Publications by authors named "Jimmy J Chan"

41 Publications

The Outcomes of Intra-Articular Distal Humerus Open Reduction Internal Fixation Using Parallel Precontoured Plates in the Elderly.

J Hand Surg Am 2022 Apr 7. Epub 2022 Apr 7.

Leni & Peter W. May Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Mount Sinai Hospital, New York, NY.

Purpose: Inconsistent outcomes have been reported in several prior studies of elderly patients with distal humerus fractures treated with open reduction and internal fixation (ORIF). We evaluated the outcomes of ORIF using modern precontoured plates exclusively in a parallel orientation.

Methods: A retrospective review was performed to identify the patients aged over 65 years who sustained an isolated distal humerus fracture between 2015 and 2019. We identified 22 patients who underwent distal humerus ORIF using parallel, precontoured locking plates. Electronic medical records were reviewed for demographic characteristics, physical examination findings, and radiographic data. Outcomes were assessed with Quick Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder, and Hand scores and Mayo Elbow Performance scores. Complications were evaluated by a review of the patient's medical record and postoperative radiographs.

Results: Of the included patients, 18 were women and 4 were men; the average age was 78 years (SD, 8.5 years), and the patients were followed for an average of 33 months. The sample consisted of 19 AO type C, 1 type B, and 2 type A fractures. At the final follow-up, the mean arc of total elbow flexion was 107° (SD, 18.9°; range 40° to 130°), with mean elbow flexion of 129° (SD, 11.7°; range, 120° to 140°) and mean extension of 22° (SD, 12.9°; range 0° to 90°). The mean Quick Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder, and Hand score was 19 (SD, 14.4), and the mean Mayo Elbow Performance score was 86 (SD, 10.2). Complications occurred in 5 (23%) patients, requiring 4 subsequent surgeries, of which 1 was a conversion to total elbow arthroplasty.

Conclusions: Older patients who underwent ORIF of the distal humerus using a parallel construct demonstrated good functional outcomes and similar complications to those in previously reported studies.

Type Of Study/level Of Evidence: Therapeutic IV.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhsa.2022.01.030DOI Listing
April 2022

Impact of COVID-19 Pandemic on Patients' Perceptions of Safety and Need for Elective Foot and Ankle Surgery in the United States.

Foot Ankle Orthop 2021 Apr 4;6(2):24730114211013788. Epub 2021 Jun 4.

Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, NY, USA.

Background: With the development of the COVID-19 pandemic, elective foot and ankle surgeries were delayed throughout the United States to divert health care resources and limit exposure. Little is known about the impact of COVID-19 on patient's willingness to proceed with elective procedures once restrictions are lifted and factors contributing to such decision.

Methods: Patients across 6 US orthopedic institutions who had their elective foot and ankle surgeries cancelled secondary to the pandemic were given a questionnaire. Specifically, patients were asked about their willingness to move forward with surgery once restrictions were lifted and if not why. Pain-level and pain medication use were also assessed. Univariate analysis was used to identify factors that contribute to patient's decisions.

Results: A total of 150 patients participated in this study. Twenty-one (14%) opted not to proceed with surgery once restrictions were lifted. Forty-three percent (n = 9) listed concern for COVID infection as the reason; however, 14% of them would proceed if procedures were performed in surgery center. Twenty-nine (19% of the total cohort) patients had increased pain and 11% of patients were taking more pain meds because of the delay to their procedure. Patients who decided not to proceed with surgery reported pain reduction (3% vs 14%) and lower increase in pain medication used (5% vs 12%).

Conclusion: COVID-19 has made a significant impact on the health care system. Delay of elective foot and ankle procedures impact patient quality of life and outcomes. Access to surgery centers may provide a partial solution during the pandemic.

Level Of Evidence: Level III.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/24730114211013788DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8702750PMC
April 2021

Epidemiology of Hand and Wrist Injuries in Collegiate-Level Athletes in the United States.

J Hand Surg Am 2021 Dec 8. Epub 2021 Dec 8.

Leni and Peter W. May Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, NY. Electronic address:

Purpose: Hand and wrist injuries are common among competitive athletes and can have a substantial impact on playing time and future participation. The purpose of this study was to provide epidemiological data from the National Collegiate Athletic Association Injury Surveillance Program to correlate injury diagnosis with the need for surgery and time loss.

Methods: Using the National Collegiate Athletic Association Injury Surveillance Program, this retrospective study extracted data of hand and wrist injuries for all 25 National Collegiate Athletic Association sports from the academic years 2004-2005 to 2013-2014. The "severe" category was defined as injuries resulting in the following: (1) surgery, (2) season-ending status, or (3) more than 30 days of playing time loss. The epidemiologic data included injury rate per 100,000 athlete exposures (defined as 1 athlete participating in 1 practice or competition) based on diagnoses and demographic information such as sports and sex. We used a Poisson regression model to estimate the incidence rate and 95% confidence interval.

Results: Overall, 4,851 hand injuries were identified, with an injury rate of 41.2 per 100,000 athlete exposures. The most common diagnoses were metacarpal or phalangeal fractures (19.9%), lacerations or contusions (15.4%), and wrist sprains (14.7%). The surgical rate was 9.6%, and the season-ending rate was 5.8%. Severe injuries occurred in 17.5% of the hand and wrist injuries; within this subset, the most common diagnoses included metacarpal or phalangeal fractures (43.8%), scaphoid fractures (12.8%), and thumb ulnar collateral ligament tears (8.7%). Scaphoid fractures and metacarpal or phalangeal fractures had the highest surgical rate and season-ending rate among all the injuries.

Conclusions: The injury rate of hand and wrist injuries is comparable with those of other common sports injuries. Approximately one fifth of the injuries were considered severe, which led to a high surgical rate, and these had a considerable impact on the athletes' ability to finish the season. Type of study/level of evidence Outcome research level II.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhsa.2021.10.011DOI Listing
December 2021

Economic impact of Comorbidities in Total Ankle Arthroplasty and Ankle Arthrodesis.

Orthop Traumatol Surg Res 2021 Oct 24:103133. Epub 2021 Oct 24.

Leni and Peter W. May Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, NY, USA. Electronic address:

Background: The demand for total ankle arthroplasty (TAA) and ankle arthrodesis surgery is increasing. Findings from other orthopaedic populations suggest an increasing comorbidity burden among those planned for surgery, however, data on TAA and ankle arthrodesis is limited. The goal of this study is to study the comorbidity burden for TAA and ankle arthrodesis.

Hypothesis: Comorbidity burden is associated with higher resource utilization for both TAA and ankle arthrodesis.

Patients And Methods:  This retrospective cohort study utilized data from the nationwide Premier Healthcare Database (2006-2016) which contains inpatient claims on N=10,085 ankle arthrodesis and N=4,977 TAA procedures. Patients were categorized into Deyo-Charlson comorbidity index (DCCI) groups. Outcomes were cost of hospitalization, length of stay (LOS), total opioid utilization, discharge to a skilled nursing facility (SNF), and 30-day readmission. Mixed-effects models estimated associations between DCCI and outcomes. We report odds ratios (OR, or % change for continuous outcomes) and 95% confidence intervals (CI).

Results:  In the TAA group, 67.9% of patients were in DCCI category 0 while 22.4%, 6.6%, and 3.1% were in the 1, 2, and >2 DCCI categories, respectively. This was 61.3%, 18.1%, 9.8% and 10.9% in the ankle arthrodesis group. The most common comorbidities were obesity, diabetes mellitus, and chronic pulmonary disease. Particularly in the ankle arthrodesis group, the proportion of patients with comorbidities has increased over time. After adjustment for relevant covariates, patients in the DCCI group >2 (compared to '0') were associated with stepwise effects of up to 77.1% (CI 70.9%; 83.6%) longer length of stay and up to 48.5% (CI 44.0%; 53.2%) higher cost of hospitalization.

Discussions:  Comorbidity burden is increasing among patients undergoing ankle arthrodesis where it is associated with significantly increased resource utilization. Our data demonstrate the potential impact of patient selection, which may be crucial in optimizing preoperative status.

Level Of Evidence: III.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.otsr.2021.103133DOI Listing
October 2021

Surgical Management of Complex Adult Monteggia Fractures.

J Hand Surg Am 2021 11 7;46(11):1006-1015. Epub 2021 Sep 7.

Department of Orthopedics, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, NY. Electronic address:

Monteggia fractures classically involve a proximal ulna fracture with an associated radial head dislocation. The presence of radial head/neck fracture and comminution of the proximal ulna with coronoid involvement elevates the complexity of surgical reconstruction considerably. The Jupiter classification captures this injury pattern as a subgroup of Bado posterior Monteggia lesions. Access to the critical coronoid fragment can be problematic from the posterior approach and may result in tenuous reduction and fixation, directly affecting the functional outcome. Multiple operative techniques have been described to address the broad spectrum of injuries seen in Monteggia fractures. This article will cover commonly used fixation techniques for Monteggia fractures with a comprehensive literature review, including technical tips, outcomes, and complications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhsa.2021.07.023DOI Listing
November 2021

Peripheral nerve block use in ankle arthroplasty and ankle arthrodesis: utilization patterns and impact on outcomes.

J Anesth 2021 12 4;35(6):879-888. Epub 2021 Sep 4.

Leni and Peter W. May Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, 425 West 59th Street, 5th Floor, New York, NY, 10019, USA.

Purpose: Ankle arthrodesis and total ankle arthroplasty (TAA) are often associated with significant postoperative pain. While this may be mitigated by the use of peripheral nerve blocks (PNB), large-scale data are lacking. Using national data, we aimed to evaluate PNB utilization pattern and its impact on outcomes.

Methods: This retrospective cohort study utilized data from the nationwide database (2006-2016) on TAA (n = 5,290) and ankle arthrodesis (n = 14,709) procedures. PNB use was defined from billing; outcomes included opioid utilization, length and cost of stay, discharge to a skilled nurse facility, and opioid-related complications. Mixed-effects models estimated the association between PNB use and outcomes, separate by procedure type and inpatient/outpatient setting. We report odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals (CI).

Results: Overall, PNB was utilized in 8.7% of TAA and 9.9% of ankle arthrodesis procedures, with increased utilization from 2006 to 2016 of 2.6% to 11.3% and 5.2% to 12.0%, respectively. After adjustment for relevant covariates, PNB use was significantly associated with decreased total opioid utilization specifically in the inpatient setting in TAA ( - 16.9% CI  - 23.9%;  - 9.1%) and ankle arthrodesis procedures ( - 18.9% CI  - 24.4;  - 13.0%), this was particularly driven by a decrease in opioid utilization on the day of surgery. No clinically relevant effects were observed for other outcomes.

Conclusion: PNB utilization is associated with substantial reductions in opioid utilization, particularly in the inpatient setting. Our study is in support of a wider use of this analgesic technique, which may translate into more benefits in terms of clinical outcomes and resource utilization.

Level Of Evidence: III.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00540-021-02994-wDOI Listing
December 2021

Epidemiology of Severe Foot Injuries in US Collegiate Athletes.

Orthop J Sports Med 2021 Apr 23;9(4):23259671211001131. Epub 2021 Apr 23.

Department of Orthopedic Surgery, University of Miami, Miami, Florida, USA.

Background: The effects of foot injuries on collegiate athletes in the United States are of interest because of the short 5-year eligibility period in the National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA).

Purpose: To discuss the epidemiology of severe NCAA foot injuries sustained over 10 years in 25 sports.

Study Design: Descriptive epidemiology study.

Methods: We utilized the NCAA Injury Surveillance System, which prospectively collects deidentified injury data for collegiate athletes. Severe injuries were classified as season- or career-ending injuries, injuries with >30-day time loss, or injuries requiring operative treatment. Injury rates (IRs) were analyzed per 100,000 athlete-exposures.

Results: Of 3607 total foot injuries, 18.71% (n = 675) were classified as severe, with an IR of 5.73 per 100,000 athletic-exposures. For all severe injuries, the operative rate was 24.3%, the season-ending rate 37.0%, and the career-ending rate 4.4%. The proportion of recurrent injuries was 13.9%. Men's sports with the highest severe foot IRs were basketball (IR = 10.71), indoor track (IR = 7.16), and football (IR = 7.08). Women's sports with the highest severe foot IRs were cross-country (IR = 17.15), gymnastics (IR = 14.76), and outdoor track (IR = 14.65). Among all severe foot injuries, the most common was a fifth metatarsal fracture. The highest contact/noncontact injury ratios were phalangeal fracture, turf toe, and Lisfranc injury. The severe injuries with the highest operative rates were Lisfranc injuries, fifth metatarsal fractures, and midfoot fractures. The severe injuries associated with the highest season-ending IRs were Lisfranc injury, midfoot fracture, and general metatarsal fractures. Severe flexor/extensor injuries had the highest career-ending IRs, followed by turf toe. Severe injuries with the highest median time loss were sesamoidal fractures, calcaneal fractures, and plantar fascial injuries.

Conclusion: Of all collegiate foot injuries sustained over a 10-year period, 18.7% were characterized as severe, and 24.3% of severe injuries required surgery. Basketball was the men's sport with the highest severe IR, and cross-country was the women's sport with the highest severe IR. Overall, female athletes experienced slightly higher severe foot IRs as compared with male athletes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/23259671211001131DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8076772PMC
April 2021

Epidemiology of Acute Extensor Mechanism Injuries in Collegiate-Level Athletes in the United States.

Sports Health 2022 Mar-Apr;14(2):262-272. Epub 2021 May 8.

Leni and Peter W. May Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, New York.

Background: Extensor mechanism injuries involving the quadriceps tendon, patella, or patellar tendon can be a devastating setback for athletes. Despite the potential severity and relative frequency with which these injuries occur, large-scale epidemiological data on collegiate-level athletes are lacking.

Study Design: Descriptive epidemiology study.

Level Of Evidence: Level 4.

Methods: Knee extensor mechanism injuries across 16 sports among National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) men and women during the 2004-2005 to 2013-2014 academic years were analyzed using the NCAA Injury Surveillance Program (NCAA-ISP). Extensor mechanism injuries per 100,000 athlete-exposures (AEs), operative rate, annual injury and reinjury rates, in-season status (pre-/regular/postseason), and time lost were compiled and calculated.

Results: A total of 11,778,265 AEs were identified and included in the study. Overall, 1,748 extensor mechanism injuries were identified, with an injury rate (IR) of 14.84 (per 100,000 AEs). N = 114 (6.5%) injuries were classified as severe injuries with a relatively higher median time loss (44 days) and operative risk (18.42%). Male athletes had higher risk of season-ending injuries in both all (3.20% vs 0.89%, < 0.01) and severe (41.54% vs 16.33%, < 0.01) extensor mechanism injuries. Similarly, contact injuries were more frequently season-ending injuries (4.44% vs 1.69%, = 0.01). Women's soccer (IR = 2.59), women's field hockey (IR = 2.15), and women's cross country (IR = 2.14) were the sports with the highest rate of severe extensor mechanism injuries.

Conclusion: Extensor mechanism injuries in collegiate athletes represent a significant set of injuries both in terms of volume and potentially to their athletic careers. Male athletes and contact injuries appear to have a greater risk of severe injuries. Injuries defined as severe had a higher risk of operative intervention and greater amount of missed playing time.

Clinical Relevance: Knowledge of the epidemiology of extensor mechanism injuries may help clinicians guide their athlete patients in sports-related injury prevention and management.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/19417381211012969DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8883418PMC
February 2022

Safety of Tranexamic Acid in Hip and Knee Arthroplasty in High-risk Patients.

Anesthesiology 2021 07;135(1):57-68

Background: With increasing use of tranexamic acid in total hip and knee arthroplasties, safety concerns remain. Using national claims data, this study examined tranexamic acid use in patients with preexisting comorbidities. The hypothesis was that tranexamic acid use is not associated with increased complication risk in hip and knee arthroplasty patients with comorbidities.

Methods: Among 765,011 total hip/knee arthroplasties (2013 to 2016, Premier Healthcare claims), tranexamic acid use was assessed in three high-risk groups: group I with patients with a history of venous thromboembolism, myocardial infarction, seizures, or ischemic stroke/transient ischemic attack (n = 27,890); group II with renal disease (n = 44,608); and group III with atrial fibrillation (n = 45,952). The coprimary outcomes were blood transfusion and new-onset "composite complications" (venous thromboembolism, myocardial infarction, seizures, and ischemic stroke/transient ischemic attack). Associations between tranexamic acid use and outcomes were measured separately by high-risk group. The odds ratios and Bonferroni-adjusted 99.9% CIs are reported.

Results: Overall, 404,974 patients (52.9%) received tranexamic acid, with similar frequencies across high-risk groups I (13,004 of 27,890 [46.6%]), II (22,424 of 44,608 [50.3%]), and III (22,379 of 45,952 [48.7%]). Tranexamic acid use was associated with decreased odds of blood transfusion in high-risk groups I (721 of 13,004 [5.5%] vs. 2,293 of 14,886 [15.4%]; odds ratio, 0.307; 99.9% CI, 0.258 to 0.366), group II (2,045 of 22,424 [9.1%] vs. 5,159 of 22,184 [23.3%]; odds ratio, 0.315; 99.9% CI, 0.263 to 0.378), and group III (1,325 of 22,379 [5.9%] vs. 3,773 of 23,573 [16.0%]; odds ratio, 0.321; 99.9% CI, 0.266 to 0.389); all adjusted comparisons P < 0.001. No increased odds of composite complications were observed in high-risk group I (129 of 13,004 [1.0%] vs. 239 of 14,886 [1.6%]; odds ratio, 0.89, 99.9% CI, 0.49 to 1.59), group II (238 of 22,424 [1.1%] vs. 369 of 22,184 [1.7%]; odds ratio, 0.98; 99.9% CI, 0.58 to 1.67), and group III (187 of 22,379 [0.8%] vs. 290 of 23,573 [1.2%]; odds ratio, 0.93; 99.9% CI, 0.54 to 1.61); all adjusted comparisons P > 0.999.

Conclusions: Although effective in reducing blood transfusions, tranexamic acid is not associated with increased complications, irrespective of patient high-risk status at baseline.

Editor’s Perspective:
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/ALN.0000000000003772DOI Listing
July 2021

Enhanced Recovery After Surgery Protocols in Lower Extremity Joint Arthroplasty: Using Observational Data to Identify the Optimal Combination of Components.

J Arthroplasty 2021 08 5;36(8):2722-2728. Epub 2021 Mar 5.

Leni and Peter W. May Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, NY.

Background: Enhanced recovery after surgery (ERAS) protocols are increasingly used in orthopedic surgery. Data are lacking on which combinations of ERAS components are (1) the most commonly used and (2) the most effective in terms of outcomes.

Methods: This retrospective cohort study utilized claims data (Premier Healthcare, n = 1,539,432 total joint arthroplasties, 2006-2016). Eight ERAS components were defined: (A) regional anesthesia, (B) multimodal analgesia, (C) tranexamic acid, (D) antiemetics on day of surgery, (E) early physical therapy, and avoidance of (F) urinary catheters, (G) patient-controlled analgesia, and (H) drains. Outcomes were length of stay, "any complication," and hospitalization cost. Mixed-effects models measured associations between the most common ERAS combinations and outcomes. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) are reported.

Results: In 2006-2012 and 2013-2016, the most common ERAS combinations were B/D/E/F/G/H (20%, n = 172,397) and B/C/D/E/F/G/H (17%, n = 120,266), respectively. The only difference between the most commonly used ERAS combinations over the years is the addition of C (addition of tranexamic acid to the protocol). The most pronounced beneficial effects in 2006-2012 were seen for combination A/B/D/E/F/G/H (6% of cases vs less prevalent ERAS combinations) for the outcome of "any complication" (OR 0.87, CI 0.83-0.91, P < .0001). In 2013-2016, the strongest effects were seen for combination B/C/D/E/F/G/H (17% of cases) also for the outcome of "any complication" (OR 0.86, CI 0.83-0.89, P < .0001). Relatively minor differences existed between ERAS protocols for the other outcomes.

Conclusion: Despite varying ERAS protocols, maximum benefits in terms of complication reduction differed minimally. Further study may elucidate the balance between an increasing number of ERAS components and incremental benefits realized.

Level Of Evidence: III.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.arth.2021.03.003DOI Listing
August 2021

The Accessory Medial Portal for Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction: A Safe Zone to Avoid Neurovascular Complications.

Orthop J Sports Med 2020 Sep 25;8(9):2325967120952674. Epub 2020 Sep 25.

Orthopaedic Foundation, Stamford, Connecticut, USA.

Background: The accessory medial portal (AMP) used for anatomic anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR) is gaining popularity. This portal is routinely created at 60° of knee flexion, placing the infrapatellar branch of the saphenous nerve (IBSN) and, less commonly, the descending and superior medial genicular arteries at risk.

Purpose/hypothesis: The purpose of this study was to identify a safe zone for AMP placement in ACLR to minimize the risk of injury to the IBSN. We hypothesized that increased knee flexion angles would decrease the risk to neurovascular structures when creating an AMP.

Study Design: Descriptive laboratory study.

Methods: A total of 20 cadaveric (10 matched pairs) knees were used for dissection to identify the IBSN and other neurovascular structures. A 30° arthroscope was used to make the central medial portal and AMP at 3 knee flexion angles (60°, 90°, and 110°). Distances were measured from the AMP to branches of the IBSN. Safety of AMP placement was analyzed by assessing the frequency at which spinal needles pierced a neurovascular structure or violated a safe zone.

Results: The superior IBSN was significantly closer to the AMP than inferior IBSN. The AMP was significantly farther from the superior IBSN at 110° (8.56 ± 5.28 mm) compared with 60° (5.63 ± 5.00 mm; = .015) and 90° (6.69 ± 5.03 mm; = .006). A triangular safe zone was identified at 110° of knee flexion. No neurovascular structures were pierced, and the IBSN was not present in the safe zone. At 90°, the IBSN was not pierced; however, the IBSN did violate the safe zone at 90° of knee flexion.

Conclusion: The superior IBSN is at risk for iatrogenic injury with an AMP placed at 60° of knee flexion. The nerve moved distally with knee flexion. While no neurovascular structures were compromised at 90° of knee flexion, the nerve was found to course through the safe zone. A safe zone at 110° of knee flexion decreases the risk of neurovascular injury and makes the AMP safe for ACLR.

Clinical Relevance: The AMP at 60° of knee flexion for ACLR poses risk to the IBSN. The IBSN did violate the safe zone at 90° of flexion. We recommend creating an AMP with increased knee flexion to 110° to decrease the risk of iatrogenic injury. When establishing an AMP, one should aim for the center of the defined safe zone, given that the spinal needle used in this study has a smaller diameter than a stab incision.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/2325967120952674DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7522840PMC
September 2020

Distraction Arthroplasty as Acute and Definitive Treatment for Open Ankle Fracture Dislocation.

Orthopedics 2021 Jan 1;44(1):e148-e150. Epub 2020 Oct 1.

A 73-year-old woman with significant medical comorbidities presented with a grade I open left ankle fracture dislocation. Distraction arthroplasty was used as a definitive treatment for this injury. The patient tolerated the procedure and had no postoperative complications. The external fixator was removed at 6 months. The patient maintained good ankle function at the 1-year postoperative visit. Distraction arthroplasty is a viable acute and definitive treatment option for ankle fracture in patients with significant medical comorbidities. [Orthopedics. 2021;44(1):e148-e150.].
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3928/01477447-20200923-07DOI Listing
January 2021

Peripheral nerve block use in inpatient and outpatient shoulder arthroplasty: a population-based study evaluating utilization and outcomes.

Reg Anesth Pain Med 2020 10 3;45(10):818-825. Epub 2020 Aug 3.

Department of Orthopedics, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, New York, USA.

Background: Peripheral nerve block (PNB) is an effective pain management option after shoulder arthroplasty with increasing popularity over the past decade. Large-scale US data in shoulder arthroplasties are lacking, especially regarding impacts on opioid utilization. This population-based study aimed to evaluate PNB utilization patterns and their effect on outcomes after inpatient and outpatient shoulder arthroplasty.

Methods: This retrospective cohort study used data from the nationwide Premier Healthcare claims database (2006-2016). This study includes n=94 787 and n=3293 inpatient and outpatient (total, reverse and partial) shoulder arthroplasty procedures. Multivariable mixed-effects models estimated associations between PNB use and opioid utilization in oral morphine equivalents and cost of hospitalization/stay. For the inpatient group, additional outcome measures were length of stay (LOS), admission to a skilled nurse facility, 30-day readmission, combined complications and naloxone use (as a proxy for opioid-related complications). We report OR (or % change for continuous variables) and 95% CIs.

Results: Overall, PNB was used in 19.1% (n=18 144) and 20.8% (n=685) of inpatient and outpatient shoulder arthroplasties, respectively, with an increasing trend for inpatient procedures. PNB utilization was consistently associated with lower (up to -14.0%, 95% CI -15.4% to -12.5% decrease, with median 100 and 90 oral morphine equivalents for inpatient and outpatient procedures) opioid utilization on the day of surgery with more potent effects seen for inpatient shoulder arthroplasties. Other outcomes were minimally impacted.

Discussion: In this first national study on PNB use in shoulder arthroplasty, we found increasing PNB use among specifically, inpatient procedures, resulting in particularly reduced opioid use on the day of surgery. While our findings may support PNB use in shoulder arthroplasty, its current low utilization and trends towards more outpatient procedures necessitate continuous monitoring of more extensive benefits.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/rapm-2020-101522DOI Listing
October 2020

Arthroscopic Onlay Articular Margin Biceps Tenodesis for Long Head of the Biceps Tendon Pathology.

Arthrosc Tech 2020 Jul 18;9(7):e959-e963. Epub 2020 Jun 18.

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, New York, New York, U.S.A.

The long head of the biceps (LHB) tendon is a common source of shoulder pain. LHB tendon pathology typically occurs with concomitant rotator cuff or labrum injuries but can occasionally occur in isolation as biceps tendinopathy or rupture. Tenodesis has been increasingly used to treat LHB tendon pathology, and numerous techniques have been developed that vary in approach, fixation construct, and fixation location. In this Technical Note, we describe an arthroscopic onlay articular margin biceps tenodesis with suture anchors. This technique has several advantages, namely intra-articular visualization of the tenodesis, strong fixation to high density bone of the articular margin, and most importantly, preservation of the anatomic length-tension relationship.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.eats.2020.03.011DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7372504PMC
July 2020

DVT and Pulmonary Embolism Following Knee Arthroscopy: The Role of Genetic Predisposition and Autoimmune Antibodies: A Report of 3 Cases.

JBJS Case Connect 2020 Apr-Jun;10(2):e0514

1Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Bronx, New York 2Plancher Orthopaedics and Sports Medicine, New York, New York 3Orthopaedic Foundation, Stamford, Connecticut 4Michigan State University College of Osteopathic Medicine, East Lansing, Michigan 5Weill-Cornell Medical School, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, New York, New York.

Deep vein thrombosis (DVT) after arthroscopy has been considered a rare event; however, recent studies using ultrasound and venography have shown that the incidence of DVTs is underestimated. CASES:: This report describes 3 patients with DVT and/or PE after knee arthroscopy who were attributed to a genetic predisposition of hypercoagulability unknown to the patient and surgeon. CONCLUSIONS:: Genetic predisposition and autoimmune antibodies may play a role in the development of DVT after knee arthroscopy. We recommend focused questions regarding family history be added to the standard DVT/PE preoperative questionnaire.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2106/JBJS.CC.19.00514DOI Listing
February 2021

Opioid Consumption and Time to Return to Work After Percutaneous Osteotomy in Foot Surgery.

Orthopedics 2020 Jul 7;43(4):e334-e337. Epub 2020 May 7.

Surgeries involving the foot and ankle are painful procedures, with many patients unwilling to discontinue prescribed narcotics at 3 months postoperatively. Percutaneous techniques allow for smaller incisions and minimal soft tissue disruption. Fifty consecutive patients underwent outpatient percutaneous foot surgery. Data were collected on pain medication taken and time to return to work. A mean of 3.3 tablets of oxycodone were consumed during the first 2 weeks. No patient was taking narcotics after 2 weeks. Mean time to return to work was 18.9 days. Percutaneous foot and ankle surgery led to a significant reduction in narcotic consumption. [Orthopedics. 2020;43(4):e334-e337.].
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3928/01477447-20200428-01DOI Listing
July 2020

Medications as a Risk Factor for Fragility Hip Fractures: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.

Calcif Tissue Int 2020 07 7;107(1):1-9. Epub 2020 Apr 7.

Center for Advanced Orthopaedic Studies, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA.

Fragility hip fractures and their associated morbidity and mortality pose a global healthcare problem. Several pharmaceutical products have been postulated to alter bone architecture and contribute to fragility hip fractures. We searched four electronic databases from inception to September 2017. Inclusion criteria were the following: (1) adult patients with fragility hip fractures, (2) full text in English, (3) minimum one-year follow-up, and (4) reporting of at least one risk factor. To minimize heterogeneity among the studies, we performed subgroup analyses. Whenever heterogeneity remained significant, we employed random effect meta-analysis for data pooling. Thirty-eight studies were included, containing 1,244,155 subjects and 188,966 cases of fragility hip fractures. Following medications were significantly associated with fragility hip fractures: Antidepressants (OR 2.07, 95% CI 1.98-2.17), antiparkinsonian drugs (OR 2.21, 95% CI 1.15-4.24), antipsychotic drugs (OR 2.0, 95% CI 1.50-2.66), anxiolytic drugs (OR 1.44, 95% CI 1.19-1.75), benzodiazepines (OR 1.84, 95% CI 1.26-2.69), sedatives (OR 1.33, 95% CI 1.14-1.54), systemic corticosteroids (OR 1.65, 95% CI 1.37-1.99), H antagonists (OR 1.21, 95% CI 1.18-1.24), proton pump inhibitors (OR 1.41, 95% CI 1.16-1.71), and thyroid hormone (OR 1.29, 95% CI 1.13-1.47). Hormone replacement therapy with estrogen (HRT) was associated with decreased risk of hip fracture (OR 0.80, 95% CI 0.65-0.98). There are several medications associated with sustaining a fragility hip fracture. Medical interventions should be considered for patients on these medications, including information about osteoporosis and fracture prevention.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00223-020-00688-1DOI Listing
July 2020

Risk factors for heterotopic ossification in operatively treated proximal humeral fractures.

Bone Joint J 2020 Apr;102-B(4):539-544

Leni and Peter W. May Departmentof Orthopaedic Surgery, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, New York, USA.

Aims: Heterotopic ossification (HO) is a potentially devastating complication of the surgical treatment of a proximal humeral fracture. The literature on the rate and risk factors for the development of HO under these circumstances is lacking. The aim of this study was to determine the incidence and risk factors for the development of HO in these patients.

Methods: A retrospective analysis of 170 patients who underwent operative treatment for a proximal humeral fracture between 2005 and 2016, in a single institution, was undertaken. The mean follow-up was 18.2 months (1.5 to 140). The presence of HO was identified on follow-up radiographs.

Results: The incidence of HO was 15% (n = 26). Our multivariate model revealed that male sex (odds ratio (OR) 3.57, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.30 to 9.80 compared to female) and dislocation as the initial injury (OR 5.01, 95% CI 1.31 to 19.22) were significantly associated with the formation of HO (p < 0.05) while no significant associations were seen for the age of the patient, the characteristics of the injury, or the type of operative treatment.

Conclusion: This retrospective radiological study is the first to investigate the association between the method of surgical treatment for a proximal humeral fracture and the formation of HO postoperatively. We found that male sex and dislocation as the initial injury were risk factors for HO formation, whereas the method of surgical treatment, the age of the patient, and the pattern of the fracture were not predictive of HO formation. While additional studies are needed, these findings can help to identify those at an increased risk for HO formation under these circumstances. Cite this article: 2020;102-B(4):539-544.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1302/0301-620X.102B4.BJJ-2019-1510.R1DOI Listing
April 2020

Epidemiology of Achilles tendon injuries in collegiate level athletes in the United States.

Int Orthop 2020 03 6;44(3):585-594. Epub 2020 Jan 6.

Leni and Peter W. May Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, 5 E 98th St, 9th Fl, New York, NY, 10029, USA.

Background: Achilles injuries are devastating injuries, especially for competitive athletes. No studies have examined the outcomes of Achilles injuries in NCAA athletes. Therefore, a better characterization and understanding of the epidemiology is crucial.

Methods: Achilles injuries across 16 sports among NCAA men and women during the 2004-2005 to 2013-2014 academic years were analyzed using the NCAA Injury Surveillance Program (NCAA-ISP). Achilles tendon injury rate (IR) per 100,000 athlete-exposures (AEs), operative rate, annual injury rate trends, reinjury rates, mechanism of injury, in-season status (pre/regular/post season), and time loss distributions were compiled and calculated. A sub-analysis of comparing gender and injury mechanism was also performed for both all injuries and severe injuries.

Results: Overall, N = 255 Achilles injuries were identified with an injury rate (IR) of 2.17 (per 100,000 AEs). These injuries occurred most often in women's gymnastics (IR = 16.73), men's basketball (IR = 4.26), and women's basketball (IR = 3.32), respectively. N = 52 injuries were classified as severe injuries which have higher median time loss (48 days) and higher operative rate (65.4%). For severe Achilles injuries, female athletes had higher operative (77.8% vs. 58.8%) and higher time loss compared to male athletes (96 days vs. 48 days). Contact mechanisms were associated with a higher season-ending injury rate.

Conclusion: Overall, 20.4% of Achilles injuries were considered severe with 65.6% operative rate. About 73.1% were season-ending injuries, and the remaining athletes have a median time loss of 48 days. Severe Achilles injuries create significant impact on playing time and career for NCAA athletes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00264-019-04471-2DOI Listing
March 2020

Percutaneous Zadek osteotomy for the treatment of insertional Achilles tendinopathy.

Foot Ankle Surg 2020 Oct 20;26(7):818-821. Epub 2019 Nov 20.

Leni and Peter W. May Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, 5 E 98th St, 9th Fl, New York, NY, 10029, United States; Foot and Ankle West Hospital Mount Sinai, NY, United States.

Background: Insertional Achilles tendinopathy (IAT) is a challenging common lower extremity disorder, despite several treatment options described in literature. Open dorsal closing wedge calcaneal osteotomy or Zadek Osteotomy (ZO), for the treatment of the IAT has good clinical results but a high rate of postoperative complications. The purpose of this study is to describe percutaneous ZO for the treatment of the IAT and to evaluate its impact on the clinical and functional postoperative outcomes.

Methods: Twenty-six consecutive patients presenting with unilateral IAT refractory to nonoperative measures were treated with percutaneous ZO. Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) and Foot Function Index Score (FFI) were recorded preoperatively and at final follow-up visit (12±3) months. Postoperative complications, satisfaction, and relief of the pain were also recorded.

Results: The percutaneous ZO showed a significant improvement (p<0.0001) in preoperative to postoperative FFI (from 65±9 to 8±12) and VAS (from 9±1 to 1±2). Two postoperative complications (8%) were observed: a case of symptomatic non-union and hardware pain, both in healthy patients. The overall rate of satisfaction after surgery was (92%). The relief from pain was achieved after an average period of 12 weeks.

Conclusions: ZO is a safe and effective procedure for the treatment of IAT. The use of a minimally invasive surgical approach is associated with excellent pain reduction (VAS score) and improved clinical function (FFI score). When compared to the open surgical approach, the percutaneous ZO may decrease recovery time and postoperative complications.

Level Of Evidence: III, retrospective case series.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fas.2019.10.011DOI Listing
October 2020

What Are the Indications and Contraindications for Irrigation and Debridement and Retention of Prosthesis (DAIR) in Patients With Infected Total Ankle Arthroplasty (TAA)?

Foot Ankle Int 2019 Jul;40(1_suppl):52S-53S

1 Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, NY, USA.

Recommendation: Debridement, antibiotics, and implant retention (DAIR) with polyethylene exchange may be indicated in early postoperative infection (<4 weeks) or acute hematogenous infection (<4 weeks of symptoms) in patients with infected total ankle arthroplasty (TAA), although recurrent infection has been seen. Suffcient clinical evidence is lacking.

Level Of Evidence: Consensus.

Delegate Vote: Agree: 100%, Disagree: 0%, Abstain: 0% (Unanimous, Strongest Consensus).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1071100719861099DOI Listing
July 2019

Factors influencing treatment recommendations for base of 5th metatarsal fractures in orthopaedic residency programs.

Foot Ankle Surg 2020 Jun 30;26(4):464-468. Epub 2019 May 30.

Leni and Peter W. May Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, NY, United States. Electronic address:

Background: Management of proximal 5th metatarsal fractures remains a controversial topic in orthopaedic surgery. Both operative and non-operative approaches have been described in the clinical setting. This confusion has led to non-standardized treatment recommendations for proximal 5th metatarsal fractures. This study was designed to analyze concordance rate of treatment recommendations between orthopaedic trainees and orthopaedic foot and ankle experts.

Methods: An online survey containing 14 cases of proximal 5th metatarsal fractures were distributed to 92 orthopaedic residents in two ACGME-accredited programs. Relevant weight-bearing radiographs, patient's age and gender were provided, and two questions regarding treatment recommendations were surveyed. Resident's recommended treatment was then matched against ultimate treatment by orthopaedic foot and ankle experts. ANOVA and T-test are used for associations between the rate of concordant treatment with PGY and trainee foot and ankle experience. Fleiss' kappa was used to assess the inter-observer agreement.

Results: Seventy-two residents returned the survey. The overall concordance rate was 43.98% with no correlation between agreement rate and PGY-years. No difference in agreement rate was observed between residents who had completed their foot and ankle rotation versus those who had not. There was a slight inter-observer agreement in recommending treatment among all residents (κ=0.117, 95% CI: 0.071-0.184).

Conclusions: Our data demonstrated no significant concordance between resident level in training regarding proximal 5th metatarsal fracture treatment decisions, nor between residents and subspecialty-trained foot and ankle surgeons. Increased rotations with foot and ankle fellowship-trained surgeons throughout residency may be desirable to improve the quality of residency training.

Level Of Evidence: III.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fas.2019.05.015DOI Listing
June 2020

Failure of Fixation With Nickel-Titanium Staples in First Metatarsophalangeal Arthrodesis With Hallux Valgus Deformity.

Orthopedics 2019 07 28;42(4):e402-e404. Epub 2019 May 28.

First metatarsophalangeal (MTP) joint arthrodesis is a treatment option for patients with arthritic hallux valgus (HV). Nickel-titanium staples allow continuous compression throughout the fusion site and have been shown to achieve successful union in many procedures. However, their efficacy has not been tested in patients with underlying HV deformity. Three cases of severe HV deformity that underwent first MTP arthrodesis with 2 nickel-titanium staples placed 60° from each other and had failure are reported. The authors believe this construct does not provide adequate rotational control for first MTP arthrodesis in patients with severe HV deformity. [Orthopedics. 2019; 42(4):e402-e404.].
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3928/01477447-20190523-06DOI Listing
July 2019

Drain Use is Associated with Increased Odds of Blood Transfusion in Total Shoulder Arthroplasty: A Population-Based Study.

Clin Orthop Relat Res 2019 07;477(7):1700-1711

J. J. Chan, C. M. Cirino, B. O. Parsons, S. G. Anthony, L. M. Galatz, P. J. Cagle, Leni and Peter W. May Department of Orthopaedics, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, NY, USA H.-H. Huang, J. Poeran, Leni and Peter W. May Department of Orthopaedics / Institute for Healthcare Delivery Science, Department of Population Health Science & Policy, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, NY, USA M. Mazumdar, Institute for Healthcare Delivery Science, Department of Population Health Science & Policy, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, NY, USA.

Background: In the absence of evidence supporting its benefit, the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons (AAOS) strongly recommends against closed wound drainage in TKA; however, drain usage remains common in other joints, including the shoulder. While an extensive body of research exists for drain use in lower extremity joint arthroplasty, large-scale data on drain use and its association with benefits and complications in shoulder arthroplasties is lacking. Such data may be particularly valuable given the rapidly increasing demand for shoulder arthroplasties.

Question/purpose: Using national claims data, we (1) evaluated the trends in frequency of drain usage in shoulder arthroplasty procedures over time, as well as the association between drain usage and (2) blood transfusion usage, (3) length of stay (LOS), and (4) readmission or early infection within 30 days.

Methods: This retrospective study used data from the nationwide Premier Healthcare claims database (2006-2016; n = 105,116, including total, reverse, and partial shoulder arthroplasties, in which drains were used in 20% [20,886] and no drain was used in 80% [84,230]). Included hospitals were mainly concentrated in the South (approximately 40%) with equal distributions among the Northeast, West, and Midwest (approximately 20% each). The Premier database contains detailed inpatient billing data on approximately 20% to 25% of US hospital discharges, which allows the creation of a variable indicating drain use by evaluating inpatient billing for drains. Baseline demographics differed minimally between patients receiving a drain compared with those who did not, with a median age of 70 years in both groups. The potential for selection bias was addressed by adjusting for measured confounders in mixed-effects models that estimated associations between drain use and blood transfusion usage, LOS, and readmission or (early) infection within 30 days. In addition, alternative statistical approaches were applied to address confounding, including propensity score analysis and instrumental variable analysis where a so-called "instrumental variable" is applied that mimics the treatment assignment process similar to a randomized study. We report odds ratios (OR; or % change for continuous variables) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs).

Results: The usage of drains decreased over time, from 1106 of 4503 (25%) in 2006 to 2278 of 14,501 (16%) in 2016. After adjusting for relevant covariates, drain use was associated with an increased usage of blood transfusions (OR, 1.49; 95% CI, 1.35-1.65; p < 0.001) while only associated with a small increase in LOS (+6%, 95% CI, +4% to +7%; p < 0.001). Drain use was not associated with increased odds for early postoperative infection or 30-day readmission. Propensity score analysis and instrumental variable analysis corroborated our main results.

Conclusions: Use of drains in patients undergoing shoulder arthroplasty is associated with an almost 50% increased odds for blood transfusions. Given that our findings parallel close to what is known in patients undergoing lower extremity joint arthroplasty, we believe that our results from a large national database are sufficient to discourage the routine use of drains in patients undergoing shoulder arthroplasty.

Level Of Evidence: Level III, therapeutic study.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/CORR.0000000000000728DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6999960PMC
July 2019

Biomechanics and Clinical Application of Translaminar Screws Fixation in Spine: A Review of the Literature.

Global Spine J 2019 Apr 19;9(2):210-218. Epub 2018 Apr 19.

Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Montefiore Medical Center, Bronx, NY, USA.

Study Design: Broad narrative review.

Objectives: Translaminar screw (TLS) fixation was first described as a salvage technique for fixation of the axial spine. Better understanding of the spine anatomy allows for advancement in surgical techniques and expansion of TLS indications. The goal of this review is to discuss the anatomic feasibility of the TLS fixation in different region of the spine.

Methods: A review of the current literatures on the principles, biomechanics, and clinical application of the translaminar screw technique in the axial, subaxial, and thoracolumbar spine.

Results: Anatomic feasibility and biomechanical studies have demonstrated that TLS is a safe and strong fixation methods for fusion beyond just the axial spine. However, not all spine segments have wide enough lamina to accept TLS. Preoperative computed tomography scan can help ensure the feasibility and safety of TLS insertion. Recent clinical reports have validated the application of TLS in subaxial spine, thoracic spine, hangman's fracture, and pediatric population.

Conclusions: TLS can be used beyond axial spine; however, TLS insertion is only warranted when the lamina is thick enough to avoid further complications such as breakage. Preoperative computed tomography scans can be used to determine feasibility of such fixation construct.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/2192568218765995DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6448194PMC
April 2019

Antibiotic-Loaded Bone Cement in Primary Total Knee Arthroplasty: Utilization Patterns and Impact on Complications Using a National Database.

J Arthroplasty 2019 Jul 11;34(7S):S188-S194.e1. Epub 2019 Mar 11.

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, NY.

Background: The routine usage of antibiotic-loaded bone cement (ALBC) in primary total knee arthroplasty (TKA) is controversial. Its effectiveness in reducing infection risk remains unclear while high-dose antibiotics can lead to multiple adverse effects. The purpose of this population-based study is to evaluate utilization patterns of ALBC in primary TKA and its impact on clinical outcomes.

Methods: This retrospective cohort study used data from the nationwide Premier Healthcare claims database (2006-2016). Multivariable models estimated associations between ALBC use and early postoperative infection, kidney injury, allergic reaction, hospital readmission, cost, and length of stay.

Results: ALBC was used in 27.2% of all primary TKAs (N = 1,184,270). Usage increased from 17.3% to 30.2% in 2006-2010, then plateaued. Study covariates differed minimally between groups, suggesting nonselective ALBC use. Utilization was lower in rural (21.4%) and higher in large (>500 beds; 29.4%) hospitals. After adjusting for relevant covariates, ALBC use was associated with significantly decreased odds for early postoperative infection (odds ratio, 0.89; confidence interval, 0.83-0.96) and increased odds for acute kidney injury (odds ratio, 1.06; confidence interval, 1.02-1.11).

Conclusion: With utilization rates of around 30%, we found that ALBC reduced odds for early postoperative infection and increased odds for kidney injury. Strong consideration should be given for selective use of ALBC in primary TKA.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.arth.2019.03.006DOI Listing
July 2019

Surgeon Type and Outcomes After Inpatient Ankle Arthrodesis and Total Ankle Arthroplasty: A Retrospective Cohort Study Using the Nationwide Premier Healthcare Claims Database.

J Bone Joint Surg Am 2019 Jan;101(2):127-135

Leni and Peter W. May Department of Orthopaedic Surgery (J.J.C., J.C.C., J.P., N.Z., M.M., and E.V) Institute for Healthcare Delivery Science, Department of Population Health Science and Policy (J.P., N.Z., and M.M.).

Background: Two main treatments for end-stage ankle arthritis are ankle arthrodesis and total ankle arthroplasty (TAA). While both procedures can be performed either by a foot and ankle orthopaedic surgeon or a podiatrist (when within a particular state's scope of practice), studies comparing the surgical outcomes of the 2 surgeon types are lacking. Therefore, in this study, we compared outcomes by surgeon type for TAA and for ankle arthrodesis.

Methods: This retrospective cohort study utilized data from the nationwide Premier Healthcare claims database (2011 to 2016) regarding TAA (n = 3,674) and ankle arthrodesis (n = 4,980) procedures. Multivariable models estimated associations between surgeon type (podiatrist versus orthopaedic foot and ankle surgeon) and opioid utilization (in oral morphine equivalents [OMEs]), length of stay, and cost of hospitalization. We report percent change (compared with reference) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs).

Results: Overall, 76.5% (n = 2,812) and 18.8% (n = 690) of TAA procedures were performed by orthopaedic foot and ankle surgeons and podiatrists, respectively; surgeon type was unknown for 4.7% (n = 172). For ankle arthrodesis, 75.3% (n = 3,752) and 18.3% (n = 912) of the procedures were performed by orthopaedic foot and ankle surgeons and podiatrists, respectively; surgeon type was unknown for 6.3% (n = 316). The proportion of TAA and ankle arthrodesis procedures performed by podiatrists increased over time, from 12.8% and 13.6% in 2011 to 24.6% and 26.0% in 2016, respectively. When adjusting for relevant covariates, procedures performed by podiatrists (compared with orthopaedic foot and ankle surgeons) were associated with increased length of stay: for TAA, +16.7% (95% CI, 7.6% to 26.5%; median, 2 days in both groups) and for ankle arthrodesis, +14.2% (95% CI, 7.9% to 20.9%; median, 3 compared with 2 days) (p < 0.05 for both). In addition, ankle arthrodesis performed by podiatrists was associated with increased cost of hospitalization: +28.5% (95% CI, 22.1% to 35.2%; median, $19,236 compared with $13,433) (p < 0.05). Differences in opioid utilization were nonsignificant in the main analysis: +10.9% (95% CI, -3.1% to 26.8%; median, 345 compared with 250 OMEs) and +2.8% (95% CI, -5.9% to 12.4%; median, 351 compared with 315 OMEs) for TAA and ankle arthrodesis, respectively.

Conclusions: An increasing trend in the proportion of procedures performed by podiatrists was coupled with apparent increases in length of stay and cost compared with procedures performed by orthopaedic foot and ankle surgeons. Given the increasing demand for these procedures, factors associated with resource utilization, such as type of surgeon, may be increasingly important on the population level.

Level Of Evidence: Therapeutic Level IV. See Instructions for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2106/JBJS.17.01555DOI Listing
January 2019

Overview of Metatarsalgia.

Orthopedics 2019 Jan 13;42(1):e138-e143. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

Metatarsalgia can be viewed as more of a symptom rather than a distinct diagnosis. Timing of forefoot pain during the gait cycle and evaluation of whether the pain is from anatomic abnormalities, indirect overloading, or iatrogenic causes can suggest a specific metatarsalgia etiology. A thorough physical examination of the lower extremity, especially evaluation of the plantar foot, and weight-bearing radiographs are critical for diagnosis and treatment. Nonoperative treatment consists of physical therapy, orthotics, shoe wear modification, and injections. If conservative treatment fails, surgical options may be considered. [Orthopedics. 2019; 42(1):e138-e143.].
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3928/01477447-20181206-06DOI Listing
January 2019

Comparative Efficacy and Safety of Nonsurgical Treatment Options for Enthesopathy of the Extensor Carpi Radialis Brevis: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis of Randomized Placebo-Controlled Trials.

Am J Sports Med 2019 10 31;47(12):3019-3029. Epub 2018 Oct 31.

Center for Advanced Orthopaedic Studies, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, USA.

Background: Numerous treatment options have been proposed for enthesopathy of the extensor carpi radialis brevis (eECRB).

Purpose: To (1) compare the efficacy and safety of nonsurgical treatment options for eECRB described in randomized placebo-controlled trials at short-term, midterm, and long-term follow-up and (2) evaluate outcomes in patients receiving placebo.

Study Design: Systematic review and meta-analysis.

Methods: Following PRISMA guidelines, 4 electronic databases were searched for randomized placebo-controlled trials for eECRB. Studies reporting visual analog scale (VAS) for pain scores and/or grip strength were included. Random- or fixed-effects meta-analysis was employed to compare treatments with at least 2 eligible studies using the standardized mean difference and odds ratio. The study protocol was registered at PROSPERO (ID: CRD42018075009).

Results: Thirty-six randomized placebo-controlled trials, evaluating 11 different treatment modalities, with a total of 2746 patients were included. At short-term follow-up, only local corticosteroid injection improved pain; however, it was associated with pain worse than placebo at long-term follow-up. At midterm follow-up, laser therapy and local botulinum toxin injection improved pain. At long-term follow-up, extracorporeal shock wave therapy provided pain relief. With regard to grip strength, only laser therapy showed better outcomes in comparison with placebo. While there was no difference among various treatments in the odds ratio of an adverse event, they all increased adverse events compared with placebo. In placebo-receiving patients, a sharp increase in the percentage of patients reporting mild pain or less was observed from 2% at short-term follow-up to 92% at midterm follow-up.

Conclusion: Most patients experienced pain resolution after receiving placebo within 4 weeks of follow-up. At best, all treatments provided only small pain relief while increasing the odds of adverse events. Therefore, if clinicians are inclined to provide a treatment for particular patients, they may consider a pain relief regimen for the first 4 weeks of symptom duration. Patient-specific factors should be considered when deciding on treatment or watchful waiting.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0363546518801914DOI Listing
October 2019

Risk Factors and Pooled Rate of Prolonged Opioid Use Following Trauma or Surgery: A Systematic Review and Meta-(Regression) Analysis.

J Bone Joint Surg Am 2018 Aug;100(15):1332-1340

Center for Advanced Orthopaedic Studies (A.M., C.L.W., A.M.M., E.K.R., A.v.K., and A.N.) and Department of Orthopaedic Surgery (A.M., E.K.R., and A.v.K.), Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts.

Background: Prolonged use of opioids initiated for surgical or trauma-related pain management has become a global problem. While several factors have been reported to increase the risk of prolonged opioid use, there is considerable inconsistency regarding their significance or effect size. Therefore, we aimed to pool the effects of risk factors for prolonged opioid use following trauma or surgery and to assess the rate and temporal trend of prolonged opioid use in different settings.

Methods: Following PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses) guidelines, we searched Embase, PubMed, Web of Science, EBM (Evidence-Based Medicine) Reviews - Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, and ClinicalTrials.gov from inception to August 28, 2017, without language restriction. Observational studies reporting risk factors for, or the rate of, prolonged opioid use among adult patients following surgery or trauma with a minimum of 1 month of follow-up were included. Study and patient characteristics, risk factors, and the rate of prolonged opioid use were synthesized.

Results: Thirty-seven studies with 1,969,953 patients were included; 4.3% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 2.3% to 8.2%) of patients continued opioid use after trauma or surgery. Prior opioid use (number needed to harm [NNH] = 3, odds ratio [OR] = 11.04 [95% CI = 9.39 to 12.97]), history of back pain (NNH = 23, OR = 2.10 [95% CI = 2.00 to 2.20]), longer hospital stay (NNH = 25, OR = 2.03 [95% CI = 1.03 to 4.02]), and depression (NNH = 40, OR = 1.62 [95% CI = 1.49 to 1.77]) showed some of the largest effects on prolonged opioid use (p < 0.001 for all but hospital stay [p = 0.042]). The rate of prolonged opioid use was higher in trauma (16.3% [95% CI = 13.6% to 22.5%]; p < 0.001) and in the Workers' Compensation setting (24.6% [95% CI = 2.0% to 84.5%]; p = 0.003) than in other subject enrollment settings. The temporal trend was not significant for studies performed in the U.S. (p = 0.07) while a significant temporal trend was observed for studies performed outside of the U.S. (p = 0.014).

Conclusions: To our knowledge, this is the first meta-analysis reporting the pooled effect of risk factors that place patients at an increased chance for prolonged opioid use. Understanding the pooled effect of risk factors and their respective NNH values can aid patients and physicians in developing effective and individualized pain-management strategies with a lower risk of prolonged opioid use.

Level Of Evidence: Prognostic Level III. See Instructions for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2106/JBJS.17.01239DOI Listing
August 2018
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