Publications by authors named "Jill M Norris"

276 Publications

25(OH)D Levels in Infancy Is Associated With Celiac Disease Autoimmunity in At-Risk Children: A Case-Control Study.

Front Nutr 2021 11;8:720041. Epub 2021 Aug 11.

Department of Clinical Sciences, Lund University, Malmö, Sweden.

An observed variation in the risk of celiac disease, according to the season of birth, suggests that vitamin D may affect the development of the disease. The aim of this study was to investigate if vitamin D concentration is associated with the risk of celiac disease autoimmunity (CDA) in genetically at-risk children. Children prospectively followed in the multinational The Environmental Determinants of Diabetes in the Young study, conducted at six centers in Europe and the US, were selected for a 1-to-3 nested case-control study. In total, 281 case-control sets were identified. CDA was defined as positivity for tissue transglutaminase autoantibodies (tTGA) on two or more consecutive visits. Vitamin D was measured as 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] concentrations in all plasma samples prior to, and including, the first tTGA positive visit. Conditional logistic regression was used to examine the association between 25(OH)D and risk of CDA. No significant association was seen between 25(OH)D concentrations (per 5 nmol/L increase) and risk for CDA development during early infancy (odds ratio [OR] 0.99, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.95-1.04) or childhood (OR 1.02, 95% CI 0.97-1.07). When categorizing 25(OH)D concentrations, there was an increased risk of CDA with 25(OH)D concentrations <30 nmol/L (OR 2.23, 95% CI 1.29, 3.84) and >75 nmol/L (OR 2.10, 95% CI 1.28-3.44) in early infancy, as compared with 50-75 nmol/L. This study indicates that 25(OH)D concentrations <30 nmol/L and >75 nmol/L during early infancy were associated with an increased risk of developing CDA in genetically at-risk children. The non-linear relationship raises the need for more studies on the possible role of 25(OH)D in the relation to celiac disease onset.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fnut.2021.720041DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8479793PMC
August 2021

Metabolomic architecture of obesity implicates metabolonic lactone sulfate in cardiometabolic disease.

Mol Metab 2021 Sep 24;54:101342. Epub 2021 Sep 24.

Department of Biochemistry, Wake Forest School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, North Carolina, USA. Electronic address:

Objective: Identify and characterize circulating metabolite profiles associated with adiposity to inform precision medicine.

Methods: Untargeted plasma metabolomic profiles in the Insulin Resistance Atherosclerosis Family Study (IRASFS) Mexican American cohort (n = 1108) were analyzed for association with anthropometric (body mass index, BMI; waist circumference, WC; waist-to-hip ratio, WHR) and computed tomography measures (visceral adipose tissue, VAT; subcutaneous adipose tissue, SAT; visceral-to-subcutaneous ratio, VSR) of adiposity. Genetic data, inclusive of genome-wide array-based genotyping, whole exome sequencing (WES) and whole genome sequencing (WGS), were evaluated to identify the genetic contributors. Phenotypic and genetic association signals were replicated across ancestries. Transcriptomic data were analyzed to explore the relationship between genetic and metabolomic data.

Results: A partially characterized metabolite, tentatively named metabolonic lactone sulfate (X-12063), was consistently associated with BMI, WC, WHR, VAT, and SAT in IRASFS Mexican Americans (P <2.02 × 10). Trait associations were replicated in IRASFS African Americans (P < 1.12 × 10). Expanded analyses revealed associations with multiple phenotypic measures of cardiometabolic health, e.g. insulin sensitivity (S), triglycerides (TG), diastolic blood pressure (DBP) and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) in both ancestries. Metabolonic lactone sulfate levels were heritable (h > 0.47), and a significant genetic signal at the ZSCAN25/CYP3A5 locus (P = 9.00 × 10, P = 2.31 × 10) was observed, highlighting a putative functional variant (rs776746, CYP3A5∗3). Transcriptomic analysis in the African American Genetics of Metabolism and Expression (AAGMEx) cohort supported the association of CYP3A5 with metabolonic lactone sulfate levels (P = 6.64 × 10).

Conclusions: Variant rs776746 is associated with a decrease in the transcript levels of CYP3A5, which in turn is associated with increased metabolonic lactone sulfate levels and poor cardiometabolic health.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.molmet.2021.101342DOI Listing
September 2021

Evaluating associations of joint swelling, joint stiffness and joint pain with physical activity in first-degree relatives of patients with rheumatoid arthritis: Studies of the Aetiology of Rheumatoid Arthritis (SERA), a prospective cohort study.

BMJ Open 2021 Sep 14;11(9):e050883. Epub 2021 Sep 14.

Department of Epidemiology, Colorado School of Public Health, University of Colorado - Anschutz Medical Campus, Aurora, Colorado, USA.

Objective: Physical activity (PA) in preclinical rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is associated with lower RA risk and disease severity. As joint signs and symptoms of inflammatory arthritis serve as a barrier to PA in RA, it is important to consider whether they affect PA in the time prior to RA. Therefore, we investigated whether joint swelling, stiffness or pain were associated with PA in first-degree relatives (FDRs) of patients with RA, a population at higher risk for future RA.

Design: Prospective study design.

Setting: We recruited FDRs of patients with RA from academic centres, Veterans' hospitals and rheumatology clinics or through responses to advertising from six sites across the USA.

Participants: We evaluated associations of joint stiffness, joint swelling and joint pain with PA time in 268 FDRs with ≥2 visits over an average 1.2 years. Clinicians confirmed joint swelling. Participants self-reported joint stiffness and/or pain.

Primary Outcome Measures: PA during a typical 24-hour day was quantified via questionnaire, weighted to reflect metabolic expenditure, where 24 hours was the minimum PA time. Linear mixed models evaluated associations between symptoms and change in PA over time, adjusting for age, sex, race, body mass index, smoking and RA-related autoantibodies.

Results: Average weighted PA time was 37±7 hours. In the cross-sectional analysis, PA time was 1.3±0.9 hours higher in FDRs reporting joint pain (p=0.15); and 0.8±1.6 and 0.4±1 hours lower in FDRs with joint swelling (p=0.60) and stiffness (p=0.69), respectively. Longitudinally, adjusting for baseline PA time, baseline symptoms were not significantly associated with changes in PA time. However, on average over time, joint stiffness and pain were associated with lower PA time (p=0.0002, p=0.002), and joint swelling was associated with higher PA time (p <0.0001).

Conclusion: Baseline symptoms did not predict future PA time, but on average over time, joint symptoms influenced PA time.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmjopen-2021-050883DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8442039PMC
September 2021

An effective processing pipeline for harmonizing DNA methylation data from Illumina's 450K and EPIC platforms for epidemiological studies.

BMC Res Notes 2021 Sep 8;14(1):352. Epub 2021 Sep 8.

Department of Biostatistics and Informatics, Colorado School of Public Health, University of Colorado Anschutz Medical Campus, Aurora, CO, USA.

Objective: Illumina BeadChip arrays are commonly used to generate DNA methylation data for large epidemiological studies. Updates in technology over time create challenges for data harmonization within and between studies, many of which obtained data from the older 450K and newer EPIC platforms. The pre-processing pipeline for DNA methylation is not trivial, and influences the downstream analyses. Incorporating different platforms adds a new level of technical variability that has not yet been taken into account by recommended pipelines. Our study evaluated the performance of various tools on different versions of platform data harmonization at each step of pre-processing pipeline, including quality control (QC), normalization, batch effect adjustment, and genomic inflation. We illustrate our novel approach using 450K and EPIC data from the Diabetes Autoimmunity Study in the Young (DAISY) prospective cohort.

Results: We found normalization and probe filtering had the biggest effect on data harmonization. Employing a meta-analysis was an effective and easily executable method for accounting for platform variability. Correcting for genomic inflation also helped with harmonization. We present guidelines for studies seeking to harmonize data from the 450K and EPIC platforms, which includes the use of technical replicates for evaluating numerous pre-processing steps, and employing a meta-analysis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13104-021-05741-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8424820PMC
September 2021

A Mediation Approach to Discovering Causal Relationships between the Metabolome and DNA Methylation in Type 1 Diabetes.

Metabolites 2021 Aug 14;11(8). Epub 2021 Aug 14.

Department of Biostatistics and Informatics, Colorado School of Public Health, University of Colorado Denver, Aurora, CO 80045, USA.

Environmental factors including viruses, diet, and the metabolome have been linked with the appearance of islet autoimmunity (IA) that precedes development of type 1 diabetes (T1D). We measured global DNA methylation (DNAm) and untargeted metabolomics prior to IA and at the time of seroconversion to IA in 92 IA cases and 91 controls from the Diabetes Autoimmunity Study in the Young (DAISY). Causal mediation models were used to identify seven DNAm probe-metabolite pairs in which the metabolite measured at IA mediated the protective effect of the DNAm probe measured prior to IA against IA risk. These pairs included five DNAm probes mediated by histidine (a metabolite known to affect T1D risk), one probe (cg01604946) mediated by phostidyl choline p-32:0 or o-32:1, and one probe (cg00390143) mediated by sphingomyelin d34:2. The top 100 DNAm probes were over-represented in six reactome pathways at the FDR <0.1 level ( = 0.071), including transport of small molecules and inositol phosphate metabolism. While the causal pathways in our mediation models require further investigation to better understand the biological mechanisms, we identified seven methylation sites that may improve our understanding of epigenetic protection against T1D as mediated by the metabolome.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/metabo11080542DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8399445PMC
August 2021

Sputum Neutrophil Extracellular Trap Subsets Associate with IgA Anti-Citrullinated Protein Antibodies in Subjects At-Risk for Rheumatoid Arthritis.

Arthritis Rheumatol 2021 Aug 9. Epub 2021 Aug 9.

University of Colorado Denver, Division of Rheumatology, Aurora, CO, USA.

Objective: Mechanisms leading to anti-citrullinated protein antibody (ACPA) generation in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) are hypothesized to originate in the lung. The objective of this study was to understand associations between neutrophil extracellular trap (NET) formation in the lung and local ACPA generation in subjects At-Risk for RA.

Methods: Induced sputum was collected in 49 subjects At-Risk for RA, 12 with RA and 18 controls. Sputum neutrophils were tested for ex vivo NET formation and sputum-induced NET formation of control neutrophils was measured using immunofluorescence imaging. Sputum macrophages were tested for ex vivo endocytosis of apoptotic and opsonized cells. Levels of ACPA, NET remnants and inflammatory proteins were quantified in sputum supernatant.

Results: Spontaneous citrullinated-histone H3 (cit-H3) expressing NET formation was higher in sputum neutrophils from At-Risk and RA compared to controls (median 12% vs. 22% vs. 0%, respectively, p<0.01). In At-Risk subjects, sputum ACPA-IgA correlated with the percentage of neutrophils that underwent cit-H3+ NET formation (r=0.49, p=0.002) and levels of cit-H3+ NET remnants (r=0.70, p<0.001). Reduced endocytic capacity of sputum macrophages was found in At-Risk and RA subjects compared to controls. Using a mediation model, sputum inflammatory proteins were associated with sputum ACPA-IgA through a pathway mediated by cit-H3+ NET remnants. Sputum-induced cit-H3+ NET formation also correlated with sputum IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF-α levels in At-Risk subjects, suggesting a causal relationship.

Conclusion: These data support a potential mechanism for mucosal ACPA generation in subjects At-Risk for RA whereby inflammation leads to increased citrullinated-protein expressing NETs that promote local ACPA generation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/art.41948DOI Listing
August 2021

Inverse probability weighting is an effective method to address selection bias during the analysis of high dimensional data.

Genet Epidemiol 2021 09 15;45(6):593-603. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

Department of Biostatistics and Informatics, Colorado School of Public Health, Aurora, Colorado, USA.

Omics studies frequently use samples collected during cohort studies. Conditioning on sample availability can cause selection bias if sample availability is nonrandom. Inverse probability weighting (IPW) is purported to reduce this bias. We evaluated IPW in an epigenome-wide analysis testing the association between DNA methylation (261,435 probes) and age in healthy adolescent subjects (n = 114). We simulated age and sex to be correlated with sample selection and then evaluated four conditions: complete population/no selection bias (all subjects), naïve selection bias (no adjustment), and IPW selection bias (selection bias with IPW adjustment). Assuming the complete population condition represented the "truth," we compared each condition to the complete population condition. Bias or difference in associations between age and methylation was reduced in the IPW condition versus the naïve condition. However, genomic inflation and type 1 error were higher in the IPW condition relative to the naïve condition. Postadjustment using bacon, type 1 error and inflation were similar across all conditions. Power was higher under the IPW condition compared with the naïve condition before and after inflation adjustment. IPW methods can reduce bias in genome-wide analyses. Genomic inflation is a potential concern that can be minimized using methods that adjust for inflation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/gepi.22418DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8376760PMC
September 2021

Anti-peptidylarginine deiminase-4 antibodies at mucosal sites can activate peptidylarginine deiminase-4 enzyme activity in rheumatoid arthritis.

Arthritis Res Ther 2021 06 6;23(1):163. Epub 2021 Jun 6.

Division of Rheumatology, The Johns Hopkins University, 5200 Eastern Ave. Suite 5300, Baltimore, MD, 21224, USA.

Background: Mucosal sites are hypothesized to play a role in the development of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Since serum anti-peptidylarginine deiminase (PAD)4 antibodies, including a subset that cross-react with PAD3 (PAD3/4), are specific for RA and associate with severe disease, we sought to examine whether anti-PAD4 and anti-PAD3/4 antibodies were present in the lung and oral mucosa of subjects with RA and "at-risk" for RA.

Methods: We included 37 RA, 25 healthy control, and 46 subjects "at-risk" for RA based on familial RA and/or serum anti-citrullinated protein antibody (ACPA) positivity. Paired serum, sputum, and saliva were evaluated for anti-PAD4 and anti-PAD3/4 using immunoprecipitation and ACPA using ELISA. Immunoglobulins (Ig) were purified from representative samples, and their effect on citrullination of histone H3 by recombinant human PAD4 was measured by anti-citH3 immunoblot.

Results: Anti-PAD4 antibodies were detected in the serum of 6/37 (16.2%), sputum of 3/37 (8.1%), and saliva of 3/33 (9.1%) RA subjects and in the serum and sputum of 1/46 (2.2%) at-risk subjects. None of the healthy controls had anti-PAD4 antibodies at any site. Serum, sputum, and salivary anti-PAD4 antibodies were more prevalent in RA subjects with RA duration >2 years. Purified antibodies from representative anti-PAD4-positive and anti-PAD3/4-positive sputum were primarily of the IgA isotype and able to increase PAD4 enzymatic activity.

Conclusions: Anti-PAD4 antibodies are present in the sputum and saliva of a portion of RA patients and are infrequent in at-risk subjects. Importantly, the ability of anti-PAD4, and particularly anti-PAD3/4, antibodies in the sputum to enhance PAD4 enzymatic activity suggests that anti-PAD4 may play an active role in the RA lung.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13075-021-02528-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8182933PMC
June 2021

The trans-ancestral genomic architecture of glycemic traits.

Nat Genet 2021 06 31;53(6):840-860. Epub 2021 May 31.

Department of Epidemiology, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen, the Netherlands.

Glycemic traits are used to diagnose and monitor type 2 diabetes and cardiometabolic health. To date, most genetic studies of glycemic traits have focused on individuals of European ancestry. Here we aggregated genome-wide association studies comprising up to 281,416 individuals without diabetes (30% non-European ancestry) for whom fasting glucose, 2-h glucose after an oral glucose challenge, glycated hemoglobin and fasting insulin data were available. Trans-ancestry and single-ancestry meta-analyses identified 242 loci (99 novel; P < 5 × 10), 80% of which had no significant evidence of between-ancestry heterogeneity. Analyses restricted to individuals of European ancestry with equivalent sample size would have led to 24 fewer new loci. Compared with single-ancestry analyses, equivalent-sized trans-ancestry fine-mapping reduced the number of estimated variants in 99% credible sets by a median of 37.5%. Genomic-feature, gene-expression and gene-set analyses revealed distinct biological signatures for each trait, highlighting different underlying biological pathways. Our results increase our understanding of diabetes pathophysiology by using trans-ancestry studies for improved power and resolution.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41588-021-00852-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7610958PMC
June 2021

Genome-wide association study of vitamin D concentrations and bone mineral density in the African American-Diabetes Heart Study.

PLoS One 2021 20;16(5):e0251423. Epub 2021 May 20.

Department of Biostatistical Sciences, Wake Forest School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, NC, United States of America.

Relative to European Americans, African Americans have lower 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) and vitamin D binding protein (VDBP) concentrations, higher 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25(OH)2D3) concentrations and bone mineral density (BMD), and paradoxically reduced burdens of calcified atherosclerotic plaque (subclinical atherosclerosis). To identify genetic factors contributing to vitamin D and BMD measures, association analysis of >14M variants was conducted in a maximum of 697 African American-Diabetes Heart Study participants with type 2 diabetes (T2D). The most significant association signals were detected for VDBP on chromosome 4; variants rs7041 (β = 0.44, SE = 0.019, P = 9.4x10-86) and rs4588 (β = 0.17, SE = 0.021, P = 3.5x10-08) in the group-specific component (vitamin D binding protein) gene (GC). These variants were found to be independently associated. In addition, rs7041 was also associated with bioavailable vitamin D (BAVD; β = 0.16, SE = 0.02, P = 3.3x10-19). Six rare variants were significantly associated with 25OHD, including a non-synonymous variant in HSPG2 (rs116788687; β = -1.07, SE = 0.17, P = 2.2x10-10) and an intronic variant in TNIK (rs143555701; β = -1.01, SE = 0.18, P = 9.0x10-10), both biologically related to bone development. Variants associated with 25OHD failed to replicate in African Americans from the Insulin Resistance Atherosclerosis Family Study (IRASFS). Evaluation of vitamin D metabolism and bone mineral density phenotypes in an African American population enriched for T2D could provide insight into ethnic specific differences in vitamin D metabolism and bone mineral density.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0251423PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8136717PMC
October 2021

Association of Visceral Adipose Tissue and Insulin Resistance with Incident Metabolic Syndrome Independent of Obesity Status: The IRAS Family Study.

Obesity (Silver Spring) 2021 07 17;29(7):1195-1202. Epub 2021 May 17.

Department of Epidemiology and Prevention, Wake Forest School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, North Carolina, USA.

Objective: Although increasing evidence suggests that visceral adipose tissue (VAT) is a major underlying cause of metabolic syndrome (MetS), few studies have measured VAT at multiple time points in diverse populations. VAT and insulin resistance were hypothesized to differ by MetS status within BMI category in the Insulin Resistance Atherosclerosis Study (IRAS) Family Study and, further, that baseline VAT and insulin resistance and increases over time are associated with incident MetS.

Methods: Generalized estimating equations were used for differences in body fat distribution and insulin resistance by MetS status. Mixed effects logistic regression was used for the association of baseline and change in adiposity and insulin resistance with incident MetS across 5 years, adjusted for age, sex, race/ethnicity, and family correlation.

Results: VAT and insulin sensitivity differed significantly by MetS status and BMI category at baseline. VAT and homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) at baseline (VAT odds ratio [OR] = 1.16 [95% CI: 1.12-2.31]; HOMA-IR OR = 1.85 [95% CI: 1.32-2.58]) and increases over time (VAT OR = 1.55 [95% CI: 1.22-1.98]; HOMA-IR OR = 3.23 [95% CI: 2.20-4.73]) were associated with incident MetS independent of BMI category.

Conclusions: Differing levels of VAT may be driving metabolic heterogeneity within BMI categories. Both overall and abdominal obesity (VAT) may play a role in the development of MetS. Increased VAT over time contributed additional risk.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/oby.23177DOI Listing
July 2021

The oxylipin profile is associated with development of type 1 diabetes: the Diabetes Autoimmunity Study in the Young (DAISY).

Diabetologia 2021 Aug 24;64(8):1785-1794. Epub 2021 Apr 24.

University of Colorado Anschutz Medical Campus, Aurora, CO, USA.

Aims/hypothesis: Oxylipins are lipid mediators derived from polyunsaturated fatty acids. Some oxylipins are proinflammatory (e.g. those derived from arachidonic acid [ARA]), others are pro-resolving of inflammation (e.g. those derived from α-linolenic acid [ALA], docosahexaenoic acid [DHA] and eicosapentaenoic acid [EPA]) and others may be both (e.g. those derived from linoleic acid [LA]). The goal of this study was to examine whether oxylipins are associated with incident type 1 diabetes.

Methods: We conducted a nested case-control analysis in the Diabetes Autoimmunity Study in the Young (DAISY), a prospective cohort study of children at risk of type 1 diabetes. Plasma levels of 14 ARA-derived oxylipins, ten LA-derived oxylipins, six ALA-derived oxylipins, four DHA-derived oxylipins and two EPA-related oxylipins were measured by ultra-HPLC-MS/MS at multiple timepoints related to autoantibody seroconversion in 72 type 1 diabetes cases and 71 control participants, which were frequency matched on age at autoantibody seroconversion (of the case), ethnicity and sample availability. Linear mixed models were used to obtain an age-adjusted mean of each oxylipin prior to type 1 diabetes. Age-adjusted mean oxylipins were tested for association with type 1 diabetes using logistic regression, adjusting for the high risk HLA genotype HLA-DR3/4,DQB1*0302. We also performed principal component analysis of the oxylipins and tested principal components (PCs) for association with type 1 diabetes. Finally, to investigate potential critical timepoints, we examined the association of oxylipins measured before and after autoantibody seroconversion (of the cases) using PCs of the oxylipins at those visits.

Results: The ARA-related oxylipin 5-HETE was associated with increased type 1 diabetes risk. Five LA-related oxylipins, two ALA-related oxylipins and one DHA-related oxylipin were associated with decreased type 1 diabetes risk. A profile of elevated LA- and ALA-related oxylipins (PC1) was associated with decreased type 1 diabetes risk (OR 0.61; 95% CI 0.40, 0.94). A profile of elevated ARA-related oxylipins (PC2) was associated with increased diabetes risk (OR 1.53; 95% CI 1.03, 2.29). A critical timepoint analysis showed type 1 diabetes was associated with a high ARA-related oxylipin profile at post-autoantibody-seroconversion but not pre-seroconversion.

Conclusions/interpretation: The protective association of higher LA- and ALA-related oxylipins demonstrates the importance of both inflammation promotion and resolution in type 1 diabetes. Proinflammatory ARA-related oxylipins may play an important role once the autoimmune process has begun.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00125-021-05457-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8249332PMC
August 2021

A Triple Threat? The Role of Diet, Nutrition, and the Microbiota in T1D Pathogenesis.

Front Nutr 2021 1;8:600756. Epub 2021 Apr 1.

Janssen Research and Development, Raritan, NJ, United States.

In recent years the role of the intestinal microbiota in health and disease has come to the forefront of medical research. Alterations in the intestinal microbiota and several of its features have been linked to numerous diseases, including type 1 diabetes (T1D). To date, studies in animal models of T1D, as well as studies in human subjects, have linked several intestinal microbiota alterations with T1D pathogenesis. Features that are most often linked with T1D pathogenesis include decreased microbial diversity, the relative abundance of specific strains of individual microbes, and altered metabolite production. Alterations in these features as well as others have provided insight into T1D pathogenesis and shed light on the potential mechanism by which the microbiota plays a role in T1D pathogenesis, yet the underlying factors leading to these alterations remains unknown. One potential mechanism for alteration of the microbiota is through diet and nutrition. Previous studies have shown associations of diet with islet autoimmunity, but a direct contributing factor has yet to be identified. Diet, through introduction of antigens and alteration of the composition and function of the microbiota, may elicit the immune system to produce autoreactive responses that result in the destruction of the beta cells. Here, we review the evidence associating diet induced changes in the intestinal microbiota and their contribution to T1D pathogenesis. We further provide a roadmap for determining the effect of diet and other modifiable factors on the entire microbiota ecosystem, including its impact on both immune and beta cell function, as it relates to T1D. A greater understanding of the complex interactions between the intestinal microbiota and several interacting systems in the body (immune, intestinal integrity and function, metabolism, beta cell function, etc.) may provide scientifically rational approaches to prevent development of T1D and other childhood immune and allergic diseases and biomarkers to evaluate the efficacy of interventions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fnut.2021.600756DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8046917PMC
April 2021

Phospholipid Levels at Seroconversion Are Associated With Resolution of Persistent Islet Autoimmunity: The Diabetes Autoimmunity Study in the Young.

Diabetes 2021 07 16;70(7):1592-1601. Epub 2021 Apr 16.

Department of Epidemiology, Colorado School of Public Health, Aurora, CO

Reversion of islet autoimmunity (IA) may point to mechanisms that prevent IA progression. We followed 199 individuals who developed IA during the Diabetes Autoimmunity Study in the Young. Untargeted metabolomics was performed in serum samples following IA. Cox proportional hazards models were used to test whether the metabolites (2,487) predicted IA reversion: two or more consecutive visits negative for all autoantibodies. We conducted a principal components analysis (PCA) of the top metabolites; |hazard ratio (HR) >1.25| and nominal < 0.01. Phosphatidylcholine (16:0_18:1(9Z)) was the strongest individual metabolite (HR per 1 SD 2.16, false discovery rate (FDR)-adjusted = 0.0037). Enrichment analysis identified four clusters (FDR < 0.10) characterized by an overabundance of sphingomyelin (d40:0), phosphatidylcholine (16:0_18:1(9Z)), phosphatidylcholine (30:0), and l-decanoylcarnitine. Overall, 63 metabolites met the criteria for inclusion in the PCA. PC1 (HR 1.4, < 0.0001), PC2 (HR 0.85, = 0.0185), and PC4 (HR 1.28, = 0.0103) were associated with IA reversion. Given the potential influence of diet on the metabolome, we investigated whether nutrients were correlated with PCs. We identified 20 nutrients that were correlated with the PCs ( < 0.05). Total sugar intake was the top nutrient. Overall, we identified an association between phosphatidylcholine, sphingomyelin, and carnitine levels and reversion of IA.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2337/db20-1251DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8336007PMC
July 2021

Allele-specific variation at APOE increases nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and obesity but decreases risk of Alzheimer's disease and myocardial infarction.

Hum Mol Genet 2021 Jul;30(15):1443-1456

Department of Biochemistry, Wake Forest School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, NC, USA.

Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a leading cause of chronic liver disease and is highly correlated with metabolic disease. NAFLD results from environmental exposures acting on a susceptible polygenic background. This study performed the largest multiethnic investigation of exonic variation associated with NAFLD and correlated metabolic traits and diseases. An exome array meta-analysis was carried out among eight multiethnic population-based cohorts (n = 16 492) with computed tomography (CT) measured hepatic steatosis. A fixed effects meta-analysis identified five exome-wide significant loci (P < 5.30 × 10-7); including a novel signal near TOMM40/APOE. Joint analysis of TOMM40/APOE variants revealed the TOMM40 signal was attributed to APOE rs429358-T; APOE rs7412 was not associated with liver attenuation. Moreover, rs429358-T was associated with higher serum alanine aminotransferase, liver steatosis, cirrhosis, triglycerides and obesity; as well as, lower cholesterol and decreased risk of myocardial infarction and Alzheimer's disease (AD) in phenome-wide association analyses in the Michigan Genomics Initiative, United Kingdom Biobank and/or public datasets. These results implicate APOE in imaging-based identification of NAFLD. This association may or may not translate to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis; however, these results indicate a significant association with advanced liver disease and hepatic cirrhosis. These findings highlight allelic heterogeneity at the APOE locus and demonstrate an inverse link between NAFLD and AD at the exome level in the largest analysis to date.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/hmg/ddab096DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8283205PMC
July 2021

Associations of breastfeeding with childhood autoimmunity, allergies, and overweight: The Environmental Determinants of Diabetes in the Young (TEDDY) study.

Am J Clin Nutr 2021 07;114(1):134-142

Institute of Diabetes Research, Helmholtz Zentrum München, German Research Center for Environmental Health, Munich-Neuherberg, Germany; and Forschergruppe Diabetes, Technical University Munich, at Klinikum rechts der Isar, Munich, and Forschergruppe Diabetes eV, Neuherberg, Germany.

Background: Breastfeeding has beneficial effects on numerous health outcomes.

Objectives: We investigated whether breastfeeding duration is associated with the development of early childhood autoimmunity, allergies, or obesity in a multinational prospective birth cohort.

Methods: Infants with genetic susceptibility for type 1 diabetes (n = 8676) were followed for the development of autoantibodies to islet autoantigens or transglutaminase, allergies, and for anthropometric measurements to a median age of 8.3 y (IQR: 2.8-10.2 y). Information on breastfeeding was collected at 3 mo of age and prospectively thereafter. A propensity score for longer breastfeeding was calculated from the variables that were likely to influence any or exclusive breastfeeding. The risks of developing autoimmunity or allergy were assessed using Cox proportional hazards models, and the risk of obesity at 5.5 y of age was assessed using logistic regression with adjustment by the propensity score.

Results: Breastfeeding duration was not associated with a lower risk of either islet or transglutaminase autoimmunity (any breastfeeding >6 mo, adjusted HR: 1.07; 95% CI: 0.96, 1.19; exclusive breastfeeding >3 mo, adjusted HR: 1.03; 95% CI: 0.92, 1.15). Exclusive breastfeeding >3 mo was associated with a decreased risk of seasonal allergic rhinitis (adjusted HR: 0.70; 95% CI: 0.53, 0.92; P < 0.01). Any breastfeeding >6 mo and exclusive breastfeeding >3 mo were associated with decreased risk of obesity (adjusted OR: 0.62; 95% CI: 0.47, 0.81; P < 0.001; and adjusted OR: 0.68; 95% CI: 0.47, 0.95; P < 0.05, respectively).

Conclusions: Longer breastfeeding was not associated with a lower risk of childhood (islet or transglutaminase) autoimmunity in genetically at-risk children but was associated with decreased risk of seasonal allergic rhinitis and obesity at 5.5 y of age.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ajcn/nqab065DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8246624PMC
July 2021

Maternal food consumption during late pregnancy and offspring risk of islet autoimmunity and type 1 diabetes.

Diabetologia 2021 Jul 30;64(7):1604-1612. Epub 2021 Mar 30.

Department of Epidemiology, Colorado School of Public Health, Aurora, CO, USA.

Aims/hypothesis: We aimed to investigate the association between maternal consumption of gluten-containing foods and other selected foods during late pregnancy and offspring risk of islet autoimmunity (IA) and type 1 diabetes in The Environmental Determinants of Diabetes in the Young (TEDDY) study.

Methods: The TEDDY study recruited children at high genetic risk for type 1 diabetes at birth, and prospectively follows them for the development of IA and type 1 diabetes (n = 8556). A questionnaire on the mother's diet in late pregnancy was completed by 3-4 months postpartum. The maternal daily intake was estimated from a food frequency questionnaire for eight food groups: gluten-containing foods, non-gluten cereals, fresh milk, sour milk, cheese products, soy products, lean/medium-fat fish and fatty fish. For each food, we described the distribution of maternal intake among the four participating countries in the TEDDY study and tested the association of tertile of maternal food consumption with risk of IA and type 1 diabetes using forward selection time-to-event Cox regression.

Results: By 28 February 2019, 791 cases of IA and 328 cases of type 1 diabetes developed in TEDDY. There was no association between maternal late-pregnancy consumption of gluten-containing foods or any of the other selected foods and risk of IA, type 1 diabetes, insulin autoantibody-first IA or GAD autoantibody-first IA (all p ≥ 0.01). Maternal gluten-containing food consumption in late pregnancy was higher in Sweden (242 g/day), Germany (247 g/day) and Finland (221 g/day) than in the USA (199 g/day) (pairwise p < 0.05).

Conclusions/interpretation: Maternal food consumption during late pregnancy was not associated with offspring risk for IA or type 1 diabetes.

Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00279318.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00125-021-05446-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8187332PMC
July 2021

Collection and Storage of Human Plasma for Measurement of Oxylipins.

Metabolites 2021 Feb 26;11(3). Epub 2021 Feb 26.

Department of Epidemiology, Colorado School of Public Health, University of Colorado Anschutz Medical Campus, Aurora, CO 80045, USA.

Oxylipins derived from omega-3 and -6 fatty acids are actively involved in inflammatory and immune processes and play important roles in human disease. However, as the interest in oxylipins increases, questions remain regarding which molecules are detectable in plasma, the best methods of collecting samples, and if molecules are stable during collection and storage. We thereby built upon existing studies by examining the stability of an expanded panel of 90 oxylipins, including specialized pro-resolving lipid mediators (SPMs), in human plasma ( = 5 subjects) during sample collection, processing, and storage at -80 °C. Oxylipins were quantified using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS). Blood samples collected in ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) or heparin followed by up to 2 h at room temperature prior to processing showed no significant differences in oxylipin concentrations compared to immediately processed samples, including the SPMs lipoxin A4 and resolvin D1. The majority of molecules, including SPMs, remained stable following storage for up to 1 year. However, in support of previous findings, changes were seen in a small subset of oxylipins including 12-HETE, TXB, 14-HDHA, and 18-HEPE. Overall, this study showed that accurate measurements of most oxylipins can be obtained from stored EDTA or heparin plasma samples using LC/MS/MS.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/metabo11030137DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7996814PMC
February 2021

Children's erythrocyte fatty acids are associated with the risk of islet autoimmunity.

Sci Rep 2021 Feb 11;11(1):3627. Epub 2021 Feb 11.

Health and Well-Being Promotion Unit, Public Health and Welfare Department, Finnish Institute for Health and Welfare, P.O. Box 30, 00271, Helsinki, Finland.

Our aim was to investigate the associations between erythrocyte fatty acids and the risk of islet autoimmunity in children. The Environmental Determinants of Diabetes in the Young Study (TEDDY) is a longitudinal cohort study of children at high genetic risk for type 1 diabetes (n = 8676) born between 2004 and 2010 in the U.S., Finland, Sweden, and Germany. A nested case-control design comprised 398 cases with islet autoimmunity and 1178 sero-negative controls matched for clinical site, family history, and gender. Fatty acids composition was measured in erythrocytes collected at the age of 3, 6, and 12 months and then annually up to 6 years of age. Conditional logistic regression models were adjusted for HLA risk genotype, ancestry, and weight z-score. Higher eicosapentaenoic and docosapentaenoic acid (n - 3 polyunsaturated fatty acids) levels during infancy and conjugated linoleic acid after infancy were associated with a lower risk of islet autoimmunity. Furthermore, higher levels of some even-chain saturated (SFA) and monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) were associated with increased risk. Fatty acid status in early life may signal the risk for islet autoimmunity, especially n - 3 fatty acids may be protective, while increased levels of some SFAs and MUFAs may precede islet autoimmunity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-82200-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7878879PMC
February 2021

Association of Lipid Mediators With Development of Future Incident Inflammatory Arthritis in an Anti-Citrullinated Protein Antibody-Positive Population.

Arthritis Rheumatol 2021 06 23;73(6):955-962. Epub 2021 Apr 23.

Colorado School of Public Health, Aurora.

Objective: To determine the association of polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA)-derived lipid mediators with progression from rheumatoid arthritis (RA)-related autoimmunity to inflammatory arthritis (IA).

Methods: We conducted a prospective cohort study using data from the Studies of the Etiology of Rheumatoid Arthritis (SERA). SERA enrolled first-degree relatives (FDRs) of individuals with RA (FDR cohort) and individuals who screened positive for RA-related autoantibodies at health fairs (screened cohort). We followed up 133 anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide 3.1 (anti-CCP3.1)-positive participants, 29 of whom developed IA. Lipid mediators selected a priori were quantified from stored plasma samples using liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. We fit multivariable Cox proportional hazards models for each lipid mediator as a time-varying variable. For lipid mediators found to be significantly associated with IA, we then examined interleukin-1β (IL-1β), IL-6, IL-8, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF) as potential statistical mediators.

Results: For every 1 natural log pg/ml increase in the circulating plasma levels of proinflammatory 5-HETE, the risk of developing IA increased by 241% (hazard ratio 2.41 [95% confidence interval 1.43-4.07]) after adjusting for age at baseline, cohort (FDR or screened), and shared epitope status. The models examining 15-HETE and 17-HDHA had the same trend but did not reach significance. We did not find evidence that the association between 5-HETE and IA risk was influenced by the proinflammatory cytokines tested.

Conclusion: In a prospective cohort of anti-CCP-positive individuals, higher levels of 5-HETE, an important precursor to proinflammatory leukotrienes, is associated with subsequent IA. Our findings highlight the potential significance of these PUFA metabolites in pre-RA populations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/art.41631DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8169523PMC
June 2021

Subjects at-risk for future development of rheumatoid arthritis demonstrate a PAD4-and TLR-dependent enhanced histone H3 citrullination and proinflammatory cytokine production in CD14 monocytes.

J Autoimmun 2021 02 9;117:102581. Epub 2020 Dec 9.

University of Colorado School of Medicine, Department of Immunology and Microbiology, Aurora, CO, USA; University of Colorado School of Medicine, Children's Hospital Colorado, Department of Pediatrics, Section of Allergy & Immunology, Aurora, CO, USA.

The presence of anti-citrullinated protein/peptide antibodies (ACPA) and epitope spreading across the target autoantigens is a unique feature of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). ACPA are present in the peripheral blood for several years prior to the onset of arthritis and clinical classification of RA. ACPA recognize multiple citrullinated proteins, including histone H3 (H3). Intracellular citrullination of H3 in neutrophils and T cells is known to regulate immune cell function by promoting neutrophil extracellular trap formation and citrullinated autoantigen release as well as regulating the Th2/Th17 T cell phenotypic balance. However, the roles of H3 citrullination in other immune cells are not fully elucidated. We aimed to explore H3 citrullination and cytokine/metabolomic signatures in peripheral blood immune cells from subjects prior to and after the onset of RA, at baseline and in response to ex vivo toll-like receptor (TLR) stimulation. Here, we analyzed 13 ACPA (+) subjects without arthritis but at-risk for future development of RA, 14 early RA patients, and 13 healthy controls. We found significantly elevated H3 citrullination in CD14 monocytes, as well as CD1c dendritic cells and CD66 granulocytes. Unsupervised analysis identified two distinct subsets in CD14 monocytes characterized by H3 modification and unique cytokine/metabolomic signatures. CD14 monocytes with elevated TLR-stimulated H3 citrullination were significantly increased in ACPA (+) at-risk subjects. These cells were skewed to produce TNFα, MIP1β, IFNα, and partially IL-12. Additionally, they demonstrate peptidyl arginine deiminase 4 (PAD4) mediated upregulation of the glycolytic enzyme PFKFB3. These CD14 monocytes with elevated H3 citrullination morphologically formed monocyte extracellular traps (METs). Taken together, dysregulated PAD4-driven cytokine production as well as MET formation in CD14 monocytes in ACPA (+) at-risk subjects likely plays an important role in the development of RA via promoting and perpetuating inflammation and generation of citrullinated autoantigens.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jaut.2020.102581DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7855988PMC
February 2021

A Noncoding Variant Near PPP1R3B Promotes Liver Glycogen Storage and MetS, but Protects Against Myocardial Infarction.

J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2021 01;106(2):372-387

Brigham and Women's Hospital, Havard University, Boston, MA, USA.

Context: Glycogen storage diseases are rare. Increased glycogen in the liver results in increased attenuation.

Objective: Investigate the association and function of a noncoding region associated with liver attenuation but not histologic nonalcoholic fatty liver disease.

Design: Genetics of Obesity-associated Liver Disease Consortium.

Setting: Population-based.

Main Outcome: Computed tomography measured liver attenuation.

Results: Carriers of rs4841132-A (frequency 2%-19%) do not show increased hepatic steatosis; they have increased liver attenuation indicative of increased glycogen deposition. rs4841132 falls in a noncoding RNA LOC157273 ~190 kb upstream of PPP1R3B. We demonstrate that rs4841132-A increases PPP1R3B through a cis genetic effect. Using CRISPR/Cas9 we engineered a 105-bp deletion including rs4841132-A in human hepatocarcinoma cells that increases PPP1R3B, decreases LOC157273, and increases glycogen perfectly mirroring the human disease. Overexpression of PPP1R3B or knockdown of LOC157273 increased glycogen but did not result in decreased LOC157273 or increased PPP1R3B, respectively, suggesting that the effects may not all occur via affecting RNA levels. Based on electronic health record (EHR) data, rs4841132-A associates with all components of the metabolic syndrome (MetS). However, rs4841132-A associated with decreased low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol and risk for myocardial infarction (MI). A metabolic signature for rs4841132-A includes increased glycine, lactate, triglycerides, and decreased acetoacetate and beta-hydroxybutyrate.

Conclusions: These results show that rs4841132-A promotes a hepatic glycogen storage disease by increasing PPP1R3B and decreasing LOC157273. rs4841132-A promotes glycogen accumulation and development of MetS but lowers LDL cholesterol and risk for MI. These results suggest that elevated hepatic glycogen is one cause of MetS that does not invariably promote MI.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1210/clinem/dgaa855DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7823249PMC
January 2021

Novel genetic risk factors influence progression of islet autoimmunity to type 1 diabetes.

Sci Rep 2020 11 5;10(1):19193. Epub 2020 Nov 5.

Center for Public Health Genomics, University of Virginia, PO Box 800717, Charlottesville, VA, 22908, USA.

Type 1 diabetes arises from the autoimmune destruction of insulin-producing beta-cells of the pancreas, resulting in dependence on exogenously administered insulin to maintain glucose homeostasis. In this study, our aim was to identify genetic risk factors that contribute to progression from islet autoimmunity to clinical type 1 diabetes. We analyzed 6.8 million variants derived from whole genome sequencing of 160 islet autoantibody positive subjects, including 87 who had progressed to type 1 diabetes. The Cox proportional-hazard model for survival analysis was used to identify genetic variants associated with progression. We identified one novel region, 20p12.1 (TASP1; genome-wide P < 5 × 10) and three regions, 1q21.3 (MRPS21-PRPF3), 2p25.2 (NRIR), 3q22.1 (COL6A6), with suggestive evidence of association (P < 8.5 × 10) with progression from islet autoimmunity to type 1 diabetes. Once islet autoimmunity is initiated, functional mapping identified two critical pathways, response to viral infections and interferon signaling, as contributing to disease progression. These results provide evidence that genetic pathways involved in progression from islet autoimmunity differ from those pathways identified once disease has been established. These results support the need for further investigation of genetic risk factors that modulate initiation and progression of subclinical disease to inform efforts in development of novel strategies for prediction and intervention of type 1 diabetes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-75690-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7645414PMC
November 2020

Prediction of the development of islet autoantibodies through integration of environmental, genetic, and metabolic markers.

J Diabetes 2021 Feb 16;13(2):143-153. Epub 2020 Aug 16.

Barbara Davis Center for Diabetes, University of Colorado Anschutz Medical Campus, Aurora, Colorado, USA.

Background: The Environmental Determinants of the Diabetes in the Young (TEDDY) study has prospectively followed, from birth, children at increased genetic risk of type 1 diabetes. TEDDY has collected heterogenous data longitudinally to gain insights into the environmental and biological mechanisms driving the progression to persistent islet autoantibodies.

Methods: We developed a machine learning model to predict imminent transition to the development of persistent islet autoantibodies based on time-varying metabolomics data integrated with time-invariant risk factors (eg, gestational age). The machine learning was initiated with 221 potential features (85 genetic, 5 environmental, 131 metabolomic) and an ensemble-based feature evaluation was utilized to identify a small set of predictive features that can be interrogated to better understand the pathogenesis leading up to persistent islet autoimmunity.

Results: The final integrative machine learning model included 42 disparate features, returning a cross-validated receiver operating characteristic area under the curve (AUC) of 0.74 and an AUC of ~0.65 on an independent validation dataset. The model identified a principal set of 20 time-invariant markers, including 18 genetic markers (16 single nucleotide polymorphisms [SNPs] and two HLA-DR genotypes) and two demographic markers (gestational age and exposure to a prebiotic formula). Integration with the metabolome identified 22 supplemental metabolites and lipids, including adipic acid and ceramide d42:0, that predicted development of islet autoantibodies.

Conclusions: The majority (86%) of metabolites that predicted development of islet autoantibodies belonged to three pathways: lipid oxidation, phospholipase A2 signaling, and pentose phosphate, suggesting that these metabolic processes may play a role in triggering islet autoimmunity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1753-0407.13093DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7818425PMC
February 2021

Single-room maternity care: Systematic review and narrative synthesis.

Nurs Open 2020 11 31;7(6):1661-1670. Epub 2020 Aug 31.

University of Calgary in Qatar Doha Qatar.

Aim: To describe the single-room maternity care model and evaluate its influence on patient, provider and system outcomes.

Design: Mixed-method systematic review and narrative synthesis.

Methods: We conducted searches of MEDLINE, CINAHL, Web of Science, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, and the grey literature from January 1985-August 2018, yielding 151 records. Pairs of reviewers independently applied the inclusion criteria using a standardized screening tool to both titles/abstracts and full texts. Overall, 13 studies were retained.

Results: Most studies of single-room care were from the United States and Canada, and assessed costs, patient satisfaction and/or provider satisfaction. Studies used cross-sectional and/or pre-post comparative, retrospective descriptive and qualitative designs. Methodological quality of quantitative studies was generally weak, and few studies conducted inferential statistics. Maternal satisfaction with the single-room maternity model was positive across the studies; however, healthcare provider satisfaction was mixed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/nop2.586DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7544846PMC
November 2020

Childhood growth prior to screen-detected celiac disease: prospective follow-up of an at-risk birth cohort.

Scand J Gastroenterol 2020 Nov 17;55(11):1284-1290. Epub 2020 Sep 17.

Department of Pediatrics, Institute of Clinical Sciences, Sahlgrenska Academy, Gothenburg, Sweden.

Objectives: To determine the association between childhood growth prior to the development of celiac disease (CD) and CD autoimmunity (CDA) identified by periodic serological screening.

Study Design: The Diabetes Autoimmunity Study in the Young cohort includes 1979 genetically at-risk children from Denver, Colorado, with annual growth measurements from age nine months until ten years. Between 1993 and February 2019, 120 children developed CDA defined by persistent positive tissue transglutaminase autoantibodies (TGA); among these, 71 met our criteria for CD based on histopathological findings or high TGA levels. Age- and sex-specific -scores of weight, body mass index (BMI), and height prior to seroconversion were derived using US reference charts as standards. Joint modeling of serial growth measurements was used to estimate adjusted hazard ratios (aHRs) accounting for celiac-associated human leukocyte antigens, early-life feeding practices, and socio-demographics.

Results: In the first 10 years of life, there were no significant associations between the child's current weight, BMI and height and the risk of screening-detected CDA or CD, neither was the weight nor BMI velocity associated with CDA or CD as identified by screening (all aHRs approximated 1). Increased height velocity was associated with later CD, but not CDA, development (aHR per 0.01- score/year, 1.28; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.18-1.38 and 1.03; 0.97-1.09, respectively).

Conclusions: In the first 10 years of life, from prospectively collected serial growth measurements, we found no evidence of impaired childhood growth before CD and CDA development as identified through early and periodic screening.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00365521.2020.1821087DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7646943PMC
November 2020

Factors associated with progression to inflammatory arthritis in first-degree relatives of individuals with RA following autoantibody positive screening in a non-clinical setting.

Ann Rheum Dis 2021 02 14;80(2):154-161. Epub 2020 Sep 14.

Department of Epidemiology, Colorado School of Public Health, Aurora, Colorado, USA

Objectives: Little is known about the likelihood of developing inflammatory arthritis (IA) in individuals who screen autoantibody positive (aAb+) in a non-clinical research setting.

Methods: We screened for serum cyclic citrullinated peptide antibody (anti-CCP) and rheumatoid factor isotype aAbs in subjects who were at increased risk for rheumatoid arthritis (RA) because they are a first-degree relative of an individual with classified RA (n=1780). We evaluated combinations of aAbs and high titre aAbs, as defined by 2-times (2 x) the standard cut-off and an optimal cut-off, as predictors of our two outcomes, aAb+ persistence and incident IA.

Results: 304 subjects (17.1%) tested aAb+; of those, 131 were IA-free and had at least one follow-up visit. Sixty-four per cent of these tested aAb+ again on their next visit. Anti-CCP+ at levels ≥2 x the standard cut-off was associated with 13-fold higher likelihood of aAb +persistence. During a median of 4.4 years (IQR: 2.2-7.2), 20 subjects (15.3%) developed IA. Among subjects that screened anti-CCP+ at ≥ 2 x or ≥an optimal cut-off, 32% and 26% had developed IA within 5 years, respectively. Both anti-CCP cut-offs conferred an approximate fourfold increased risk of future IA (HR 4.09 and HR 3.95, p<0.01).

Conclusions: These findings support that aAb screening in a non-clinical setting can identify RA-related aAb+ individuals, as well as levels and combinations of aAbs that are associated with higher risk for future IA. Monitoring for the development of IA in aAb+ individuals and similar aAb testing approaches in at-risk populations may identify candidates for prevention studies in RA.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/annrheumdis-2020-217066DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7855648PMC
February 2021

Predictors of oxylipins in a healthy pediatric population.

Pediatr Res 2021 05 29;89(6):1530-1540. Epub 2020 Jul 29.

University of Colorado Denver Anschutz Medical Campus, Denver, CO, USA.

Background: Oxylipins are formed from oxidation of omega-6 (n6) and omega-3 (n3) fatty acids (FAs). Evidence for inflammatory effects comes mostly from adults.

Methods: Oxylipins from n6 FA (27 n6-oxylipins) and n3 FA (12 n3-oxylipins) were measured through ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) in plasma from 111 children at risk of type 1 diabetes (age 1-17 years) studied longitudinally. Oxylipin precursor FAs (arachidonic acid, linoleic acid, alpha-linolenic acid, docosahexaenoic acid, eicosapentaenoic acid) were measured in red blood cell (RBC) membrane and plasma. Precursor FAs dietary intake was measured through food frequency questionnaire and environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) through questionnaires. Linear mixed models were used to test oxylipins with predictors.

Results: Age associated with 15 n6- and 6 n3-oxylipins; race/ethnicity associated with 3 n6- and 1 n3-oxylipins; sex associated with 2 n6-oxylipins. ETS associated with lipoxin-A4. Oxylipins associated with precursor FAs in plasma more often than RBC. RBC levels and dietary intake of precursor FAs more consistently associated with n3-oxylipins than with n6-oxylipins.

Conclusions: In healthy children, oxylipin levels change with age. Oxylipins associated with precursor FAs more often in plasma than RBC or diet, suggesting that inflammatory regulation leading to FA release into plasma may also be a determinant of oxylipin generation.

Impact: This is the first study to examine predictors of oxylipins in healthy children at risk of type 1 diabetes. In healthy children at risk of type 1 diabetes, many oxylipins change with age, and most oxylipins do not differ by sex or race/ethnicity. Environmental tobacco smoke exposure was associated with the presence of lipoxin A4. Omega-6- and omega-3-related oxylipin levels were consistently associated with their respective precursor fatty acid levels measured in the plasma. Proportionally more omega-3 compared to omega-6 oxylipins were associated with dietary intake and red blood cell membrane levels of the respective precursor fatty acid.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41390-020-1084-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7855434PMC
May 2021

Mass Screening for Celiac Disease: The Autoimmunity Screening for Kids Study.

Am J Gastroenterol 2021 01;116(1):180-187

Barbara Davis Center for Diabetes, School of Medicine, University of Colorado Anschutz Medical Campus, Aurora, Colorado, USA.

Introduction: The Autoimmunity Screening for Kids (ASK) study is a large scale pediatric screening study in Colorado for celiac disease (CD) and type 1 diabetes. This is a report of the CD outcomes for the first 9,973 children screened through ASK.

Methods: ASK screens children aged 1-17 years for CD using 2 highly sensitive assays for tissue transglutaminase autoantibodies (TGA): a radiobinding (RBA) assay for IgA TGA and an electrochemiluminescence (ECL) assay that detects all TGA isotypes. Children who test positive on either assay are asked to return for confirmatory testing. Those with a confirmed RBA TGA level ≥ 0.1 (twice the upper limit of normal) are referred to the Colorado Center for Celiac Disease for further evaluation; all others are referred to primary care.

Results: Of the initial 9,973 children screened, 242 children were TGA+ by any assay. Of those initially positive, 185 children (76.4%) have completed a confirmation blood draw with 149 children (80.5%) confirming positive by RBA TGA. Confirmed RBA TGA+ was associated with a family history of CD (odds ratio [OR] = 1.83; 95% confidence interval 1.06-3.16), non-Hispanic white ethnicity (OR = 3.34; 2.32-4.79), and female sex (OR = 1.43; 1.03-1.98). Gastrointestinal symptoms of CD, assessed at the initial screening, were reported equally often among the RBA TGA+ vs TGA- children (32.1% vs 30.5%, P = 0.65).

Discussion: The initial results of this ongoing mass-screening program confirm a high prevalence of undiagnosed CD autoimmunity in a screened US population. Symptoms at initial screening were not associated with TGA status (see Visual abstract, Supplementary Digital Content 5, http://links.lww.com/AJG/B587).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.14309/ajg.0000000000000751DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7775339PMC
January 2021
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