Publications by authors named "Jimmy Lee"

239 Publications

Predicting Real-World Functioning in Schizophrenia: The Relative Contributions of Neurocognition, Functional Capacity, and Negative Symptoms.

Front Psychiatry 2021 19;12:639536. Epub 2021 Mar 19.

Research Division, Institute of Mental Health, Singapore, Singapore.

Neurocognition and functional capacity are commonly reported predictors of real-world functioning in schizophrenia. However, the additional impact of negative symptoms, specifically its subdomains, i.e., diminished expression (DE) and avolition-apathy (AA), on real-world functioning remains unclear. The current study assessed 58 individuals with schizophrenia. Neurocognition was assessed with the Brief Assessment of Cognition in Schizophrenia, functional capacity with the UCSD Performance-based Skills Assessment (UPSA-B), and negative symptoms with the Negative Symptom Assessment-16. Real-world functioning was assessed with the Multnomah Community Ability Scale (MCAS) with employment status as an additional objective outcome. Hierarchical regressions and sequential logistic regressions were used to examine the associations between the variables of interest. The results show that global negative symptoms contribute substantial additional variance in predicting MCAS and employment status above and beyond the variance accounted for by neurocognition and functional capacity. In addition, both AA and DE predict the MCAS after controlling for cognition and functional capacity. Only AA accounts for additional variance in employment status beyond that by UPSA-B. In summary, negative symptoms contribute substantial additional variance in predicting both real-world functioning and employment outcomes after accounting for neurocognition and functional capacity. Our findings emphasize both DE and AA as important treatment targets in functional recovery for people with schizophrenia.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpsyt.2021.639536DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8017150PMC
March 2021

N -methyladenosine modification of lncRNA Pvt1 governs epidermal stemness.

EMBO J 2021 Apr 17;40(8):e106276. Epub 2021 Mar 17.

Ben May Department for Cancer Research, The University of Chicago, Chicago, IL, USA.

Dynamic chemical modifications of RNA represent novel and fundamental mechanisms that regulate stemness and tissue homeostasis. Rejuvenation and wound repair of mammalian skin are sustained by epidermal progenitor cells, which are localized within the basal layer of the skin epidermis. N -methyladenosine (m A) is one of the most abundant modifications found in eukaryotic mRNA and lncRNA (long noncoding RNA). In this report, we survey changes of m A RNA methylomes upon epidermal differentiation and identify Pvt1, a lncRNA whose m A modification is critically involved in sustaining stemness of epidermal progenitor cells. With genome-editing and a mouse genetics approach, we show that ablation of m A methyltransferase or Pvt1 impairs the self-renewal and wound healing capability of skin. Mechanistically, methylation of Pvt1 transcripts enhances its interaction with MYC and stabilizes the MYC protein in epidermal progenitor cells. Our study presents a global view of epitranscriptomic dynamics that occur during epidermal differentiation and identifies the m A modification of Pvt1 as a key signaling event involved in skin tissue homeostasis and wound repair.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.15252/embj.2020106276DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8047438PMC
April 2021

A pulsatile release platform based on photo-induced imine-crosslinking hydrogel promotes scarless wound healing.

Nat Commun 2021 03 15;12(1):1670. Epub 2021 Mar 15.

The University of Chicago, Ben May Department for Cancer Research, Chicago, IL, 60637, USA.

Effective healing of skin wounds is essential for our survival. Although skin has strong regenerative potential, dysfunctional and disfiguring scars can result from aberrant wound repair. Skin scarring involves excessive deposition and misalignment of ECM (extracellular matrix), increased cellularity, and chronic inflammation. Transforming growth factor-β (TGFβ) signaling exerts pleiotropic effects on wound healing by regulating cell proliferation, migration, ECM production, and the immune response. Although blocking TGFβ signaling can reduce tissue fibrosis and scarring, systemic inhibition of TGFβ can lead to significant side effects and inhibit wound re-epithelization. In this study, we develop a wound dressing material based on an integrated photo-crosslinking strategy and a microcapsule platform with pulsatile release of TGF-β inhibitor to achieve spatiotemporal specificity for skin wounds. The material enhances skin wound closure while effectively suppressing scar formation in murine skin wounds and large animal preclinical models. Our study presents a strategy for scarless wound repair.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-021-21964-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7960722PMC
March 2021

HOPES: An Integrative Digital Phenotyping Platform for Data Collection, Monitoring, and Machine Learning.

J Med Internet Res 2021 03 15;23(3):e23984. Epub 2021 Mar 15.

Office for Healthcare Transformation, Ministry of Health, Singapore, Singapore.

The collection of data from a personal digital device to characterize current health conditions and behaviors that determine how an individual's health will evolve has been called digital phenotyping. In this paper, we describe the development of and early experiences with a comprehensive digital phenotyping platform: Health Outcomes through Positive Engagement and Self-Empowerment (HOPES). HOPES is based on the open-source Beiwe platform but adds a wider range of data collection, including the integration of wearable devices and further sensor collection from smartphones. Requirements were partly derived from a concurrent clinical trial for schizophrenia that required the development of significant capabilities in HOPES for security, privacy, ease of use, and scalability, based on a careful combination of public cloud and on-premises operation. We describe new data pipelines to clean, process, present, and analyze data. This includes a set of dashboards customized to the needs of research study operations and clinical care. A test use case for HOPES was described by analyzing the digital behavior of 22 participants during the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2196/23984DOI Listing
March 2021

Association Between Cardiovascular Risk Factors and Cognitive Impairment in People With Schizophrenia: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.

JAMA Psychiatry 2021 Mar 3. Epub 2021 Mar 3.

Zucker Hillside Hospital, Psychiatry Research, Northwell Health, Glen Oaks, New York.

Importance: Schizophrenia is associated with cognitive dysfunction and cardiovascular risk factors, including metabolic syndrome (MetS) and its constituent criteria. Cognitive dysfunction and cardiovascular risk factors can worsen cognition in the general population and may contribute to cognitive impairment in schizophrenia.

Objective: To study the association between cognitive dysfunction and cardiovascular risk factors and cognitive impairment in individuals with schizophrenia.

Data Sources: A search was conducted of Embase, Scopus, MEDLINE, PubMed, and Cochrane databases from inception to February 25, 2020, using terms that included synonyms of schizophrenia AND metabolic adversities AND cognitive function. Conference proceedings, clinical trial registries, and reference lists of relevant publications were also searched.

Study Selection: Studies were included that (1) examined cognitive functioning in patients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder; (2) investigated the association of cardiovascular disease risk factors, including MetS, diabetes, obesity, overweight, obesity or overweight, hypertension, dyslipidemia, and insulin resistance with outcomes; and (3) compared cognitive performance of patients with schizophrenia/schizoaffective disorder between those with vs without cardiovascular disease risk factors.

Data Extraction And Synthesis: Extraction of data was conducted by 2 to 3 independent reviewers per article. Data were meta-analyzed using a random-effects model.

Main Outcomes And Measures: The primary outcome was global cognition, defined as a test score using clinically validated measures of overall cognitive functioning.

Results: Twenty-seven studies involving 10 174 individuals with schizophrenia were included. Significantly greater global cognitive deficits were present in patients with schizophrenia who had MetS (13 studies; n = 2800; effect size [ES] = 0.31; 95% CI, 0.13-0.50; P = .001), diabetes (8 studies; n = 2976; ES = 0.32; 95% CI, 0.23-0.42; P < .001), or hypertension (5 studies; n = 1899; ES = 0.21; 95% CI, 0.11-0.31; P < .001); nonsignificantly greater deficits were present in patients with obesity (8 studies; n = 2779; P = .20), overweight (8 studies; n = 2825; P = .41), and insulin resistance (1 study; n = 193; P = .18). Worse performance in specific cognitive domains was associated with cognitive dysfunction and cardiovascular risk factors regarding 5 domains in patients with diabetes (ES range, 0.23 [95% CI, 0.12-0.33] to 0.40 [95% CI, 0.20-0.61]) and 4 domains with MetS (ES range, 0.15 [95% CI, 0.03-0.28] to 0.40 [95% CI, 0.20-0.61]) and hypertension (ES range, 0.15 [95% CI, 0.04-0.26] to 0.27 [95% CI, 0.15-0.39]).

Conclusions And Relevance: In this systematic review and meta-analysis, MetS, diabetes, and hypertension were significantly associated with global cognitive impairment in people with schizophrenia.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jamapsychiatry.2021.0015DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7931134PMC
March 2021

Fast searches of large collections of single-cell data using scfind.

Nat Methods 2021 03 1;18(3):262-271. Epub 2021 Mar 1.

Wellcome Sanger Institute, Wellcome Genome Campus, Hinxton, UK.

Single-cell technologies have made it possible to profile millions of cells, but for these resources to be useful they must be easy to query and access. To facilitate interactive and intuitive access to single-cell data we have developed scfind, a single-cell analysis tool that facilitates fast search of biologically or clinically relevant marker genes in cell atlases. Using transcriptome data from six mouse cell atlases, we show how scfind can be used to evaluate marker genes, perform in silico gating, and identify both cell-type-specific and housekeeping genes. Moreover, we have developed a subquery optimization routine to ensure that long and complex queries return meaningful results. To make scfind more user friendly, we use indices of PubMed abstracts and techniques from natural language processing to allow for arbitrary queries. Finally, we show how scfind can be used for multi-omics analyses by combining single-cell ATAC-seq data with transcriptome data.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41592-021-01076-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7116898PMC
March 2021

Inhibition of B-cell receptor signaling disrupts cell adhesion in mantle cell lymphoma via RAC2.

Blood Adv 2021 Jan;5(1):185-197

Blood Cell Development and Function Program, Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia, PA.

Inhibition of the B-cell receptor (BCR) signaling pathway is highly effective in B-cell neoplasia through Bruton tyrosine kinase inhibition by ibrutinib. Ibrutinib also disrupts cell adhesion between a tumor and its microenvironment. However, it is largely unknown how BCR signaling is linked to cell adhesion. We observed that intrinsic sensitivities of mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) cell lines to ibrutinib correlated well with their cell adhesion phenotype. RNA-sequencing revealed that BCR and cell adhesion signatures were simultaneously downregulated by ibrutinib in the ibrutinib-sensitive, but not ibrutinib-resistant, cells. Among the differentially expressed genes, RAC2, part of the BCR signature and a known regulator of cell adhesion, was downregulated at both the RNA and protein levels by ibrutinib only in sensitive cells. RAC2 physically associated with B-cell linker protein (BLNK), a BCR adaptor molecule, uniquely in sensitive cells. RAC2 reduction using RNA interference and CRISPR impaired cell adhesion, whereas RAC2 overexpression reversed ibrutinib-induced cell adhesion impairment. In a xenograft mouse model, mice treated with ibrutinib exhibited slower tumor growth, with reduced RAC2 expression in tissue. Finally, RAC2 was expressed in ∼65% of human primary MCL tumors, and RAC2 suppression by ibrutinib resulted in cell adhesion impairment. These findings, made with cell lines, a xenograft model, and human primary lymphoma tumors, uncover a novel link between BCR signaling and cell adhesion. This study highlights the importance of RAC2 and cell adhesion in MCL pathogenesis and drug development.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/bloodadvances.2020001665DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7805322PMC
January 2021

Association between wrist wearable digital markers and clinical status in Schizophrenia.

Gen Hosp Psychiatry 2021 Jan 23. Epub 2021 Jan 23.

Research Division, Institute of Mental Health, Singapore; Department of Psychosis, Institute of Mental Health, Singapore; Lee Kong Chian School of Medicine, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.genhosppsych.2021.01.003DOI Listing
January 2021

Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation in Hypogravity Simulation.

Aerosp Med Hum Perform 2021 Feb;92(2):106-112

Limited research exists into extraterrestrial CPR, despite the drive for interplanetary travel. This study investigated whether the terrestrial CPR method can provide quality external chest compressions (ECCs) in line with the 2015 UK resuscitation guidelines during ground-based hypogravity simulation. It also explored whether gender, weight, and fatigue influence CPR quality. There were 21 subjects who performed continuous ECCs for 5 min during ground-based hypogravity simulations of Mars (0.38 G) and the Moon (0.16 G), with Earths gravity (1 G) as the control. Subjects were unloaded using a body suspension device (BSD). ECC depth and rate, heart rate (HR), ventilation (V), oxygen uptake (Vo₂), and Borg scores were measured. ECC depth was lower in 0.38 G (42.9 9 mm) and 0.16 G (40.8 9 mm) compared to 1 G and did not meet current resuscitation guidelines. ECC rate was adequate in all gravity conditions. There were no differences in ECC depth and rate when comparing gender or weight. ECC depth trend showed a decrease by min 5 in 0.38 G and by min 2 in 0.16 G. Increases in HR, V, and Vo₂ were observed from CPR min 1 to min 5. The terrestrial method of CPR provides a consistent ECC rate but does not provide adequate ECC depths in simulated hypogravities. The results suggest that a mixed-gender space crew of varying bodyweights may not influence ECC quality. Extraterrestrial-specific CPR guidelines are warranted. With a move to increasing ECC rate, permitting lower ECC depths and substituting rescuers after 1 min in lunar gravity and 4 min in Martian gravity is recommended.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3357/AMHP.5733.2021DOI Listing
February 2021

Association between negative symptom domains and happiness in schizophrenia.

Gen Hosp Psychiatry 2021 Jan-Feb;68:83-89. Epub 2020 Dec 28.

Research Division, Institute of Mental Health, Singapore; North Region & Department of Psychosis, Institute of Mental Health, Singapore; Lee Kong Chian School of Medicine, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore.

Objective: The study aimed to examine the association between levels of self-reported happiness and different domains and subdomains of negative symptoms (NS), as well as symptomatic remission in schizophrenia.

Methods: 274 individuals with schizophrenia were assessed on the Subjective Happiness Scale (SHS), Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale and Clinical Assessment Interview for Negative Symptoms (CAINS). Multiple linear regressions were used to examine the association between levels of happiness and increasingly specific CAINS NS domains and subdomains, as well as symptomatic remission.

Results: 177 (64.6%) participants rated themselves as happy. NS, specifically motivation and pleasure related to social activities (MAP Social) (B=-0.402, t=-4.805, p<0.001), and depressive symptoms (B=-0.760, t=-7.102, p<0.001) were significantly associated with levels of happiness. Individuals in symptomatic remission rated themselves happier than those who were not in remission (mean composite SHS: 5.10 [SD=1.18] versus 4.61 [SD=1.16], p=0.002).

Conclusions: In this largest study on happiness in schizophrenia, we found that the MAP domain of NS, MAP social subdomain and depressive symptoms were significantly associated with levels of happiness. Additionally, individuals in symptomatic remission rated themselves happier than those who were not in remission. Symptom management remains important in the holistic care plan for individuals with schizophrenia.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.genhosppsych.2020.12.016DOI Listing
December 2020

Genetic liability in individuals at ultra-high risk of psychosis: A comparison study of 9 psychiatric traits.

PLoS One 2020 2;15(12):e0243104. Epub 2020 Dec 2.

Research Division, Institute of Mental Health, Singapore, Singapore.

Individuals at ultra-high risk (UHR) of psychosis are characterised by the emergence of attenuated psychotic symptoms and deterioration in functioning. In view of the high non-psychotic comorbidity and low rates of transition to psychosis, the specificity of the UHR status has been called into question. This study aims to (i) investigate if the UHR construct is associated with the genetic liability of schizophrenia or other psychiatric conditions; (ii) examine the ability of polygenic risk scores (PRS) to discriminate healthy controls from UHR, remission and conversion status. PRS was calculated for 210 youths (nUHR = 102, nControl = 108) recruited as part of the Longitudinal Youth at Risk Study (LYRIKS) using nine psychiatric traits derived from twelve large-scale psychiatric genome-wide association studies as discovery datasets. PRS was also examined to discriminate UHR-Healthy control status, and healthy controls from UHR remission and conversion status. Result indicated that schizophrenia PRS appears to best index the genetic liability of UHR, while trend level associations were observed for depression and cross-disorder PRS. Schizophrenia PRS discriminated healthy controls from UHR (R2 = 7.9%, p = 2.59 x 10-3, OR = 1.82), healthy controls from non-remitters (R2 = 8.1%, p = 4.90 x 10-4, OR = 1.90), and converters (R2 = 7.6%, p = 1.61 x 10-3, OR = 1.82), with modest predictive ability. A trend gradient increase in schizophrenia PRS was observed across categories. The association between schizophrenia PRS and UHR status supports the hypothesis that the schizophrenia polygenic liability indexes the risk for developing psychosis.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0243104PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7710117PMC
January 2021

No Evidence of Coronaviruses or Other Potentially Zoonotic Viruses in Sunda pangolins (Manis javanica) Entering the Wildlife Trade via Malaysia.

Ecohealth 2020 09 23;17(3):406-418. Epub 2020 Nov 23.

EcoHealth Alliance, 520 Eighth Avenue, Suite 1200, New York, NY, 10018, USA.

The legal and illegal trade in wildlife for food, medicine and other products is a globally significant threat to biodiversity that is also responsible for the emergence of pathogens that threaten human and livestock health and our global economy. Trade in wildlife likely played a role in the origin of COVID-19, and viruses closely related to SARS-CoV-2 have been identified in bats and pangolins, both traded widely. To investigate the possible role of pangolins as a source of potential zoonoses, we collected throat and rectal swabs from 334 Sunda pangolins (Manis javanica) confiscated in Peninsular Malaysia and Sabah between August 2009 and March 2019. Total nucleic acid was extracted for viral molecular screening using conventional PCR protocols used to routinely identify known and novel viruses in extensive prior sampling (> 50,000 mammals). No sample yielded a positive PCR result for any of the targeted viral families-Coronaviridae, Filoviridae, Flaviviridae, Orthomyxoviridae and Paramyxoviridae. In the light of recent reports of coronaviruses including a SARS-CoV-2-related virus in Sunda pangolins in China, the lack of any coronavirus detection in our 'upstream' market chain samples suggests that these detections in 'downstream' animals more plausibly reflect exposure to infected humans, wildlife or other animals within the wildlife trade network. While confirmatory serologic studies are needed, it is likely that Sunda pangolins are incidental hosts of coronaviruses. Our findings further support the importance of ending the trade in wildlife globally.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10393-020-01503-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7682123PMC
September 2020

Vocational Profile and Correlates of Employment in People With Schizophrenia: The Role of Avolition.

Front Psychiatry 2020 27;11:856. Epub 2020 Aug 27.

Research Division, Institute of Mental Health, Singapore, Singapore.

Objective: Employment was associated with recovery in individuals with schizophrenia. Our study aimed to delineate the vocational profile and investigate factors associated with likelihood of employment in individuals with schizophrenia.

Materials And Methods: 276 community dwelling outpatients with schizophrenia were recruited; 274 completed the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) and Brief Negative Symptom Scale (BNSS). Information on employment status, work outcomes and demographics were collected. Occupation was coded in accordance with the Singapore standard occupational classification. Either BNSS Motivation and Pleasure (MAP) and Emotional Expressivity (EE) or BNSS five-factor (Anhedonia, Asociality, Avolition, Blunted Affect, Alogia) were examined with PANSS factors and demographics in logistic regression with employment status and working full-time as outcome variables.

Results: One-hundred and twenty-seven (46.01%) participants were employed; 65 (51.18%) worked full-time. In the model with BNSS MAP-EE, MAP (=0.897, CI=0.854-0.941) and presence of physical comorbidity (=0.533, CI=0.304-0.937) were associated with reduced likelihood of employment; female sex (=0.286, CI=0.128 - 0.637) was associated with working part-time. In the model with BNSS five-factor, Avolition (=0.541, CI=0.440-0.666), and PANSS Positive (=0.924, CI=0.855-0.997) were associated with reduced likelihood of employment; female sex (=0.289, CI=0.126 - 0.662) and Avolition (=0.644, CI=0.475 - 0.872) were associated with working part-time.

Discussion: Our study described the vocational profile and correlates of employment in a developed urban Asian country. Negative symptoms, particularly MAP and Avolition, positive symptoms, and physical comorbidity reduced an individual's likelihood of employment, while female sex and Avolition were associated with working part-time. Efforts to identify and address these factors are necessary to encourage employment in individuals with schizophrenia.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpsyt.2020.00856DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7481460PMC
August 2020

Heat Stress and Thermal Perception amongst Healthcare Workers during the COVID-19 Pandemic in India and Singapore.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2020 Nov 3;17(21). Epub 2020 Nov 3.

Department of Physiology, Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine, National University of Singapore, Singapore 117593, Singapore.

The need for healthcare workers (HCWs) to wear personal protective equipment (PPE) during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic heightens their risk of thermal stress. We assessed the knowledge, attitudes, and practices of HCWs from India and Singapore regarding PPE usage and heat stress when performing treatment and care activities. One hundred sixty-five HCWs from India ( = 110) and Singapore ( = 55) participated in a survey. Thirty-seven HCWs from Singapore provided thermal comfort ratings before and after ice slurry ingestion. Differences in responses between India and Singapore HCWs were compared. A -value cut-off of 0.05 depicted statistical significance. Median wet-bulb globe temperature was higher in India (30.2 °C (interquartile range [IQR] 29.1-31.8 °C)) than in Singapore (22.0 °C (IQR 18.8-24.8 °C)) ( < 0.001). Respondents from both countries reported thirst ( = 144, 87%), excessive sweating ( = 145, 88%), exhaustion ( = 128, 78%), and desire to go to comfort zones ( = 136, 84%). In Singapore, reports of air-conditioning at worksites ( = 34, 62%), dedicated rest area availability ( = 55, 100%), and PPE removal during breaks ( = 54, 98.2%) were higher than in India ( = 27, 25%; = 46, 42%; and = 66, 60%, respectively) ( < 0.001). Median thermal comfort rating improved from 2 (IQR 1-2) to 0 (IQR 0-1) after ice slurry ingestion in Singapore ( < 0.001). HCWs are cognizant of the effects of heat stress but might not adopt best practices due to various constraints. Thermal stress management is better in Singapore than in India. Ice slurry ingestion is shown to be practical and effective in promoting thermal comfort. Adverse effects of heat stress on productivity and judgment of HCWs warrant further investigation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17218100DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7663197PMC
November 2020

Cognitive Subtyping in Schizophrenia: A Latent Profile Analysis.

Schizophr Bull 2020 Oct 24. Epub 2020 Oct 24.

Research Division, Institute of Mental Health, Singapore, Singapore.

Cognitive dysfunction is a core feature of schizophrenia. The subtyping of cognitive performance in schizophrenia may aid the refinement of disease heterogeneity. The literature on cognitive subtyping in schizophrenia, however, is limited by variable methodologies and neuropsychological tasks, lack of validation, and paucity of studies examining longitudinal stability of profiles. It is also unclear if cognitive profiles represent a single linear severity continuum or unique cognitive subtypes. Cognitive performance measured with the Brief Assessment of Cognition in Schizophrenia was analyzed in schizophrenia patients (n = 767). Healthy controls (n = 1012) were included as reference group. Latent profile analysis was performed in a schizophrenia discovery cohort (n = 659) and replicated in an independent cohort (n = 108). Longitudinal stability of cognitive profiles was evaluated with latent transition analysis in a 10-week follow-up cohort. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was carried out to investigate if cognitive profiles represent a unidimensional structure. A 4-profile solution was obtained from the discovery cohort and replicated in an independent cohort. It comprised of a "less-impaired" cognitive subtype, 2 subtypes with "intermediate cognitive impairment" differentiated by executive function performance, and a "globally impaired" cognitive subtype. This solution showed relative stability across time. CFA revealed that cognitive profiles are better explained by distinct meaningful profiles than a severity linear continuum. Associations between profiles and negative symptoms were observed. The subtyping of schizophrenia patients based on cognitive performance and its associations with symptomatology may aid phenotype refinement, mapping of specific biological mechanisms, and tailored clinical treatments.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/schbul/sbaa157DOI Listing
October 2020

Exploring the Role of Gut Bacteria in Health and Disease in Preterm Neonates.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2020 09 23;17(19). Epub 2020 Sep 23.

Novel Bacteria and Drug Discovery Research Group (NBDD), Microbiome and Bioresource Research Strength (MBRS), Jeffrey Cheah School of Medicine and Health Sciences, Monash University Malaysia, Bandar Sunway 47500, Selangor Darul Ehsan, Malaysia.

The mortality rate of very preterm infants with birth weight <1500 g is as high as 15%. The survivors till discharge have a high incidence of significant morbidity, which includes necrotising enterocolitis (NEC), early-onset neonatal sepsis (EONS) and late-onset neonatal sepsis (LONS). More than 25% of preterm births are associated with microbial invasion of amniotic cavity. The preterm gut microbiome subsequently undergoes an early disruption before achieving bacterial maturation. It is postulated that bacterial gut colonisation at birth and postnatal intestinal dysbacteriosis precede the development of NEC and LONS in very preterm infants. In fact, bacterial colonization patterns in preterm infants greatly differ from term infants due to maternal chorioamnionitis, gestational age, delivery method, feeding type, antibiotic exposure and the environment factor in neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). In this regard, this review provides an overview on the gut bacteria in preterm neonates' meconium and stool. More than 50% of preterm meconium contains bacteria and the proportion increases with lower gestational age. Researchers revealed that the gut bacterial diversity is reduced in preterm infants at risk for LONS and NEC. Nevertheless, the association between gut dysbacteriosis and NEC is inconclusive with regards to relative bacteria abundance and between-sample beta diversity indices. With most studies show a disruption of the Proteobacteria and Firmicutes preceding the NEC. Hence, this review sheds light on whether gut bacteria at birth either alone or in combination with postnatal gut dysbacteriosis are associated with mortality and the morbidity of LONS and NEC in very preterm infants.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17196963DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7579082PMC
September 2020

How mental health care should change as a consequence of the COVID-19 pandemic.

Lancet Psychiatry 2020 09 16;7(9):813-824. Epub 2020 Jul 16.

Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Institute of Psychiatry and Mental Health, Hospital General Universitario Gregorio Marañón, School of Medicine, Universidad Complutense, IiSGM, CIBERSAM, Madrid, Spain.

The unpredictability and uncertainty of the COVID-19 pandemic; the associated lockdowns, physical distancing, and other containment strategies; and the resulting economic breakdown could increase the risk of mental health problems and exacerbate health inequalities. Preliminary findings suggest adverse mental health effects in previously healthy people and especially in people with pre-existing mental health disorders. Despite the heterogeneity of worldwide health systems, efforts have been made to adapt the delivery of mental health care to the demands of COVID-19. Mental health concerns have been addressed via the public mental health response and by adapting mental health services, mostly focusing on infection control, modifying access to diagnosis and treatment, ensuring continuity of care for mental health service users, and paying attention to new cases of mental ill health and populations at high risk of mental health problems. Sustainable adaptations of delivery systems for mental health care should be developed by experts, clinicians, and service users, and should be specifically designed to mitigate disparities in health-care provision. Thorough and continuous assessment of health and service-use outcomes in mental health clinical practice will be crucial for defining which practices should be further developed and which discontinued. For this Position Paper, an international group of clinicians, mental health experts, and users of mental health services has come together to reflect on the challenges for mental health that COVID-19 poses. The interconnectedness of the world made society vulnerable to this infection, but it also provides the infrastructure to address previous system failings by disseminating good practices that can result in sustained, efficient, and equitable delivery of mental health-care delivery. Thus, the COVID-19 pandemic could be an opportunity to improve mental health services.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S2215-0366(20)30307-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7365642PMC
September 2020

Prognostic and Predictive Molecular Biomarkers in Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia.

J Mol Diagn 2020 09 29;22(9):1114-1125. Epub 2020 Jun 29.

Department of Pathology, Blood Cell Development and Function Program, Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. Electronic address:

Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is a malignancy of B cells with a variable clinical course. Prognostication is important to place patients into different risk categories for guiding decisions on clinical management, to treat or not to treat. Although several clinical, cytogenetic, and molecular parameters have been established, in the past decade, a tremendous understanding of molecular lesions has been obtained with the advent of high-throughput sequencing. Meanwhile, rapid advances in the understanding of the CLL oncogenic pathways have led to the development of small-molecule targeting signal transducers, Bruton tyrosine kinase and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase, as well as anti-apoptotic protein BCL2 apoptosis regulator. After an initial response to these targeted therapies, some patients develop resistance and experience disease progression. Novel gene mutations have been identified that account for some of the drug resistance mechanisms. This article focuses on the prognostic and predictive molecular biomarkers in CLL relevant to the molecular pathology practice, beginning with a review of well-established prognostic markers that have already been incorporated into major clinical guidelines, which will be followed by a discussion of emerging biomarkers that are expected to impact clinical practice soon in the future. Special emphasis will be put on predictive biomarkers related to newer targeted therapies in hopes that this review will serve as a useful reference for molecular diagnostic professionals, clinicians, as well as laboratory investigators and trainees.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jmoldx.2020.06.004DOI Listing
September 2020

Defining Occupational Competence and Occupational Identity in the Context of Recovery in Schizophrenia.

Am J Occup Ther 2020 Jul/Aug;74(4):7404205120p1-7404205120p11

Jimmy Lee, MBBS, is Psychiatrist and Senior Consultant, Department of Psychosis, Institute of Mental Health, and Associate Professor, Neuroscience and Mental Health, Lee Kong Chian School of Medicine, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore.

Importance: The Occupational Self Assessment (OSA) measures two constructs from the Model of Human Occupation: occupational competence and occupational identity. In the field of mental health, the recovery movement has sparked discussions about what constitutes personal, clinical, and functional recovery. However, how occupation-based terminologies are related to the recovery framework is unclear.

Objective: To elucidate how domains of recovery and psychological constructs are related to the OSA's constructs of occupational competence and occupational identity in order to inform occupational therapy practice in the recovery arena.

Design: Cross-sectional study.

Setting: Outpatient mental health unit.

Participants: Sixty-six community-dwelling adults with schizophrenia recruited through convenience sampling.

Outcomes And Measures: Participants completed the OSA and clinical, functional, and personal recovery assessments. They also completed five scales that measured psychological constructs of recovery such as hope, resilience, empowerment, internalized stigma, and subjective well-being. Participants also identified up to four OSA items that were priorities for change. Tests of association and multiple regression analyses were conducted to identify predictors of occupational competence and occupational identity.

Results: Personal recovery predicted occupational competence, whereas depressive symptoms and hope predicted occupational identity. Functional and clinical recovery did not predict occupational competence. The top three OSA priorities for change were performance items: "managing my finances," "concentrating on my tasks," and "taking care of myself."

Conclusions And Relevance: Occupational therapy interventions should not be limited to functional improvement. Instead, they should account for clients' affective states and seek to instill recovery-oriented psychological states such as hope and efficacy.

What This Article Adds: Occupational competence is achieved by enhancing personal states of self-efficacy in fulfilling valued occupations rather than through functional improvement. The top three occupations prioritized for change were performance tasks that were observable by service users and immediate caregivers. Empowering clients to partake in these everyday performance tasks such as finance management, concentrating on tasks, and self-care may pave the way to enhancing occupational competence and identity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5014/ajot.2020.034843DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7325417PMC
September 2020

Clozapine and COVID-19: The authors respond.

J Psychiatry Neurosci 2020 07;45(4):E1-E2

From the Metro South Addiction and Mental Health Service, Brisbane, Australia (Siskind); the University of Queensland, School of Clinical Medicine, Brisbane, Australia (Siskind, Myles); the Department of Psychiatry, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada (Honer); the University of Adelaide, School of Medicine, Adelaide, Australia (Clark, Kane); the The Zucker Hillside Hospital, Department of Psychiatry, Northwell Health, Glen Oaks, NY, USA (Correll, Kane); the Zucker School of Medicine at Hofstra/Northwell, Department of Psychiatry and Molecular Medicine, Hempstead, NY, USA (Correll); the Charité Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Berlin, Germany (Correll); the Department of Psychiatry, Psychotherapy and Psychosomatics of the University Augsburg, Augsburg, Germany (Hasan); the Institute of Psychiatry, Psychology & Neuroscience, King's College London, London, UK (Howes); the MRC London Institute of Medical Sciences, Hammersmith Hospital, London, UK (Howes, MacCabe); the Institute of Clinical Sciences (ICS), Faculty of Medicine, Imperial College London, London, UK (Howes); the Maryland Psychiatric Research Center, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USA (Kelly); the Bronx Westchester Medical Group, New York, USA (Laitman); the North Region & Department of Psychosis, Institute of Mental Health, Singapore (Lee); the Lee Kong Chian School of Medicine, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore (Lee); the Mental Health Centre Copenhagen, Copenhagen University Hospital, Copenhagen, Denmark (Nielsen); the Mental Health Service Noord-Holland-Noord, Alkmaar, The Netherlands (Schulte); the South London and Maudsley NHS Foundation Trust, Pharmacy Department, Maudsley Hospital, London, UK (Taylor); the University of Bordeaux, INSERM, Bordeaux Population Health Research Center, Bordeaux, France (Verdoux); the Menzies Health Institute Queensland, Griffith University, Brisbane, Australia (Wheeler); the MGH Schizophrenia Clinical and Research Program, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts, USA (Freudenreich); and the Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, USA (Freudenreich).

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1503/jpn.2045302DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7828928PMC
July 2020

Editorial: the new normal for refractive surgery.

Curr Opin Ophthalmol 2020 07;31(4):223-224

Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences, Montefiore Medical Center, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, New York, USA.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/ICU.0000000000000674DOI Listing
July 2020

Artificial intelligence in cornea, refractive, and cataract surgery.

Curr Opin Ophthalmol 2020 Jul;31(4):253-260

Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences, Montefiore Medical Center, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, New York City, New York.

Purpose Of Review: The subject of artificial intelligence has recently been responsible for the advancement of many industries including aspects of medicine and many of its subspecialties. Within ophthalmology, artificial intelligence technology has found ways of improving the diagnostic and therapeutic processes in cornea, glaucoma, retina, and cataract surgery. As demands on the modern ophthalmologist grow, artificial intelligence can be utilized to help address increased demands of modern medicine and ophthalmology by adding to the physician's clinical and surgical acumen. The purpose of this review is to highlight the integration of artificial intelligence into ophthalmology in recent years in the areas of cornea, refractive, and cataract surgery.

Recent Findings: Within the realms of cornea, refractive, and cataract surgery, artificial intelligence has played a major role in identifying ways of improving diagnostic detection. In keratoconus, artificial intelligence algorithms may help with the early detection of keratoconus and other ectatic disorders. In cataract surgery, artificial intelligence may help improve the performance of intraocular lens (IOL) calculation formulas. Further, with its potential integration into automated refraction devices, artificial intelligence can help provide an improved framework for IOL formula optimization that is more accurate and customized to a specific cataract surgeon.

Summary: The future of artificial intelligence in ophthalmology is a promising prospect. With continued advancement of mathematical and computational algorithms, corneal disease processes can be diagnosed sooner and IOL calculations can be made more accurate.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/ICU.0000000000000673DOI Listing
July 2020

Controlling the Structures, Flexibility, Conductivity Stability of Three-Dimensional Conductive Networks of Silver Nanoparticles/Carbon-Based Nanomaterials with Nanodispersion and their Application in Wearable Electronic Sensors.

Nanomaterials (Basel) 2020 May 25;10(5). Epub 2020 May 25.

Department of Fashion Business Administration, LEE-MING Institute of Technology, New Taipei City 24305, Taiwan.

This research has successfully synthesized highly flexible and conductive nanohybrid electrode films. Nanodispersion and stabilization of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) were achieved via non-covalent adsorption and with an organic polymeric dispersant and inorganic carbon-based nanomaterials-nano-carbon black (CB), carbon nanotubes (CNT), and graphene oxide (GO). The new polymeric dispersant-polyisobutylene--poly(oxyethylene)--polyisobutylene (PIB-POE-PIB) triblock copolymer-could stabilize AgNPs. Simultaneously, this stabilization was conducted through the addition of mixed organic/inorganic dispersants based on zero- (0D), one- (1D), and two-dimensional (2D) nanomaterials, namely CB, CNT, and GO. Furthermore, the dispersion solution was evenly coated/mixed onto polymeric substrates, and the products were heated. As a result, highly conductive thin-film materials (with a surface electrical resistance of approximately 10 Ω/sq) were eventually acquired. The results indicated that 2D carbon-based nanomaterials (GO) could stabilize AgNPs more effectively during their reductNion and, hence, generate particles with the smallest sizes, as the COO functional groups of GO are evenly distributed. The optimal AgNPs/PIB-POE-PIB/GO ratio was 20:20:1. Furthermore, the flexible electrode layers were successfully manufactured and applied in wearable electronic sensors to generate electrocardiograms (ECGs). ECGs were, thereafter, successfully obtained.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/nano10051009DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7281189PMC
May 2020

Clozapine Combination and Augmentation Strategies in Patients With Schizophrenia -Recommendations From an International Expert Survey Among the Treatment Response and Resistance in Psychosis (TRRIP) Working Group.

Schizophr Bull 2020 12;46(6):1459-1470

Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, University Hospital, LMU Munich, Munich, Germany.

Background: Evidence for the management of inadequate clinical response to clozapine in treatment-resistant schizophrenia is sparse. Accordingly, an international initiative was undertaken with the aim of developing consensus recommendations for treatment strategies for clozapine-refractory patients with schizophrenia.

Methods: We conducted an online survey among members of the Treatment Response and Resistance in Psychosis (TRRIP) working group. An agreement threshold of ≥75% (responses "agree" + "strongly agree") was set to define a first-round consensus. Questions achieving agreement or disagreement proportions of >50% in the first round, were re-presented to develop second-round final consensus recommendations.

Results: Forty-four (first round) and 49 (second round) of 63 TRRIP members participated. Expert recommendations at ≥75% agreement included raising clozapine plasma levels to ≥350 ng/ml for refractory positive, negative, and mixed symptoms. Where plasma level-guided dose escalation was ineffective for persistent positive symptoms, waiting for a delayed response was recommended. For clozapine-refractory positive symptoms, combination with a second antipsychotic (amisulpride and oral aripiprazole) and augmentation with ECT achieved consensus. For negative symptoms, waiting for a delayed response was recommended, and as an intervention for clozapine-refractory negative symptoms, clozapine augmentation with an antidepressant reached consensus. For clozapine-refractory suicidality, augmentation with antidepressants or mood-stabilizers, and ECT met consensus criteria. For clozapine-refractory aggression, augmentation with a mood-stabilizer or antipsychotic medication achieved consensus. Generally, cognitive-behavioral therapy and psychosocial interventions reached consensus.

Conclusions: Given the limited evidence from randomized trials of treatment strategies for clozapine-resistant schizophrenia (CRS), this consensus-based series of recommendations provides a framework for decision making to manage this challenging clinical situation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/schbul/sbaa060DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7846085PMC
December 2020

Consensus statement on the use of clozapine during the COVID-19 pandemic.

J Psychiatry Neurosci 2020 05;45(3):222-223

From the Metro South Addiction and Mental Health Service, Brisbane, Australia (Siskind); the University of Queensland, School of Clinical Medicine, Brisbane, Australia (Siskind, Myles); the Department of Psychiatry, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada (Honer); the University of Adelaide, School of Medicine, Adelaide, Australia (Clark, Kane); the The Zucker Hillside Hospital, Department of Psychiatry, Northwell Health, Glen Oaks, NY, USA (Correll, Kane); the Zucker School of Medicine at Hofstra/Northwell, Department of Psychiatry and Molecular Medicine, Hempstead, NY, USA (Correll); Charité Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Berlin, Germany (Correll); the Department of Psychiatry, Psychotherapy and Psychosomatics of the University Augsburg, Augsburg, Germany (Hassan); the Institute of Psychiatry, Psychology & Neuroscience, King's College London, London, UK (Howes, MacCabe); the MRC London Institute of Medical Sciences, Hammersmith Hospital, London, UK (Howes); the Institute of Clinical Sciences (ICS), Faculty of Medicine, Imperial College London, London, UK (Howes); the Maryland Psychiatric Research Center, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USA (Kelly); the Bronx Westchester Medical Group, New York, NY, USA (Laitman); the North Region & Department of Psychosis, Institute of Mental Health, Singapore (Lee); the Lee Kong Chian School of Medicine, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore (Lee); the Mental Health Centre Copenhagen, Copenhagen University Hospital, Copenhagen (Nielsen); the Mental Health Service Noord-Holland-Noord, Alkmaar, The Netherlands (Schulte); the South London and Maudsley NHS Foundation Trust, Pharmacy Department, Maudsley Hospital, London, UK (Taylor); the University of Bordeaux, INSERM, Bordeaux Population Health Research Center, Bordeaux, France (Verdoux); the Menzies Health Institute Queensland, Griffith University, Brisbane, Australia (Wheeler); the MGH Schizophrenia Clinical and Research Program, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA, USA (Freudenreich); and the Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA (Freudenreich).

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1503/jpn.200061DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7828973PMC
May 2020

The 3-year outcomes of corneal tattooing for severely disfigured corneas.

Int Ophthalmol 2020 Jul 21;40(7):1773-1779. Epub 2020 Mar 21.

Department of Ophthalmology, Myongji Hospital, Hanyang University College of Medicine, 55 Hwasu-Ro 14, Deokyang-Gu, Goyang-Si, Gyeonggi-Do, 10475, Korea.

Background: To evaluate the efficacy of corneal tattooing for various clinical applications.

Methods: The medical charts of 62 eyes of 62 patients who underwent corneal tattooing between March 2016 and August 2017 were retrospectively reviewed. The causes of opacity and various methods of corneal tattooing were analyzed.

Results: Among our 62 patients, 38 were males and 24 were females. Average age was 48.47 ± 15.30 (range, 12-74) years old. The mean follow-up period was 40.19 ± 2.34 (range, 36-43) months. The most common causes of corneal opacity were ocular trauma (33 eyes, 53.2%), prior retinal surgery (9 eyes, 14.5%), congenital etiologies (8 eyes, 12.9%) and measles (5 eyes, 8.0%). The most common associated ocular findings were strabismus (23 eyes, 37.0%), phthisis bulbi (17 eyes, 27.4%) and band keratopathy (13 eyes, 20.9%). Cosmetic outcomes improved without serious complications in all cases.

Conclusions: Corneal tattooing is a viable option with an expanding set of indications, such as discolored previous corneal tattoos, white pupil due to inoperable cataract with clear cornea and dense corneal opacities in blind eyes. Elective corneal tattooing seems to be a viable and convenient method to improve cosmesis with minimal complications and high patient satisfaction.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10792-020-01346-zDOI Listing
July 2020

Adsorption Performance for Reactive Blue 221 Dye of β-Chitosan/Polyamine Functionalized Graphene Oxide Hybrid Adsorbent with High Acid-Alkali Resistance Stability in Different Acid-Alkaline Environments.

Nanomaterials (Basel) 2020 Apr 14;10(4). Epub 2020 Apr 14.

Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Taiwan University of Science and Technology, Taipei 10607, Taiwan.

A hybrid material obtained by blending β-chitosan (CS) with triethylenetetramine-functionalized graphene oxide (TFGO) (CSGO), was used as an adsorbent for a reactive dye (C.I. Reactive Blue 221 Dye, RB221), and the adsorption and removal performances of unmodified CS and mix-modified CSGO were investigated and compared systematically at different pH values (2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, and 12). The adsorption capacities of CS and CSGO were 45.5 and 56.1 mg/g, respectively, at a pH of 2 and 5.4 and 37.2 mg/g, respectively, at a pH of 12. This indicates that TFGO was successfully introduced into CSGO, enabling π-π interactions and electrostatic attraction with the dye molecules. Additionally, benzene ring-shaped GO exhibited a high surface chemical stability, which was conducive to maintaining the stability of the acid and alkali resistance of the CSGO adsorbent. The RB221 adsorption performance of CS and CSGO at acidic condition (pH 3) and alkaline condition (pH 12) and different temperatures was investigated by calculating the adsorption kinetics and isotherms of adsorbents. Overall, the adsorption efficiency of CSGO was superior to that of CS; thus, CSGO is promising for the treatment of dye effluents in a wide pH range.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/nano10040748DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7221750PMC
April 2020

A Sec14 domain protein is required for photoautotrophic growth and chloroplast vesicle formation in .

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2020 04 3;117(16):9101-9111. Epub 2020 Apr 3.

Molecular Biophysics and Integrated Bioimaging Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720;

In eukaryotic photosynthetic organisms, the conversion of solar into chemical energy occurs in thylakoid membranes in the chloroplast. How thylakoid membranes are formed and maintained is poorly understood. However, previous observations of vesicles adjacent to the stromal side of the inner envelope membrane of the chloroplast suggest a possible role of membrane transport via vesicle trafficking from the inner envelope to the thylakoids. Here we show that the model plant has a chloroplast-localized Sec14-like protein (CPSFL1) that is necessary for photoautotrophic growth and vesicle formation at the inner envelope membrane of the chloroplast. The mutants are seedling lethal, show a defect in thylakoid structure, and lack chloroplast vesicles. Sec14 domain proteins are found only in eukaryotes and have been well characterized in yeast, where they regulate vesicle budding at the -Golgi network. Like the yeast Sec14p, CPSFL1 binds phosphatidylinositol phosphates (PIPs) and phosphatidic acid (PA) and acts as a phosphatidylinositol transfer protein in vitro, and expression of CPSFL1 can complement the yeast mutation. CPSFL1 can transfer PIP into PA-rich membrane bilayers in vitro, suggesting that CPSFL1 potentially facilitates vesicle formation by trafficking PA and/or PIP, known regulators of membrane trafficking between organellar subcompartments. These results underscore the role of vesicles in thylakoid biogenesis and/or maintenance. CPSFL1 appears to be an example of a eukaryotic cytosolic protein that has been coopted for a function in the chloroplast, an organelle derived from endosymbiosis of a cyanobacterium.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1916946117DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7183190PMC
April 2020

Consensus statement on the use of clozapine during the COVID-19 pandemic

J Psychiatry Neurosci 2020 04 3;45(4):200061. Epub 2020 Apr 3.

From the Metro South Addiction and Mental Health Service, Brisbane, Australia (Siskind); the University of Queensland, School of Clinical Medicine, Brisbane, Australia (Siskind, Myles); the Department of Psychiatry, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada (Honer); the University of Adelaide, School of Medicine, Adelaide, Australia (Clark, Kane); the The Zucker Hillside Hospital, Department of Psychiatry, Northwell Health, Glen Oaks, NY, USA (Correll, Kane); the Zucker School of Medicine at Hofstra/ Northwell, Department of Psychiatry and Molecular Medicine, Hempstead, NY, USA (Correll); Charité Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Berlin, Germany (Correll); the Department of Psychiatry, Psychotherapy and Psychosomatics of the University Augsburg, Augsburg, Germany (Hassan); the Institute of Psychiatry, Psychology & Neuroscience, King’s College London, London, UK (Howes, MacCabe); the MRC London Institute of Medical Sciences, Hammersmith Hospital, London, UK (Howes); the Institute of Clinical Sciences (ICS), Faculty of Medicine, Imperial College London, London, UK (Howes); the Maryland Psychiatric Research Center, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USA (Kelly); the Bronx Westchester Medical Group, New York, NY, USA (Laitman); the North Region & Department of Psychosis, Institute of Mental Health, Singapore (Lee); the Lee Kong Chian School of Medicine, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore (Lee); the Mental Health Centre Copenhagen, Copenhagen University Hospital, Copenhagen (Nielsen); the Mental Health Service Noord-Holland- Noord, Alkmaar, The Netherlands (Schulte); the South London and Maudsley NHS Foundation Trust, Pharmacy Department, Maudsley Hospital, London, UK (Taylor); the University of Bordeaux, INSERM, Bordeaux Population Health Research Center, Bordeaux, France (Verdoux); the Menzies Health Institute Queensland, Griffith University, Brisbane, Australia (Wheeler); the MGH Schizophrenia Clinical and Research Program, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA, USA (Freudenreich); and the Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA (Freudenreich)

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April 2020

Using the CHIME Personal Recovery Framework to Evaluate the Validity of the MHRM-10 in Individuals with Psychosis.

Psychiatr Q 2020 09;91(3):793-805

Research Division, Institute of Mental Health, Buangkok Green Medical Park, 10 Buangkok View, Singapore, Singapore.

The recovery movement has revealed that outcomes which focuses on just symptoms and functioning may not be holistic and that consumer-rated outcomes may contribute to a more holistic and person-centric care model. However, a brief and effective measure is required in clinical settings; hence, the aim of the current study is to evaluate the psychometric properties of the briefest personal recovery measure- Mental Health Recovery Measure-10 items, using the CHIME (Connectedness, Hope and optimism about the future, Identity, Meaning in life, Empowerment) personal recovery framework. 64 outpatients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder were assessed at two time points, 2 weeks apart. Data collected included sociodemographic information, MHRM-10, Psychological factors related to the CHIME framework, in respective order: RYFF subscale positive relations with others; Herth Hope Index (HHI); Internalized Stigma of Mental Illness (ISMI) and RYFF subscale self-acceptance; World Health Organization Quality of Life- BRIEF (WHOQOL-BREF); Empowerment, and Clinical factors- symptoms as measured by Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale, functioning (PSP) and depressive symptoms (CDSS). MHRM-10 demonstrated convergent validity with CHIME personal recovery psychological factors (all ρ > 0.5). MHRM-10 had excellent internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha = 0.904) and adequate test-retest reliability (ρ = 0.742, p < 0.001). Initial factor structure analysis revealed a one factor structure. The MHRM-10 is a valid instrument for use and can serve as a tool to facilitate a more collaborative and person-centric model of care for individuals with psychosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11126-020-09737-2DOI Listing
September 2020