Publications by authors named "Jill S Anderson"

10 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Outcomes of Bilateral Cataract Surgery in Infants 7 to 24 Months of Age Using the Toddler Aphakia and Pseudophakia Treatment Study Registry.

Ophthalmology 2021 02 15;128(2):302-308. Epub 2020 Jul 15.

Department of Ophthalmology, Oregon Health and Science University, Portland, Oregon; Departments of Ophthalmology and Pediatrics, Stanford University Medical Center, Palo Alto, California.

Purpose: To evaluate outcomes of bilateral cataract surgery in children aged 7 to 24 months and compare rates of adverse events (AEs) with other Toddler Aphakia and Pseudophakia Study (TAPS) registry outcomes.

Design: Retrospective clinical study at 10 Infant Aphakia Treatment Study (IATS) sites. Statistical analyses comparing this cohort with previously reported TAPS registry cohorts.

Participants: Children enrolled in the TAPS registry between 2004 and 2010.

Methods: Children underwent bilateral cataract surgery with or without intraocular lens (IOL) placement at age 7 to 24 months with 5 years of postsurgical follow-up.

Main Outcome Measures: Visual acuity (VA), occurrence of strabismus, AEs, and reoperations.

Results: A total of 40 children (76 eyes) who underwent bilateral cataract surgery with primary posterior capsulectomy were identified with a median age at cataract surgery of 11 months (7-23); 68% received a primary IOL. Recurrent visual axis opacification (VAO) occurred in 7.5% and was associated only with the use of an IOL (odds ratio, 6.10; P = 0.005). Glaucoma suspect (GS) was diagnosed in 2.5%, but no child developed glaucoma. In this bilateral cohort, AEs (8/40, 20%), including glaucoma or GS and VAO, and reoperations occurred in a similar proportion to that of the published unilateral TAPS cohort. When analyzed with children aged 1 to 7 months at bilateral surgery, the incidence of AEs and glaucoma or GS correlated strongly with age at surgery (P = 0.011/0.004) and glaucoma correlated with microcornea (P = 0.040) but not with IOL insertion (P = 0.15).

Conclusions: Follow-up to age 5 years after bilateral cataract surgery in children aged 7 to 24 months reveals a low rate of VAO and very rare glaucoma or GS diagnosis compared with infants with cataracts operated at < 7 months of age despite primary IOL implantation in most children in the group aged 7 to 24 months. The use of an IOL increases the risk of VAO irrespective of age at surgery.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ophtha.2020.07.020DOI Listing
February 2021

Outcomes of Bilateral Cataracts Removed in Infants 1 to 7 Months of Age Using the Toddler Aphakia and Pseudophakia Treatment Study Registry.

Ophthalmology 2020 04 9;127(4):501-510. Epub 2019 Nov 9.

Department of Ophthalmology, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, Georgia; Departments of Ophthalmology and Pediatrics, Stanford University School of Medicine, Palo Alto, California.

Purpose: To evaluate outcomes of bilateral cataract surgery in infants 1 to 7 months of age performed by Infant Aphakia Treatment Study (IATS) investigators during IATS recruitment and to compare them with IATS unilateral outcomes.

Design: Retrospective case series review at 10 IATS sites.

Participants: The Toddler Aphakia and Pseudophakia Study (TAPS) is a registry of children treated by surgeons who participated in the IATS.

Methods: Children underwent bilateral cataract surgery with or without intraocular lens (IOL) placement during IATS enrollment years 2004 through 2010.

Main Outcome Measures: Visual acuity (VA), strabismus, adverse events (AEs), and reoperations.

Results: One hundred seventy-eight eyes (96 children) were identified with a median age of 2.5 months (range, 1-7 months) at the time of cataract surgery. Forty-two eyes (24%) received primary IOL implantation. Median VA of the better-seeing eye at final study visit closest to 5 years of age with optotype VA testing was 0.35 logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution (logMAR; optotype equivalent, 20/45; range, 0.00-1.18 logMAR) in both aphakic and pseudophakic children. Corrected VA was excellent (<20/40) in 29% of better-seeing eyes, 15% of worse-seeing eyes. One percent showed poor acuity (≥20/200) in the better-seeing eye, 12% in the worse-seeing eye. Younger age at surgery and smaller (<9.5 mm) corneal diameter at surgery conferred an increased risk for glaucoma or glaucoma suspect designation (younger age: odds ratio [OR], 1.44; P = 0.037; and smaller cornea: OR, 3.95; P = 0.045). Adverse events also were associated with these 2 variables on multivariate analysis (younger age: OR, 1.36; P = 0.023; and smaller cornea: OR, 4.78; P = 0.057). Visual axis opacification was more common in pseudophakic (32%) than aphakic (8%) eyes (P = 0.009). Unplanned intraocular reoperation occurred in 28% of first enrolled eyes (including glaucoma surgery in 10%).

Conclusions: Visual acuity after bilateral cataract surgery in infants younger than 7 months is good, despite frequent systemic and ocular comorbidities. Although aphakia management did not affect VA outcome or AE incidence, IOL placement increased the risk of visual axis opacification. Adverse events and glaucoma correlated with a younger age at surgery and glaucoma correlated with the presence of microcornea.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ophtha.2019.10.039DOI Listing
April 2020

Outcomes of Unilateral Cataracts in Infants and Toddlers 7 to 24 Months of Age: Toddler Aphakia and Pseudophakia Study (TAPS).

Ophthalmology 2019 08 14;126(8):1189-1195. Epub 2019 Mar 14.

Department of Ophthalmology, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, Georgia; Departments of Ophthalmology and Pediatrics, Stanford University Medical Center, Palo Alto, California.

Purpose: To evaluate outcomes of unilateral cataract surgery in children 7 to 24 months of age.

Design: Retrospective case series at 10 Infant Aphakia Treatment Study (IATS) sites.

Participants: The Toddler Aphakia and Pseudophakia Study is a registry of children treated by surgeons who participated in the IATS.

Methods: Children underwent unilateral cataract surgery with or without intraocular lens (IOL) placement during the IATS enrollment years of 2004 and 2010.

Main Outcome Measures: Intraoperative complications, adverse events (AEs), visual acuity, and strabismus.

Results: Fifty-six children were included with a mean postoperative follow-up of 47.6 months. Median age at cataract surgery was 13.9 months (range, 7.2-22.9). Ninety-two percent received a primary IOL. Intraoperative complications occurred in 4 patients (7%). At 5 years of age, visual acuity of treated eyes was very good (≥20/40) in 11% and poor (≤20/200) in 44%. Adverse events were identified in 24%, with a 4% incidence of glaucoma suspect. An additional unplanned intraocular surgery occurred in 14% of children. Neither AEs nor intraocular reoperations were more common for children with surgery at 7 to 12 months of age than for those who underwent surgery at 13 to 24 months of age (AE rate, 21% vs. 25% [P = 0.60]; reoperation rate, 13% vs. 16% [P = 1.00]).

Conclusions: Although most children underwent IOL implantation concurrent with unilateral cataract removal, the incidence of complications, reoperations, and glaucoma was low when surgery was performed between 7 and 24 months of age and compared favorably with same-site IATS data for infants undergoing surgery before 7 months of age. Our study showed that IOL implantation is relatively safe in children older than 6 months and younger than 2 years.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ophtha.2019.03.011DOI Listing
August 2019

Reply.

Am J Ophthalmol 2017 09 4;181:174-175. Epub 2017 Jul 4.

Minneapolis, Minnesota.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ajo.2017.06.009DOI Listing
September 2017

Strabismus Measurements in Adults Before and After Pupil Dilation.

Am J Ophthalmol 2017 Jun 14;178:1-8. Epub 2017 Mar 14.

Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Neurosciences, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota; Department of Pediatrics, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota. Electronic address:

Purpose: To determine the effect of dilating drops on strabismus measurements in adults.

Design: Prospective cohort study.

Methods: Patients aged 18 and older with strabismus underwent a standard evaluation of ocular motility, stereopsis, and ocular alignment with alternate prism cover test by a certified orthoptist. After pupil dilation with 2.5% phenylephrine and 1% tropicamide, ocular alignment was remeasured in primary gaze at 6 meters, at 1/3 meter, and at 1/3 meter with a +3.00 by a second certified orthoptist, masked to the previous measurements. The primary outcome was the mean difference in the angle of horizontal and vertical deviations after dilation in prism diopters.

Results: A total of 55 patients were enrolled with a variety of diagnoses. For horizontal measurements the mean change was 0.54 prism diopters at 6 meters (95% confidence interval [CI] -0.36 to 1.43, P = .24), 1.67 prism diopters at 1/3 meter (95% CI -0.19 to 3.54, P = .08), and -0.05 prism diopters at 1/3 meter with a +3.00 add (95% CI -1.65 to 1.56, P = .95). The mean change in vertical deviation was 0.18 prism diopters at 6 meters (95% CI -0.19 to 0.56, P = .34), 0.57 prism diopters at 1/3 meter (95% CI 0-1.15, P = .05), and 0.47 prism diopters at 1/3 meter with a +3.00 add (95% CI -0.23 to 1.17, P = .18).

Conclusions: Pupil dilation does not meaningfully affect vertical or horizontal strabismus measurements in adults. Mild variability at near in younger patients is eliminated with the use of a +3.00 add.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ajo.2017.03.004DOI Listing
June 2017

Abnormally Small Neuromuscular Junctions in the Extraocular Muscles From Subjects With Idiopathic Nystagmus and Nystagmus Associated With Albinism.

Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 2016 Apr;57(4):1912-20

The University of Leicester Ulverscroft Eye Unit, Department of Neuroscience, Psychology and Behaviour, Leicester, United Kingdom.

Purpose: Infantile nystagmus syndrome (INS) is often associated with abnormalities of axonal outgrowth and connectivity. To determine if this manifests in extraocular muscle innervation, specimens from children with idiopathic INS or INS and albinism were examined and compared to normal age-matched control extraocular muscles.

Methods: Extraocular muscles removed during normal surgery on children with idiopathic INS or INS and albinism were immunostained for neuromuscular junctions, myofiber type, the immature form of the acetylcholine receptor, and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and compared to age-matched controls.

Results: Muscles from both the idiopathic INS and INS and albinism groups had neuromuscular junctions that were 35% to 71% smaller based on myofiber area and myofiber perimeter than found in age-matched controls, and this was seen on both fast and slow myosin heavy chain isoform-expressing myofibers (all P < 0.015). Muscles from subjects with INS and albinism showed a 7-fold increase in neuromuscular junction numbers on fast myofibers expressing the immature gamma subunit of the acetylcholine receptor. The extraocular muscles from both INS subgroups showed a significant increase in the number and size of slow myofibers compared to age-matched controls. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor was expressed in control muscle but was virtually absent in the INS muscles.

Conclusions: These studies suggest that, relative to the final common pathway, INS is not the same between different patient etiologies. It should be possible to modulate these final common pathway abnormalities, via exogenous application of appropriate drugs, with the hope that this type of treatment may reduce the involuntary oscillatory movements in these children.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1167/iovs.16-19129DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4849883PMC
April 2016

Bilateral persistent fetal vasculature due to a mutation in the Norrie disease protein gene.

Neuroradiol J 2015 Dec 12;28(6):623-7. Epub 2015 Oct 12.

Department of Radiology, University of Minnesota, USA

We report a case of a 7-week-old boy with bilateral leukocoria and asymmetric microphthalmia who was found to have Norrie disease. Symmetrically hyperdense globes with no evidence of calcification were seen on CT scan. The MRI showed bilateral retinal hemorrhages resulting in conical vitreous chambers-narrow at the optic disc and widened toward the lens-characteristic of persistent fetal vasculature. Genetic evaluation revealed a previously undescribed mutation in the Norrie disease protein gene.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1971400915609350DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4757132PMC
December 2015

Outcome of angle surgery in children with aphakic glaucoma.

J AAPOS 2010 Jun 11;14(3):235-9. Epub 2010 Mar 11.

Department of Ophthalmology, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota 55455-5501, USA.

Purpose: To investigate the outcome of trabeculotomy and/or goniotomy for pediatric aphakic glaucoma.

Methods: Retrospective chart review of consecutive children who had congenital cataract surgery between 1990 and 2006 and required goniotomy and/or trabeculotomy for aphakic glaucoma. Treatment success was defined as postoperative intraocular pressure of
Results: A total of 14 eyes of 11 patients met inclusion criteria, with a mean follow-up of 4.7 years. Of theses, 2 eyes had goniotomy alone, 3 eyes had goniotomy followed by trabeculotomy, and 9 eyes had trabeculotomy alone. Mean IOP before angle surgery was 35 +/- 10 mm Hg. Mean IOP at the last recorded visit was 22 +/- 4 mm Hg (p = 0.0005). Treatment success was observed in 8 of the 14 eyes (57.1%), with a mean number of angle procedures of 1.4 per eye: 6 eyes (42.8%) were successful after a single angle surgery, each involving an initial trabeculotomy; 3 eyes (21.4%) underwent subsequent shunt placement after initial goniotomy at 6 months, 1.3 years, and 5.5 years after the last angle surgery.

Conclusions: When intraocular surgery is indicated to control IOP in pediatric aphakic glaucoma, trabeculotomy and/or goniotomy can be successful in the majority of eyes and may decrease the need for filtering and shunting procedures.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jaapos.2010.01.005DOI Listing
June 2010

Anterior ciliary circulation from the horizontal rectus muscles.

Strabismus 2009 Jan-Mar;17(1):45-8

Department of Ophthalmology, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota 55455-0501, USA.

Purpose: To quantify the anterior ciliary arteries that accompany horizontal rectus muscles and to correlate these findings with analysis of arterial cross-sectional area in distal tendons of these muscles.

Patients And Methods: In 31 consecutive patients, previously unoperated horizontal rectus muscles were photographed intraoperatively. Major and minor anterior ciliary arteries (ACAs) were counted from the photographs by a masked independent observer and compared between medial and lateral rectus muscles. Cross sections from medial and lateral rectus muscle resection specimens were stained for elastin to quantify arterial volume in the distal tendons.

Results: Twenty lateral and 22 medial rectus muscles from 31 patients were included. There was no significant difference in the mean number of major anterior ciliary arteries between lateral rectus muscles (2.25 +/- 0.79, range 1-4) and medial rectus muscles (2.05 +/- 0.65, range 1-3) (p = 0.46). The mean number of minor anterior ciliary arteries was 6.7 in both medial and lateral rectus muscles (p = 0.97). Resected rectus muscle tendons showed no significant difference between lateral and medial rectus muscles for arterial vessel number or cross-sectional area.

Conclusions: These results show the contribution from the lateral rectus muscle to the anterior segment circulation may be more robust than is commonly taught.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09273970802678180DOI Listing
May 2009

Pain relief in patients receiving periocular botulinum toxin A.

Ophthalmic Plast Reconstr Surg 2008 Mar-Apr;24(2):113-6

Department of Ophthalmology, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455, USA.

Purpose: We hypothesized that patients with benign essential blepharospasm and hemifacial spasm experience relief of headache and eye pain after botulinum toxin injections.

Methods: A retrospective chart review of 85 patients who had received botulinum toxin injections at the University of Minnesota for treatment of benign essential blepharospasm and hemifacial spasm was conducted. A prospective telephone questionnaire was used to ascertain details regarding improvement of headache and eye pain.

Results: Of the 85 patients (34 men, 51 women), 20 patients (23.5%) had headaches and 29 (34.1%) had eye pain. Ten of 20 (50.0%) headache-positive patients and 24 of 29 patients (82.8%) with eye pain had reduction in their pain after botulinum toxin injections.

Conclusion: The findings of this study support the use of botulinum toxin for headache and eye pain relief in patients with benign essential blepharospasm and hemifacial pain. In addition, with the expanding uses of botulinum toxin, the results support its antinociceptive effects. Further investigation should continue in the mechanism of botulinum toxin's effects on pain.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/IOP.0b013e31816386e1DOI Listing
May 2008
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