Publications by authors named "Jilly Hope"

4 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Recapitulation of the EEF1A2 D252H neurodevelopmental disorder-causing missense mutation in mice reveals a toxic gain of function.

Hum Mol Genet 2020 Jun;29(10):1592-1606

Centre for Genomic & Experimental Medicine, MRC Institute of Genetics and Molecular Medicine, Western General Hospital, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh EH4 2XU, United Kingdom.

Heterozygous de novo mutations in EEF1A2, encoding the tissue-specific translation elongation factor eEF1A2, have been shown to cause neurodevelopmental disorders including often severe epilepsy and intellectual disability. The mutational profile is unusual; ~50 different missense mutations have been identified but no obvious loss of function mutations, though large heterozygous deletions are known to be compatible with life. A key question is whether the heterozygous missense mutations operate through haploinsufficiency or a gain of function mechanism, an important prerequisite for design of therapeutic strategies. In order both to address this question and to provide a novel model for neurodevelopmental disorders resulting from mutations in EEF1A2, we created a new mouse model of the D252H mutation. This mutation causes the eEF1A2 protein to be expressed at lower levels in brain but higher in muscle in the mice. We compared both heterozygous and homozygous D252H and null mutant mice using behavioural and motor phenotyping alongside molecular modelling and analysis of binding partners. Although the proteomic analysis pointed to a loss of function for the D252H mutant protein, the D252H homozygous mice were more severely affected than null homozygotes on the same genetic background. Mice that are heterozygous for the missense mutation show no behavioural abnormalities but do have sex-specific deficits in body mass and motor function. The phenotyping of our novel mouse lines, together with analysis of molecular modelling and interacting proteins, suggest that the D252H mutation results in a gain of function.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/hmg/ddaa042DOI Listing
June 2020

Biallelic mutations in the gene encoding eEF1A2 cause seizures and sudden death in F0 mice.

Sci Rep 2017 04 5;7:46019. Epub 2017 Apr 5.

Centre for Genomic &Experimental Medicine, MRC Institute of Genetics and Molecular Medicine, University of Edinburgh, Western General Hospital, Crewe Road, Edinburgh, EH4 2XU, United Kingdom.

De novo heterozygous missense mutations in the gene encoding translation elongation factor eEF1A2 have recently been found to give rise to neurodevelopmental disorders. Children with mutations in this gene have developmental delay, epilepsy, intellectual disability and often autism; the most frequently occurring mutation is G70S. It has been known for many years that complete loss of eEF1A2 in mice causes motor neuron degeneration and early death; on the other hand heterozygous null mice are apparently normal. We have used CRISPR/Cas9 gene editing in the mouse to mutate the gene encoding eEF1A2, obtaining a high frequency of biallelic mutations. Whilst many of the resulting founder (F0) mice developed motor neuron degeneration, others displayed phenotypes consistent with a severe neurodevelopmental disorder, including sudden unexplained deaths and audiogenic seizures. The presence of G70S protein was not sufficient to protect mice from neurodegeneration in G70S/- mice, showing that the mutant protein is essentially non-functional.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/srep46019DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5380952PMC
April 2017

HEATR2 plays a conserved role in assembly of the ciliary motile apparatus.

PLoS Genet 2014 Sep 18;10(9):e1004577. Epub 2014 Sep 18.

MRC Human Genetics Unit, Institute of Genetics and Molecular Medicine at The University of Edinburgh, Western General Hospital, Edinburgh, United Kingdom.

Cilia are highly conserved microtubule-based structures that perform a variety of sensory and motility functions during development and adult homeostasis. In humans, defects specifically affecting motile cilia lead to chronic airway infections, infertility and laterality defects in the genetically heterogeneous disorder Primary Ciliary Dyskinesia (PCD). Using the comparatively simple Drosophila system, in which mechanosensory neurons possess modified motile cilia, we employed a recently elucidated cilia transcriptional RFX-FOX code to identify novel PCD candidate genes. Here, we report characterization of CG31320/HEATR2, which plays a conserved critical role in forming the axonemal dynein arms required for ciliary motility in both flies and humans. Inner and outer arm dyneins are absent from axonemes of CG31320 mutant flies and from PCD individuals with a novel splice-acceptor HEATR2 mutation. Functional conservation of closely arranged RFX-FOX binding sites upstream of HEATR2 orthologues may drive higher cytoplasmic expression of HEATR2 during early motile ciliogenesis. Immunoprecipitation reveals HEATR2 interacts with DNAI2, but not HSP70 or HSP90, distinguishing it from the client/chaperone functions described for other cytoplasmic proteins required for dynein arm assembly such as DNAAF1-4. These data implicate CG31320/HEATR2 in a growing intracellular pre-assembly and transport network that is necessary to deliver functional dynein machinery to the ciliary compartment for integration into the motile axoneme.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1004577DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4168999PMC
September 2014

Recessive mutations in SPTBN2 implicate β-III spectrin in both cognitive and motor development.

PLoS Genet 2012 6;8(12):e1003074. Epub 2012 Dec 6.

Wellcome Trust Centre for Human Genetics, University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom.

β-III spectrin is present in the brain and is known to be important in the function of the cerebellum. Heterozygous mutations in SPTBN2, the gene encoding β-III spectrin, cause Spinocerebellar Ataxia Type 5 (SCA5), an adult-onset, slowly progressive, autosomal-dominant pure cerebellar ataxia. SCA5 is sometimes known as "Lincoln ataxia," because the largest known family is descended from relatives of the United States President Abraham Lincoln. Using targeted capture and next-generation sequencing, we identified a homozygous stop codon in SPTBN2 in a consanguineous family in which childhood developmental ataxia co-segregates with cognitive impairment. The cognitive impairment could result from mutations in a second gene, but further analysis using whole-genome sequencing combined with SNP array analysis did not reveal any evidence of other mutations. We also examined a mouse knockout of β-III spectrin in which ataxia and progressive degeneration of cerebellar Purkinje cells has been previously reported and found morphological abnormalities in neurons from prefrontal cortex and deficits in object recognition tasks, consistent with the human cognitive phenotype. These data provide the first evidence that β-III spectrin plays an important role in cortical brain development and cognition, in addition to its function in the cerebellum; and we conclude that cognitive impairment is an integral part of this novel recessive ataxic syndrome, Spectrin-associated Autosomal Recessive Cerebellar Ataxia type 1 (SPARCA1). In addition, the identification of SPARCA1 and normal heterozygous carriers of the stop codon in SPTBN2 provides insights into the mechanism of molecular dominance in SCA5 and demonstrates that the cell-specific repertoire of spectrin subunits underlies a novel group of disorders, the neuronal spectrinopathies, which includes SCA5, SPARCA1, and a form of West syndrome.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1003074DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3516553PMC
May 2013