Publications by authors named "Jin Long"

574 Publications

TTC36 inactivation induce malignant properties via Wnt-β-catenin pathway in gastric carcinoma.

J Cancer 2021 5;12(9):2598-2609. Epub 2021 Mar 5.

Key Laboratory of Biotechnology and Bioengineering of State Ethnic Affairs Commission, Biomedical Research Center, Northwest Minzu University, Lanzhou 730030, Gansu, China.

Tetratricopeptide repeat (TRP)-mediated cofactor proteins are involved in a wide range of cancers. TTC36 is little studied member of TRP subfamily. This study aimed to investigate the role of TTC36 in human gastric carcinoma (GC) and explore the potential underlying mechanisms. The analysis of TTC36 differential expression in GC was conducted using data from TCGA and a human tissue microarray. And effects of TTC36 expression on the prognosis of patients with gastric carcinoma were analyzed using the data from the GEO database. Lentivirus was transfected into the cell lines of AGS and BGC823 to construct overexpression and knocked down TTC36 cell model respectively. The effect of TTC36 expression on the growth, apoptosis and cell cycle of cells was explored . Downstream molecules were detected by western blotting. GSEA predicted signal pathway and related proteins were then detected. TTC36 expression in human GC tissues was found significantly lower than that in adjacent normal tissues and closely related to clinical prognosis. The overexpression of TTC36 notably inhibited tumor progression, cell cycle G1/S transfer and increased apoptosis in AGS cells. Conversely, the opposite effects were observed when TTC36 was suppressed in BGC823 cells. The expression of cleaved caspase3, Survivin, cyclin D1 and c-Myc were consistent with the phenotype in TTC36 operated GC cell lines. Intriguingly, GSEA analysis predicted Wnt-β-catenin pathway involved in TTC36 induced effects in GC cells, expression of β-catenin and downstream molecules such as TCF4, c-jun and pAKT were found negative related to TTC36 expression in GC cells. Notably, treatment with the Wnt/β-catenin inhibitor XAV939 dramatically attenuated the effects of TTC36 in GC cells. These results signify a critical role for TTC36 as a tumor suppressor in gastric carcinoma via regulating Wnt-β-catenin pathway.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7150/jca.47292DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8040709PMC
March 2021

Improved Efficiency Roll-Off and Operational Lifetime of Organic Light-Emitting Diodes with a Tetradentate Platinum(II) Complex by Using an n-Doped Electron-Transporting Layer.

Molecules 2021 Mar 24;26(7). Epub 2021 Mar 24.

State Key Laboratory of Synthetic Chemistry, HKU-CAS Joint Laboratory on New Materials, Department of Chemistry, The University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam Road, Hong Kong, China.

The efficiency roll-off and operational lifetime of organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) with a tetradentate Pt(II) emitter is improved by engaging an n-doped electron-transporting layer (ETL). Compared to those devices with non-doped ETL, the driving voltage is lowered, the charged carrier is balanced, and the exciton density in the emissive layer (EML) is decreased in the device with n-doped ETL with 8-hydroxyquinolinolatolithium (Liq). High luminance of almost 70,000 cd m and high current efficiency of 40.5 cd A at high luminance of 10,000 cd m is achieved in the device with 50 wt%-Liq-doped ETL. More importantly, the extended operational lifetime of 1945 h is recorded at the initial luminance of 1000 cd m in the 50 wt%-Liq-doped device, which is longer than that of the device with non-doped ETL by almost 10 times. This result manifests the potential application of tetradentate Pt(II) complexes in the OLED industry.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/molecules26071835DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8037627PMC
March 2021

880 nm NIR-Triggered Organic Small Molecular-Based Nanoparticles for Photothermal Therapy of Tumor.

Nanomaterials (Basel) 2021 Mar 18;11(3). Epub 2021 Mar 18.

School of Materials Science & Engineering, Tianjin Key Laboratory for Photoelectric Materials and Devices, Key Laboratory of Display Materials & Photoelectric Devices, Ministry of Education, Tianjin University of Technology, Tianjin 300384, China.

Photothermal therapy (PTT) has received constant attention as an efficient cancer therapy method due to locally selective treatment, which is not affected by the tumor microenvironment. In this study, a novel 880 nm near-infrared (NIR) laser-triggered photothermal agent (PTA), 3TT-IC-4Cl, was used for PTT of a tumor in deep tissue. Folic acid (FA) conjugated amphiphilic block copolymer (folic acid-polyethylene glycol-poly (β-benzyl-L-aspartate), FA-PEG-PBLA) was employed to encapsulate 3TT-IC-4Cl by nano-precipitation to form stable nanoparticles (TNPs), and TNPs exhibit excellent photothermal stability and photothermal conversion efficiency. Furthermore, the in vitro results showed TNPs display excellent biocompatibility and significant phototoxicity. These results suggest that 880 nm triggered TNPs have great potential as effective PTAs for photothermal therapy of tumors in deep tissue.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/nano11030773DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8003086PMC
March 2021

Multi-task weak supervision enables anatomically-resolved abnormality detection in whole-body FDG-PET/CT.

Nat Commun 2021 03 25;12(1):1880. Epub 2021 Mar 25.

Department of Radiology, Stanford University, Stanford, CA, USA.

Computational decision support systems could provide clinical value in whole-body FDG-PET/CT workflows. However, limited availability of labeled data combined with the large size of PET/CT imaging exams make it challenging to apply existing supervised machine learning systems. Leveraging recent advancements in natural language processing, we describe a weak supervision framework that extracts imperfect, yet highly granular, regional abnormality labels from free-text radiology reports. Our framework automatically labels each region in a custom ontology of anatomical regions, providing a structured profile of the pathologies in each imaging exam. Using these generated labels, we then train an attention-based, multi-task CNN architecture to detect and estimate the location of abnormalities in whole-body scans. We demonstrate empirically that our multi-task representation is critical for strong performance on rare abnormalities with limited training data. The representation also contributes to more accurate mortality prediction from imaging data, suggesting the potential utility of our framework beyond abnormality detection and location estimation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-021-22018-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7994797PMC
March 2021

Bedaquiline-containing regimens in patients with pulmonary multidrug-resistant tuberculosis in China: focus on the safety.

Infect Dis Poverty 2021 Mar 19;10(1):32. Epub 2021 Mar 19.

Clinical Center on TB, Beijing Chest Hospital, Capital Medical University/Beijing Tuberculosis and Thoracic Tumor Research Institute, No 9, Beiguan Street, Tongzhou District, Beijing, 101149, People's Republic of China.

Background: World Health Organization recommends countries introducing new drug and short treatment regimen for drug resistant tuberculosis (DR-TB) should develop and implement a system for active pharmacovigilance that allows for detection, reporting and management of adverse events. The aim of the study is to evaluate the frequency and severity of adverse events (AEs) of bedaquiline-containing regimen in a cohort of Chinese patients with multidrug-resistant (MDR)/extensively drug-resistant (XDR)-TB based on active drug safety monitoring (aDSM) system of New Drug Introduction and Protection Program (NDIP).

Methods: AEs were prospectively collected with demographic, bacteriological, radiological and clinical data from 54 sites throughout China at patient enrollment and during treatment between February, 2018 and December, 2019. This is an interim analysis including patients who are still on treatment and those that have completed treatment. A descriptive analysis was performed on the patients evaluated in the cohort.

Results: By December 31, 2019, a total of 1162 patients received bedaquiline-containing anti-TB treatment. Overall, 1563 AEs were reported, 66.9% were classified as minor (Grade 1-2) and 33.1% as serious (Grade 3-5). The median duration of bedaquiline treatment was 167.0 [interquartile range (IQR): 75-169] days. 86 (7.4%) patients received 36-week prolonged treatment with bedaquiline. The incidence of AEs and serious AEs was 47.1% and 7.8%, respectively. The most frequently reported AEs were QT prolongation (24.7%) and hepatotoxicity (16.4%). There were 14 (1.2%) AEs leading to death. Out of patients with available corrected QT interval by Fridericia's formula (QTcF) data, 3.1% (32/1044) experienced a post-baseline QTcF ≥ 500 ms, and 15.7% (132/839) had at least one change of QTcF ≥ 60 ms from baseline. 49 (4.2%) patients had QT prolonged AEs leading to bedaquiline withdrawal. One hundred and ninety patients reported 361 AEs with hepatotoxicity ranking the second with high occurrence. Thirty-four patients reported 43 AEs of hepatic injury referred to bedaquiline, much lower than that referred to protionamide, pyrazinamide and para-aminosalicylic acid individually.

Conclusions: Bedaquiline was generally well-tolerated with few safety concerns in this clinical patient population without any new safety signal identified. The mortality rate was generally low. These data inform significant positive effect to support the WHO recent recommendations for the wide use of bedaquiline.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s40249-021-00819-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7977294PMC
March 2021

Transobturator four-arms mesh in the surgical management of cystocele: a long-term follow-up.

J Exerc Rehabil 2021 Feb 23;17(1):59-65. Epub 2021 Feb 23.

Department of Urology, College of Medicine, Chungnam National University, Daejeon, Korea.

We studied the long-term efficacy and safety of cystocele operation by polypropylene mesh. A total of 198 women with stage ≥2 cystocele who had anterior vaginal wall repair with transobturator four-arm polypropylene mesh during 2003 to 2015 were evaluated. Outcomes including clinical characteristics and complications were reviewed by extracting patient data from electronic medical records. In addition, telephone interviews were conducted using a validated questionnaire along with physical examination. The follow-up period was 9.3±0.3 years. The cystocele stage in patients was significantly decreased post-operation compared to that preoperation. The anatomical cure rate for cystocele was 93.4%, and that for stress urinary incontinence was 95%. Comparing the three questionnaires indicated overall average score was improved significantly, except for Female Sexual Function Index Assessment. Early complications were either resolved spontaneously or controlled medically in four cases of hematoma or abscess, three cases of vaginal infection and urinary tract infection, and four cases of difficult micturition. In late complications, four cases of pain were managed, five cases of recurrence were observed and two cases of mesh exposure were treated with ointment and local excision. Transobturator four-arms mesh is an effective and safe method for cystocele repair with low rate of recurrence and complications. We suggest that the use of transobturator four-arm mesh is a still good choice for the old patients with cystocele who are not suitable for general anesthesia and reside in areas where laparoscopy and robots are not available.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.12965/jer.2142098.049DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7939986PMC
February 2021

lncRNA MIR22HG-Derived miR-22-5p Enhances the Radiosensitivity of Hepatocellular Carcinoma by Increasing Histone Acetylation Through the Inhibition of HDAC2 Activity.

Front Oncol 2021 24;11:572585. Epub 2021 Feb 24.

Department of Oncology, Third Xiangya Hospital of Central South University, Changsha, China.

Background: With the development of radiotherapy technology, radiotherapy has been increasingly used to treat primary hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). However, due to radioresistance and the intolerance of the adjacent organs to radiation, the effects of radiotherapy are often unsatisfactory. Therefore, it is necessary to study radiosensitization in HCC.

Method: A microarray was used to analyze the genes that were significantly associated with radiosensitivity. HCC cells, HepG2 and MHCC97H, were subjected to radiation . Real-time PCR was performed to determine MIR22HG (microRNA22 host gene) and miR-22-5p expression levels. Western blotting was performed to determine histone expression levels. A histone deacetylase (HDAC) whole cell assay was used to determine the activity of HDAC2. MTT, colony formation, 5-ethynyl-2'-deoxyuridine, and wound healing assays were performed to examine the function of MIR22HG and miR-22-5p in cellular radiosensitivity. Chromatin immunoprecipitation-PCR was used to confirm that HDAC2 affects the acetylation level of the MIR22HG promoter region. Finally, animal experiments were performed to demonstrate the effect of MIR22HG on the radiosensitivity of hepatoma.

Results: Irradiation can up-regulate MIR22HG expression and down-regulate HDAC2 expression. Inhibition of HDAC2 expression promotes histone acetylation in the MIR22HG promoter region and up-regulates MIR22HG expression. MIR22HG can increase radiosensitivity miR-22-5p in HCC.

Conclusion: Inhibition of HDAC2 expression promotes histone acetylation in the MIR22HG promoter region, thereby up-regulating the expression of MIR22HG and promoting the production of miR-22-5p, and ultimately increasing the sensitivity of liver cancer radiotherapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fonc.2021.572585DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7943860PMC
February 2021

Fabric Masks as a Personal Dosimeter for Quantifying Exposure to Airborne Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons.

Environ Sci Technol 2021 Mar 12. Epub 2021 Mar 12.

Department of Chemistry and Division of Environment, The Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Clear Water Bay, Kowloon, Hong Kong.

In this study, we assessed the feasibility of using ordinary face masks as a sampling means to collect airborne polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Nonwoven fabric masks can trap three-ring or larger PAHs at a high efficiency (>70%) and naphthalene at ∼17%. The sampling method is quantitative as confirmed by comparison with the standard method of the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health. In conjunction with sensitive fluorescence detection, the method was applied to quantify nine airborne PAHs in a range of indoor and outdoor environments. Wearing the mask for 2 h allowed quantification of individual PAHs as low as 0.07 ng/m. The demonstration shows applicability of the method in monitoring PAHs down to ∼30-80 ng/m in university office and laboratory settings and up to ∼900 ng/m in an incense-burning temple. Compared with traditional filter-/sorbent tube-based approaches, which require a sampling pump, our new method is simple, convenient, and inexpensive. More importantly, it closely tracks human exposure down to the individual level, thus having great potential to facilitate routine occupational exposure monitoring and large-scale surveillance of PAH concentrations in indoor and outdoor environments.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.est.0c08327DOI Listing
March 2021

Advances in Genetic Engineering Technology and Its Application in the Industrial Fungus .

Front Microbiol 2021 23;12:644404. Epub 2021 Feb 23.

Co-Innovation Center for Sustainable Forestry in Southern China, College of Biology and the Environment, Nanjing Forestry University, Nanjing, China.

The filamentous fungus is an important strain in the traditional fermentation and food processing industries and is often used in the production of soy sauce, soybean paste, and liquor-making. In addition, has a strong capacity to secrete large amounts of hydrolytic enzymes; therefore, it has also been used in the enzyme industry as a cell factory for the production of numerous native and heterologous enzymes. However, the production and secretion of foreign proteins by are often limited by numerous bottlenecks that occur during transcription, translation, protein folding, translocation, degradation, transport, secretion, etc. The existence of these problems makes it difficult to achieve the desired target in the production of foreign proteins by . In recent years, with the decipherment of the whole genome sequence, basic research and genetic engineering technologies related to the production and utilization of have been well developed, such as the improvement of homologous recombination efficiency, application of selectable marker genes, development of large chromosome deletion technology, utilization of hyphal fusion techniques, and application of CRISPR/Cas9 genome editing systems. The development and establishment of these genetic engineering technologies provided a great deal of technical support for the industrial production and application of . This paper reviews the advances in basic research and genetic engineering technologies of the fermentation strain mentioned above to open up more effective ways and research space for the breeding of production strains in the future.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2021.644404DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7940364PMC
February 2021

Description of desferrioxamine-producing bacterium Chitinophaga agrisoli sp. nov., isolated from soil.

Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek 2021 Mar 10. Epub 2021 Mar 10.

Industrial Biomaterial Research Center, Korea Research Institute of Bioscience and Biotechnology (KRIBB), 125 Gwahak-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon, 305-806, Korea.

A Gram-stain-negative, non-motile, yellow-pigmented and non-spore forming rod-shaped bacterium, designated strain BN140078, was isolated from farmland soil, Chungbuk, Republic of Korea. It was able to grow aerobically at 10-40 °C (optimum 28 °C), pH 5.5-7.5 (optimum pH 7.0) and with 0-2.0% (w/v) NaCl concentration (optimum 1.0%) on Reasoner's 2A (R2A) agar medium. Comparative 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis showed that the strain BN140078 had 96.9%, 96.5% and 96.1% 16S rRNA gene similarities with Chitinophaga ginsengihumi KACC 17604, Chitinophaga rupis KACC 14521 and Chitinophaga japonensis KACC 12057, respectively. The predominant respiratory quinone was menaquinone MK-7 and the major fatty acids (≥ 5%) were C ω5c, iso-C, iso-C 3-OH and Summed Feature 3 (C ω7c and/or C ω6c). The polar lipids were composed of phosphatidylethanolamine, four unidentified amino lipids and six unidentified lipids. The genomic DNA G+C content was 49.5 mol%. The genome of strain BN140078 comprises a number of biosynthetic gene clusters for secondary metabolites, in particular those for non-ribosomal peptide products. The polyphasic taxonomic study clearly distinguished this strain from its closest phylogenetic neighbors. Thus, we propose that the BN140078 represents a novel species of the genus Chitinophaga, for which the name Chitinophaga agrisoli sp. nov. was proposed. The type strain is BN140078 (=KCTC 62555 = CCTCC AB 2018162).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10482-021-01554-2DOI Listing
March 2021

Palladium-Catalyzed Dehydrogenative Fluoroalkoxylation of Benzaldehydes.

Org Lett 2021 Mar 19;23(5):1921-1927. Epub 2021 Feb 19.

Key Laboratory of Synthetic and Natural Functional Molecule Chemistry of Ministry of Education, Department of Chemistry & Materials Science, Northwest University, Xi'an 710069, China.

A direct and efficient palladium-catalyzed oxidative dehydrogenative fluoroalkoxylation of benzaldehydes is reported here for the first time. The method features mild reaction conditions, good tolerance of functional groups, and a broad substrate scope. The protocol employs the transient directing group strategy, thereby avoiding the additional installation and removal of directing groups, endowing the method with great advantages of atom and step economy. The approach should find broad applications in drug synthesis and discovery processes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.orglett.1c00365DOI Listing
March 2021

Histone demethylase KDM4A overexpression improved the efficiency of corrected human tripronuclear zygote development.

Mol Hum Reprod 2021 Feb;27(3)

Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, Key Laboratory for Major Obstetric Diseases of Guangdong Province, Key Laboratory of Reproduction and Genetics of Guangdong Higher Education Institutes, The Third Affiliated Hospital of Guangzhou Medical University, Guangzhou, Guangdong 510150, China.

Human zygotes are difficult to obtain for research because of limited resources and ethical debates. Corrected human tripronuclear (ch3PN) zygotes obtained by removal of the extra pronucleus from abnormally fertilized tripronuclear (3PN) zygotes are considered an alternative resource for basic scientific research. In the present study, eight-cell and blastocyst formation efficiency were significantly lower in both 3PN and ch3PN embryos than in normal fertilized (2PN) embryos, while histone H3 lysine 9 trimethylation (H3K9me3) levels were much higher. It was speculated that the aberrant H3K9me3 level detected in ch3PN embryos may be related to low developmental competence. Microinjection of 1000 ng/µl lysine-specific demethylase 4A (KDM4A) mRNA effectively reduced the H3K9me3 level and significantly increased the developmental competence of ch3PN embryos. The quality of ch3PN zygotes improved as the grading criteria, cell number and pluripotent expression significantly increased in response to KDM4A mRNA injection. Developmental genes related to zygotic genome activation (ZGA) were also upregulated. These results indicate that KDM4A activates the transcription of the ZGA program by enhancing the expression of related genes, promoting epigenetic modifications and regulating the developmental potential of ch3PN embryos. The present study will facilitate future studies of ch3PN embryos and could provide additional options for infertile couples.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/molehr/gaab012DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7939728PMC
February 2021

Nanofibrous Grids Assembled Orthogonally from Direct-Written Piezoelectric Fibers as Self-Powered Tactile Sensors.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2021 Mar 16;13(8):10623-10631. Epub 2021 Feb 16.

Key Laboratory of Advanced Technologies of Materials, Ministry of Education, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu 610031, P. R. China.

Tactile sensors are indispensable to wearable electronics, but still lack self-powering, high resolution, and flexibility. Herein, we present direct-written piezoelectric poly(vinylidene difluoride) fibers that are orthogonally assembled into nanofibrous grids (NFGs) as self-powered tactile sensors. Five nanofibrous strips (NFSs) are written on a polyurethane film via a uniform-field electrospinning (UFES) process, and two polyurethane films are orthogonally assembled into 5 × 5 NFGs with 25 pixels. Benefited from the mechanical flexibility and helical architecture of UFES fibers, stable piezoelectric outputs have been detected according to different locations or different pressures on an NFS, and a sensitivity of 7.1 mV/kPa is detected from the slope of voltage-pressure curves. In the orthogonally assembled NFGs, the pressure on a pixel of an NFS causes corresponding deformations of neighboring NFSs. The piezoelectric outputs vary with the distance from the pressing point, enabling us to position the pressing points and track the pressing trajectory in real time. Through judging piezoelectric outputs of all NFSs, precise locations of any pressed pixel with a resolution of 1 mm are presented vividly via luminous light-emitting diodes (LED), and the mapping profiles are displayed by pressing metal letters (S, W, J, T, and U) on multiple pixels. Furthermore, the coordinates of pressure either on an NFS or between NFSs with a resolution of 0.5 mm are reported digitally on a liquid crystal display (LCD). Thus, we developed novel self-powered tactile sensors with orthogonal NFGs to achieve real-time motion tracking, accurate spatial sensing, and location identification with high resolutions, which provide potential applications in electronic skin, robotics, and interface of artificial intelligence.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsami.0c22318DOI Listing
March 2021

LncRNA HOTAIR recruits SNAIL to inhibit the transcription of HNF4α and promote the viability, migration, invasion and EMT of colorectal cancer.

Transl Oncol 2021 Apr 12;14(4):101036. Epub 2021 Feb 12.

Department of Oncology, Third Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, Changsha 410013, Hunan, China. Electronic address:

Colorectal cancer causes severe burdensome on the health by its high fatality and poor prognosis. Hox transcript antisense intergenic RNA (HOTAIR) was believed closely related with the genesis and development of colorectal cancer, but the regulatory mechanism is still to be investigated. The expression of HOTAIR was analyzed in colorectal cancer using both qRT-PCR and ISH assay. The cell viability, migration, invasion and apoptosis rate were evaluated using MTT, BrdU,Transwell and flow cytometryexperiments. The interaction between HOTAIR and SNAIL was detected using RIP and RNA pull-down. The binding of SNAIL to HNF4α promoter was assessed by ChIP. The cell lines that knock down HOTAIR, SNAIL or overexpress HNF4α were constructed using retroviral vector system. The tumorigenic and metastatic capacity of colorectal cancer cells after knocking down HOTAIR were evaluated based on xenograft assay and liver metastases model. HOTAIR was highly expressed in both tissue and cell lines of colorectal cancer, indicated a regulatory function in colorectal cancer. Knock-down of HOTAIR suppressed cell viability, migration, invasion and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) of colorectal cancer cells in vitro, and inhibited the growth and metastasis of colorectal tumor in nude mice. We further found that HOTAIR suppressed HNF4α via recruiting SNAIL, and the overexpression of HNF4α inhibited cell viability, migration, invasion and EMT of colorectal cancer cells. We demonstrated that HOTAIR regulates the level of HNF4α via recruiting SNAIL, knocking down HOTAIR repressed the cell viability and metestasis of colorectal cancer cell line in vitro, and suppressed the tomorgenesis and migration/invasion of colorectal cancer in vivo.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tranon.2021.101036DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7901038PMC
April 2021

Dietary betaine prevents obesity through gut microbiota-drived microRNA-378a family.

Gut Microbes 2021 Jan-Dec;13(1):1-19

College of Animal Science and Technology, Sichuan Agricultural University , Chengdu, China.

Betaine is a natural compound present in commonly consumed foods and may have a potential role in the regulation of glucose and lipids metabolism. However, the underlying molecular mechanism of its action remains largely unknown. Here, we show that supplementation with betaine contributes to improved high-fat diet (HFD)-induced gut microbiota dysbiosis and increases anti-obesity strains such as , and . In mice lacking gut microbiota, the functional role of betaine in preventing HFD-induced obesity, metabolic syndrome, and inactivation of brown adipose tissues are significantly reduced. is an important regulator of betaine in improving microbiome ecology and increasing strains that produce short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs). Increasing two main members of SCFAs including acetate and butyrate can significantly regulate the levels of DNA methylation at host miR-378a promoter, thus preventing the development of obesity and glucose intolerance. However, these beneficial effects are partially abolished by Yin yang (YY1), a common target gene of the miR-378a family. Taken together, our findings demonstrate that betaine can improve obesity and associated MS via the gut microbiota-derived miR-378a/YY1 regulatory axis, and reveal a novel mechanism by which gut microbiota improve host health.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/19490976.2020.1862612DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7889173PMC
February 2021

Symmetric Nonnegative Matrix Factorization-Based Community Detection Models and Their Convergence Analysis.

IEEE Trans Neural Netw Learn Syst 2021 Jan 29;PP. Epub 2021 Jan 29.

Community detection is a popular yet thorny issue in social network analysis. A symmetric and nonnegative matrix factorization (SNMF) model based on a nonnegative multiplicative update (NMU) scheme is frequently adopted to address it. Current research mainly focuses on integrating additional information into it without considering the effects of a learning scheme. This study aims to implement highly accurate community detectors via the connections between an SNMF-based community detector's detection accuracy and an NMU scheme's scaling factor. The main idea is to adjust such scaling factor via a linear or nonlinear strategy, thereby innovatively implementing several scaling-factor-adjusted NMU schemes. They are applied to SNMF and graph-regularized SNMF models to achieve four novel SNMF-based community detectors. Theoretical studies indicate that with the proposed schemes and proper hyperparameter settings, each model can: 1) keep its loss function nonincreasing during its training process and 2) converge to a stationary point. Empirical studies on eight social networks show that they achieve significant accuracy gain in community detection over the state-of-the-art community detectors.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/TNNLS.2020.3041360DOI Listing
January 2021

Two new phenolic glycosides from the fruits of .

J Asian Nat Prod Res 2021 Jan 27:1-8. Epub 2021 Jan 27.

Key Laboratory of Natural Medicines of the Changbai Mountain, Ministry of Education, Yanbian University, Yanji 133002, China.

Two new phenolic glycosides () and eleven known compounds () were isolated from the fruits of Hook.f. using silica-gel column and preparative middle pressure liquid chromatography (MPLC). The structures of the compounds were elucidated by NMR spectroscopic data. Among them, compounds , , and were isolated from the family Magnoliaceae for the first time. Additionally, all the compounds were evaluated for their anti-complementary activities against the classical pathway (CP) and the alternative pathway (AP).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10286020.2021.1871606DOI Listing
January 2021

Computational fluid dynamics study of the effect of transverse sinus stenosis on the blood flow pattern in the ipsilateral superior curve of the sigmoid sinus.

Eur Radiol 2021 Jan 25. Epub 2021 Jan 25.

Department of Interventional Radiography, Beijing Friendship Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, 100050, China.

Objective: To investigate the effect of different types of transverse sinus stenosis on blood flow patterns in the ipsilateral superior curve of the sigmoid sinus.

Methods: According to the morphology of transverse and sigmoid sinus sections in pulsatile tinnitus patients, ten idealized models with different degrees and positions of transverse sinus stenosis were constructed. Computational fluid dynamics simulations were performed to compare the hemodynamic characteristics among these models. Follow-up images of previous cases were included, which preliminarily confirmed the hypothesis that bone plate erosion of the sigmoid sinus sulcus is related to blood flow impingement.

Results: Blood flow impingement on the superior curve of the sigmoid sinus wall intensified with increasing degree of stenosis and decreased with increasing distance between the stenosis and the sigmoid sinus. The impact zone was generally confined to the anterior and lateral walls of the superior curve of the sigmoid sinus. When the stenosis was located far from the middle of the transverse sinus, the blood flow impingement on the sigmoid sinus wall was very weak.

Conclusions: When stenosis is located far from the sigmoid sinus, the causes of tinnitus should be comprehensively considered instead of assuming that stenosis is the main cause. Bone plate erosion of the sigmoid sinus sulcus was promoted by blood flow impingement.

Key Points: • Ten idealized models with different degrees and positions of stenosis were constructed. • The causes of pulsatile tinnitus should be comprehensively considered. • Sigmoid sinus plate dehiscence was promoted by blood flow impingement.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00330-020-07630-xDOI Listing
January 2021

Quantifying fluorescent glycan uptake to elucidate strain-level variability in foraging behaviors of rumen bacteria.

Microbiome 2021 01 22;9(1):23. Epub 2021 Jan 22.

Lethbridge Research and Development Centre, Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, 5403-1st Avenue South, Lethbridge, Alberta, T1J 4B1, Canada.

Gut microbiomes, such as the microbial community that colonizes the rumen, have vast catabolic potential and play a vital role in host health and nutrition. By expanding our understanding of metabolic pathways in these ecosystems, we will garner foundational information for manipulating microbiome structure and function to influence host physiology. Currently, our knowledge of metabolic pathways relies heavily on inferences derived from metagenomics or culturing bacteria in vitro. However, novel approaches targeting specific cell physiologies can illuminate the functional potential encoded within microbial (meta)genomes to provide accurate assessments of metabolic abilities. Using fluorescently labeled polysaccharides, we visualized carbohydrate metabolism performed by single bacterial cells in a complex rumen sample, enabling a rapid assessment of their metabolic phenotype. Specifically, we identified bovine-adapted strains of Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron that metabolized yeast mannan in the rumen microbiome ex vivo and discerned the mechanistic differences between two distinct carbohydrate foraging behaviors, referred to as "medium grower" and "high grower." Using comparative whole-genome sequencing, RNA-seq, and carbohydrate-active enzyme fingerprinting, we could elucidate the strain-level variability in carbohydrate utilization systems of the two foraging behaviors to help predict individual strategies of nutrient acquisition. Here, we present a multi-faceted study using complimentary next-generation physiology and "omics" approaches to characterize microbial adaptation to a prebiotic in the rumen ecosystem. Video abstract.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s40168-020-00975-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7825182PMC
January 2021

Deep learning predicts postsurgical recurrence of hepatocellular carcinoma from digital histopathologic images.

Sci Rep 2021 Jan 21;11(1):2047. Epub 2021 Jan 21.

Center for Artificial Intelligence in Medicine and Imaging, Stanford University, 1701 Page Mill Road, Palo Alto, CA, 94304, USA.

Recurrence risk stratification of patients undergoing primary surgical resection for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is an area of active investigation, and several staging systems have been proposed to optimize treatment strategies. However, as many as 70% of patients still experience tumor recurrence at 5 years post-surgery. We developed and validated a deep learning-based system (HCC-SurvNet) that provides risk scores for disease recurrence after primary resection, directly from hematoxylin and eosin-stained digital whole-slide images of formalin-fixed, paraffin embedded liver resections. Our model achieved concordance indices of 0.724 and 0.683 on the internal and external test cohorts, respectively, exceeding the performance of the standard Tumor-Node-Metastasis classification system. The model's risk score stratified patients into low- and high-risk subgroups with statistically significant differences in their survival distributions, and was an independent risk factor for post-surgical recurrence in both test cohorts. Our results suggest that deep learning-based models can provide recurrence risk scores which may augment current patient stratification methods and help refine the clinical management of patients undergoing primary surgical resection for HCC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-81506-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7820423PMC
January 2021

Recurrent Neural Dynamics Models for Perturbed Nonstationary Quadratic Programs: A Control-Theoretical Perspective.

IEEE Trans Neural Netw Learn Syst 2021 Jan 15;PP. Epub 2021 Jan 15.

Recent decades have witnessed a trend that control-theoretical techniques are widely leveraged in various areas, e.g., design and analysis of computational models. Computational methods can be modeled as a controller and searching the equilibrium point of a dynamical system is identical to solving an algebraic equation. Thus, absorbing mature technologies in control theory and integrating it with neural dynamics models can lead to new achievements. This work makes progress along this direction by applying control-theoretical techniques to construct new recurrent neural dynamics for manipulating a perturbed nonstationary quadratic program (QP) with time-varying parameters considered. Specifically, to break the limitations of existing continuous-time models in handling nonstationary problems, a discrete recurrent neural dynamics model is proposed to robustly deal with noise. This work shows how iterative computational methods for solving nonstationary QP can be revisited, designed, and analyzed in a control framework. A modified Newton iteration model and an improved gradient-based neural dynamics are established by referring to the superior structural technology of the presented recurrent neural dynamics, where the chief breakthrough is their excellent convergence and robustness over the traditional models. Numerical experiments are conducted to show the eminence of the proposed models in solving perturbed nonstationary QP.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/TNNLS.2020.3041364DOI Listing
January 2021

Compact polarimetric heterodyning DBR fiber laser sensor with high temperature resistance.

Opt Lett 2021 Jan;46(2):218-221

We report on a short-cavity polarization beat-frequency distributed Bragg reflector (DBR) fiber laser that can operate in an unprecedentedly wide range of temperatures from -200 to 500°C. The beat-frequency signal inherited by the intrinsic fiber birefringence enables implementation of the laser as an eligible temperature or hydrostatic pressure sensor. Furthermore, type-IIa Bragg reflectors allow the annealing of high temperature on the laser cavity to suppress the phase noise of the lasing signal effectively. This research will guide future attempts to achieve high-precision sensing and high-performance signal generation using polarized beat-frequency DBR fiber lasers in harsh environments.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OL.413180DOI Listing
January 2021

Stimuli-Responsive Supramolecular Chirality Switching and Nanoassembly Constructed by n-Shaped Amphiphilic Molecules in Aqueous Solution.

Langmuir 2021 01 10;37(3):1215-1224. Epub 2021 Jan 10.

Department of Chemistry, National Demonstration Centre for Experimental Chemistry Education, Yanbian University, Yanji 133002, People's Republic of China.

Self-assembled nanomaterials composed of amphiphilic oligomers with functional groups have been applied in the fields of biomimetic chemistry and on-demand delivery systems. Herein, we report the assembly behavior and unique properties of an emergent n-shaped rod-coil molecule containing an azobenzene (AZO) group upon application of an external stimulus (thermal, UV light). The n-shaped amphiphilic molecules comprising an aromatic segment based on anthracene, phenyl linked with azobenzene groups, and hydrophilic oligoether (chiral) segments self-assemble into large strip-like sheets and perforated-nanocage fragments in an aqueous environment, depending on the flexible oligoether chains. Interestingly, the nano-objects formed in aqueous solution undergo a morphological transition from sheets and nanocages to small one-dimensional nanofibers. These molecules exhibit reversible photo- and thermal-responsiveness, accompanied by a change in the supramolecular chirality caused by the conformational transitions of the rod backbone. The architecture of n-shaped amphiphilic molecules with a photosensitive group makes them ideal candidates for intelligent materials for applications in advanced materials science.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.langmuir.0c03190DOI Listing
January 2021

[Segmental Zoster Paresis:Report of One Case and Literature Review].

Zhongguo Yi Xue Ke Xue Yuan Xue Bao 2020 Dec;42(6):836-839

Department of Tuina,Affiliated Hospital of Chengdu University of Traditional Chinese Medicine,Chengdu 610075,China.

Segmental zoster paresis(SZP)is a rare complication in herpes zoster infection,with its symptoms often neglected due to the co-existence of pain.Here we reported a case of SZP.Also,we analyzed 42 Chinese SZP cases in literature,which revealed that the male to female ratio of SZP patients was 13∶8,and the median age of disease onset was 65 years.The most commonly affected region is upper limb.The diagnosis depends mainly on typical medical history and clinical symptoms.Although there is no definite therapy for SZP,the antiviral therapy is the most commonly used treatment,which achieved complete recovery in 78.6% of the patients and partial recovery in 14.3% of the patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3881/j.issn.1000-503X.12181DOI Listing
December 2020

A validated model for prediction of survival to 6 months in patients with trisomy 13 and 18.

Am J Med Genet A 2021 03 6;185(3):806-813. Epub 2021 Jan 6.

Department of Pediatrics, Stanford University School of Medicine, Palo Alto, California, USA.

Congenital heart disease is exceedingly prevalent in trisomy 13 and 18. Improved survival following congenital heart surgery has been reported, however, mortality remains significantly elevated. Utilizing inpatient data on trisomy 13 and 18 from the 2003-2016 Pediatric Health Information System database, a survival model was developed and validated using data from the California Perinatal Quality Care Collaborative and the California Office of Statewide Health Planning and Development. The study cohort included 1,761 infants with trisomy 13 and 18. Two models predicting survival to 6 months of age were developed and tested. The initial model performed excellently, with a c-statistic of 0.87 and a c-statistic of 0.76 in the validation cohort. After excluding procedures performed on the day of death, the revised model's c-statistic was 0.76. Certain variables, including cardiac surgery, gastrostomy, parenteral nutrition, and mechanical ventilation, are predictive of survival to 6 months of age. This study presents a model, which potentially can inform decision-making regarding congenital heart surgery.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajmg.a.62044DOI Listing
March 2021

Effects of brewers' spent grain protein hydrolysates on gas production, ruminal fermentation characteristics, microbial protein synthesis and microbial community in an artificial rumen fed a high grain diet.

J Anim Sci Biotechnol 2021 Jan 4;12(1). Epub 2021 Jan 4.

Agriculture and Agri-Food of Canada, Lethbridge Research and Development Centre, Lethbridge, AB, T1J 4B1, Canada.

Background: Brewers' spent grain (BSG) typically contains 20% - 29% crude protein (CP) with high concentrations of glutamine, proline and hydrophobic and non-polar amino acid, making it an ideal material for producing value-added products like bioactive peptides which have antioxidant properties. For this study, protein was extracted from BSG, hydrolyzed with 1% alcalase and flavourzyme, with the generated protein hydrolysates (AlcH and FlaH) showing antioxidant activities. This study evaluated the effects of AlcH and FlaH on gas production, ruminal fermentation characteristics, nutrient disappearance, microbial protein synthesis and microbial community using an artificial rumen system (RUSITEC) fed a high-grain diet.

Results: As compared to the control of grain only, supplementation of FlaH decreased (P < 0.01) disappearances of dry matter (DM), organic matter (OM), CP and starch, without affecting fibre disappearances; while AlcH had no effect on nutrient disappearance. Neither AlcH nor FlaH affected gas production or VFA profiles, however they increased (P < 0.01) NH-N and decreased (P < 0.01) H production. Supplementation of FlaH decreased (P < 0.01) the percentage of CH in total gas and dissolved-CH (dCH) in dissolved gas. Addition of monensin reduced (P < 0.01) disappearance of nutrients, improved fermentation efficiency and reduced CH and H emissions. Total microbial nitrogen production was decreased (P < 0.05) but the proportion of feed particle associated (FPA) bacteria was increased with FlaH and monensin supplementation. Numbers of OTUs and Shannon diversity indices of FPA microbial community were unaffected by AlcH and FlaH; whereas both indices were reduced (P < 0.05) by monensin. Taxonomic analysis revealed no effect of AlcH and FlaH on the relative abundance (RA) of bacteria at phylum level, whereas monensin reduced (P < 0.05) the RA of Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes and enhanced Proteobacteria. Supplementation of FlaH enhanced (P < 0.05) the RA of genus Prevotella, reduced Selenomonas, Shuttleworthia, Bifidobacterium and Dialister as compared to control; monensin reduced (P < 0.05) RA of genus Prevotella but enhaced Succinivibrio.

Conclusions: The supplementation of FlaH in high-grain diets may potentially protect CP and starch from ruminal degradation, without adversely affecting fibre degradation and VFA profiles. It also showed promising effects on reducing CH production by suppressing H production. Protein enzymatic hydrolysates from BSG using flavourzyme showed potential application to high value-added bio-products.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s40104-020-00531-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7780661PMC
January 2021

Deep learning model for the prediction of microsatellite instability in colorectal cancer: a diagnostic study.

Lancet Oncol 2021 01;22(1):132-141

Department of Pathology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA, USA; Center for Artificial Intelligence in Medicine and Imaging, Stanford University, Stanford, CA, USA. Electronic address:

Background: Detecting microsatellite instability (MSI) in colorectal cancer is crucial for clinical decision making, as it identifies patients with differential treatment response and prognosis. Universal MSI testing is recommended, but many patients remain untested. A critical need exists for broadly accessible, cost-efficient tools to aid patient selection for testing. Here, we investigate the potential of a deep learning-based system for automated MSI prediction directly from haematoxylin and eosin (H&E)-stained whole-slide images (WSIs).

Methods: Our deep learning model (MSINet) was developed using 100 H&E-stained WSIs (50 with microsatellite stability [MSS] and 50 with MSI) scanned at 40× magnification, each from a patient randomly selected in a class-balanced manner from the pool of 343 patients who underwent primary colorectal cancer resection at Stanford University Medical Center (Stanford, CA, USA; internal dataset) between Jan 1, 2015, and Dec 31, 2017. We internally validated the model on a holdout test set (15 H&E-stained WSIs from 15 patients; seven cases with MSS and eight with MSI) and externally validated the model on 484 H&E-stained WSIs (402 cases with MSS and 77 with MSI; 479 patients) from The Cancer Genome Atlas, containing WSIs scanned at 40× and 20× magnification. Performance was primarily evaluated using the sensitivity, specificity, negative predictive value (NPV), and area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUROC). We compared the model's performance with that of five gastrointestinal pathologists on a class-balanced, randomly selected subset of 40× magnification WSIs from the external dataset (20 with MSS and 20 with MSI).

Findings: The MSINet model achieved an AUROC of 0·931 (95% CI 0·771-1·000) on the holdout test set from the internal dataset and 0·779 (0·720-0·838) on the external dataset. On the external dataset, using a sensitivity-weighted operating point, the model achieved an NPV of 93·7% (95% CI 90·3-96·2), sensitivity of 76·0% (64·8-85·1), and specificity of 66·6% (61·8-71·2). On the reader experiment (40 cases), the model achieved an AUROC of 0·865 (95% CI 0·735-0·995). The mean AUROC performance of the five pathologists was 0·605 (95% CI 0·453-0·757).

Interpretation: Our deep learning model exceeded the performance of experienced gastrointestinal pathologists at predicting MSI on H&E-stained WSIs. Within the current universal MSI testing paradigm, such a model might contribute value as an automated screening tool to triage patients for confirmatory testing, potentially reducing the number of tested patients, thereby resulting in substantial test-related labour and cost savings.

Funding: Stanford Cancer Institute and Stanford Departments of Pathology and Biomedical Data Science.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1470-2045(20)30535-0DOI Listing
January 2021

Enhancing Social Initiations Using Naturalistic Behavioral Intervention: Outcomes from a Randomized Controlled Trial for Children with Autism.

J Autism Dev Disord 2021 Jan 2. Epub 2021 Jan 2.

Division of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, School of Medicine, Stanford University, 401 Quarry Road, Stanford, CA, 94305-5719, USA.

Deficits in social skills are common in children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD), and there is an urgent need for effective social skills interventions, especially for improving interactions with typically developing peers. This study examined the effects of a naturalistic behavioral social skills intervention in improving social initiations to peers through a randomized controlled trial. Analyses of multimethod, multi-informant measures indicated that children in the active group (SIMI) demonstrated greater improvement in the types of initiations which were systematically prompted and reinforced during treatment (i.e., behavior regulation). Generalization to joint attention and social interaction initiation types, as well as collateral gains in broader social functioning on clinician- and parent-rated standardized measures were also observed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10803-020-04787-8DOI Listing
January 2021

Melatonin protects against oxybenzone-induced deterioration of mouse oocytes during maturation.

Aging (Albany NY) 2020 12 29;13(2):2727-2749. Epub 2020 Dec 29.

Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, Key Laboratory for Major Obstetric Diseases of Guangdong Province, Key Laboratory of Reproduction and Genetics of Guangdong Higher Education Institutes, The Third Affiliated Hospital of Guangzhou Medical University, Guangzhou 510150, Guangdong, China.

Oxybenzone (OBZ), an ultraviolet light filter that is widely used in sunscreens and cosmetics, is an emerging contaminant found in humans and the environment. Recent studies have shown that OBZ has been detected in women's plasma, urine, and breast milk. However, the effects of OBZ exposure on oocyte meiosis have not been addressed. In this study, we investigated the detrimental effects of OBZ on oocyte maturation and the protective roles of melatonin (MT) in OBZ-exposed mouse models. Our and results showed that OBZ suppressed oocyte maturation, while MT attenuated the meiotic defects induced by OBZ. In addition, OBZ facilitated H3K4 demethylation by increasing the expression of the Kdm5 family of genes, elevating ROS levels, decreasing GSH, impairing mitochondrial quality, and disrupting spindle configuration in oocytes. However, MT treatment resulted in significant protection against OBZ-induced damage during oocyte maturation and improved oocyte quality. The mechanisms underlying the beneficial roles of MT involved reduction of oxidative stress, inhibition of apoptosis, restoration of abnormal spindle assembly and up-regulation of H3K4me3. Collectively, our results suggest that MT protects against defects induced by OBZ during mouse oocyte maturation and .
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http://dx.doi.org/10.18632/aging.202323DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7880374PMC
December 2020

Deoiled sunflower seeds ameliorate depression by promoting the production of monoamine neurotransmitters and inhibiting oxidative stress.

Food Funct 2021 Jan 23;12(2):573-586. Epub 2020 Dec 23.

Institute of Nutrition and Health, School of Public Health, Qingdao University, Qingdao 266071, Shandong, China.

We aimed to evaluate the antidepressant activity of deoiled sunflower seeds (SFS), which are rich in tryptophan, in our mouse model and explored a possible mechanism of action. Male C57BL/6J mice were subjected to chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS) and were administered a diet containing SFS as the main protein source. SFS alleviated CUMS-induced depression-like behaviors, compared to the effects of a whey protein-based diet. This effect was related to increases in the levels of serotonin, dopamine, norepinephrine, acetylcholine, and brain-derived neurotrophic factor in SFS-fed mice. These changes accompanied the amelioration of inflammatory abnormalities and oxidative stress. SFS increased the aromatic amino acid levels, and the ratio of tryptophan to neutral amino acids. Furthermore, the antidepressant-like effects of SFS were involved in lipid, nucleotide, and amino acid metabolism. In summary, SFS was found to attenuate depression-like symptoms in mice. These antidepressant effects may be related to the increase in the levels of aromatic amino acids and neurotransmitters, amelioration of oxidative stress and inflammation, and the regulation of the levels of abnormal metabolites to the normal levels.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d0fo01978jDOI Listing
January 2021