Publications by authors named "Jimm Grimm"

52 Publications

Potential Clinical Significance of Overall Targeting Accuracy and Motion Management in the Treatment of Tumors That Move With Respiration: Lessons Learnt From a Quarter Century of Stereotactic Body Radiotherapy From Dose Response Models.

Front Oncol 2020 9;10:591430. Epub 2021 Feb 9.

Department of Neurosurgery, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA, United States.

Objective: To determine the long-term normal tissue complication probability with stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) treatments for targets that move with respiration and its relation with the type of respiratory motion management (tracking . compression or gating).

Methods: A PubMed search was performed for identifying literature regarding dose, volume, fractionation, and toxicity (grade 3 or higher) for SBRT treatments for tumors which move with respiration. From the identified papers logistic or probit dose-response models were fitted to the data using the maximum-likelihood technique and confidence intervals were based on the profile-likelihood method in the dose-volume histogram (DVH) Evaluator.

Results: Pooled logistic and probit models for grade 3 or higher toxicity for aorta, chest wall, duodenum, and small bowel suggest a significant difference when live motion tracking was used for targeting tumors with move with respiration which was on the average 10 times lower, in the high dose range.

Conclusion: Live respiratory motion management appears to have a better toxicity outcome when treating targets which move with respiration with very steep peripheral dose gradients. This analysis is however limited by sparsity of rigorous data due to poor reporting in the literature.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fonc.2020.591430DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7900559PMC
February 2021

Initial Data Pooling for Radiation Dose-Volume Tolerance for Carotid Artery Blowout and Other Bleeding Events in Hypofractionated Head and Neck Retreatments.

Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 2021 May 11;110(1):147-159. Epub 2021 Feb 11.

Department of Radiation Oncology, Bon Secours Mercy Health System, Youngstown, Ohio.

Purpose: Dose-volume data for injury to carotid artery and other major vessels in stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT)/SABR head and neck reirradiation were reviewed, modeled, and summarized.

Methods And Materials: A PubMed search of the English-language literature (stereotactic and carotid and radiation) in April 2018 found 238 major vessel maximum point doses in 6 articles that were pooled for logistic modeling. Two subsequent studies with dose-volume major vessel data were modeled separately for comparison. Attempts were made to separate carotid blowout syndrome from other bleeding events (BE) in the analysis, but we acknowledge that all except 1 data set has some element of BE interspersed.

Results: Prior radiation therapy (RT) dose was not uniformly reported per patient in the studies included, but a course on the order of conventionally fractionated 70 Gy was considered for the purposes of the analysis (with an approximately ≥6-month estimated interval between prior and subsequent treatment in most cases). Factors likely associated with reduced risk of BE include nonconsecutive daily treatment, lower extent of circumferential tumor involvement around the vessel, and no surgical manipulation before or after SBRT.

Conclusions: Initial data pooling for reirradiation involving the carotid artery resulted in 3 preliminary models compared in this Hypofractionated Treatment Effects in the Clinic (HyTEC) report. More recent experiences with alternating fractionation schedules and additional risk-reduction strategies are also presented. Complications data for the most critical structures such as spinal cord and carotid artery are so limited that they cannot be viewed as strong conclusions of probability of risk, but rather, as a general guideline for consideration. There is a great need for better reporting standards as noted in the High Dose per Fraction, Hypofractionated Treatment Effects in the Clinic introductory paper.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijrobp.2020.12.037DOI Listing
May 2021

Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy for Spinal Metastases: Tumor Control Probability Analyses and Recommended Reporting Standards.

Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 2021 May 27;110(1):112-123. Epub 2021 Jan 27.

Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California at Davis, Sacramento, California.

Purpose: We sought to investigate the tumor control probability (TCP) of spinal metastases treated with stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) in 1 to 5 fractions.

Methods And Materials: PubMed-indexed articles from 1995 to 2018 were eligible for data extraction if they contained SBRT dosimetric details correlated with actuarial 2-year local tumor control rates. Logistic dose-response models of collected data were compared in terms of physical dose and 3-fraction equivalent dose.

Results: Data were extracted from 24 articles with 2619 spinal metastases. Physical dose TCP modeling of 2-year local tumor control from the single-fraction data were compared with data from 2 to 5 fractions, resulting in an estimated α/β = 6 Gy, and this was used to pool data. Acknowledging the uncertainty intrinsic to the data extraction and modeling process, the 90% TCP corresponded to 20 Gy in 1 fraction, 28 Gy in 2 fractions, 33 Gy in 3 fractions, and (with extrapolation) 40 Gy in 5 fractions. The estimated TCP for common fractionation schemes was 82% at 18 Gy, 90% for 20 Gy, and 96% for 24 Gy in a single fraction, 82% for 24 Gy in 2 fractions, and 78% for 27 Gy in 3 fractions.

Conclusions: Spinal SBRT with the most common fractionation schemes yields 2-year estimates of local control of 82% to 96%. Given the heterogeneity in the tumor control estimates extracted from the literature, with variability in reporting of dosimetry data and the definition of and statistical methods of reporting tumor control, care should be taken interpreting the resultant model-based estimates. Depending on the clinical intent, the improved TCP with higher dose regimens should be weighed against the potential risks for greater toxicity. We encourage future reports to provide full dosimetric data correlated with tumor local control to allow future efforts of modeling pooled data.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijrobp.2020.11.021DOI Listing
May 2021

Tumor Control Probability of Radiosurgery and Fractionated Stereotactic Radiosurgery for Brain Metastases.

Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 2021 May 31;110(1):53-67. Epub 2020 Dec 31.

Department of Radiation Oncology and Molecular Radiation Sciences, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland.

Purpose: As part of the American Association of Physicists in Medicine Working Group on Stereotactic Body Radiotherapy, tumor control probability (TCP) after stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) and fractionated stereotactic radiosurgery (fSRS) for brain metastases was modeled based on pooled dosimetric and clinical data from published English-language literature.

Methods And Materials: PubMed-indexed studies published between January 1995 and September 2017 were used to evaluate dosimetric and clinical predictors of TCP after SRS or fSRS for brain metastases. Eligible studies had ≥10 patients and included detailed dose-fractionation data with corresponding ≥1-year local control (LC) data, typically evaluated as a >20% increase in diameter of the targeted lesion using the pre-SRS diameter as a reference.

Results: Of 2951 potentially eligible manuscripts, 56 included sufficient dose-volume data for analyses. Accepting that necrosis and pseudoprogression can complicate the assessment of LC, for tumors ≤20 mm, single-fraction doses of 18 and 24 Gy corresponded with >85% and 95% 1-year LC rates, respectively. For tumors 21 to 30 mm, an 18 Gy single-fraction dose was associated with 75% LC. For tumors 31 to 40 mm, a 15 Gy single-fraction dose yielded ∼69% LC. For 3- to 5-fraction fSRS using doses in the range of 27 to 35 Gy, 80% 1-year LC has been achieved for tumors of 21 to 40 mm in diameter.

Conclusions: TCP for SRS and fSRS are presented. For small lesions ≤20 mm, single doses of ≈18 Gy appear generally associated with excellent rates of LC; for melanoma, higher doses seem warranted. For larger lesions >20 mm, local control rates appear to be ≈ 70% to 75% with usual doses of 15 to 18 Gy, and in this setting, fSRS regimens should be considered. Greater consistency in reporting of dosimetric and LC data is needed to facilitate future pooled analyses. As systemic and biologic therapies evolve, updated analyses will be needed to further assess the necessity, efficacy, and toxicity of SRS and fSRS.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijrobp.2020.10.034DOI Listing
May 2021

Stereotactic Radiosurgery for Vestibular Schwannomas: Tumor Control Probability Analyses and Recommended Reporting Standards.

Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 2021 May 26;110(1):100-111. Epub 2020 Dec 26.

Machine Learning Department, Moffitt Cancer Center, Tampa, Florida.

Purpose: We sought to investigate the tumor control probability (TCP) of vestibular schwannomas after single-fraction stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) or hypofractionated SRS over 2 to 5 fractions (fSRS).

Methods And Materials: Studies (PubMed indexed from 1993-2017) were eligible for data extraction if they contained dosimetric details of SRS/fSRS correlated with local tumor control. The rate of tumor control at 5 years (or at 3 years if 5-year data were not available) were collated. Poisson modeling estimated the TCP per equivalent dose in 2 Gy per fraction (EQD2) and in 1, 3, and 5 fractions.

Results: Data were extracted from 35 publications containing a total of 5162 patients. TCP modeling was limited by the absence of analyzable data of <11 Gy in a single-fraction, variability in definition of "tumor control," and by lack of significant increase in TCP for doses >12 Gy. Using linear-quadratic-based dose conversion, the 3- to 5-year TCP was estimated at 95% at an EQD2 of 25 Gy, corresponding to 1-, 3-, and 5-fraction doses of 13.8 Gy, 19.2 Gy, and 21.5 Gy, respectively. Single-fraction doses of 10 Gy, 11 Gy, 12 Gy, and 13 Gy predicted a TCP of 85.0%, 88.4%, 91.2%, and 93.5%, respectively. For fSRS, 18 Gy in 3 fractions (EQD2 of 23.0 Gy) and 25 Gy in 5 fractions (EQD2 of 30.2 Gy) corresponded to TCP of 93.6% and 97.2%. Overall, the quality of dosimetric reporting was poor; recommended reporting guidelines are presented.

Conclusions: With current typical SRS doses of 12 Gy in 1 fraction, 18 Gy in 3 fractions, and 25 Gy in 5 fractions, 3- to 5-year TCP exceeds 91%. To improve pooled data analyses to optimize treatment outcomes for patients with vestibular schwannoma, future reports of SRS should include complete dosimetric details with well-defined tumor control and toxicity endpoints.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijrobp.2020.11.019DOI Listing
May 2021

Maximizing Tumor Control and Limiting Complications With Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy for Pancreatic Cancer.

Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 2021 May 24;110(1):206-216. Epub 2020 Dec 24.

Department of Radiation Oncology, Northwell Health, New York, New York.

Purpose: Stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) and stereotactic ablative body radiation therapy is being increasingly used for pancreatic cancer (PCa), particularly in patients with locally advanced and borderline resectable disease. A wide variety of dose fractionation schemes have been reported in the literature. This HyTEC review uses tumor control probability models to evaluate the comparative effectiveness of the various SBRT treatment regimens used in the treatment of patients with localized PCa.

Methods And Materials: A PubMed search was performed to review the published literature on the use of hypofractionated SBRT (usually in 1-5 fractions) for PCa in various clinical scenarios (eg, preoperative [neoadjuvant], borderline resectable, and locally advanced PCa). The linear quadratic model with α/β= 10 Gy was used to address differences in fractionation. Logistic tumor control probability models were generated using maximum likelihood parameter fitting.

Results: After converting to 3-fraction equivalent doses, the pooled reported data and associated models suggests that 1-year local control (LC) without surgery is ≈79% to 86% after the equivalent of 30 to 36 Gy in 3 fractions, showing a dose response in the range of 25 to 36 Gy, and decreasing to less than 70% 1-year LC at doses below 24 Gy in 3 fractions. The 33 Gy in 5 fraction regimen (Alliance A021501) corresponds to 28.2 Gy in 3 fractions, for which the HyTEC pooled model had 77% 1-year LC without surgery. Above an equivalent dose of 28 Gy in 3 fractions, with margin-negative resection the 1-year LC exceeded 90%.

Conclusions: Pooled analyses of reported tumor control probabilities for commonly used SBRT dose-fractionation schedules for PCa suggests a dose response. These findings should be viewed with caution given the challenges and limitations of this review. Additional data are needed to better understand the dose or fractionation-response of SBRT for PCa.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijrobp.2020.11.017DOI Listing
May 2021

A Primer on Dose-Response Data Modeling in Radiation Therapy.

Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 2021 May 23;110(1):11-20. Epub 2020 Dec 23.

Department of Machine Learning, Moffitt Cancer Center, Tampa, Florida.

An overview of common approaches used to assess a dose response for radiation therapy-associated endpoints is presented, using lung toxicity data sets analyzed as a part of the High Dose per Fraction, Hypofractionated Treatment Effects in the Clinic effort as an example. Each component presented (eg, data-driven analysis, dose-response analysis, and calculating uncertainties on model prediction) is addressed using established approaches. Specifically, the maximum likelihood method was used to calculate best parameter values of the commonly used logistic model, the profile-likelihood to calculate confidence intervals on model parameters, and the likelihood ratio to determine whether the observed data fit is statistically significant. The bootstrap method was used to calculate confidence intervals for model predictions. Correlated behavior of model parameters and implication for interpreting dose response are discussed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijrobp.2020.11.020DOI Listing
May 2021

Prostate Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy: An Overview of Toxicity and Dose Response.

Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 2021 May 22;110(1):237-248. Epub 2020 Dec 22.

Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Kansas, Kansas City, Kansas. Electronic address:

Purpose: Ultrahypofractionationed radiation therapy for prostate cancer is increasingly studied and adopted. The American Association of Physicists in Medicine Working Group on Biological Effects of Hypofractionated Radiotherapy therefore aimed to review studies examining toxicity and quality of life after stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) for prostate cancer and model its effect.

Methods And Materials: We performed a systematic PubMed search of prostate SBRT studies published between 2001 and 2018. Those that analyzed factors associated with late urinary, bowel, or sexual toxicity and/or quality of life were included and reviewed. Normal tissue complication probability modelling was performed on studies that contained detailed dose/volume and outcome data.

Results: We found 13 studies that examined urinary effects, 6 that examined bowel effects, and 4 that examined sexual effects. Most studies included patients with low-intermediate risk prostate cancer treated to 35-40 Gy. Most patients were treated with 5 fractions, with several centers using 4 fractions. Endpoints were heterogeneous and included both physician-scored toxicity and patient-reported quality of life. Most toxicities were mild-moderate (eg, grade 1-2) with a very low overall incidence of severe toxicity (eg, grade 3 or higher, usually <3%). Side effects were associated with both dosimetric and non-dosimetric factors.

Conclusions: Prostate SBRT appears to be overall well tolerated, with determinants of toxicity that include dosimetric factors and patient factors. Suggested dose constraints include bladder V(Rx Dose)Gy <5-10 cc, urethra Dmax <38-42 Gy, and rectum Dmax <35-38 Gy, though current data do not offer firm guidance on tolerance doses. Several areas for future research are suggested.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijrobp.2020.09.054DOI Listing
May 2021

Dose-Volume Predictors of Radiation Pneumonitis After Lung Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy (SBRT): Implications for Practice and Trial Design.

Cureus 2020 Oct 5;12(10):e10808. Epub 2020 Oct 5.

Radiation Medicine and Applied Sciences, University of California San Diego Moores Cancer Center, La Jolla, USA.

Background and purpose Recently published HyTEC report summarized lung toxicity data and proposed guidelines of mean lung dose (MLD) <8 Gy and normal lung receiving at least 20 Gy, V<10-15% to avoid lung toxicity. Support for preferred use of a particular dosimetric parameter has been limited. We performed a detailed dose-volume analysis of data on radiation pneumonitis (RP) following lung stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) to search for parameters showing the strongest correlation with RP. Materials and methods Two patient cohorts (primary and metastatic lung tumor patients) from previously reported studies were analyzed. Total number of patients was 96, and incidence of grade ≥2 RP was 13.5% (13/96). Fitting to the logistic function was performed to investigate correlation between incidence of RP and reported dosimetric and volumetric parameters. Another independent cohort was used to explore correlation between dosimetric parameters. Results Among normal lung parameters (MLD and reported V), only MLD consistently showed significant correlation with incidence of RP. Gross tumor volume (GTV), internal target volume, planning target volume (PTV), and minimum dose covering 95% of GTV or PTV did not show statistical significance. A significant correlation between reported V and MLD was observed in all cohorts. Conclusions In considering tumor- and target-specific (e.g., GTV, PTV) and normal lung-specific (e.g., MLD, V) metrics, MLD was the only parameter that consistently correlated with incidence of RP across both cohorts. Because SBRT planning constraints allow small normal lung volumes to receive high doses, utility of MLD is not obvious. The parallel structure of lung is one possible explanation, but correlation between dosimetric parameters obscures elucidation of the preferred or mechanistically based parameter to guide radiotherapy planning.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7759/cureus.10808DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7641492PMC
October 2020

A Dose-Response Model of Local Tumor Control Probability After Stereotactic Radiosurgery for Brain Metastases Resection Cavities.

Adv Radiat Oncol 2020 Sep-Oct;5(5):840-849. Epub 2020 Jun 24.

Department of Radiation Oncology and Molecular Radiation Sciences, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland.

Purpose: Recent randomized controlled trials evaluating stereotactic surgery (SRS) for resected brain metastases question the high rates of local control previously reported in retrospective studies. Tumor control probability (TCP) models were developed to quantify the relationship between radiation dose and local control after SRS for resected brain metastases.

Methods And Materials: Patients with resected brain metastases treated with SRS were evaluated retrospectively. Melanoma, sarcoma, and renal cell carcinoma were considered radio-resistant histologies. The planning target volume (PTV) was the region of enhancement on T1 post-gadolinium magnetic resonance imaging plus a 2-mm uniform margin. The primary outcome was local recurrence, defined as tumor progression within the resection cavity. Cox regression evaluated predictors of local recurrence. Dose-volume histograms for the PTV were obtained from treatment plans and converted to 3-fraction equivalent doses (α/β = 12 Gy). TCP models evaluated local control at 1-year follow-up as a logistic function of dose-volume histogram data.

Results: Among 150 cavities, 41 (27.3%) were radio-resistant. The median PTV volume was 14.6 mL (range, 1.3-65.3). The median prescription was 21 Gy (range, 15-25) in 3 fractions (range, 1-5). Local control rates at 12 and 24 months were 86% and 82%. On Cox regression, larger cavities (PTV > 12 cm) predicted increased risk of local recurrence ( = .03). TCP modeling demonstrated relationships between improved 1-year local control and higher radiation doses delivered to radio-resistant cavities. Maximum PTV doses of 30, 35, and 40 Gy predicted 78%, 89%, and 94% local control among all radio-resistant cavities, versus 69%, 79%, and 86% among larger radio-resistant cavities.

Conclusions: After SRS for resected brain metastases, larger cavities are at greater risk of local recurrence. TCP models suggests that higher radiation doses may improve local control among cavities of radio-resistant histology. Given maximum tolerated doses established for single-fraction SRS, fractionated regimens may be required to optimize local control in large radio-resistant cavities.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.adro.2020.06.007DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7557194PMC
June 2020

Single- and Multifraction Stereotactic Radiosurgery Dose/Volume Tolerances of the Brain.

Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 2021 May 11;110(1):68-86. Epub 2020 Sep 11.

Department of Radiation Oncology and Molecular Radiation Sciences, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland.

Purpose: As part of the American Association of Physicists in Medicine Working Group on Stereotactic Body Radiotherapy investigating normal tissue complication probability (NTCP) after hypofractionated radiation therapy, data from published reports (PubMed indexed 1995-2018) were pooled to identify dosimetric and clinical predictors of radiation-induced brain toxicity after single-fraction stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) or fractionated stereotactic radiosurgery (fSRS).

Methods And Materials: Eligible studies provided NTCPs for the endpoints of radionecrosis, edema, or symptoms after cranial SRS/fSRS and quantitative dose-volume metrics. Studies of patients with only glioma, meningioma, vestibular schwannoma, or brainstem targets were excluded. The data summary and analyses focused on arteriovenous malformations (AVM) and brain metastases.

Results: Data from 51 reports are summarized. There was wide variability in reported rates of radionecrosis. Available data for SRS/fSRS for brain metastases were more amenable to NTCP modeling than AVM data. In the setting of brain metastases, SRS/fSRS-associated radionecrosis can be difficult to differentiate from tumor progression. For single-fraction SRS to brain metastases, tissue volumes (including target volumes) receiving 12 Gy (V12) of 5 cm, 10 cm, or >15 cm were associated with risks of symptomatic radionecrosis of approximately 10%, 15%, and 20%, respectively. SRS for AVM was associated with modestly lower rates of symptomatic radionecrosis for equivalent V12. For brain metastases, brain plus target volume V20 (3-fractions) or V24 (5-fractions) <20 cm was associated with <10% risk of any necrosis or edema, and <4% risk of radionecrosis requiring resection.

Conclusions: The risk of radionecrosis after SRS and fSRS can be modeled as a function of dose and volume treated. The use of fSRS appears to reduce risks of radionecrosis for larger treatment volumes relative to SRS. More standardized dosimetric and toxicity reporting is needed to facilitate future pooled analyses that can refine predictive models of brain toxicity risks.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijrobp.2020.08.013DOI Listing
May 2021

Tumor Control Probability Modeling and Systematic Review of the Literature of Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy for Prostate Cancer.

Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 2021 May 6;110(1):227-236. Epub 2020 Sep 6.

Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Kansas, Kansas City, Kansas.

Purpose: Dose escalation improves localized prostate cancer disease control, and moderately hypofractionated external beam radiation is noninferior to conventional fractionation. The evolving treatment approach of ultrahypofractionation with stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) allows possible further biological dose escalation (biologically equivalent dose [BED]) and shortened treatment time.

Methods And Materials: The American Association of Physicists in Medicine Working Group on Biological Effects of Hypofractionated Radiation Therapy/SBRT included a subgroup to study the prostate tumor control probability (TCP) with SBRT. We performed a systematic review of the available literature and created a dose-response TCP model for the endpoint of freedom from biochemical relapse. Results were stratified by prostate cancer risk group.

Results: Twenty-five published cohorts were identified for inclusion, with a total of 4821 patients (2235 with low-risk, 1894 with intermediate-risk, and 446 with high-risk disease, when reported) treated with a variety of dose/fractionation schemes, permitting dose-response modeling. Five studies had a median follow-up of more than 5 years. Dosing regimens ranged from 32 to 50 Gy in 4 to 5 fractions, with total BED (α/β = 1.5 Gy) between 183.1 and 383.3 Gy. At 5 years, we found that in patients with low-intermediate risk disease, an equivalent doses of 2 Gy per fraction (EQD2) of 71 Gy (31.7 Gy in 5 fractions) achieved a TCP of 90% and an EQD2 of 90 Gy (36.1 Gy in 5 fractions) achieved a TCP of 95%. In patients with high-risk disease, an EQD2 of 97 Gy (37.6 Gy in 5 fractions) can achieve a TCP of 90% and an EQD2 of 102 Gy (38.7 Gy in 5 fractions) can achieve a TCP of 95%.

Conclusions: We found significant variation in the published literature on target delineation, margins used, dose/fractionation, and treatment schedule. Despite this variation, TCP was excellent. Most prescription doses range from 35 to 40 Gy, delivered in 4 to 5 fractions. The literature did not provide detailed dose-volume data, and our dosimetric analysis was constrained to prescription doses. There are many areas in need of continued research as SBRT continues to evolve as a treatment modality for prostate cancer, including the durability of local control with longer follow-up across risk groups, the efficacy and safety of SBRT as a boost to intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT), and the impact of incorporating novel imaging techniques into treatment planning.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijrobp.2020.08.014DOI Listing
May 2021

Normal tissue complication probability of vertebral compression fracture after stereotactic body radiotherapy for de novo spine metastasis.

Radiother Oncol 2020 09 12;150:142-149. Epub 2020 Jun 12.

Department of Radiation Oncology and Molecular Radiation Sciences, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, United States. Electronic address:

Objective: Stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) for spine metastases is associated with post-treatment vertebral compression fracture (VCF). The purpose of this study is to identify clinical and radiation planning characteristics that predict post-SBRT VCF through a novel normal tissue complication probability (NTCP) analysis.

Methods: Patients with de novo spine metastases treated with SBRT between 2009 and 2018 at a single institution were included. Those who had surgical stabilization or radiation to the same site prior to SBRT were excluded. VCF was defined as new development or progression of existing vertebral body height loss not attributable to tumor growth. Probit NTCP models were constructed and fitted using a maximum likelihood approach. A multivariate proportional hazard model was used to estimate time to VCF using the Fine and Gray method.

Results: Three hundred and two vertebral segments from 193 patients were treated with a median dose of 24 Gy in 3 fractions (range 15-30 Gy in 1-5 fractions). With a median follow up of 13.9 months, local control was 89.3% at 1 year. A total of 26 SBRT-induced VCFs were observed, with 1 and 2-year cumulative incidences of 4.6% and 6.7%. NTCP modeling demonstrated a steep response of VCF risk to the dose to 80% and 50% volume of the planning target volume (PTV D80% and D50%), but not maximum dose or dose to 1 cc or 10% of PTV. D80% of 25 Gy and D50% of 28 Gy in 3 fractions corresponded to 10% VCF risk. On multivariate analysis, lower body mass index (HR 0.90 per unit increase, p = 0.04), total spinal instability neoplastic score (SINS, HR 2.44 unstable vs stable, p = 0.04), and PTV D80% (HR 1.11 for every Gy increase, p = 0.003) were associated with increased VCF risk.

Conclusions: SBRT provides excellent tumor control for spinal metastases and is associated with low rate of VCF in our cohort. NTCP modeling suggests that the larger volume of spine receiving lower doses are more closely associated with post-SBRT VCF than high dose regions. Under current target delineation methods, common SBRT regimens such as 24 Gy in 2 fractions or 27 Gy in 3 fractions may be inherently associated with VCF risk of 10% or greater. Consensus contouring guidelines should be reevaluated to minimize the volume of irradiated spine in light of these new data.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.radonc.2020.06.009DOI Listing
September 2020

Tumor-Treating Field Arrays Do Not Reduce Target Volume Coverage for Glioblastoma Radiation Therapy.

Adv Radiat Oncol 2020 Jan-Feb;5(1):62-69. Epub 2019 Aug 28.

Department of Radiation Oncology and Molecular Radiation Sciences, Johns Hopkins Hospital, Baltimore, Maryland.

Purpose: To inform development of procedures for using tumor-treating field arrays (TTFields) during glioblastoma radiation therapy by determining whether the placement and repositioning of arrays affects target volume coverage and cranial skin dose.

Methods And Materials: Radiation plans from 10 consecutive patients treated for glioblastoma were copied to a cranial phantom and reoptimized for phantom anatomy. Dose distributions were then recalculated on 3 additional computed tomographic scans of the phantom with the TTFields electrode arrays placed over distinct locations on the phantom scalp to compare planning target volume (PTV) coverage and skin dose with and without TTFields in place in varying positions. Percent depth dose curves were also measured for radiation beams passing through the electrodes and compared with commonly used bolus material.

Results: The presence of TTFields arrays decreased PTV V97% and D97% by as much as 1.7% and 2.7%, respectively, for a single array position, but this decrease was mitigated by array repositioning. On averaging the 3 array positions, there was no statistically significant difference in any dosimetric parameter of PTV coverage (V95-97%, D95-97%) across all cases compared with no array. Mean increases in skin D1cc and D20cc of 3.1% were calculated for the cohort. Surface dose for TTFields electrodes was less than that with a 5-mm superflab bolus.

Conclusions: Our work demonstrates that placement of TTFields arrays does not significantly affect target volume coverage. We show that repositioning of TTFields arrays, as is required in clinical use, further minimizes any dosimetric changes and eliminates the need for replanning when arrays are moved. A slight, expected bolus effect is observed, but the calculated increases in skin dose are not clinically significant. These data support the development of clinical trials to assess the safety and efficacy of combining concurrent chemoradiotherapy with TTFields therapy for glioblastoma.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.adro.2019.08.005DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7004938PMC
August 2019

In Reply to Klement et al.

Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 2021 May 16;110(1):250-251. Epub 2019 Nov 16.

Department of Radiation Oncology, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijrobp.2018.02.013DOI Listing
May 2021

A Phase 2 Study of Post-Operative Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy (SBRT) for Solid Tumor Spine Metastases.

Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 2020 02 16;106(2):261-268. Epub 2019 Oct 16.

Neurological Surgery, The John Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland.

Purpose: In patients with spinal instability, cord compression, or neurologic deficits, the standard of care is surgery followed by radiation therapy (RT). Recurrence rates after conventional RT remain high. The purpose of this study is to prospectively examine the efficacy of postoperative stereotactic body RT (SBRT) in patients who have undergone surgical intervention for spine metastases. We hypothesize that postoperative SBRT to the spine would be associated with higher local control than historical rates after conventional RT.

Methods And Materials: Thirty-five adult patients with a Karnofsky Performance Status score ≥40 and spine metastases from solid tumors with no prior overlapping RT and target volumes ≤3 consecutive vertebral levels were enrolled. Thirty-three patients were treated. Two patients underwent treatment to 2 target volumes for a total of 35 target volumes. All patients received SBRT 30 Gy in 5 fractions. Patients were followed with neurological examinations and computed tomography and/or magnetic resonance imaging every 3 months. Neurologic function was assessed at the same time points using the American Spinal Injury Association (ASIA) impairment score. Pain was rated according to the 10-point visual analogue scale and MD Anderson Cancer Center brief pain index. Toxicity was recorded according to National Cancer Institute Common Toxicity Criteria for Adverse Events Version 4. The primary objective was the rate of radiographic local recurrence at 12 months after completion of SBRT.

Results: Patient characteristics were as follows: 34.3% had radioresistant primaries; 71.4% were ASIA E and the remainder ASIA D; and the median baseline Karnofsky Performance Status score was 70 (range, 50-100). Radiographic and symptomatic local control at 1 year were 90% (95% confidence interval, 76%-98%). The median time to recurrence in these 3 patients was 3.5 months (range, 3.4-5.8 months), all had radiosensitive tumors, and all recurrences were epidural. No patients experienced wound dehiscence, hardware failure, or spinal cord myelopathy. The median time to return to systemic therapy was 0.5 months (range, 0-9.4 months).

Conclusions: This prospective study of postoperative spine SBRT demonstrates excellent local control with low toxicity. These data suggest superior rates of local control compared with conventional RT; however, a formal comparative study is warranted.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijrobp.2019.10.011DOI Listing
February 2020

Spinal Cord Dose Tolerance to Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy.

Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 2021 May 10;110(1):124-136. Epub 2019 Oct 10.

Department of Medical Physics, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York.

Spinal cord tolerance data for stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) were extracted from published reports, reviewed, and modelled. For de novo SBRT delivered in 1 to 5 fractions, the following spinal cord point maximum doses (D) are estimated to be associated with a 1% to 5% risk of radiation myelopathy (RM): 12.4 to 14.0 Gy in 1 fraction, 17.0 Gy in 2 fractions, 20.3 Gy in 3 fractions, 23.0 Gy in 4 fractions, and 25.3 Gy in 5 fractions. For reirradiation SBRT delivered in 1 to 5 fractions, reported factors associated with a lower risk of RM include cumulative thecal sac equivalent dose in 2 Gy fractions with an alpha/beta of 2 (EQD2) D ≤70 Gy; SBRT thecal sac EQD2 D ≤25 Gy, thecal sac SBRT EQD2 D to cumulative EQD2 D ratio ≤0.5, and a minimum time interval to reirradiation of ≥5 months. Larger studies containing complete institutional cohorts with dosimetric data of patients treated with spine SBRT, with and without RM, are required to refine RM risk estimates.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijrobp.2019.09.038DOI Listing
May 2021

Updated risk models demonstrate low risk of symptomatic radionecrosis following stereotactic radiosurgery for brain metastases.

Surg Neurol Int 2019 15;10:32. Epub 2019 Mar 15.

Department of Radiation Oncology and Molecular Radiation Sciences, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, 401 N Broadway Suite 1440, Baltimore, MD, USA.

Background: Improvements in systemic therapy continue to increase survival for patients with brain metastases. Updated dosimetric models are required to optimize long-term safety of stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) for this indication.

Methods: Patients at a single institution receiving SRS from December 2011 to December 2014 were retrospectively reviewed. Patients with radiographic progression of at least one lesion, and with at least 6 months of follow-up from the start of SRS were included. Grade 3 necrosis was defined as requiring surgical intervention. This data were combined with two additional published datasets to construct logistic models describing necrosis risk as a function of dose and volume.

Results: From our institution, 294 brain metastases across 57 patients in 139 treatment plans met inclusion criteria. Primary histologies included non-small cell lung cancer ( = 19), melanoma ( = 13), breast carcinoma ( = 9), renal cell carcinoma ( = 7), and other ( = 9). Median follow-up from SRS of first cranial metastasis was 21.7 months (range: 6.3-56.6) and median overall survival was 25.6 months (range: 6.5-56.6). There were eight cases of Grade 1-2 and two cases of Grade 3 necrosis. As a useful clinical reference point, 20 cc of total brain receiving a single-fraction equivalent dose ≥14 Gy corresponded to 12.1% risk for Grade 1-3 ( < 0.003) and 3.4% risk for Grade 3 necrosis ( < 0.001).

Conclusions: These results compare favorably with the QUANTEC brain tolerance estimates for radiosurgery, providing optimism for lower toxicity in the modern era. Additional studies are needed to determine dose tolerance parameters across a broad spectrum of patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/sni.sni_303_18DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6499458PMC
March 2019

A prospective evaluation of whole brain volume loss and neurocognitive decline following hippocampal-sparing prophylactic cranial irradiation for limited-stage small-cell lung cancer.

J Neurooncol 2019 Sep 13;144(2):351-358. Epub 2019 Jul 13.

Department of Radiation Oncology and Molecular Radiation Sciences, Johns Hopkins University, Johns Hopkins Sidney Kimmel Comprehensive Cancer Center, 401 N. Broadway, Baltimore, MD, 21231, USA.

Introduction: This study evaluated an association between whole brain volume loss and neurocognitive decline following prophylactic cranial irradiation (PCI) for limited-stage small-cell lung cancer (SCLC).

Methods: This was a secondary analysis of a prospective clinical trial that accrued patients at a single institution from 2013 to 2016. Patients with limited-stage SCLC treated with standard chemo-radiation received PCI 25 Gy/10 fractions, with mean hippocampal dose limited to < 8 Gy. Whole brain volumes were measured using MR imaging obtained before and at 6, 12, 18, and 24 months after PCI. Verbal memory was measured by the Hopkins Verbal Learning Test-Revised (HVLT-R) before and at 6 and 12 months after PCI. Univariate and multivariate linear regression evaluated associations between changes in whole brain volume and verbal memory.

Results: Twenty-two patients enrolled. The median whole brain volume before PCI was 1301 mL. Subsequent reduction in whole brain volume was greatest at 18 months after PCI (median change - 23 mL, range - 142 to 20, p = 0.03). At 6 months after PCI, reduction in volume was independently associated with decline in verbal memory, measured by two components of the HVLT-R (Delayed Recall: 0.06/mL volume change, p = 0.046; Percent Retained: 0.66/mL volume change, p = 0.030), when controlling for education and global cognitive function at baseline.

Conclusion: This is the first study to correlate reduction in whole brain volume and decline in neurocognitive function following whole brain radiation therapy (WBRT). This suggests that loss of brain volume after WBRT may be clinically significant and subsequently impact cognition and quality of life.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11060-019-03235-7DOI Listing
September 2019

Biological Principles of Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy (SBRT) and Stereotactic Radiation Surgery (SRS): Indirect Cell Death.

Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 2021 May 2;110(1):21-34. Epub 2019 Mar 2.

Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Minnesota Medical School, Minneapolis, Minnesota.

Purpose: To review the radiobiological mechanisms of stereotactic body radiation therapy stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) and stereotactic radiation surgery (SRS).

Methods And Materials: We reviewed previous reports and recent observations on the effects of high-dose irradiation on tumor cell survival, tumor vasculature, and antitumor immunity. We then assessed the potential implications of these biological changes associated with SBRT and SRS.

Results: Irradiation with doses higher than approximately 10 Gy/fraction causes significant vascular injury in tumors, leading to secondary tumor cell death. Irradiation of tumors with high doses has also been reported to increase the antitumor immunity, and various approaches are being investigated to further elevate antitumor immunity. The mechanism of normal tissue damage by high-dose irradiation needs to be further investigated.

Conclusions: In addition to directly killing tumor cells, high-dose irradiation used in SBRT and SRS induces indirect tumor cell death via vascular damage and antitumor immunity. Further studies are warranted to better understand the biological mechanisms underlying the high efficacy of clinical SBRT and SRS and to further improve the efficacy of SBRT and SRS.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijrobp.2019.02.047DOI Listing
May 2021

Organs at Risk Considerations for Thoracic Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy: What Is Safe for Lung Parenchyma?

Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 2021 May 26;110(1):172-187. Epub 2018 Nov 26.

Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York.

Purpose: Stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) has become the standard of care for inoperable early-stage non-small cell lung cancer and is often used for recurrent lung cancer and pulmonary metastases. Radiation-induced lung toxicity (RILT), including radiation pneumonitis and pulmonary fibrosis, is a major concern for which it is important to understand dosimetric and clinical predictors.

Methods And Materials: This study was undertaken through the American Association of Physicists in Medicine's Working Group on Biological Effects of Stereotactic Body Radiotherapy. Data from studies of lung SBRT published through the summer of 2016 that provided detailed information about RILT were analyzed.

Results: Ninety-seven studies were ultimately considered. Definitions of the risk organ and complication endpoints as well as dose-volume information presented varied among studies. The risk of RILT, including radiation pneumonitis and pulmonary fibrosis, was reported to be associated with the size and location of the tumor. Patients with interstitial lung disease appear to be especially susceptible to severe RILT. A variety of dosimetric parameters were reported to be associated with RILT. There was no apparent threshold "tolerance dose-volume" level. However, most studies noted safe treatment with a rate of symptomatic RILT of <10% to 15% after lung SBRT with a mean lung dose (MLD) of the combined lungs ≤8 Gy in 3 to 5 fractions and the percent of total lung volume receiving more than 20 Gy (V) <10% to 15%.

Conclusions: To allow more rigorous analysis of this complication, future studies should standardize reporting by including standardized endpoint and volume definitions and providing dose-volume information for all patients, with and without RILT.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijrobp.2018.11.028DOI Listing
May 2021

Distinguishing True Progression From Radionecrosis After Stereotactic Radiation Therapy for Brain Metastases With Machine Learning and Radiomics.

Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 2018 11 24;102(4):1236-1243. Epub 2018 May 24.

Department of Radiation Oncology, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD. Electronic address:

Purpose: Treatment effect or radiation necrosis after stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) for brain metastases is a common phenomenon often indistinguishable from true progression. Radiomics is an emerging field that promises to improve on conventional imaging. In this study, we sought to apply a radiomics-based prediction model to the problem of diagnosing treatment effect after SRS.

Methods And Materials: We included patients in the Johns Hopkins Health System who were treated with SRS for brain metastases who subsequently underwent resection for symptomatic growth. We also included cases of likely treatment effect in which lesions grew but subsequently regressed spontaneously. Lesions were segmented semiautomatically on preoperative T1 postcontrast and T2 fluid-attenuated inversion recovery magnetic resonance imaging, and radiomic features were extracted with software developed in-house. Top-performing features on univariate logistic regression were entered into a hybrid feature selection/classification model, IsoSVM, with parameter optimization and further feature selection performed using leave-one-out cross-validation. Final model performance was assessed by 10-fold cross-validation with 100 repeats. All cases were independently reviewed by a board-certified neuroradiologist for comparison.

Results: We identified 82 treated lesions across 66 patients, with 77 lesions having pathologic confirmation. There were 51 radiomic features extracted per segmented lesion on each magnetic resonance imaging sequence. An optimized IsoSVM classifier based on top-ranked radiomic features had sensitivity and specificity of 65.38% and 86.67%, respectively, with an area under the curve of 0.81 on leave-one-out cross-validation. Only 73% of cases were classifiable by the neuroradiologist, with a sensitivity of 97% and specificity of 19%.

Conclusions: Radiomics holds promise for differentiating between treatment effect and true progression in brain metastases treated with SRS. A predictive model built on radiomic features from an institutional cohort performed well on cross-validation testing. These results warrant further validation in independent datasets. Such work could prove invaluable for guiding management of individual patients and assessing outcomes of novel interventions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijrobp.2018.05.041DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6746307PMC
November 2018

Fitting NTCP models to SBRT dose and carotid blowout syndrome data.

Med Phys 2018 Oct 31;45(10):4754-4762. Epub 2018 Aug 31.

Department of Radiation Oncology, Hacettepe University, Faculty of Medicine Sihhiye, Ankara, Turkey.

Purpose: To estimate the radiobiological parameters of three popular NTCP models, which describe the dose-response relations of carotid blowout syndrome (CBOS) after stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT). To evaluate the goodness-of-fit and the correlation of those models with CBOS.

Methods: The study included 61 patients with inoperable locally recurrent head and neck cancer treated with SBRT using CyberKnife (Accuray, Sunnyvale, CA) at the Department of Radiation Oncology, Hacettepe University, Ankara, Turkey between June 2007 and March 2011. The dose-volume histograms of the internal carotid were exported from the plans of all the patients. The follow-up results regarding the end point of carotid blowout syndrome were collected retrospectively. Initially, univariable analyses (Wilcoxon rank-sum or Chi-square tests) and a multivariate logistic regression analysis were performed between the outcome data and a list of clinical and treatment factors to identify significant correlations. Additionally, the Lyman-Kutcher-Burman (LKB), Relative Seriality (RS), and Logit NTCP models were used to fit the clinical data. The fitting of the different models was assessed through the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC), Akaike information criterion (AIC), and Odds Ratio methods.

Results: The clinical/treatment factors that were found to have a significant or close to significant correlations with acute CBOS were Age at the time of CK (P-value = 0.03), Maximum carotid dose (P-value = 0.06), and CK prescription dose (P-value = 0.08). Using D , physical DVH, and EQD -DVH as the dosimetric metrics in the NTCP models, the derived LKB model parameters were: (a) D  = 45.8 Gy, m = 0.24, n = n/a; (b) D  = 44.8 Gy, m = 0.28, n = 0.01; and (c) D  = 115.8 Gy, m = 0.45, n = 0.01, respectively. The AUC values for the dosimetric metrics were 0.70, 0.68, and 0.61, respectively. The differences in AIC between the different models were less than 2 and ranged within ±0.9.

Conclusion: The maximum dose to the internal carotid less than 34 Gy appears to significantly reduce the risk for CBOS. Age at the time of CK, Maximum carotid dose, and CK prescription dose were also found to correlate with CBOS. The values of the parameters of three NTCP models were determined for this endpoint. A threshold of gEUD <34.5 Gy appears to be significantly associated with lower risks of CBOS.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/mp.13121DOI Listing
October 2018

Local recurrence patterns after postoperative stereotactic radiation surgery to resected brain metastases: A quantitative analysis to guide target delineation.

Pract Radiat Oncol 2018 Nov - Dec;8(6):388-396. Epub 2018 Apr 26.

Department of Radiation Oncology and Molecular Radiation Sciences, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland. Electronic address:

Purpose: In the treatment of resected metastatic brain disease, a recent phase 3 trial by the North Central Cancer Treatment Group (N107C/CEC.3) surprisingly found that the local control rate for whole-brain radiation therapy was better than that of stereotactic radiation surgery (SRS). To optimize target delineation, we performed a quantitative analysis of local failure patterns after postoperative SRS.

Methods And Materials: Patients with brain metastases who were treated with surgery and SRS to the cavity were evaluated. Local failure was defined by pathologic confirmation or magnetic resonance imaging evidence of progression leading to further overlapping radiation therapy. T1 postgadolinium magnetic resonance imaging scans that were taken preoperatively and at recurrence were co-registered to the simulation computed tomography. Three volumes were compared: (1) Preoperative tumors, (2) resection cavities that were originally contoured as clinical target volumes for SRS, and (3) recurrent tumors. Overlap volume histograms quantified the proximity of the three volumes to the meninges.

Results: In the cohort of 173 patients, 18 patients experienced local failure in 19 resection cavities. The original SRS target volume overlapped with a median of 69.6% of the recurrent tumor. When the entire preoperative tumor was included, the overlap with the recurrent tumor increased to a median of 76.8%. Recurrent tumors were closer to the meninges than corresponding preoperative tumors (P = .03) but a median 8.2 mm expansion of the target volume from the meninges was needed to increase overlap with the recurrent tumor to 90%. Increases in overlap with the recurrent tumor were achieved most efficiently by uniformly expanding the contoured cavity and a median 2.8 mm expansion covered 90% of the recurrent tumor.

Conclusions: Our quantitative analysis of recurrence patterns suggests that a larger 3 mm uniform expansion of the SRS target volume substantially increases coverage of the volume that is later occupied by the recurrent tumor and may provide improved local control. The extent of the preoperative tumor in the target volume or expanding the target volume from the meninges provides little benefit.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.prro.2018.04.010DOI Listing
January 2019

Radiation-Induced Edema After Single-Fraction or Multifraction Stereotactic Radiosurgery for Meningioma: A Critical Review.

Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 2018 06 29;101(2):344-357. Epub 2018 Mar 29.

Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan Hospital, Ann Arbor, Michigan.

Purpose: Potential dosimetric and clinicopathologic predictors of radiation-induced brain edema after single-fraction or multifraction stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) for non-base of skull (non-BOS) meningiomas are summarized based on a systematic review of the published literature.

Methods And Materials: Reviewed studies (PubMed indexed from 1998 through 2017) included all or some non-BOS meningioma patients, reported risks of edema after SRS, and correlated dosimetric and/or nondosimetric measures with the magnitude of risk.

Results: Twenty-six studies reporting risks of edema after SRS for meningioma are reviewed. The treatment techniques as well as distribution of tumor locations, target dosing, and target volume varied across studies. Among 13 studies that included only non-BOS tumors or separately grouped non-BOS tumors, symptomatic edema occurred in 5% to 43% of patients and any edema occurred in 28% to 50%. The reported average time to onset of edema ranged from approximately 3 to 9 months in most studies. Factors reported to significantly correlate with increased risks of edema and/or symptomatic edema after SRS for meningioma include the following: greater tumor margin and/or maximum dose, greater tumor size and/or volume, non-BOS (particularly parasagittal) location, no prior resection for meningioma, and presence of pretreatment edema. Nevertheless, the extent and significance of these factors were inconsistent across studies. Potentially important dosimetric factors, such as volume of brain or tissue receiving single-fraction doses > 10 to 12 Gy, are not well studied.

Conclusions: The variability in risks of edema and in factors impacting those risks is likely a result of differences across studies in the clinicopathologic characteristics of the patient populations, as well as differences in treatment modalities and SRS planning and delivery parameters. More studies on pooled populations, grouped by potential prognostic factors such as tumor location and prior therapy, are needed to better understand dosimetric and nondosimetric factors predictive of edema risk after SRS for meningioma.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijrobp.2018.03.026DOI Listing
June 2018

Single- and Multi-Fraction Stereotactic Radiosurgery Dose Tolerances of the Optic Pathways.

Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 2021 May 31;110(1):87-99. Epub 2018 Jan 31.

Department of Radiation Oncology, Lineberger Cancer Center, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina.

Purpose: Dosimetric and clinical predictors of radiation-induced optic nerve/chiasm neuropathy (RION) after single-fraction stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) or hypofractionated (2-5 fractions) radiosurgery (fSRS) were analyzed from pooled data that were extracted from published reports (PubMed indexed from 1990 to June 2015). This study was undertaken as part of the American Association of Physicists in Medicine Working Group on Stereotactic Body Radiotherapy, investigating normal tissue complication probability (NTCP) after hypofractionated radiation.

Methods And Materials: Eligible studies described dose delivered to optic nerve/chiasm and provided crude or actuarial toxicity risks, with visual endpoints (ie, loss of visual acuity, alterations in visual fields, and/or blindness/complete vision loss). Studies of patients with optic nerve sheath tumors, optic nerve gliomas, or ocular/uveal melanoma were excluded to obviate direct tumor effects on visual outcomes, as were studies not specifying causes of vision loss (ie, tumor progression vs RION).

Results: Thirty-four studies (1578 patients) were analyzed. Histologies included pituitary adenoma, cavernous sinus meningioma, craniopharyngioma, and malignant skull base tumors. Prior resection (76% of patients) did not correlate with RION risk (P = .66). Prior irradiation (6% of patients) was associated with a crude 10-fold increased RION risk versus no prior radiation therapy. In patients with no prior radiation therapy receiving SRS/fSRS in 1-5 fractions, optic apparatus maximum point doses resulting in <1% RION risks include 12 Gy in 1 fraction (which is greater than our recommendation of 10 Gy in 1 fraction), 20 Gy in 3 fractions, and 25 Gy in 5 fractions. Omitting multi-fraction data (and thereby eliminating uncertainties associated with dose conversions), a single-fraction dose of 10 Gy was associated with a 1% RION risk. Insufficient details precluded modeling of NTCP risks after prior radiation therapy.

Conclusions: Optic apparatus NTCP and tolerance doses after single- and multi-fraction stereotactic radiosurgery are presented. Additional standardized dosimetric and toxicity reporting is needed to facilitate future pooled analyses and better define RION NTCP after SRS/fSRS.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijrobp.2018.01.053DOI Listing
May 2021

Radiation Dose-Volume Effects for Liver SBRT.

Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 2021 May 6;110(1):196-205. Epub 2018 Jan 6.

Radiation Medicine Program, Princess Margaret Cancer Centre and Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.

Stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) has emerged as an effective, noninvasive treatment option for primary liver cancer and metastatic disease occurring in the liver. Although SBRT can be highly effective for establishing local control in hepatic malignancies, a tradeoff exists between tumor control and normal tissue complications. The objective of the present study was to review the normal tissue dose-volume effects for SBRT-induced liver and gastrointestinal toxicities and derive normal tissue complication probability models.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijrobp.2017.12.290DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6095822PMC
May 2021

Head and Neck Tumor Control Probability: Radiation Dose-Volume Effects in Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy for Locally Recurrent Previously-Irradiated Head and Neck Cancer: Report of the AAPM Working Group.

Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 2021 May 31;110(1):137-146. Epub 2018 Jan 31.

Department of Radiation Oncology, UPMC Hillman Cancer Center, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. Electronic address:

Purpose: Stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) has emerged as a viable reirradiation strategy for locally recurrent previously-irradiated head and neck cancer. Doses in the literature have varied, which challenges clinical application of SBRT as well as clinical trial design.

Material & Methods: A working group was formed through the American Association of Physicists in Medicine to study tumor control probabilities for SBRT in head and neck cancer. We herein present a systematic review of the available literature addressing the dose/volume data for tumor control probability with SBRT in patients with locally recurrent previously-irradiated head and neck cancer. Dose-response models are generated that present tumor control probability as a function of dose.

Results: Data from more than 300 cases in 8 publications suggest that there is a dose-response relationship, with superior local control and possibly improved overall survival for doses of 35 to 45 Gy (in 5 fractions) compared with <30 Gy.

Conclusion: Stereotactic body radiation therapy doses equivalent to 5-fraction doses of 40 to 50 Gy are suggested for retreatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijrobp.2018.01.044DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7294512PMC
May 2021

Local Control After Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy for Liver Tumors.

Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 2021 May 6;110(1):188-195. Epub 2018 Jan 6.

Department of Radiation Oncology, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York.

Purpose: To quantitatively evaluate published experiences with hepatic stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT), to determine local control rates after treatment of primary and metastatic liver tumors and to examine whether outcomes are affected by SBRT dosing regimen.

Methods And Materials: We identified published articles that reported local control rates after SBRT for primary or metastatic liver tumors. Biologically effective doses (BEDs) were calculated for each dosing regimen using the linear-quadratic equation. We excluded series in which a wide range of BEDs was used. Individual lesion data for local control were extracted from actuarial survival curves, and data were aggregated to form a single dataset. Actuarial local control curves were generated using the Kaplan-Meier method after grouping lesions by disease type and BED (<100 Gy vs >100 Gy). Comparisons were made using log-rank testing.

Results: Thirteen articles met all inclusion criteria and formed the dataset for this analysis. The 1-, 2-, and 3-year actuarial local control rates after SBRT for primary liver tumors (n = 431) were 93%, 89%, and 86%, respectively. Lower 1- (90%), 2- (79%), and 3-year (76%) actuarial local control rates were observed for liver metastases (n = 290, log-rank P = .011). Among patients treated with SBRT for primary liver tumors, there was no evidence that local control is influenced by BED within the range of schedules used. For liver metastases, on the other hand, outcomes were significantly better for lesions treated with BEDs exceeding 100 Gy (3-year local control 93%) than for those treated with BEDs of ≤100 Gy (3-year local control 65%, P < .001).

Conclusions: Stereotactic body radiation therapy for primary liver tumors provides high rates of durable local control, with no clear evidence for a dose-response relationship among commonly utilized schedules. Excellent local control rates are also seen after SBRT for liver metastases when BEDs of >100 Gy are utilized.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijrobp.2017.12.288DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6102100PMC
May 2021

A prospective evaluation of hippocampal radiation dose volume effects and memory deficits following cranial irradiation.

Radiother Oncol 2017 11 8;125(2):234-240. Epub 2017 Nov 8.

Department of Radiation Oncology and Molecular Radiation Sciences, The Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD, United States. Electronic address:

Background And Purpose: To prospectively evaluate hippocampal radiation dose volume effects and memory decline following cranial irradiation.

Material And Methods: Effects of hippocampal radiation over a wide range of doses were investigated by combining data from three prospective studies. In one, adults with small cell lung cancer received hippocampal-avoidance prophylactic cranial irradiation. In the other two, adults with glioblastoma multiforme received neural progenitor cell sparing radiation or no sparing with extra dose delivered to subventricular zone. Memory was measured by the Hopkins Verbal Learning Test-Revised Delayed Recall (HVLT-R DR) at 6 months after radiation. Dose-volume histograms were generated and dose-response data were fitted to a nonlinear model.

Results: Of 60 patients enrolled, 30 were analyzable based on HVLT-R DR testing completion status, baseline HVLT-R DR and intracranial metastasis/recurrence or prior hippocampal resection status. We observed a dose-response of radiation to the hippocampus with regard to decline in HVLT-R DR. D50% of the bilateral hippocampi of 22.1 Gy is associated with 20% risk of decline.

Conclusions: This prospective study demonstrates an association between hippocampal dose volume effects and memory decline measured by HVLT-R DR over a wide dose range. These data support a potential benefit of hippocampal sparing and encourage continued trial enrollment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.radonc.2017.09.035DOI Listing
November 2017