment of viral infections. Despite its important pharmacological value, genomic information regarding A. lancea is currently unavailable. In the present study, the whole genome sequence of A. lancea was obtained using an Illumina sequencing platform. The results revealed an estimated genome size for A. lancea of 4,159.24 Mb, with 2.28% heterozygosity, and a repeat rate of 89.2%, all of which indicate a highly heterozygous genome. Based on the genomic data of A. lancea, 27,582 simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers were identified. The differences in representation among nucleotide repeat types were large, e.g., the mononucleotide repeat type was the most abundant (54.74%) while the pentanucleotide repeats were the least abundant (0.10%), and sequence motifs GA/TC (31.17%) and TTC/GAA (7.23%) were the most abundant among the dinucleotide and trinucleotide repeat motifs, respectively. A total of 93,434 genes matched known genes in common databases including 48,493 genes in the Gene Ontology (GO) database and 34,929 genes in the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) database. This is the first report to sequence and characterize the whole genome of A. lancea and will provide a theoretical basis and reference for further genome-wide deep sequencing and SSR molecular marker development of A. lancea.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1042/BSR20202709DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7593537PMC
October 2020

A single-cell survey of cellular hierarchy in acute myeloid leukemia.

J Hematol Oncol 2020 09 25;13(1):128. Epub 2020 Sep 25.

Institute of Applied Mechanics, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, 310027, China.

Background: Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is a fatal hematopoietic malignancy and has a prognosis that varies with its genetic complexity. However, there has been no appropriate integrative analysis on the hierarchy of different AML subtypes.

Methods: Using Microwell-seq, a high-throughput single-cell mRNA sequencing platform, we analyzed the cellular hierarchy of bone marrow samples from 40 patients and 3 healthy donors. We also used single-cell single-molecule real-time (SMRT) sequencing to investigate the clonal heterogeneity of AML cells.

Results: From the integrative analysis of 191727 AML cells, we established a single-cell AML landscape and identified an AML progenitor cell cluster with novel AML markers. Patients with ribosomal protein high progenitor cells had a low remission rate. We deduced two types of AML with diverse clinical outcomes. We traced mitochondrial mutations in the AML landscape by combining Microwell-seq with SMRT sequencing. We propose the existence of a phenotypic "cancer attractor" that might help to define a common phenotype for AML progenitor cells. Finally, we explored the potential drug targets by making comparisons between the AML landscape and the Human Cell Landscape.

Conclusions: We identified a key AML progenitor cell cluster. A high ribosomal protein gene level indicates the poor prognosis. We deduced two types of AML and explored the potential drug targets. Our results suggest the existence of a cancer attractor.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13045-020-00941-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7517826PMC
September 2020

Ultrathin gold nanowires to enhance radiation therapy.

J Nanobiotechnology 2020 Sep 11;18(1):131. Epub 2020 Sep 11.

Department of Nuclear Medicine, China-Japan Union Hospital of Jilin University, Changchun, 130033, Jilin, China.

Background: Radiation therapy is a main treatment option for cancer. Due to normal tissue toxicity, radiosensitizers are commonly used to enhance RT. In particular, heavy metal or high-Z materials, such as gold nanoparticles, have been investigated as radiosensitizers. So far, however, the related studies have been focused on spherical gold nanoparticles. In this study, we assessed the potential of ultra-thin gold nanowires as a radiosensitizer, which is the first time.

Methods: Gold nanowires were synthesized by the reduction of HAuCl in hexane. The as-synthesized gold nanowires were then coated with a layer of PEGylated phospholipid to be rendered soluble in water. Spherical gold nanoparticles coated with the same phospholipid were also synthesized as a comparison. Gold nanowires and gold nanospheres were first tested in solutions for their ability to enhance radical production under irradiation. They were then incubated with 4T1 cells to assess whether they could elevate cell oxidative stress under irradiation. Lastly, gold nanowires and gold nanoparticles were intratumorally injected into a 4T1 xenograft model, followed by irradiation applied to tumors (3 Gy/per day for three days). Tumor growth was monitored and compared.

Results: Our studies showed that gold nanowires are superior to gold nanospheres in enhancing radical production under X-ray radiation. In vitro analysis found that the presence of gold nanowires caused elevated lipid peroxidation and intracellular oxidative stress under radiation. When tested in vivo, gold nanowires plus irradiation led to better tumor suppression than gold nanospheres plus radiation. Moreover, gold nanowires were found to be gradually reduced to shorter nanowires by glutathione, which may benefit fractionated radiation.

Conclusion: Our studies suggest that gold nanowires are a promising type of radiosensitizer that can be safely injected into tumors to enhance radiotherapy. While the current study was conducted in a breast cancer model, the approach can be extended to the treatment of other cancer types.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12951-020-00678-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7488570PMC
September 2020

Direct Intermediate Regulation Enabled by Sulfur Containers in Working Lithium-Sulfur Batteries.

Angew Chem Int Ed Engl 2020 Dec 25;59(49):22150-22155. Epub 2020 Sep 25.

Beijing Key Laboratory of Green Chemical Reaction Engineering and Technology, Department of Chemical Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing, 100084, P. R. China.

Polysulfide intermediates (PSs), the liquid-phase species of active materials in lithium-sulfur (Li-S) batteries, connect the electrochemical reactions between insulative solid sulfur and lithium sulfide and are key to full exertion of the high-energy-density Li-S system. Herein, the concept of sulfur container additives is proposed for the direct modification on the PSs species. By reversible storage and release of the sulfur species, the container molecule converts small PSs into large organosulfur species. The prototype di(tri)sulfide-polyethylene glycol sulfur container is highly efficient in the reversible PS transformation to multiply affect electrochemical behaviors of sulfur cathodes in terms of liquid-species clustering, reaction kinetics, and solid deposition. The stability and capacity of Li-S cells was thereby enhanced. The sulfur container is a strategy to directly modify PSs, enlightening the precise regulation on Li-S batteries and multi-phase electrochemical systems.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/anie.202008911DOI Listing
December 2020

Investigation of novel cyclic structure in glycoconjugate using a simple model system.

Carbohydr Res 2020 Sep 23;495:108103. Epub 2020 Jul 23.

Analytical Research and Development, BioTherapeutics Pharmaceutical Sciences, Pfizer, Inc., 875 Chesterfield Parkway West, Chesterfield, MO, 63017, United States.

Bacterial capsular polysaccharide protein conjugates are a major class of vaccines for preventing severe bacterial infections. The conjugation of a polysaccharide to a carrier protein is critical for inducing adaptive immune response in healthy humans. Due to the high molecular mass and extensive structural heterogeneity of the glycoconjugate, the underlying sugar linkages and polypeptide site selectivity of the conjugation reaction are not well characterized and understood. Here, we report a model conjugation study using a monosaccharide and a synthetic peptide to investigate the fundamental reductive amination chemistry, which is one of the most commonly utilized conjugation strategies for glycoconjugate vaccines. We identified a cyclic tertiary amine linkage as the primary conjugation linkage for monosaccharides containing dialdehydes. Such linkage is previously not well-recognized by the glycoconjugate vaccine field. Our study has provided insights into this commonly used, yet complex conjugation chemistry and will benefit the design of future protein-polysaccharide-based vaccines.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.carres.2020.108103DOI Listing
September 2020

Bibliometric analysis of researches on traditional Chinese medicine for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19).

Integr Med Res 2020 Sep 29;9(3):100490. Epub 2020 Jul 29.

Evidence-based Nursing Center, School of Nursing, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou, China.

Background: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has caused a worldwide pandemic, and traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) has played an important role in response. We aimed to analyze the published literature on TCM for COVID-19, and provide reference for later research.

Methods: This study searched the CBM, CNKI, PubMed, and EMBASE from its establishment to March 11, 2020. VOSviewer 1.6.11 and gCLUTO 2.0 software were used to visually analyze the included studies.

Results: A total of 309 studies were included, including 61 journals, 1441 authors, 277 institutions, and 27 provinces. Research collaborations among regions were among those close in geographical distance. The collaborations of institutions and authors were more likely to be restricted to the same region. Among the authors with frequency greater than two (65 authors), only 19 authors had connection with others. More than 70% (358/491) of keywords were only presented once, and 20 keywords were shown more than 10 times. Five research topics were identified: Data mining method based analysis on the medication law of Chinese medicine in prevention and management of COVID-19; exploration of active compounds of Chinese medicine for COVID-19 treatment based on network pharmacology and molecular docking; expert consensus and interpretation of COVID-19 treatment; research on the etiology and pathogenesis of COVID-19; and clinical research of TCM for COVID-19 treatment.

Conclusion: The research hotspots were scattered, and the collaboration between authors and institutions needed to be further strengthened. To improve the quality and efficiency of research output, the integration of scientific research and resources, as well as scientific collaboration are needed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.imr.2020.100490DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7387281PMC
September 2020

Identification of 1-phenyl-4-cyano-5-aminopyrazoles as novel ecdysone receptor ligands by virtual screening, structural optimization, and biological evaluations.

Chem Biol Drug Des 2021 Jan 26;97(1):184-195. Epub 2020 Aug 26.

Department of Applied Chemistry, College of Science, China Agricultural University, Beijing, China.

Ecdysteroids initiate the molting process in insects by binding to the ecdysone receptor (EcR), which is a promising target for identifying insect growth regulators. This paper presents an in silico/in vitro screening procedure for identifying new EcR ligands. The three-step virtual screening procedure uses a three-dimensional pharmacophore model, docking and Molecular Mechanics/Poisson-Boltzmann Surface Area (MM/PBSA) rescoring routine. A novel hit (VS14) with good binding activity against Plutella xylostella EcR was identified from a library of over 200,000 chemicals. Subsequently, the 1-phenyl-4-cyano-5-aminopyrazole scaffold and twelve EcR ligands were synthesized. Their IC values against Plutella xylostella EcR ranged from 0.64 to 23.21 μm. Furthermore, a preliminary analysis of the structure-activity relationship for novel scaffolds provided a basis for designing new ligands with improved activity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/cbdd.13772DOI Listing
January 2021

One-step and large-scale fabrication of flexible and wearable humidity sensor based on laser-induced graphene for real-time tracking of plant transpiration at bio-interface.

Biosens Bioelectron 2020 Oct 30;165:112360. Epub 2020 Jun 30.

Laboratory of Agricultural Information Intelligent Sensing, School of Biosystems Engineering and Food Science, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, Zhejiang, 310058, China. Electronic address:

The rapidly growing demand for humidity sensing in various applications such as noninvasive epidermal sensing, water status tracking of plants, and environmental monitoring has triggered the development of high-performance humidity sensors. In particular, timely communication with plants to understand their physiological status may facilitate preventing negative influence of environmental stress and enhancing agricultural output. In addition, precise humidity sensing at bio-interface requires the sensor to be both flexible and stable. However, challenges still exist for the realization of efficient and large-scale production of flexible humidity sensors for bio-interface applications. Here, a convenient, effective, and robust method for massive production of flexible and wearable humidity sensor is proposed, using laser direct writing technology to produce laser-induced graphene interdigital electrode (LIG-IDE). Compared to previous methods, this strategy abandons the complicated and costly procedures for traditional IDE preparation. Using graphene oxide (GO) as the humidity-sensitive material, a flexible capacitive-type GO-based humidity sensor with low hysteresis, high sensitivity (3215.25 pF/% RH), and long-term stability (variation less than ± 1%) is obtained. These superior properties enable the sensor with multifunctional applications such as noncontact humidity sensing and human breath monitoring. In addition, this flexible humidity sensor can be directly attached onto the plant leaves for real-time and long-term tracking transpiration from the stomata, without causing any damage to plants, making it a promising candidate for next-generation electronics for intelligent agriculture.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bios.2020.112360DOI Listing
October 2020